Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5348

Search results for: financial inclusion no-frill account

5348 Financial Inclusion for Inclusive Growth in an Emerging Economy

Authors: Godwin Chigozie Okpara, William Chimee Nwaoha

Abstract:

The paper set out to stress on how financial inclusion index could be calculated and also investigated the impact of inclusive finance on inclusive growth in an emerging economy. In the light of these objectives, chi-wins method was used to calculate indexes of financial inclusion while co-integration and error correction model were used for evaluation of the impact of financial inclusion on inclusive growth. The result of the analysis revealed that financial inclusion while having a long-run relationship with GDP growth is an insignificant function of the growth of the economy. The speed of adjustment is correctly signed and significant. On the basis of these results, the researchers called for tireless efforts of government and banking sector in promoting financial inclusion in developing countries.

Keywords: chi-wins index, co-integration, error correction model, financial inclusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 437
5347 Impact of Financial Inclusion on Gender Inequality: An Empirical Examination

Authors: Sumanta Kumar Saha, Jie Qin

Abstract:

This study analyzes the impact of financial inclusion on gender inequality in 126 countries belonging to different income groups during the 2005–2019 period. Due to its positive influence on poverty alleviation, economic growth, women empowerment, and income inequality reduction, financial inclusion may help reduce gender equality. This study constructs a novel composite financial inclusion index and applies both fixed-effect panel estimation and instrumental variable approach to examine the impact of financial inclusion on gender inequality. The results indicate that financial inclusion can reduce gender inequality in developing and low- and lower-middle-income countries, but not in higher-income countries. The impact is not always immediate. Past financial inclusion initiatives have a significant influence on future gender inequality. Financial inclusion is also significant if the poverty level is high and women's access to financial services is low compared to men. When the poverty level is low, or women have equal access to financial services, financial inclusion does not significantly affect gender inequality. The study finds that compulsory education and improvement in institutional quality promote gender equality in developing countries apart from financial inclusion. The study proposes that lower-income countries use financial inclusion initiatives to improve gender equality. Other countries need to focus on other aspects such as promoting educational support and institutional quality improvements to achieve gender equality.

Keywords: financial inclusion, gender inequality, institutional quality, women empowerment

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5346 Financial Products Held by University Students: An Empirical Study from the Czech Republic

Authors: Barbora Chmelikova

Abstract:

Current financial markets offer a wide range of financial products to the consumers. However, access to the financial products is not always provided or guaranteed, particularly in less developed countries. For this reason, financial inclusion is an important component in the modern society. This paper investigates financial inclusion and what financial products are held by university students majoring in finance fields. The OECD methodology was used to examine the awareness and use of financial products. The study was conducted via online questionnaire at Masaryk University in the Czech Republic among finance students. The results show that the students use current and savings accounts more than any other financial products.

Keywords: financial inclusion, financial products, personal finance, university students

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5345 Financial Inclusion from the Perspective of Social Innovation: The Case of Colombia

Authors: Maria Luisa Jaramillo, Alvaro Turriago Hoyos, Ulf Thoene

Abstract:

Financial inclusion has become a crucially important factor in debates on economic inequality posing challenges to the financial systems of countries around the world. Nowadays, governments and banks are concerned about creating products that allow access to wide sectors of the population. The creation of banking products by the financial sector for people with low incomes tends to lead to improvements in the quality of life of vulnerable parts of the population. In countries with notable social and economic inequalities financial inclusion is a key aspect for equitable economic growth. This study is based on the case of Colombia, which is a country with a strong record of economic growth over the past decade. Nevertheless, corruption, unemployment, and poverty contribute to uncertainty regarding the country’s future growth prospects. This study wants to explain the situation of financial exclusion and financial inclusion with respect to the Colombian case. Financial inclusion is going to be studied from the perspective of social innovation.

Keywords: Colombia, financial exclusion, financial inclusion, social innovation

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5344 The Role of Islamic Finance and Socioeconomic Factors in Financial Inclusion: A Cross Country Comparison

Authors: Allya Koesoema, Arni Ariani

Abstract:

While religion is only a very minor factor contributing to financial exclusion in most countries, the World Bank 2014 Global Financial Development Report highlighted it as a significant barrier for having a financial account in some Muslim majority countries. This is in part due to the perceived incompatibility between traditional financial institutions practices and Islamic finance principles. In these cases, the development of financial institutions and products that are compatible with the principles of Islamic finance may act as an important lever to increasing formal account ownership. However, there is significant diversity in the relationship between a country’s proportion of Muslim population and its level of financial inclusion. This paper combines data taken from the Global Findex Database, World Development Indicators, and the Pew Research Center to quantitatively explore the relationship between individual and country level religious and socioeconomic factor to financial inclusion. Results from regression analyses show a complex relationship between financial inclusion and religion-related factors in the population both on the individual and country level. Consistent with prior literature, on average the percentage of Islamic population positively correlates with the proportion of unbanked populations who cites religious reasons as a barrier to getting an account. However, its impact varies across several variables. First, a deeper look into countries’ religious composition reveals that the average negative impact of a large Muslim population is not as strong in more religiously diverse countries and less religious countries. Second, on the individual level, among the unbanked, the poorest quintile, least educated, older and the female populations are comparatively more likely to not have an account because of religious reason. Results also show indications that in this case, informal mechanisms partially substitute formal financial inclusion, as indicated by the propensity to borrow from family and friends. The individual level findings are important because the demographic groups that are more likely to cite religious reasons as barriers to formal financial inclusion are also generally perceived to be more vulnerable socially and economically and may need targeted attention. Finally, the number of Islamic financial institutions in a particular country is negatively correlated to the propensity of religious reasons as a barrier to financial inclusion. Importantly, the number of financial institutions in a country also mitigates the negative impact of the proportion of Muslim population, low education and individual age to formal financial inclusion. These results point to the potential importance of Islamic Finance Institutions in increasing global financial inclusion, and highlight the potential importance of looking beyond the proportion of Muslim population to other underlying institutional and socioeconomic factor in maximizing its impact.

Keywords: cross country comparison, financial inclusion, Islamic banking and finance, quantitative methods, socioeconomic factors

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5343 Financial Inclusion in Indonesia and Its Challenges

Authors: Yen Sun, Pariang Siagian

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to examine the progress of financial inclusion in Indonesia. The object of this paper is Micro Enterprises (MEs) and methodology used will be qualitative method by using surveys and questionnaires. The results show that there are still 20% MEs have no banking facilities at all and about 78% MEs still use their own capital to run their business. Furthermore, personal characteristics such as gender and education are factors that can explain financial inclusion. It is also said that in general MEs need banking product and services. However, there are still barriers that hinder them to be financially included. The most barriers they have to face are marketing exclusion. It shows that they have lack information about banking product and services since marketing strategy from bank is not disseminated clearly through various media.

Keywords: financial inclusion, financial exclusion, micro enterprises, Indonesia

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5342 Islamic Banking: An Ultimate Source of Financial Inclusion

Authors: Tasawar Nawaz

Abstract:

Promotion of socioeconomic justice through redistribution of wealth is one of the most salient features of Islamic economic system. Islamic financial institutions known as Islamic banks are used to implement this in practice under the guidelines of Islamic Shariah law. Islamic banking systems strive to promote and achieve financial inclusion among the society by offering interest-free banking and risk-sharing financing solutions. Shariah-compliant micro finance is one of the most popular financial instruments used by Islamic banks to enhance access to finance. Benevolent loan (or Qard-al-Hassanah) is one of the popular financial tools used by the Islamic banks to promote financial inclusion. This aspect of Islamic banking is empirically examined in this paper with specific reference to firm’s resources, largely defined here as intellectual capital. The paper finds that Islamic banks promote financial inclusion by exploiting available resources especially, the human intellectual capital.

Keywords: financial inclusion, intellectual capital, Qard-al-Hassanah, Islamic banking

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5341 Percolation of Financial Services into the Villages in India: Mirroring of Beneficiaries Responses

Authors: Radhakumari Challa

Abstract:

In India the commercial banks have taken the initiative of visiting the villages and helping the villagers open the no-frill accounts as part of the mission towards achieving the total financial inclusion. As an extension to the first phase of the study conducted a year back which revealed that the required awareness that the no-frill accounts creation is the initiative of the government to transfer either the financial assistance or other benefits of economic development directly was lacking among the villagers, the present study is undertaken to review the change in perceptions of beneficiaries in villages over a year period. The study reveals that that there is increase in the awareness among villagers regarding the purpose for which no-frills accounts are opened, about the method of operating these accounts. Awareness about their right for accessing all the financial services is also found to be on the rise.

Keywords: business correspondence, financial inclusion no-frill account, percolation

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5340 Collaboration-Based Islamic Financial Services: Case Study of Islamic Fintech in Indonesia

Authors: Erika Takidah, Salina Kassim

Abstract:

Digital transformation has accelerated in the new millennium. It is reshaping the financial services industry from a traditional system to financial technology. Moreover, the number of financial inclusion rates in Indonesia is less than 60%. An innovative model needed to elucidate this national problem. On the other hand, the Islamic financial service industry and financial technology grow fast as a new aspire in economic development. An Islamic bank, takaful, Islamic microfinance, Islamic financial technology and Islamic social finance institution could collaborate to intensify the financial inclusion number in Indonesia. The primary motive of this paper is to examine the strategy of collaboration-based Islamic financial services to enhance financial inclusion in Indonesia, particularly facing the digital era. The fundamental findings for the main problems are the foundations and key ecosystems aspect involved in the development of collaboration-based Islamic financial services. By using the Interpretive Structural Model (ISM) approach, the core problems faced in the development of the models have lacked policy instruments guarding the collaboration-based Islamic financial services with fintech work process and availability of human resources for fintech. The core strategies or foundations that are needed in the framework of collaboration-based Islamic financial services are the ability to manage and analyze data in the big data era. For the aspects of the Ecosystem or actors involved in the development of this model, the important actor is government or regulator, educational institutions, and also existing industries (Islamic financial services). The outcome of the study designates that strategy collaboration of Islamic financial services institution supported by robust technology, a legal and regulatory commitment of the regulators and policymakers of the Islamic financial institutions, extensive public awareness of financial inclusion in Indonesia. The study limited itself to realize financial inclusion, particularly in Islamic finance development in Indonesia. The study will have an inference for the concerned professional bodies, regulators, policymakers, stakeholders, and practitioners of Islamic financial service institutions.

Keywords: collaboration, financial inclusion, Islamic financial services, Islamic fintech

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5339 Reimagining Financial Inclusion in the Post COVID-19 World: The Case of Grameen America

Authors: Rania Mousa, Peterson Ozili

Abstract:

A key agenda of policymakers in developed and developing countries is to increase the level of financial inclusion. Microlending institutions have been recognized as important agents of financial inclusion, which have the potential to achieve this objective and help move toward a more accessible, inclusive, and equitable path to financial sustainability. In that respect, this case study attempts to identify and assess the key initiatives undertaken by Grameen America as it responded to the COVID-19 pandemic within the framework of selected United Nations’ Sustainability Development Goals (UN’s SD Goals). This study goes beyond the stated objective by using the vulnerable group theory and special agent theory of financial inclusion to support the analysis of financial and non-financial information collected from Grameen America’s Annual Reports and audited financial statements. The study follows a qualitative content analysis method to precisely gauge the shift in Grameen’s strategy and focus, as well as to assess the impact of its initiatives on the small business community before and after the pandemic. The findings showcase that Grameen’s longstanding mission to alleviate poverty is in line with the UN’s Sustainability Development Goal 1. Furthermore, Grameen’s commitment to creating partnerships with external organizations to offer credit and non-credit services and support is consistent with UN’s Sustainability Development Goal 17. The study suggests that policymakers should foster the creation of more member-based financial and non-financial institutions which are ethically and morally responsible to their members in both good and bad times.

Keywords: COVID-19, financial inclusion, microfinance, sustainable development, microlending

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5338 Financial Technology: The Key to Achieving Financial Inclusion in Developing Countries Post COVID-19 from an East African Perspective

Authors: Yosia Mulumba, Klaus Schmidt

Abstract:

Financial Inclusion is considered a key pillar for development in most countries around the world. Access to affordable financial services in a country’s economy can be a driver to overcome poverty and reduce income inequalities, and thus increase economic growth. Nevertheless, the number of financially excluded populations in developing countries continues to be very high. This paper explores the role of Financial Technology (Fintech) as a key driver for achieving financial inclusion in developing countries post the COVID-19 pandemic with an emphasis on four East African countries: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and Rwanda. The research paper is inspired by the positive disruption caused by the pandemic, which has compelled societies in East Africa to adapt and embrace the use of financial technology innovations, specifically Mobile Money Services (MMS), to access financial services. MMS has been further migrated and integrated with other financial technology innovations such as Mobile Banking, Micro Savings, and Loans, and Insurance, to mention but a few. These innovations have been adopted across key sectors such as commerce, health care, or agriculture. The research paper will highlight the Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) that are behind MMS, along with numerous innovative products and services being offered to the customers. It will also highlight the regulatory framework under which these innovations are being governed to ensure the safety of the customers' funds.

Keywords: financial inclusion, financial technology, regulatory framework, mobile money services

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5337 Usage of Internet Technology in Financial Education and Financial Inclusion by Students of Economics Universities

Authors: B. Frączek

Abstract:

The paper analyses the usage of the Internet by university students in Visegrad Countries (4V Countries) who study economic fields in their formal and informal financial education and captures the areas of untapped potential of Internet in educational processes. Higher education and training, technological readiness, and the financial market development are in the group of pillars, that are key for efficiency driven economies. These three pillars have become an inspiration to the research on using the Internet in the financial education among economic university students as the group of the best educated people in finance. The financial education is a process that allows for improving the level of financial literacy. In turn, the financial literacy it is the set of financial knowledge, skills, awareness and patterns influencing the financial decisions. The level of financial literacy influences the level of financial well-being of individuals, determines the scale of saving of households and at the same time gives the greater chance for sustainable and more predictable development of the financial market with the positive impact on economy. The financial literacy is necessary for each group of society but its appropriate level is desirable especially in respect of economics students as future participants of financial markets as well as the experts and advisors in financial decision making. The low level of financial literacy is the great problem of many target groups in both developing and developed countries and the financial education is seen as the best way of improving this situation. Also the financial inclusion plays the special role in enhancing the level of financial literacy in the aspect of education by practice as well as due to interrelation between level of financial literacy and degree of financial inclusion. Despite many initiatives under financial education, the level of financial literacy is still very low. Scientists still search for new ways of solving this problem. One of the proposal is more effective usage of the new technology in financial education, especially the Internet, because of the growing popularity of e-learning and the increasing number of Internet users, especially among young people who are called the Generation Net. Due to special role of the university students studying the economics fields for the future financial markets, students of four universities from Visegrad Countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia) were invited to participate in the survey. The aim of the article is to present the level and ways of using the Internet technology in financial education and indicating the so far unused or underused opportunities.

Keywords: financial education, financial inclusion, financial literacy, internet and university education

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5336 Forecast Financial Bubbles: Multidimensional Phenomenon

Authors: Zouari Ezzeddine, Ghraieb Ikram

Abstract:

From the results of the academic literature which evokes the limitations of previous studies, this article shows the reasons for multidimensionality Prediction of financial bubbles. A new framework for modeling study predicting financial bubbles by linking a set of variable presented on several dimensions dictating its multidimensional character. It takes into account the preferences of financial actors. A multicriteria anticipation of the appearance of bubbles in international financial markets helps to fight against a possible crisis.

Keywords: classical measures, predictions, financial bubbles, multidimensional, artificial neural networks

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5335 Deposit Insurance and Financial Inclusion in the Economic Community of Central African States

Authors: Antoine F. Dedewanou, Eric N. Ekpinda

Abstract:

We investigate whether and how deposit insurance program affects savings decisions in the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS). Specifically, using the World Bank’s 2014 and 2011 Global Financial Inclusion (Global Findex) databases, we apply special regressor approach. We find that the deposit insurance program increases significantly, everything else equal, the probability that people save their money at a financial institution by 11 percentage points in Gabon, by 22.2 percentage points in DR Congo and by 15.1 percentage points in Chad. These effects are matched with positive effects of age and education level. But in Cameroon, the effect of deposit insurance is not significant. The policies aimed at fostering financial inclusion will be more effective if there is a deposit insurance scheme in place, along with awareness among young people, and education programs. JEL Classification: G21, O12, O16

Keywords: deposit insurance, savings, special regressor, ECCAS countries

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5334 Participatory Financial Inclusion Hypothesis: A Preliminary Empirical Validation Using Survey Design

Authors: Edward A. Osifodunrin, Jose Manuel Dias Lopes

Abstract:

In Nigeria, enormous efforts/resources had, over the years, been expended on promoting financial inclusion (FI); however, it is seemingly discouraging that many of its self-declared targets on FI remained unachieved, especially amongst the Rural Dwellers and Actors in the Informal Sectors (RDAIS). Expectedly, many reasons had been earmarked for these failures: low literacy level, huge informal/rural sectors, etc. This study posits that in spite of these truly-debilitating factors, these FI policy failures could have been avoided or mitigated if the principles of active and better-managed citizens’ participation had been strictly followed in the (re)design/implementation of its FI policies. In other words, in a bid to mitigate the prevalent FE in Nigeria, this study hypothesizes the positive impact of increased/active citizens’ participation on FI outcome(s), backed by a preliminary empirical validation. Also, the study introduces the RDAIS-focused participatory financial inclusion policy (PFIP) as a major FI policy regeneration/improvement tool. The three categories of respondents that served as research subjects are FI experts in Nigeria (n = 72), RDAIS from the very rural/remote village of Unguwar Dogo in Northern Nigeria (n = 43), and RDAIS from another rural village of Sekere (n = 56) in the Southern region of Nigeria. Using survey design (5-point Likert scale questionnaires), random/stratified sampling, and descriptive/inferential statistics, the study often recorded independent consensus (amongst these three categories of respondents) that RDAIS’s active participation in iterative FI policy initiation, (re)design, implementation, (re)evaluation could indeed give improved FI outcomes. However, some questionnaire items also recorded divergent opinions and various statistically significant differences in the mean scores of these three categories. The PFIP (or any customized version of it) should then be carefully integrated into the NFIS of Nigeria (and possibly in the NFIS of other developing countries) to truly/fully provide FI policy integration for these excluded RDAIS and arrest the prevalence of FE.

Keywords: citizens’ participation, development, financial inclusion, formal financial services, national financial inclusion strategy, participatory financial inclusion policy, rural dwellers and actors in the informal sectors

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5333 Green Function and Eshelby Tensor Based on Mindlin’s 2nd Gradient Model: An Explicit Study of Spherical Inclusion Case

Authors: A. Selmi, A. Bisharat

Abstract:

Using Fourier transform and based on the Mindlin's 2nd gradient model that involves two length scale parameters, the Green's function, the Eshelby tensor, and the Eshelby-like tensor for a spherical inclusion are derived. It is proved that the Eshelby tensor consists of two parts; the classical Eshelby tensor and a gradient part including the length scale parameters which enable the interpretation of the size effect. When the strain gradient is not taken into account, the obtained Green's function and Eshelby tensor reduce to its analogue based on the classical elasticity. The Eshelby tensor in and outside the inclusion, the volume average of the gradient part and the Eshelby-like tensor are explicitly obtained. Unlike the classical Eshelby tensor, the results show that the components of the new Eshelby tensor vary with the position and the inclusion dimensions. It is demonstrated that the contribution of the gradient part should not be neglected.

Keywords: Eshelby tensor, Eshelby-like tensor, Green’s function, Mindlin’s 2nd gradient model, spherical inclusion

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5332 The Case for Implementing a Supplier Diversity and Inclusion Program beyond the Ethical Value

Authors: Arnaud Deshais

Abstract:

The supply chain industry has integrated the need for supplier Diversity and Inclusion (D&I), mostly from an ethical and moral argument. In addition, in some countries, it is also a legal requirement for companies reaching a certain size. As a matter of fact, a lot of successful companies have developed a Corporate Social Responsibility Program that encourages diversity and inclusion in the supply chain, such as building strong relationships with minority owned businesses (women, LGBT, veterans, etc.). Outside ethical and legal perspectives, it is also worth researching the economic and financial benefits of pursuing such efforts. Through surveys of purchasing and supply chain managers in their current roles as well as review of some case studies on supplier based D&I programs, it becomes apparent that a financial return on investment is to be expected as well for companies who make a concerted effort to grow their D&I programs. The study explores the levers to increase shareholder value and business efficiencies. Finally, the research highlights the competitive advantage related to a broad minority based supplier network. The benefits manifest themselves in the areas of competitiveness, innovation, and collaboration. The economic reward ends up being at the forefront of those programs while being an opportunity for organizations to become 'a good citizen'.

Keywords: diversity, inclusion, purchasing, supplier

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5331 Firms’ Exposure to Political Risk and Quality of Accounting Information

Authors: Dereje Ferede Asrat, Timbate Lukas, Dessalegn Getie Mihret

Abstract:

We investigate the effect of firm-level political risk on the financial reporting quality of US firms from 2002 to 2019. We document that firm-level political risk, measured as the share of earnings call conversations with financial analysts that focus on political risk or uncertainty, is negatively related to the firm’s accounting information quality. This effect is stronger for firms with a bigger agency problem, higher growth firms, and highly reliant on external capital. We further find that the firm-level political risk effect is consistent with the inclusion of macro-level economic factors. Finally, our result is economically significant and robust to alternative measures of financial reporting quality and the post-financial crisis.

Keywords: firm-level political risk, quality of financial reporting, agency costs, financial constraint

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5330 A-Score, Distress Prediction Model with Earning Response during the Financial Crisis: Evidence from Emerging Market

Authors: Sumaira Ashraf, Elisabete G.S. Félix, Zélia Serrasqueiro

Abstract:

Traditional financial distress prediction models performed well to predict bankrupt and insolvent firms of the developed markets. Previous studies particularly focused on the predictability of financial distress, financial failure, and bankruptcy of firms. This paper contributes to the literature by extending the definition of financial distress with the inclusion of early warning signs related to quotation of face value, dividend/bonus declaration, annual general meeting, and listing fee. The study used five well-known distress prediction models to see if they have the ability to predict early warning signs of financial distress. Results showed that the predictive ability of the models varies over time and decreases specifically for the sample with early warning signs of financial distress. Furthermore, the study checked the differences in the predictive ability of the models with respect to the financial crisis. The results conclude that the predictive ability of the traditional financial distress prediction models decreases for the firms with early warning signs of financial distress and during the time of financial crisis. The study developed a new model comprising significant variables from the five models and one new variable earning response. This new model outperforms the old distress prediction models before, during and after the financial crisis. Thus, it can be used by researchers, organizations and all other concerned parties to indicate early warning signs for the emerging markets.

Keywords: financial distress, emerging market, prediction models, Z-Score, logit analysis, probit model

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5329 Analytical Study of Applying the Account Aggregation Approach in E-Banking Services

Authors: A. Al Drees, A. Alahmari, R. Almuwayshir

Abstract:

The advanced information technology is becoming an important factor in the development of financial services industry, especially the banking industry. It has introduced new ways of delivering banking to the customer, such as Internet Banking. Banks began to look at electronic banking (e-banking) as a means to replace some of their traditional branch functions using the Internet as a new distribution channel. Some consumers have at least more than one account, and across banks, and access these accounts using e-banking services. To look at the current net worth position, customers have to login to each of their accounts and get the details and work on consolidation. This not only takes ample time but it is a repetitive activity at a specified frequency. To address this point, an account aggregation concept is added as a solution. E-banking account aggregation, as one of the e-banking types, appeared to build a stronger relationship with customers. Account Aggregation Service generally refers to a service that allows customers to manage their bank accounts maintained in different institutions through a common Internet banking operating a platform, with a high concern to security and privacy. This paper presents an overview of an e-banking account aggregation approach as a new service in the e-banking field.

Keywords: e-banking, account aggregation, security, enterprise development

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5328 Existence Result of Third Order Functional Random Integro-Differential Inclusion

Authors: D. S. Palimkar

Abstract:

The FRIGDI (functional random integrodifferential inclusion) seems to be new and includes several known random differential inclusions already studied in the literature as special cases have been discussed in the literature for various aspects of the solutions. In this paper, we prove the existence result for FIGDI under the non-convex case of multi-valued function involved in it.Using random fixed point theorem of B. C. Dhage and caratheodory condition. This result is new to the theory of differential inclusion.

Keywords: caratheodory condition, random differential inclusion, random solution, integro-differential inclusion

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5327 Published Financial Statement as a Correlate of Investment Decision among Commercial Bank Stakeholders in Nigeria

Authors: C. F. Popoola, K. Akinsanya, S. B. Babarinde, D. A. Farinde

Abstract:

This study investigated published financial statement as correlate of investment decision among commercial bank stakeholders in Nigeria. A correlation research design was used in the study. 180 users of published financial statement were purposively sampled from Lagos and Ibadan. Data generated were analyzed using Pearson correlation and regression. The findings of the study revealed that, balance sheet is negatively related with investment decision (r=-.483; p < .01) while income statement (r= .249; p < .001), notes on the account (r= .230; p < .001), cash flow statement (r= .202; p < .001), value added statement (r= .328; p < .001) and five-year financial summary (r= .191 ;p < .01) are positively related with investment decision. Findings also revealed that components of published financial statement significantly predicted good investment decision (R2= .983; F(5,175)=284.5; p < .05) for commercial bank stakeholders. Therefore, it was suggested that Nigeria banks and professional bodies should instigate programs that will increase the knowledge of stakeholders on published financial statement.

Keywords: commercial banks, financial statement, income statement, investment decision, stakeholders

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5326 Financial Literacy in Greek High-School Students

Authors: Vasiliki A. Tzora, Nikolaos D. Philippas

Abstract:

The paper measures the financial literacy of youth in Greece derived from the examined aspects of financial knowledge, behaviours, and attitudes that high school students performed. The findings reveal that less than half of participant high school students have an acceptable level of financial literacy. Also, students who are in the top of their class cohort exhibit higher levels of financial literacy. We also find that the father’s education level has a significant effect on financial literacy. Students who keep records of their income and expenses are likely to show better levels of financial literacy than students who do not. Students’ perception/estimation of their parents’ income changes is also related to their levels of financial literacy. We conclude that financial education initiatives should be embedded in schools in order to embrace the young generation.

Keywords: financial literacy, financial knowledge, financial behaviour, financial attitude, financial wellbeing, 15-year-old students

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5325 Financial Literacy of Students of Finance

Authors: Barbora Chmelíková

Abstract:

Financial literacy is a widely discussed topic on the national and international level by governments, organizations and academia. For this reason this study analyses financial knowledge, financial behavior and financial attitudes of students of finance. The aim of the paper is to determine whether the financial literacy of university students studying finance differs from the level of financial literacy in selected OECD countries. The research was conducted at Masaryk University in the Czech Republic. The empirical study comprises questions related to several aspects of financial literacy, as well as socio-demographic data enabling more thorough analysis. The results indicate that improvement in financial literacy of university students is still required, even though their major is finance related.

Keywords: financial literacy, financial behavior, personal finance management, university students

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5324 Influence of the Financial Crisis on the Month and the Trading Month Effects: Evidence from the Athens Stock Exchange

Authors: Aristeidis Samitas, Evangelos Vasileiou

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to examine the month and the trading month effect under changing financial trends. We choose the Greek stock market to implement our assumption because there are clear and long term periods of financial growth and recession. Daily financial data from Athens Exchange General Index for the period 2002-2012 are considered. The paper employs several linear and non-linear models, although the TGARCH asymmetry model best fits in this sample and for this reason we mainly present the TGARCH results. Empirical results show that changing economic and financial conditions influences the calendar effects. Especially, the trading month effect totally changes in each fortnight according to the financial trend. On the other hand, in Greece the January effect exists during the growth periods, although it does not exist when the financial trend changes. The findings are helpful to anybody who invest and deals with the Greek stock market. Moreover, they may pave the way for an alternative calendar anomalies research approach, so it may be useful to investors who take into account these anomalies when they draw their investment strategy.

Keywords: month effect, trading month effect, economic cycles, crisis

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5323 Inclusive Education in Higher Education: Looking from the Lenses of Prospective Teachers

Authors: Kiran, Pooja Bhagat

Abstract:

Inclusion of diversities is much talked and discussed for school education, mainly at the elementary level. However, not enough discourse has taken place as far as the promulgation of diversities from school education to higher education in terms of guarantee of access, retention and success of students belonging to the diverse groups is concerned. In view of this, the present paper attempts to look at the phenomenon of inclusion of diversities in higher education from the perspective of the people, who themselves are the part of the present system of higher education and aspiring to take up teaching at higher education level as profession. The paper focuses on exploring the awareness of the group under study about the inclusion of diversities at higher education, their perception of diversities, and the mechanism which they consider effective to facilitate inclusion.

Keywords: inclusion, higher education, perception, belief, attitude

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5322 Audit Committee Financial Expertise and Financial Reporting Timeliness in Emerging Market: The Role of Audit Committee Chair

Authors: Saeed Rabea Baatwah, Zalailah Salleh, Norsiah Ahmad

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This study examines whether audit committee chair with financial expertise enhances the audit committee role in financial reporting quality in emerging market. We investigate this influence by employing the direct effect and moderating effect of audit committee chair with financial expertise on financial reporting timeliness. By using Omani data and the panel data method for two proxies for financial reporting timeliness, we find that audit committee chair with financial expertise enhances the timeliness of financial reporting through making the disclosure of annual reports timely. Further, we report evidence showing that both accounting and non-accounting financial expertise on the audit committee have a positive and significant influence on the timeliness of financial reporting. We also document that the association between financial expertise and the timeliness of financial reporting is more pronounced when the chair of the audit committee has financial expertise. This study is among the first to comprehensively prove that audit committee chair with financial expertise contributes to the quality of financial reporting in emerging market.

Keywords: audit committee, chair with financial expertise, timeliness of financial reporting, Oman

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5321 A Study of Financial Literacy among Undergraduates

Authors: Prasansha Kumari

Abstract:

Financial Literacy is the possession of knowledge and understanding of financial matters. Financial Literacy often entails the knowledge of properly making decisions pertaining to certain personal financial areas like real estate, insurance investing, and savings. This paper intends to identify and analyze the financial knowledge among university undergraduates by using 200 undergraduates in four faculties of University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka. Collected data will be analyzed by descriptive research method using SPSS package. Expected outcomes are considerable percentage of undergraduates have basic knowledge on financial matters while it has a law percentage for advanced financial literacy among undergraduates. Students from faculty of Commerce and Management and Science have good understanding about financial matters than undergraduates in other two faculties

Keywords: advanced finance, undergraduates, financial literacy, savings

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5320 A Qualitative Study of Inclusive Growth through Microfinance in India

Authors: Amit Kumar Bardhan, Barnali Nag, Chandra Sekhar Mishra

Abstract:

Microfinance is considered as one of the key drivers of financial inclusion and pro-poor financial growth. Microfinance in India became popular through Self Help Group (SHG) movement initiated by NABARD. In terms of outreach and loan portfolio, SHG Bank Linkage programme (SHG-BLP) has emerged as the largest microfinance initiative in the world. The success of financial inclusion lies in the successful implementation of SHG-BLP. SHGs are generally promoted by social welfare organisations like NGOs, welfare societies, government agencies, Co-operatives etc. and even banks are also involved in SHG formation. Thus, the pro-poor implementation of the scheme largely depends on the credibility of the SHG Promoting Institutions (SHPIs). The rural poor lack education, skills and financial literacy and hence need continuous support and proper training right from planning to implementation. In this study, we have made an attempt to inspect the reasons behind low penetration of SHG financing to the poorest of the poor both from demand and supply side perspective. Banks, SHPIs, and SHGs are three key essential stakeholders in SHG-BLP programmes. All of them have a vital role in programme implementation. The objective of this paper is to find out the drivers and hurdles in the path of financial inclusion through SHG-BLP and the role of SHPIs in reaching out to the ultra poor. We try to address questions like 'what are the challenges faced by SHPIs in targeting the poor?' and, 'what are factors behind the low credit linkage of SHGs?' Our work is based on a qualitative study of SHG programmes in semi-urban towns in the states of West Bengal and Odisha in India. Data are collected through unstructured questionnaire and in-depth interview from the members of SHGs, SHPIs and designated banks. The study provides some valuable insights about the programme and a comprehensive view of problems and challenges faced by SGH, SHPIs, and banks. On the basis of our understanding from the survey, some findings and policy recommendations that seem relevant are: increasing level of non-performing assets (NPA) of commercial banks and wilful default in expectation of loan waiver and subsidy are the prime reasons behind low rate of credit linkage of SHGs. Regular changes in SHG schemes and no incentive for after linkage follow up results in dysfunctional SHGs. Government schemes are mostly focused on creation of SHG and less on livelihood promotion. As a result, in spite of increasing (YoY) trend of number of SHGs promoted, there is no real impact on welfare growth. Government and other SHPIs should focus on resource based SHG promotion rather only increasing the number of SHGs.

Keywords: financial inclusion, inclusive growth, microfinance, Self-Help Group (SHG), Self-Help Group Promoting Institution (SHPI)

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5319 Access to Financial Services to Rural Poor in Nepal: Challenges and Way Forward

Authors: Krishna Prasad Sharma

Abstract:

Nepal’s financial sector has become deeper and wider, and the number and types of financial intermediaries have grown rapidly over the past two decades. However, access to financial services remains limited for many people in many parts of rural Nepal. While financial institutions have been expanding rapidly in an urban area in recent years, the access to the rural poor is excessively inadequate due to financial illiteracy and limited numbers of financial institutions that confined only to the district headquarters. Based on the focus group discussion, semi-structured interview of key people and literature review, this paper aims to examine the supply of and demand for financial services in Nepal and the constraints to increasing access to them, and offers way forward for making the financial sector work for all of Nepal’s people, especially the rural poor. While Nepal’s government has tried to increase access to formal financial services for small businesses and low-income households through directed lending programs for small businesses and low-income households, created specialized wholesale and retail institutions, and lowered market entry requirements, formal financial services are declining, and financial intermediation is stagnating. Supply and demand indicators show that, despite government efforts, formal financial institutions do not serve the needs of most of the Nepalese population. While access to and use of formal financial services are limited, in general, the problem is acute for small businesses and low-income households. Indeed, both access and use are closely correlated with business loan size and household income. This study concludes that banks and microfinance institutions with the use of mobile phones can connect hundreds of millions of unbanked and low-income people, especially rural poor to financial services at low costs. While there are many challenges ahead in expanding the service to rural areas, the mobile financial services will be beneficial that makes payments faster and cheaper, more convenient and accessible to a greater number of senders and recipients in rural areas. In rural areas, clients will benefit from money transfer and other mobile and online services.

Keywords: financial inclusion, financial enabling environment, microfinance, branchless banking, rural poor

Procedia PDF Downloads 200