Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 606

Search results for: courts of accounts

606 Towards Law Data Labelling Using Topic Modelling

Authors: Daniel Pinheiro Da Silva Junior, Aline Paes, Daniel De Oliveira, Christiano Lacerda Ghuerren, Marcio Duran

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The Courts of Accounts are institutions responsible for overseeing and point out irregularities of Public Administration expenses. They have a high demand for processes to be analyzed, whose decisions must be grounded on severity laws. Despite the existing large amount of processes, there are several cases reporting similar subjects. Thus, previous decisions on already analyzed processes can be a precedent for current processes that refer to similar topics. Identifying similar topics is an open, yet essential task for identifying similarities between several processes. Since the actual amount of topics is considerably large, it is tedious and error-prone to identify topics using a pure manual approach. This paper presents a tool based on Machine Learning and Natural Language Processing to assists in building a labeled dataset. The tool relies on Topic Modelling with Latent Dirichlet Allocation to find the topics underlying a document followed by Jensen Shannon distance metric to generate a probability of similarity between documents pairs. Furthermore, in a case study with a corpus of decisions of the Rio de Janeiro State Court of Accounts, it was noted that data pre-processing plays an essential role in modeling relevant topics. Also, the combination of topic modeling and a calculated distance metric over document represented among generated topics has been proved useful in helping to construct a labeled base of similar and non-similar document pairs.

Keywords: courts of accounts, data labelling, document similarity, topic modeling

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605 Rethinking the Constitutionality of Statutes: Rights-Compliant Interpretation in India and the UK

Authors: Chintan Chandrachud

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When primary legislation is challenged for breaching fundamental rights, many courts around the world adopt interpretive techniques to avoid finding such legislation incompatible or invalid. In the UK, these techniques find sanction in section 3 of the Human Rights Act 1998, which directs courts to interpret legislation in a manner which is compatible with European Convention rights, ‘so far as it is possible to do so’. In India, courts begin with the interpretive presumption that Parliament intended to comply with fundamental rights under the Constitution of 1949. In comparing rights-compliant interpretation of primary legislation under the Human Rights Act and the Indian Constitution, this paper makes two arguments. First, that in the absence of a section 3-type mandate, Indian courts have a smaller range of interpretive tools at their disposal in interpreting primary legislation in a way which complies with fundamental rights. For example, whereas British courts frequently read words into statutes, Indian courts consider this an inapposite interpretive technique. The second argument flows naturally from the first. Given that Indian courts have a smaller interpretive toolbox, one would imagine that ceteris paribus, Indian courts’ power to strike down legislation would be triggered earlier than the declaration of incompatibility is in the UK. However, this is not borne out in practice. Faced with primary legislation which appears to violate fundamental rights, Indian courts often reluctantly uphold the constitutionality of statutes (rather than striking them down), as opposed to British courts, which make declarations of incompatibility. The explanation for this seeming asymmetry hinges on the difference between the ‘strike down’ power and the declaration of incompatibility. Whereas the former results in the disapplication of a statute, the latter throws the ball back into Parliament’s court, if only formally.

Keywords: constitutional law, judicial review, constitution of India, UK Human Rights Act

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604 The Use of Foreign Law by the Constitutional Court of Taiwan: A Case-By-Case Analysis from 1990 to 2017

Authors: Mingsiang Chen

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The increasing transactions among countries worldwide have brought about a trend of comparative law research in the legal community. An important branch of legal research, i.e., constitutional law, is no exception to the trend. The comparative study of constitutional law takes various forms, and one of these is to study the use of foreign law by constitutional courts. There are, in essence, three sources of foreign law usually used by constitutional courts: foreign constitutions, decisions by foreign constitutional courts, and legal theories developed by foreign scholars. There are two types of using foreign law by constitutional courts: citing any of the forenamed sources for reference purpose, ruling based on the contents or logic of any of the forenamed sources. This paper examines all the decisions handed down by the Constitutional Court of Taiwan from 1990 to 2017. Its purpose is to seek out the occasions, the extent, the significance, and the approach of such usage.

Keywords: comparative constitutional law, constitutional court, judicial review, Taiwan judiciary

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603 Barriers to the Use of Factoring Accounts Receivables: Ghanaian Contractor’s Perception

Authors: E. Kissi, V. K. Acheamfour, J. J. Gyimah, T. Adjei-Kumi

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Factoring accounts receivable is widely accepted as an alternative financing source and utilized in almost every industry that sells business-to-business or business-to-government. However, its patronage in the construction industry is very limited as some barriers hinder its application in the construction industry. This study aims at assessing the barriers to the use of factoring accounts receivables in the Ghanaian construction industry. The study adopted the sequential exploratory research method where structured and unstructured questionnaires were conveniently distributed to D1K1 and D2K2 construction firms in Ghana. Using the one-sample t-test and Kendall’s Coefficient of concordance data was analyzed. The most severe challenge concluded is the high cost of factoring patronage. Other critical challenges identified were low knowledge on factoring processes, inadequate access to information on factoring, and high risks involved in factoring. Hence, it is recommended that contractors should be made aware of the prospects of factoring of accounts receivables in the construction industry. This study serves as basis for further rigorous research into factoring of accounts receivables in the industry.

Keywords: barriers, contractors, factoring accounts receivables, Ghanaian, perception

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602 Using the Family Justice System to Respond to ISIS Returnees: The UK Experience

Authors: Fatima Ahdash

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Over the last 6-7 years, the UK has resorted to using the family courts and the family justice system more generally as a way of dealing with children and young people either traveling to or returning from ISIS territories in the Middle East. This is an important innovation in counter-terrorism laws and practices in the UK: never before have the family courts been used for the purpose of preventing and countering terrorism anywhere in the world. This paper will examine this innovation; it will explore how, why, and the implications of the interaction between family law and counter-terrorism, particularly on the human rights of the parents and children involved. It will question whether the use of the family courts provides a more useful, and perhaps human rights compliant, method of tackling terrorism and extremism when compared to other more Draconian legal and administrative methods.

Keywords: counter-terrorism, family justice, law, human rights

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601 Public Governance in Brazil: The Perception of Professionals and Counselors of the Courts of Auditors on Transparency, Responsiveness and Accountability of Public Policies

Authors: Paulino Varela Tavares, Ana Lucia Romao

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Public governance represents an articulated arrangement, dynamic and interactive, present in the exercise of authority aimed at strengthening the decision-making procedure in public administration with transparency, accountability, responsiveness and capable of to emerge control and social empowerment, to pursue and achieve the objectives efficiently and with the effectiveness desired for the collectivity, respecting the laws and provide social, institutional and economic equity in society. In this context, using a multidimensional approach with the application of a questionnaire with four questions directed to twenty Counselors of the Courts of Auditors of the States (Brazil) and twenty professionals (liberals, teachers, and specialists) of the public administration in Brazil, preliminary results indicate that 70% believe that the level of transparency in public policies is low; 40% say that the government makes accountability because it is required by law, but, other instruments must be developed to force the government to account for all accounts with society; 75% say that government responsiveness is very limited because of the lack of long term planning, which is greatly affected by party political issues in Brazil. Therefore, the results, as yet, point out that Brazilian society has a huge challenge regarding the transparency, accountability, and responsiveness of governments in relation to their public policies.

Keywords: accountability, public governance, responsiveness, transparency

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600 Problem Solving Courts for Domestic Violence Offenders: Duluth Model Application in Spanish-Speaking Offenders

Authors: I. Salas-Menotti

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Problem-solving courts were created to assist offenders with specific needs that were not addressed properly in traditional courts. Problem-solving courts' main objective is to pursue solutions that will benefit the offender, the victim, and society as well. These courts were developed as an innovative response to deal with issues such as drug abuse, mental illness, and domestic violence. In Brooklyn, men who are charged with domestic violence related offenses for the first time are offered plea bargains that include the attendance to a domestic abuse intervention program as a condition to dismiss the most serious charges and avoid incarceration. The desired outcome is that the offender will engage in a program that will modify his behavior avoiding new incidents of domestic abuse, it requires accountability towards the victim and finally, it will hopefully bring down statistic related to domestic abuse incidents. This paper will discuss the effectiveness of the Duluth model as applied to Spanish-speaking men mandated to participate in the program by the specialized domestic violence courts in Brooklyn. A longitudinal study was conducted with 243 Spanish- speaking men who were mandated to participated in the men's program offered by EAC in Brooklyn in the years 2016 through 2018 to determine the recidivism rate of domestic violence crimes. Results show that the recidivism rate was less than 5% per year after completing the program which indicates that the intervention is effective in preventing new abuse allegations and subsequent arrests. It's recommended that comparative study with English-speaking participants is conducted to determine cultural and language variables affecting the program's efficacy.

Keywords: domestic violence, domestic abuse intervention programs, Problem solving courts, Spanish-speaking offenders

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599 Percolation of Financial Services into the Villages in India: Mirroring of Beneficiaries Responses

Authors: Radhakumari Challa

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In India the commercial banks have taken the initiative of visiting the villages and helping the villagers open the no-frill accounts as part of the mission towards achieving the total financial inclusion. As an extension to the first phase of the study conducted a year back which revealed that the required awareness that the no-frill accounts creation is the initiative of the government to transfer either the financial assistance or other benefits of economic development directly was lacking among the villagers, the present study is undertaken to review the change in perceptions of beneficiaries in villages over a year period. The study reveals that that there is increase in the awareness among villagers regarding the purpose for which no-frills accounts are opened, about the method of operating these accounts. Awareness about their right for accessing all the financial services is also found to be on the rise.

Keywords: business correspondence, financial inclusion no-frill account, percolation

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598 An Analysis of African Solutions to African Problems: Practical Effects of International Criminal Court Withdrawals in Favour of Regional Court Systems

Authors: Jeanne-Mari Retief

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As of November 2016, three African states have withdrawn from the International Criminal Court (ICC) and more are expected to follow. The alleged abuse of universal jurisdiction and targeting of African states by the ICC motivated the withdrawals. These historical exits raise many questions, especially in regard to the adequate investigation and prosecution of international crimes in a continent with a history of impunity. Even though African courts exist and one more is proposed, many issues remain i.e. adequate access to the courts, the extent of the courts’ jurisdiction, and proposed methods of effectively dealing with international crimes in Africa. This paper seeks to address the practical effects of the withdrawal from the ICC and the problems posed through utilizing regional courts. It will specifically look at the practical challenges existing courts face, the lack of access to the latter, issues concerning the proposed African Court for Justice and Human Rights, and the shocking promotion of impunity in Africa. These all have severe implications for African citizens and victims of the most heinous crimes. The mantra of African solutions to African problems places an important duty on states to ensure the actual provision of these solutions, which can only be achieved through a critical analysis of the questions above.

Keywords: ACJHR, Africa, impunity, justice, Malabo protocol

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597 Stability or Instabilty? Triplet Deficit Analysis In Turkey

Authors: Zeynep Karaçor, Volkan Alptekin, Gökhan Akar, Tuba Akar

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This paper aims to review the phenomenon of triplet deficit which is called interaction of budget balance that make up the overall balance of the economy, investment savings balance and current accounts balance in terms of Turkey. In this paper, triplet deficit state in Turkish economy has been analyzed with vector autoregressive model and Granger causality test using data covering the period of 1980-2010. According to VAR results, increase in current accounts is perceived on public sector borrowing requirement. These two variables influence each other bilaterally. Therefore, current accounts increase public deficit, whereas public deficit increases current accounts. It is not possible to mention the existence of a short-term Granger causality between variables at issue.

Keywords: internal and external deficit, stability, triplet deficit, Turkey economy

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596 The Application of Article 111 of the Constitution of Bangladesh in the Criminal Justice System as a Sentencing Guideline

Authors: Sadiya S. Silvee

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Generally, the decision of the higher court is binding on its subordinate courts. As provided in Article 111 of the Constitution, 'the law declared by the Appellate Division (AD) shall be binding on the High Court Division (HCD) and the law declared by either division of the Supreme Court shall be binding on all courts subordinate to it.' This means the judicial discipline requires the HCD to follow the decision of the AD and that it is necessary for the lower tiers of courts to accept the decision of the higher tiers as a binding precedent. Analyzing the application of Article 111 of the Constitution in the criminal justice system as a sentencing guideline, the paper, by examining whether there is any consistency in decision between one HC Bench and another HC Bench, explores whether HCD can per incuriam its previous decision. In doing so, the Death Reference (DR) Cases are contemplated. Furthermore, the paper shall examine whether the Court of Session follows the decision of the HCD while using their discretion to make the choice between death and imprisonment for life under section 302 of PC. The paper argues due to the absence of any specific direction for sentencing and inconsistency in jurisprudence among the HCD; the subordinate courts are in a dilemma.

Keywords: death reference, sentencing factor, sentencing guideline, criminal justice system and constitution

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595 A Critical Analysis of the Concept of Unconscionable Abuse under the South African Company Law

Authors: Siphethile Phiri

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Although a company is a legal entity with separate legal personality, the courts are empowered to review and set aside the personality of a company on the ground of ‘an unconscionable abuse’. The process is called piercing of the corporate veil. Of interesting note however, it is controversial as to what the concept of ‘unconscionable abuse’ entails. The purpose of this study is to explore this concept in an attempt to understand its proper meaning and how it bears on the powers of the company director to take decision on behalf of the company as a juristic entity. Given the confounding provision, an attempt is made to identify the circumstances in which the courts may pierce the corporate veil and also to investigate the extent to which the courts can do so. The results of this study show that the term unconscionable abuse is a legislative innovation to justify the court’s interference with the separate legal personality functions of a company.

Keywords: company law, unconscionable abuse, director, companies act

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594 Judicial Independence and Preservation of the Rule of Law in Africa: The Case of South Africa

Authors: Mbuzeni Mathenjwa

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Upon their independence, most African countries adopted constitutions that proclaim respect for the rule of law. The decision to constitutionalise the rule of law is basically informed by the countries’ experience during the colonial era which was characterised by discrimination on various grounds including race, gender and religion. Despite the promise to be bound by and adhere to the rule of law, disrespect for the rule of law has become a norm in the African continent. This is evident from the reported incidence of abuse of power, failure to perform obligations imposed by law and flagrant disregard of the law by the Executive including the heads of states in the continent. In some African countries including South Africa, the courts of law have been approached to rule on the legality of the decisions of the executives, taken contrary to the prescripts of the law. South African Courts have laid down a number of decisions wherein they found that the conduct of the executive contravenes the rule of law. Consequently decisions of the executive have been declared invalid by courts. In this regard courts have become a safety net in preserving the rule of law in. Accordingly, this paper discusses the role of the courts in preserving the rule of law in Africa. This it does by explaining the notion of judicial independence and the doctrine of the rule of law. The explanation on the notion of judicial independence is relevant because only an independent judiciary can effectively review and set aside the decision of the executive including the president of a country. Furthermore, a comparative overview of the enforcement of the rule of law in African countries is done. The methods used for this research is literature review, and study of legislation and case law in selected African countries relating to the independence of the judiciary and the rule of law. Finally, a conclusion is drawn on the role of the independent judiciary to preserve the rule of law in Africa.

Keywords: Africa, constitutions, independence, judiciary

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593 Creative Accounting as a Financial Numbers Game

Authors: Feddaoui Amina

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Through this study we will try to shed light on the theoretical framework proposed for understanding creative accounting as a financial numbers game and one of the most important techniques of accounts manipulation, its main actors and its practices. We will discover the role of the modified Jones model (1995) in detecting creative accounting practices using discretionary accruals. Finally we will try to confirm the importance and the need to address this type of practices using corporate governance as a main control system and an important defense line to reduce these dangerous accounts manipulation.

Keywords: financial numbers game, creative accounting, modified Jones model, accounts manipulation

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592 Fake Accounts Detection in Twitter Based on Minimum Weighted Feature Set

Authors: Ahmed ElAzab, Amira M. Idrees, Mahmoud A. Mahmoud, Hesham Hefny

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Social networking sites such as Twitter and Facebook attracts over 500 million users across the world, for those users, their social life, even their practical life, has become interrelated. Their interaction with social networking has affected their life forever. Accordingly, social networking sites have become among the main channels that are responsible for vast dissemination of different kinds of information during real time events. This popularity in Social networking has led to different problems including the possibility of exposing incorrect information to their users through fake accounts which results to the spread of malicious content during life events. This situation can result to a huge damage in the real world to the society in general including citizens, business entities, and others. In this paper, we present a classification method for detecting fake accounts on Twitter. The study determines the minimized set of the main factors that influence the detection of the fake accounts on Twitter, then the determined factors have been applied using different classification techniques, a comparison of the results for these techniques has been performed and the most accurate algorithm is selected according to the accuracy of the results. The study has been compared with different recent research in the same area, this comparison has proved the accuracy of the proposed study. We claim that this study can be continuously applied on Twitter social network to automatically detect the fake accounts, moreover, the study can be applied on different Social network sites such as Facebook with minor changes according to the nature of the social network which are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: fake accounts detection, classification algorithms, twitter accounts analysis, features based techniques

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591 Emotions in Health Tweets: Analysis of American Government Official Accounts

Authors: García López

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The Government Departments of Health have the task of informing and educating citizens about public health issues. For this, they use channels like Twitter, key in the search for health information and the propagation of content. The tweets, important in the virality of the content, may contain emotions that influence the contagion and exchange of knowledge. The goal of this study is to perform an analysis of the emotional projection of health information shared on Twitter by official American accounts: the disease control account CDCgov, National Institutes of Health, NIH, the government agency HHSGov, and the professional organization PublicHealth. For this, we used Tone Analyzer, an International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) tool specialized in emotion detection in text, corresponding to the categorical model of emotion representation. For 15 days, all tweets from these accounts were analyzed with the emotional analysis tool in text. The results showed that their tweets contain an important emotional load, a determining factor in the success of their communications. This exposes that official accounts also use subjective language and contain emotions. The predominance of emotion joy over sadness and the strong presence of emotions in their tweets stimulate the virality of content, a key in the work of informing that government health departments have.

Keywords: emotions in tweets, emotion detection in the text, health information on Twitter, American health official accounts, emotions on Twitter, emotions and content

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590 Compilation of Islamic Law as Law Applied Religious Courts in Indonesia (Responding to Changes in Religious Courts Authority)

Authors: Hamdan Arief Hanif, Rahmat Sidiq

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Indonesia is a country of law, the legal system adopted by Indonesia is a civil law system. A major feature of the civil law is the codified legislation. Meanwhile the majority of society Indonesia are Muslims, whilst Islamic law itself having the sources written in Qur'an, Sunnah and the opinion of Muslim scholars, generally not codified in book form of legislation that is easy on the set as a reference. in Indonesia, many scholars have different opinions in decisions so that there is no legal certainty in Muslim civil cases, so the need for legal codification, which, as the source of the judges in deciding a case, especially a case in religious courts. This paper raised the topic of discussion which offers a solution to the application of the codification of the Islamic Law which became the core resources in delivering a verdict against Islamic civil related issue; codification usually called a compilation of Islamic Law. Compilation of Islamic Law is highly recommended as a core reference for the judges in religious courts in Indonesia. This compilation which includes a collection of large number of opinions scholars (book of fiqh) that existed previously and are ripened in deduce in order to unify the existing differences. This paper also discusses how the early formation of the compilation and as the right solution in order to create legal certainty and justice especially for the muslim community in Indonesia.

Keywords: Islamic law, compilation, law applied core, religious court

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589 Adoption and Diffusion of Valuation Standards in the Forensic Accounting Community and in Courts: Facilitating and Inhibiting Factors

Authors: Matteo Manera, Mariateresa Torchia, Gregory Moscato

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Forensic accounting is a hot subject of research in accounting. Valuation remains one of the major topics for practitioners. Valuation standards are a powerful instrument that can contribute to a fair process: their use aims at reducing subjectivity and arbitrary decisions in courts. In most jurisdictions, valuation standards are not the law: forensic accountants are not obliged to use valuation standards when they perform valuation works for judges. To date, as far as we know, no literature work has investigated adoption and diffusion of valuation standards in the forensic accounting space. In this paper, we analyze the spread of valuation standards through the lenses of isomorphism and -as corollaries- of Agency Theory and Signaling Theory. Because of lack of research in the particular area of valuation standards adoption, the present work relies on qualitative, exploratory research, based on semi-structured interviews conducted (up to saturation) with expert forensic accountants. Our work digs into motivations behind adoption and diffusion, as well into perceptions of forensic accountants around benefits of valuation standards and into barriers to their diffusion: the result is that, while the vast majority of forensic accountants praise the great work of the standards setters in introducing valuation standards, it might be that less than 50% of forensic accountants actually use valuation standards, in courts. Our preliminary findings, to be supported or refuted by future research, lead us to address a “trilogy” of recommendations to the stakeholders involved in the process of adoption and diffusion of valuation standards in courts.

Keywords: forensic accounting, valuation standards, adoption of standards, motivations, benefits, barriers, Isomorphism

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588 Revisiting the Jurisprudence of the Appellate Courts on the Jurisdiction of the Shari'ah Court of Appeal under Selected Nigerian Constitutions

Authors: Dahiru Jafaru Usman

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Nigerian courts have been sanctioned by a plethora of authorities to always employ the literal rule in interpreting statutes where the language of the statute is clear and unambiguous. This cardinal rule of interpretation appears not to be employed on Shari'ah issues in Nigeria. This is more pronounced in the interpretation of the jurisdiction of the Shari'ah Court of Appeal (hereinafter the court). The paper doctrinally assesses the judicial attitude of Nigerian appellate courts towards the construction of Section 277 of the 1999 Constitution as amended and other relevant statutory enactments by the State Houses of Assembly. The paper argues that a careful examination of the wordings of the constitution on the jurisdiction of the court literally reveals the intention of the constitutional drafters empowering the National Assembly and States' House of Assemblies to add to the itemised jurisdictional areas of the court other matters not mentioned. The paper found that the appellate courts failed in their construction of the constitutional provisions to accord the words and phrases used in the establishment, jurisdiction, and quorum sections of the court their ordinary and grammatical meaning. This results in consistent limitation of the jurisdiction of the court to matters of Islamic personal law. This remains so even when Decree No. 26 of 1986 was in force suspending and amending the provisions of the 1979 Constitution deleting the word 'personal' in the suspended Nigerian Constitutions. In order not to render section 277 futile, the paper recommends that appellate courts in Nigeria should as required by rules of statutory interpretation adopt literal and ordinary grammatical meaning in interpreting constitutional provisions on the jurisdiction of the court. It is further recommended that appellate courts must interpret the provisions of the 1999 constitution in a manner not to frustrate the several decades' yearnings of the Muslims for a court that would hear all their appellate criminal and civil matters on the path of Shari'ah from the lowest court to the highest. This is a duty the Nigerian Supreme Court placed on their shoulders.

Keywords: interpretation of statutes, jurisdiction, literal rule, Nigeria, Shari'ah Court of Appeal, 1999 Constitution

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587 Intellectual Property Laws: Protection of Celebrities’ Identity

Authors: Soumya Chaturvedi

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Ever since India opened its doors for the world economy to enter, there has not been a single instance of recoil. A consequence of this move by the government of India resulted in India evolving as a consumer-driven market and in order to survive in this era of extreme competition, the corporate houses have employed every possible means to reach out and hit onto the sentiments of the consumers. The most obvious way to ensure a strong perseverance towards the specific product or brand is through celebrity endorsements. In a country like India, whose film industry accounts for the largest sales and output, it is indeed appalling to acknowledge the fact that it lacks an effective mechanism of protection of the commercial exploitation of celebrities’ attributes under the ambit of law. The western half of the globe has very well accepted and recognized the rights of the celebrities to decide upon the quantum of commercial exploitation of their own attributes and earn profit out of the same. However, the eastern half seems to be a little reluctant in accepting and enforcing these views per se. A celebrity has a right to publicity over the traits of his personality which involves voice, autographs, reputation, and style, so on and so forth as it is these attributes that are responsible for huge trade profits concerning the products to which such traits are attributed to. This clearly involves the right of the celebrity to benefit himself by commercially exploiting the same and refraining the unauthorized gain to third parties. The market is making it nearly impossible to proceed further with such weak laws considering the escalating rate of celebrity endorsements in the nation. This paper discusses the lacunae in law per se to identify a right as such by a celebrity over his traits that are potentially under the circle of commercial exploitation and the need of a definite legislation that would ensure a change in the paradigm of the Courts in India. Also, it discusses the only remedy available currently for violation, which is, a suit for passing off by Indian Courts under Trademark and Copyright laws and a comparison of the same with the mechanisms adopted by the legal systems across the globe.

Keywords: celebrity, rights, intellectual property, trademark, copyrights

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586 Impact of Working Capital Management Strategies on Firm's Value and Profitability

Authors: Jonghae Park, Daesung Kim

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The impact of aggressive and conservative working capital‘s strategies on the value and profitability of the firms has been evaluated by applying the panel data regression analysis. The control variables used in the regression models are natural log of firm size, sales growth, and debt. We collected a panel of 13,988 companies listed on the Korea stock market covering the period 2000-2016. The major findings of this study are as follow: 1) We find a significant negative correlation between firm profitability and the number of days inventory (INV) and days accounts payable (AP). The firm’s profitability can also be improved by reducing the number of days of inventory and days accounts payable. 2) We also find a significant positive correlation between firm profitability and the number of days accounts receivable (AR) and cash ratios (CR). In other words, the cash is associated with high corporate profitability. 3) Tobin's analysis showed that only the number of days accounts receivable (AR) and cash ratios (CR) had a significant relationship. In conclusion, companies can increase profitability by reducing INV and increasing AP, but INV and AP did not affect corporate value. In particular, it is necessary to increase CA and decrease AR in order to increase Firm’s profitability and value.

Keywords: working capital, working capital management, firm value, profitability

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585 A Rule Adumbrated: Bailment on Terms

Authors: David Gibbs-Kneller

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Only parties to a contract can enforce it. This is the privity of the contract. Carriage contracts frequently involve intermediated relationships. While the carrier and cargo-owner will agree on a contract for carriage, there is no privity or consideration between the cargo-owner and third parties. To overcome this, the contract utilizes ‘bailment on terms’ or the rule in Morris. Morris v C W Martin & Sons Ltd is authority for the following: A sub-bailee and bailor may rely on terms of a bailment where the bailor has consented to sub-bailment “on terms”. Bailment on terms can play a significant part in making litigation decisions and determining liability. It is used in standard form contracts and courts have also strived to find consent to bailment on terms in agreements so as to avoid the consequences of privity of contract. However, what this paper exposes is the false legal basis for this model. Lord Denning gave an account adumbrated of the law of bailments to justify the rule in Morris. What Lord Denning was really doing was objecting to the doctrine of privity. To do so, he wrongly asserted there was a lacuna in law that meant third parties could not avail themselves upon terms of a contract. Next, he provided a false analogy between purely contractual rights and possessory liens. Finally, he gave accounts of authorities to say they supported the rule in Morris when they did not. Surprisingly, subsequent case law on the point has not properly engaged with this reasoning. The Pioneer Container held that since the rule in Morris lay in bailments, the decision is not dependent on the doctrine of privity. Yet the basis for this statement was Morris. Once these reasons have been discounted, all bailment on terms rests on is the claim that the law of bailments is an independent source of law. Bailment on terms should not be retained, for it is contrary to established principles in the law of property, tort, and contract. That undermines the certainty of those principles by risking their collapse because there is nothing that keeps bailment on terms within the confines of bailments only. As such, bailment on terms is not good law and should not be used in standard form contracts or by the courts as a means of determining liability. If bailment on terms is a pragmatic rule to retain, it is recommended that rules governing carriage contracts should be amended.

Keywords: bailment, carriage of goods, contract law, privity

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584 The Interaction of Lay Judges and Professional Judges in French, German and British Labour Courts

Authors: Susan Corby, Pete Burgess, Armin Hoeland, Helene Michel, Laurent Willemez

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In German 1st instance labour courts, lay judges always sit with a professional judge and in British and French 1st instance labour courts, lay judges sometimes sit with a professional judge. The lay judges’ main contribution is their workplace knowledge, but they act in a juridical setting where legal norms prevail. Accordingly, the research question is: does the professional judge dominate the lay judges? The research, funded by the Hans-Böckler-Stiftung, is based on over 200 qualitative interviews conducted in France, Germany and Great Britain in 2016-17 with lay and professional judges. Each interview lasted an hour on average, was audio-recorded, transcribed and then analysed using MaxQDA. Status theories, which argue that external sources of (perceived) status are imported into the court, and complementary notions of informational advantage suggest professional judges might exercise domination and control. Furthermore, previous empirical research on British and German labour courts, now some 30 years old, found that professional judges dominated. More recent research on lay judges and professional judges in criminal courts also found professional judge domination. Our findings, however, are more nuanced and distinguish between the hearing and deliberations, and also between the attitudes of judges in the three countries. First, in Germany and Great Britain the professional judge has specialist knowledge and expertise in labour law. In contrast, French professional judges do not study employment law and may only seldom adjudicate on employment law cases. Second, although the professional judge chairs and controls the hearing when he/she sits with lay judges in all three countries, exceptionally in Great Britain lay judges have some latent power as they have to take notes systematically due to the lack of recording technology. Such notes can be material if a party complains of bias, or if there is an appeal. Third, as to labour court deliberations: in France, the professional judge alone determines the outcome of the case, but only if the lay judges have been unable to agree at a previous hearing, which only occurs in 20% of cases. In Great Britain and Germany, although the two lay judges and the professional judge have equal votes, the contribution of British lay judges’ workplace knowledge is less important than that of their German counterparts. British lay judges essentially only sit on discrimination cases where the law, the purview of the professional judge, is complex. They do not sit routinely on unfair dismissal cases where workplace practices are often a key factor in the decision. Also, British professional judges are less reliant on their lay judges than German professional judges. Whereas the latter are career judges, the former only become professional judges after having had several years’ experience in the law and many know, albeit indirectly through their clients, about a wide range of workplace practices. In conclusion, whether or if the professional judge dominates lay judges in labour courts varies by country, although this is mediated by the attitudes of the interactionists.

Keywords: cross-national comparisons, labour courts, professional judges, lay judges

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583 Determination of International Jurisdiction of Courts over Disputes Arising from Electronic Consumer Contracts

Authors: Aslihan Coban

Abstract:

As a result of the rapid development of information communication technology, especially the internet, consumers have become an active party in commerce and in law. Consequently, the protection of consumers in cross-border contracts has become increasingly important. This paper is confined to the international jurisdiction of courts over disputes arising from electronic consumer contracts according to the ‘5718 Turkish Act on Private International Law and Civil Procedure’ and the ‘1215/2012 Council Regulation On Jurisdiction and The Recognition and Enforcement Of Judgments In Civil and Commercial Matters’ (Hereafter ‘Brussels I Regulation’). The international jurisdiction of courts for consumer contracts is recognized under both acts above-mentioned; however, there exist some differences between the said legal regulations. Firstly, while there is a specific provision for electronic consumer contracts in Brussels I Regulation, there is no specific provision in the Turkish Act. Secondly, under the Turkish Act, habitual residence, domicile, and workplace of the other party who is not a consumer are all accepted as jurisdiction elements; while domicile is the only jurisdiction element in Brussels I Regulation. Thirdly, the ability to make jurisdiction agreements in disputes arising from electronic consumer contracts is a controversial issue under the Turkish Act while it is explicitly regulated under Brussels I Regulation that such jurisdiction agreements can be concluded by complying with certain conditions.

Keywords: Brussels I Regulation, electronic consumer contracts, jurisdiction, jurisdiction agreement

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582 The Standard of Best Interest of the Child in Custody Adjudication under the Malaysian Laws

Authors: Roslina Che Soh

Abstract:

Best interest of the child has been the prevailing principle of the custody legislations of most nations in the world. The tremendous shift from parental rights to parental responsibilities throughout the centuries had made the principle of best interests of the child as the utmost matter which parents must uphold in child upbringing. Despite the commitment to this principle is significantly enshrined in the United Nation Convention on Rights of the Child, the content and application of the principle differs across borders. Differences persist notwithstanding many countries have experienced a substantial shift over the last several decades in the types of custodial arrangements that are thought to best serve children’s interests. The laws in Malaysia similarly uphold this principle but do not provide further deliberation on the principle itself. The principle is entirely developed by the courts through decided cases. Thus, this paper seeks to discuss the extent of the application of best interest of the child principle in custody disputes. In doing so, it attempts to provide an overview of the current laws and the approach of the Civil and the Shariah courts in Malaysia in applying the principle in determining custody disputes. For purposes of comparison, it briefly examines the legislations and the courts practices in Australia and England on this matter. The purpose is to determine the best standard to be adopted by Malaysia and to propose improvement to the laws whenever appropriate.

Keywords: child custody, best interest, Malaysian law, bioinformatics, biomedicine

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581 Between a Rock and a Hard Place: The Possible Roles of Eternity Clauses in the Member States of the European Union

Authors: Zsuzsa Szakaly

Abstract:

Several constitutions have explicit or implicit eternity clauses in the European Union, their classic roles were analyzed so far, albeit there are new possibilities emerging in relation to the identity of the constitutions of the Member States. The aim of the study is to look at the practice of the Constitutional Courts of the Member States in detail regarding eternity clauses where limiting constitutional amendment has practical bearing, and to examine the influence of such practice on Europeanization. There are some states that apply explicit eternity clauses embedded in the text of the constitution, e.g., Italy, Germany, and Romania. In other states, the Constitutional Court 'unearthed' the implicit eternity clauses from the text of the basic law, e.g., Slovakia and Croatia. By using comparative analysis to examine the explicit or implicit clauses of the concerned constitutions, taking into consideration the new trends of the judicial opinions of the Member States and the fresh scientific studies, the main questions are: How to wield the double-edged sword of eternity clauses? To support European Integration or to support the sovereignty of the Member State? To help Europeanization or to act against it? Eternity clauses can easily find themselves between a rock and a hard place, the law of the European Union and the law of a Member State, with more possible interpretations. As more and more Constitutional Courts started to declare elements of their Member States’ constitutional identities, these began to interfere with the eternity clauses. Will this trend eventually work against Europeanization? As a result of the research, it can be stated that a lowest common denominator exists in the practice of European Constitutional Courts regarding eternity clauses. The chance of a European model and the possibility of this model influencing the status quo between the European Union and the Member States will be examined by looking at the answers these courts have found so far.

Keywords: constitutional court, constitutional identity, eternity clause, European Integration

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580 Strict Liability as a Means of Standardising Sentencing Outcomes for Shoplifting Offences Dealt with in UK Magistrates Courts

Authors: Mariam Shah

Abstract:

Strict liability is frequently used in magistrate’s courts for TV license and driving offences.There is existing research suggesting that the strict liability approach to criminal offences can result in ‘absurd’ judicial outcomes, or potentially ‘injustice’.This paper will discuss the potential merits of strict liability as a method for dealing with shoplifting offences.Currently, there is disparity in sentencing outcomes in the UK, particularly in relation to shoplifting offences.This paper will question whether ‘injustice’ is actually in the differentiation of defendants based upon their ‘perceived’ circumstances, which could be resulting in arbitrary judicial decision making.

Keywords: arbitrary, decision making, judicial decision making, shoplifting, stereotypes, strict liability

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579 A Comparative Analysis of the Enforceability of Social and Economic Rights: Nigeria and South Africa as Case Studies

Authors: Foluke Abimbola

Abstract:

There are two separate groups of a recognised body of human rights. These are known as Civil and Political Rights, and Economic and Social Rights. There is however an impression that civil and political rights are enforceable in courts while socio-economic rights are not. Nigeria is an example of one of such countries whose constitution has social, economic and cultural rights’ provisions as well as civil and political rights. However, the socio-economic rights provided in the Nigerian constitution are not justiciable or are unenforceable in a court of law. On the other hand, a comparative examination of the socio-economic right provisions in the South African constitution and judgments of the constitutional court of South Africa reveals that socio-economic rights may be enforceable. This position may ensure the protection of the socio-economic rights of the poor and vulnerable groups. These rights include the rights to food, adequate shelter, health, and education. Moreover, the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (African Charter) which incorporates similar socio-economic right provisions, has been recognized as a domestic law in Nigeria and its provisions are enforceable by the domestic courts by virtue of the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights (Ratification and Enforcement) Act Cap A9 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 2004. It is not only a regional treaty signed and adopted by Nigeria but has been passed into law by the National Assembly and can be enforced like any other local law. This paper will propose that in view of the provisions of the African Charter and mechanisms for implementation as well as other international conventions and national constitutional provisions on human rights, domestic courts may be able to assess state responsibilities in the light of socio-economic rights. Cases decided by South African courts and other jurisdictions will be discussed in order to lend weight to the notion that socio-economic rights can be enforced in jurisdictions such as Nigeria even though the constitution provides otherwise.

Keywords: african charter, constitutional court of south africa, nigerian constitution, socio-economic rights, south african constitution

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578 The ICC, International Criminal Justice and International Politics

Authors: Girma Y. Iyassu Menelik

Abstract:

The international community has gone through indescribable atrocities resulting from acts of war. These atrocities turned Europe and Africa into a wilderness of bloodshed and crime. In the period 1960- 1970s Africa witnessed unprecedented and well-documented assaults on life and property. This necessitated the adoption, signing and ratification of the International Criminal Court, establishment of the International Court of Justice which is a great achievement for the protection and fulfilling of human rights in the context of international political instability. The ICC came as an important opportunity to advance justice for serious crimes committed in violation of international law. Thus the Rome statute has become a formidable contribution to peace and security. There are concerns that the ICC is targeting African states. However, the ICC cannot preside over cases that are not parties to the Rome statute unless the UN Security council refers the situation or the relevant state asks the court to become involved. The instable international political situation thus deals with criminal prosecutions where amnesty is not permissible or is strongly repudiated. The court has become important justice instruments for states that are unable or unwilling to fulfill their obligation to address legacies of massive human rights violations. The ICJ as a court has a twofold role; to settle legal disputes submitted to it by states, and to give advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by duly authorized United Nations organs and specialized agencies. All members of the UN are ipso facto parties to the statute of the ICJ. The court gives advisory opinion on any legal question. These courts are the most appropriate fora to pronounce on international crimes and are in a better position to know and apply international law. Cases that have been brought to the courts include Rwanda’s genocide, Liberia’s Charles Taylor etc. The receptiveness and cooperation of the local populations are important to the courts and if the ICC and ICJ can provide appropriate protections for the physical and economic safety of victims then peace and human rights observance can be attained. This paper will look into the effectiveness and impediments of these courts in handling criminal and injustices in international politics as while as what needs to be done to strengthen the capacity of these courts.

Keywords: ICC, international politics, justice, UN security council, violence, protection, fulfilling

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577 Interpretation of Medical Negligence under Consumer Laws

Authors: Ashfaq M. Naikwadi

Abstract:

Decided cases of medical negligence, mostly are not settled in the lower courts. Majority of them reach up to the apex courts. This is mostly due to different interpretations of the term medical negligence. After studying various cases of medical negligence it is found that in most of the cases the doctors/hospitals are not held liable. There are different interpretations of law concerning medical services. Globally the principles deciding medical negligence are same, viz. Legal duty of care - breach of that duty - direct causation resulting in damages. Since ordinary negligence is not punishable by law, doctors/hospitals have defenses to save themselves from liability. Complaints of negligence come to the courts whose judges mostly are not oriented with medical services or health sciences. Matters of medical negligence are decided on the basic principles of reasonableness and prudence or by relying on the expert’s opinion. Deciding reasonableness or prudence is a complex issue in case of medical services. Again expert opinion is also questionable as an expert in case of medical negligence is appointed from the same field and same faculty. There is a chance of favoritism to the doctor/hospital. The concept of vicarious liability is not widely applied to in many of the medical negligence cases. Established cases used as precedents were studied to understand the basic principles in deciding medical negligence. This paper evaluates the present criteria in interpreting medical negligence and concludes with suggesting reforms required to be made in deciding matters of medical negligence under the consumer laws.

Keywords: consumer, doctors, laws, medical negligence

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