Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3797

Search results for: correlation between vehicles

3797 Deep Neural Network Approach for Navigation of Autonomous Vehicles

Authors: Mayank Raj, V. G. Narendra


Ever since the DARPA challenge on autonomous vehicles in 2005, there has been a lot of buzz about ‘Autonomous Vehicles’ amongst the major tech giants such as Google, Uber, and Tesla. Numerous approaches have been adopted to solve this problem, which can have a long-lasting impact on mankind. In this paper, we have used Deep Learning techniques and TensorFlow framework with the goal of building a neural network model to predict (speed, acceleration, steering angle, and brake) features needed for navigation of autonomous vehicles. The Deep Neural Network has been trained on images and sensor data obtained from the dataset. A heatmap was used to check for correlation among the features, and finally, four important features were selected. This was a multivariate regression problem. The final model had five convolutional layers, followed by five dense layers. Finally, the calculated values were tested against the labeled data, where the mean squared error was used as a performance metric.

Keywords: autonomous vehicles, deep learning, computer vision, artificial intelligence

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3796 Indian Road Traffic Flow Analysis Using Blob Tracking from Video Sequences

Authors: Balaji Ganesh Rajagopal, Subramanian Appavu alias Balamurugan, Ayyalraj Midhun Kumar, Krishnan Nallaperumal


Intelligent Transportation System is an Emerging area to solve multiple transportation problems. Several forms of inputs are needed in order to solve ITS problems. Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS) is a core and important ITS area of this modern era. This involves travel time forecasting, efficient road map analysis and cost based path selection, Detection of the vehicle in the dynamic conditions and Traffic congestion state forecasting. This Article designs and provides an algorithm for traffic data generation which can be used for the above said ATIS application. By inputting the real world traffic situation in the form of video sequences, the algorithm determines the Traffic density in terms of congestion, number of vehicles in a given path which can be fed for various ATIS applications. The Algorithm deduces the key frame from the video sequences and follows the Blob detection, Identification and Tracking using connected components algorithm to determine the correlation between the vehicles moving in the real road scene.

Keywords: traffic transportation, traffic density estimation, blob identification and tracking, relative velocity of vehicles, correlation between vehicles

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3795 Choosing between the Regression Correlation, the Rank Correlation, and the Correlation Curve

Authors: Roger L. Goodwin


This paper presents a rank correlation curve. The traditional correlation coefficient is valid for both continuous variables and for integer variables using rank statistics. Since the correlation coefficient has already been established in rank statistics by Spearman, such a calculation can be extended to the correlation curve. This paper presents two survey questions. The survey collected non-continuous variables. We will show weak to moderate correlation. Obviously, one question has a negative effect on the other. A review of the qualitative literature can answer which question and why. The rank correlation curve shows which collection of responses has a positive slope and which collection of responses has a negative slope. Such information is unavailable from the flat, "first-glance" correlation statistics.

Keywords: Bayesian estimation, regression model, rank statistics, correlation, correlation curve

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3794 The Impact of Public Charging Infrastructure on the Adoption of Electric Vehicles

Authors: Shaherah Jordan, Paula Vandergert


The discussion on public charging infrastructure is usually framed around the ‘chicken-egg’ challenge of consumers feeling reluctant to purchase without the necessary infrastructure and policymakers reluctant to invest in the infrastructure without the demand. However, public charging infrastructure may be more crucial to electric vehicle (EV) adoption than previously thought. Historically, access to residential charging was thought to be a major factor in potential for growth in the EV market as it offered a guaranteed place for a vehicle to be charged. The purpose of this study is to understand how the built environment may encourage uptake of EVs by seeking a correlation between EV ownership and public charging points in an urban and densely populated city such as London. Using a statistical approach with data from the Department for Transport and Zap-Map, a statistically significant correlation was found between the total (slow, fast and rapid) number of public charging points and a number of EV registrations per borough – with the strongest correlation found between EV registrations and rapid chargers. This research does not explicitly prove that there is a cause and effect relationship between public charging points EVs but challenges some of the previous literature which indicates that public charging infrastructure is not as important as home charging. Furthermore, the study provides strong evidence that public charging points play a functional and psychological role in the adoption of EVs and supports the notion that the built environment can influence human behaviour.

Keywords: behaviour change, electric vehicles, public charging infrastructure, transportation

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3793 A Review on the Potential of Electric Vehicles in Reducing World CO2 Footprints

Authors: S. Alotaibi, S. Omer, Y. Su


The conventional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) based vehicles are a threat to the environment as they account for a large proportion of the overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the world. Hence, it is required to replace these vehicles with more environment-friendly vehicles. Electric Vehicles (EVs) are promising technologies which offer both human comfort “noise, pollution” as well as reduced (or no) emissions of GHGs. In this paper, different types of EVs are reviewed and their advantages and disadvantages are identified. It is found that in terms of fuel economy, Plug-in Hybrid EVs (PHEVs) have the best fuel economy, followed by Hybrid EVs (HEVs) and ICE vehicles. Since Battery EVs (BEVs) do not use any fuel, their fuel economy is estimated as price per kilometer. Similarly, in terms of GHG emissions, BEVs are the most environmentally friendly since they do not result in any emissions while HEVs and PHEVs produce less emissions compared to the conventional ICE based vehicles. Fuel Cell EVs (FCEVs) are also zero-emission vehicles, but they have large costs associated with them. Finally, if the electricity is provided by using the renewable energy technologies through grid connection, then BEVs could be considered as zero emission vehicles.

Keywords: electric vehicles, zero emission car, fuel economy, CO₂ footprint

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3792 Improvement of Brige Weigh-In-Motion Technique Considering the Driving Conditions of Vehicles

Authors: Changgil Lee, Jooyoung Park, Seunghee Park


In this study, bridge weigh-in-motion (BWIM) system was simulated under various driving conditions of vehicles to improve the performance of the BWIM system. Two driving conditions were considered. One was the number of the axle of the vehicles. Since the vehicles have different number of axle according to the types of the vehicle, the vehicles were modeled considering the number of the axle. The other was the speed of the vehicles because the speed of the vehicles is not consistent on the bridge. To achieve the goal, the dynamic characteristics of a bridge such as modal parameters were considered in numerical simulation by analyzing precision models. Also, the driving vehicles were modeled as mass-spring-damping systems reflecting the axle information.

Keywords: bridge weigh-in-motion (BWIM) system, driving conditions, precision analysis model, the number of axle, the speed of vehicle

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3791 A Centralized Architecture for Cooperative Air-Sea Vehicles Using UAV-USV

Authors: Salima Bella, Assia Belbachir, Ghalem Belalem


This paper deals with the problem of monitoring and cleaning dirty zones of oceans using unmanned vehicles. We present a centralized cooperative architecture for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to monitor ocean regions and clean dirty zones with the help of unmanned surface vehicles (USVs). Due to the rapid deployment of these unmanned vehicles, it is convenient to use them in oceanic regions where the water pollution zones are generally unknown. In order to optimize this process, our solution aims to detect and reduce the pollution level of the ocean zones while taking into account the problem of fault tolerance related to these vehicles.

Keywords: centralized architecture, fault tolerance, UAV, USV

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
3790 Non-Linear Control Based on State Estimation for the Convoy of Autonomous Vehicles

Authors: M-M. Mohamed Ahmed, Nacer K. M’Sirdi, Aziz Naamane


In this paper, a longitudinal and lateral control approach based on a nonlinear observer is proposed for a convoy of autonomous vehicles to follow a desired trajectory. To authors best knowledge, this topic has not yet been sufficiently addressed in the literature for the control of multi vehicles. The modeling of the convoy of the vehicles is revisited using a robotic method for simulation purposes and control design. With these models, a sliding mode observer is proposed to estimate the states of each vehicle in the convoy from the available sensors, then a sliding mode control based on this observer is used to control the longitudinal and lateral movement. The validation and performance evaluation are done using the well-known driving simulator Scanner-Studio. The results are presented for different maneuvers of 5 vehicles.

Keywords: autonomous vehicles, convoy, non-linear control, non-linear observer, sliding mode

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3789 Energy Consumption Models for Electric Vehicles: Survey and Proposal of a More Realistic Model

Authors: I. Sagaama, A. Kechiche, W. Trojet, F. Kamoun


Replacing combustion engine vehicles by electric vehicles (EVs) is a major step in recent years due to their potential benefits. Battery autonomy and charging processes are still a big issue for that kind of vehicles. Therefore, reducing the energy consumption of electric vehicles becomes a necessity. Many researches target introducing recent information and communication technologies in EVs in order to propose reducing energy consumption services. Evaluation of realistic scenarios is a big challenge nowadays. In this paper, we will elaborate a state of the art of different proposed energy consumption models in the literature, then we will present a comparative study of these models, finally, we will extend previous works in order to propose an accurate and realistic energy model for calculating instantaneous power consumption of electric vehicles.

Keywords: electric vehicle, vehicular networks, energy models, traffic simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
3788 Aerodynamic Analysis of Vehicles

Authors: E. T. L. Cöuras Ford, V. A. C. Vale, J. U. L. Mendes


Two of the objective principal in the study of the aerodynamics of vehicles are the safety and the acting. Those objectives can be reached through the development of devices modify the drainage of air about of the vehicle and also through alterations in the way of the external surfaces. The front lowest profile of the vehicle, for instance, has great influence on the coefficient of aerodynamic penetration (Cx) and later on great part of the pressure distribution along the surface of the vehicle. The objective of this work was of analyzing the aerodynamic behavior that it happens on some types the trucks of vehicles, based on experimentation in aerodynamic tunnel, seeking to determine the aerodynamic efficiency of each one of them.

Keywords: aerodynamic, vehicles, wind tunnel, safety, acting

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3787 Modeling and Simulation of Standalone Photovoltaic Charging Stations for Electric Vehicles

Authors: R. Mkahl, A. Nait-Sidi-Moh, M. Wack


Batteries of electric vehicles (BEV) are becoming more attractive with the advancement of new battery technologies and promotion of electric vehicles. BEV batteries are recharged on board vehicles using either the grid (G2V for Grid to Vehicle) or renewable energies in a stand-alone application (H2V for Home to Vehicle). This paper deals with the modeling, sizing and control of a photo voltaic stand-alone application that can charge the BEV at home. The modeling approach and developed mathematical models describing the system components are detailed. Simulation and experimental results are presented and commented.

Keywords: electric vehicles, photovoltaic energy, lead-acid batteries, charging process, modeling, simulation, experimental tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
3786 Mathematical Modelling for Diesel Consumption of Articulated Vehicle Used in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Ganiyu Samson Okunlola, Ladanu Abiodun Ajala, Olaide Oluwaseun Adegbayo


Since the usefulness of articulated vehicles is becoming more apparent and the diesel consumption of these vehicles constitutes a major portion of operating costs, development of mathematical model for their diesel consumption is of a great importance. Therefore, the present work developed a quantitative relationship between diesel consumption and vehicle age, annual use and cost of maintenance of the different makes of articulated vehicles. The vehicles selected for the study were FIAT 682 T3, IVECO 19036 and M.A.N. Diesel 19.240. The operating parameters for 90 vehicles of different age groups were recorded. Multiple regression models for diesel consumption of articulated vehicles of different makes were developed. From the analysis of results, it can be concluded that as the age of the vehicles increases, the diesel consumption increases. Also, as the diesel consumption increases, the cost of maintenance increases and there is a subsequent decrease in annual use. Moreover, FIAT 682 T3 and IVECO 19036 should be replaced at 7 years of age while M.A.N diesel should be replaced at 8 years of age. These are the ages where the diesel consumption becomes abnormal and uneconomical and they are points of optimal overhaul.

Keywords: vehicle, overhaul, age, uneconomical, diesel, consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
3785 Rotational Energy Recovery System

Authors: Vijayendra Anil Menon, Ashwath Narayan Murali


The present day vehicles do not reuse the energy expelled in running the vehicle. The energy used to run the vehicle is expelled immediately.This has remained a constant for many decades. With all the vehicles running on non-renewable resources like fossil fuels, there is an urgent need to improve efficiency of the vehicles until a reliable replacement for fossil fuels is found.Our design is based on the concept of Kinetic energy recovery systems. Though our design lies in principle with the KERS, our design can be used in day-to-day driving. With our design, efficiency of vehicles increases and fuel conservation is possible thereby reducing the carbon footprint.

Keywords: KERS, Battery, Wheels, Efficiency.

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3784 VANETs: Security Challenges and Future Directions

Authors: Jared Oluoch


Connected vehicles are equipped with wireless sensors that aid in Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) communication. These vehicles will in the near future provide road safety, improve transport efficiency, and reduce traffic congestion. One of the challenges for connected vehicles is how to ensure that information sent across the network is secure. If security of the network is not guaranteed, several attacks can occur, thereby compromising the robustness, reliability, and efficiency of the network. This paper discusses existing security mechanisms and unique properties of connected vehicles. The methodology employed in this work is exploratory. The paper reviews existing security solutions for connected vehicles. More concretely, it discusses various cryptographic mechanisms available, and suggests areas of improvement. The study proposes a combination of symmetric key encryption and public key cryptography to improve security. The study further proposes message aggregation as a technique to overcome message redundancy. This paper offers a comprehensive overview of connected vehicles technology, its applications, its security mechanisms, open challenges, and potential areas of future research.

Keywords: VANET, connected vehicles, 802.11p, WAVE, DSRC, trust, security, cryptography

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3783 A Comparison Between the Internal Combustion Engine and Electric Motor in the Automobile

Authors: Jack Mason, Ahmad Pourmovhed


This paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the internal combustion engine when compared to different types of electric vehicles. The Internal Combustion Engine (ICE)'s overall cost, environmental impact, and usability will all be compared to different types of Electric Vehicles (EVs) including Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs). Also, the ways to solve the issues of the problems each vehicle presents will be discussed.

Keywords: interal combustion engine, battery electric vehicle, fuel cell electric vehicle, emissions

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3782 Advanced Simulation of Power Consumption of Electric Vehicles

Authors: Ilya Kavalchuk, Hayrettin Arisoy, Alex Stojcevski, Aman Maun Than Oo


Electric vehicles are one of the most complicated electric devices to simulate due to the significant number of different processes involved in electrical structure of it. There are concurrent processes of energy consumption and generation with different onboard systems, which make simulation tasks more complicated to perform. More accurate simulation on energy consumption can provide a better understanding of all energy management for electric transport. As a result of all those processes, electric transport can allow for a more sustainable future and become more convenient in relation to the distance range and recharging time. This paper discusses the problems of energy consumption simulations for electric vehicles using different software packages to provide ideas on how to make this process more precise, which can help engineers create better energy management strategies for electric vehicles.

Keywords: electric vehicles, EV, power consumption, power management, simulation

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3781 Guidance and Control of a Torpedo Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

Authors: Soheil Arash Moghadam, Abdol R. Kashani Nia, Ali Akrami Zade


Considering numerous applications of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles in various industries, there has been plenty of researches and studies on the motion control of such vehicles. One of the useful aspects for studying is the guidance of these vehicles. In this paper, while presenting motion equations with six degrees of freedom for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles, Proportional Navigation Guidance Law and the first order sliding mode control for TAIPAN AUV was used to address its guidance for the purpose of collision with a moving target.

Keywords: Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV), degree of freedom (DOF), hydrodynamic, line of sight(LOS), proportional navigation guidance(PNG), sliding mode control(SMC)

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3780 Electric Propulsion System Development for High Floor Trolley Bus

Authors: Asep Andi Suryandi, Katri Yulianto, Dewi Rianti Mandasari


The development of environmentally friendly vehicles increasingly attracted the attention of almost all countries in the world, including Indonesia. There are various types of environmentally friendly vehicles, such as: electric vehicles, hybrid, and fuel gas. The Electric vehicle has been developed in Indonesia, a private or public vehicle. But many electric vehicles had been developed using the battery as a power source, while the battery technology for electric vehicles still constraints in capacity, dimensions of the battery itself and charging system. Trolley bus is one of the electric buses with the main power source of the network catenary / overhead line with trolley pole as the point of contact. This paper will discuss the design and manufacture electrical system in Trolleybus.

Keywords: trolley bus, electric propulsion system, design, manufacture, electric vehicle

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3779 Optimization of E-motor Control Parameters for Electrically Propelled Vehicles by Integral Squared Method

Authors: Ibrahim Cicek, Melike Nikbay


Electrically propelled vehicles, either road or aerial vehicles are studied on contemporarily for their robust maneuvers and cost-efficient transport operations. The main power generating systems of such vehicles electrified by selecting proper components and assembled as e-powertrain. Generally, e-powertrain components selected considering the target performance requirements. Since the main component of propulsion is the drive unit, e-motor control system is subjected to achieve the performance targets. In this paper, the optimization of e-motor control parameters studied by Integral Squared Method (ISE). The overall aim is to minimize power consumption of such vehicles depending on mission profile and maintaining smooth maneuvers for passenger comfort. The sought-after values of control parameters are computed using the Optimal Control Theory. The system is modeled as a closed-loop linear control system with calibratable parameters.

Keywords: optimization, e-powertrain, optimal control, electric vehicles

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3778 Correlation between Pinch and Grip Strength with Dexterity in Adult Hemiplegic

Authors: S. Abbsi, M. R. Hadian, M. Abdolvahab, M. Jalili, S. Khafri


Background: According to physical effects of cardiovascular accident (CVA) which is the most common disabilities in adulthood. It seems attention to treatment and rehabilitation of this patient has importance. Hemiplegic patients have been experienced of wild functional disabilities. Numerous patients have been suffered from upper limb disabilities. Aim of this study correlation of pinch and grip strength with dexterity in adult hemiplegic. Methods: 34 adult hemiplegic in range of 50-70 years participate in this study. After introduce and take a satisfaction patient, pinch and grip strength have evaluated by dynamometer and dexterity have evaluated by Minnesota manual dexterity test and correlation effects of them have studied. Result: According to result of present investigation, patients with hemiplegia have shown significant correlation between dexterity with pinch and grip strength. Conclusion: Dexterity has correlation with pinch and grip strength, but it seems, not have correlation with age and duration of CVA.

Keywords: pinch strength, grip strength, dexterity, hemiplegia

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3777 Modeling and Statistical Analysis of a Soap Production Mix in Bejoy Manufacturing Industry, Anambra State, Nigeria

Authors: Okolie Chukwulozie Paul, Iwenofu Chinwe Onyedika, Sinebe Jude Ebieladoh, M. C. Nwosu


The research work is based on the statistical analysis of the processing data. The essence is to analyze the data statistically and to generate a design model for the production mix of soap manufacturing products in Bejoy manufacturing company Nkpologwu, Aguata Local Government Area, Anambra state, Nigeria. The statistical analysis shows the statistical analysis and the correlation of the data. T test, Partial correlation and bi-variate correlation were used to understand what the data portrays. The design model developed was used to model the data production yield and the correlation of the variables show that the R2 is 98.7%. However, the results confirm that the data is fit for further analysis and modeling. This was proved by the correlation and the R-squared.

Keywords: General Linear Model, correlation, variables, pearson, significance, T-test, soap, production mix and statistic

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3776 Correlation of the Biometric Parameters of Eggs

Authors: S. Zenia, A. Menasseria, A. E. Kheidous, F. Lariouna, A. Smai, H. Saadi, F. Haddadj, A. Milla, F. Marniche


The objective of this study was to estimate the correlation ship between different pheasant external egg quality traits. A total of 938 eggs were collected. Egg weight (g), egg length (mm), egg width (mm), volume (cm3), shape index egg, surface area and water loss were measured. The overall mean values obtained for the different variables are respectively 29.2 ± 2,24, 43.01 ± 1,84, 34.05 ± 1,44, 25.63 ± 2.88 cm3, 79.00 ± 3%, 68% and 13%. Concerning studied regressions, it was considered only the most important regressions. Those that show significant links between the different parameters studied. The ANOVA procedure was applied to estimate correlations for the examined traits. The weights of the eggs being observed before incubation and before hatching are linearly correlated with a positive correlation coefficient of order 0.75. Egg length and the weight before incubation had a good and positive correlation with a coefficient r = 0.6. However, density had high and negative correlations with egg height r = -0.78. Shape index had a good linear and negative r= - 0.71 correlation with water loss.

Keywords: correlation, egg, morphometry of eggs, analysis of variance

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3775 Development of Generalized Correlation for Liquid Thermal Conductivity of N-Alkane and Olefin

Authors: A. Ishag Mohamed, A. A. Rabah


The objective of this research is to develop a generalized correlation for the prediction of thermal conductivity of n-Alkanes and Alkenes. There is a minority of research and lack of correlation for thermal conductivity of liquids in the open literature. The available experimental data are collected covering the groups of n-Alkanes and Alkenes.The data were assumed to correlate to temperature using Filippov correlation. Nonparametric regression of Grace Algorithm was used to develop the generalized correlation model. A spread sheet program based on Microsoft Excel was used to plot and calculate the value of the coefficients. The results obtained were compared with the data that found in Perry's Chemical Engineering Hand Book. The experimental data correlated to the temperature ranged "between" 273.15 to 673.15 K, with R2 = 0.99.The developed correlation reproduced experimental data that which were not included in regression with absolute average percent deviation (AAPD) of less than 7 %. Thus the spread sheet was quite accurate which produces reliable data.

Keywords: N-Alkanes, N-Alkenes, nonparametric, regression

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3774 Spirituality and Happiness among Youth: A Correlative Study

Authors: Harsh Shah


Spirituality and happiness are two very important aspects of human life. After defining happiness, an attempt has been made in this paper to review research on the relationship between happiness and spirituality, and then to experimentally study their correlation among students aged between 18-24 years. The relation was assessed in 200 students from IIT Kharagpur, who rated their own spirituality, and happiness using the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale (DSES) developed by Underwood, and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) developed by Lyubomirsky and Lepper, respectively. Students who were more spiritual in general, were happier as well, and the Pearson Correlation Coefficient method gave a high positive correlation between happiness and spirituality.

Keywords: happiness, spirituality, youth, correlation, depression, religion

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3773 Energy Benefits of Urban Platooning with Self-Driving Vehicles

Authors: Eduardo F. Mello, Peter H. Bauer


The primary focus of this paper is the generation of energy-optimal speed trajectories for heterogeneous electric vehicle platoons in urban driving conditions. Optimal speed trajectories are generated for individual vehicles and for an entire platoon under the assumption that they can be executed without errors, as would be the case for self-driving vehicles. It is then shown that the optimization for the “average vehicle in the platoon” generates similar transportation energy savings to optimizing speed trajectories for each vehicle individually. The introduced approach only requires the lead vehicle to run the optimization software while the remaining vehicles are only required to have adaptive cruise control capability. The achieved energy savings are typically between 30% and 50% for stop-to-stop segments in cities. The prime motivation of urban platooning comes from the fact that urban platoons efficiently utilize the available space and the minimization of transportation energy in cities is important for many reasons, i.e., for environmental, power, and range considerations.

Keywords: electric vehicles, energy efficiency, optimization, platooning, self-driving vehicles, urban traffic

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3772 Effect of Correlation of Random Variables on Structural Reliability Index

Authors: Agnieszka Dudzik


The problem of correlation between random variables in the structural reliability analysis has been extensively discussed in literature on the subject. The cases taken under consideration were usually related to correlation between random variables from one side of ultimate limit state: correlation between particular loads applied on structure or correlation between resistance of particular members of a structure as a system. It has been proved that positive correlation between these random variables reduces the reliability of structure and increases the probability of failure. In the paper, the problem of correlation between random variables from both side of the limit state equation will be taken under consideration. The simplest case where these random variables are of the normal distributions will be concerned. The case when a degree of that correlation is described by the covariance or the coefficient of correlation will be used. Special attention will be paid on questions: how much that correlation changes the reliability level and can it be ignored. In reliability analysis will be used well-known methods for assessment of the failure probability: based on the Hasofer-Lind reliability index and Monte Carlo method adapted to the problem of correlation. The main purpose of this work will be a presentation how correlation of random variables influence on reliability index of steel bar structures. Structural design parameters will be defined as deterministic values and random variables. The latter will be correlated. The criterion of structural failure will be expressed by limit functions related to the ultimate and serviceability limit state. In the description of random variables will be used only for the normal distribution. Sensitivity of reliability index to the random variables will be defined. If the reliability index sensitivity due to the random variable X will be low when compared with other variables, it can be stated that the impact of this variable on failure probability is small. Therefore, in successive computations, it can be treated as a deterministic parameter. Sensitivity analysis leads to simplify the description of the mathematical model, determine the new limit functions and values of the Hasofer-Lind reliability index. In the examples, the NUMPRESS software will be used in the reliability analysis.

Keywords: correlation of random variables, reliability index, sensitivity of reliability index, steel structure

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3771 Statistical Correlation between Ply Mechanical Properties of Composite and Its Effect on Structure Reliability

Authors: S. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Chen


Due to the large uncertainty on the mechanical properties of FRP (fibre reinforced plastic), the reliability evaluation of FRP structures are currently receiving much attention in industry. However, possible statistical correlation between ply mechanical properties has been so far overlooked, and they are mostly assumed to be independent random variables. In this study, the statistical correlation between ply mechanical properties of uni-directional and plain weave composite is firstly analyzed by a combination of Monte-Carlo simulation and finite element modeling of the FRP unit cell. Large linear correlation coefficients between the in-plane mechanical properties are observed, and the correlation coefficients are heavily dependent on the uncertainty of the fibre volume ratio. It is also observed that the correlation coefficients related to Poisson’s ratio are negative while others are positive. To experimentally achieve the statistical correlation coefficients between in-plane mechanical properties of FRP, all concerned in-plane mechanical properties of the same specimen needs to be known. In-plane shear modulus of FRP is experimentally derived by the approach suggested in the ASTM standard D5379M. Tensile tests are conducted using the same specimens used for the shear test, and due to non-uniform tensile deformation a modification factor is derived by a finite element modeling. Digital image correlation is adopted to characterize the specimen non-uniform deformation. The preliminary experimental results show a good agreement with the numerical analysis on the statistical correlation. Then, failure probability of laminate plates is calculated in cases considering and not considering the statistical correlation, using the Monte-Carlo and Markov Chain Monte-Carlo methods, respectively. The results highlight the importance of accounting for the statistical correlation between ply mechanical properties to achieve accurate failure probability of laminate plates. Furthermore, it is found that for the multi-layer laminate plate, the statistical correlation between the ply elastic properties significantly affects the laminate reliability while the effect of statistical correlation between the ply strength is minimal.

Keywords: failure probability, FRP, reliability, statistical correlation

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3770 RSU Aggregated Message Delivery for VANET

Authors: Auxeeliya Jesudoss, Ashraph Sulaiman, Ratnakar Kotnana


V2V communication brings up several questions of scalability issues although message sharing in vehicular ad-hoc networks comprises of both Vehicle-to-Vehicle communications (V2V) and Vehicle to Infrastructure communication (V2I). It is not an easy task for a vehicle to verify all signatures of the messages sent by its neighboring vehicles in a timely manner, without resulting in message loss. Moreover, the communication overhead of a vehicle to authenticate another vehicle would increase together with the security of the system. Another issue to be addressed is the continuous mobility of vehicles which requires at least some information on the node’s own position to be revealed to the neighboring vehicles. This may facilitate the attacker to congregate information on a node’s position or its mobility patterns. In order to tackle these issues, this paper introduces a RSU aggregated message deliverance scheme called RAMeD. With RAMeD, roadside units (RSUs) are responsible for verifying the identity of the vehicles entering in its range, collect messages from genuine vehicles and to aggregate similar messages into groups before sending them to all the vehicles in its communication range. This aggregation will tremendously improve the rate of message delivery and reduce the message lose ratio by avoiding similar messages being sent to the vehicles redundantly. The proposed protocol is analyzed extensively to evaluate its merits and efficiency for vehicular communication.

Keywords: vehicular ad-hoc networks, V2V, V2I, VANET communication, scalability, message aggregation

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3769 Combining the Dynamic Conditional Correlation and Range-GARCH Models to Improve Covariance Forecasts

Authors: Piotr Fiszeder, Marcin Fałdziński, Peter Molnár


The dynamic conditional correlation model of Engle (2002) is one of the most popular multivariate volatility models. However, this model is based solely on closing prices. It has been documented in the literature that the high and low price of the day can be used in an efficient volatility estimation. We, therefore, suggest a model which incorporates high and low prices into the dynamic conditional correlation framework. Empirical evaluation of this model is conducted on three datasets: currencies, stocks, and commodity exchange-traded funds. The utilisation of realized variances and covariances as proxies for true variances and covariances allows us to reach a strong conclusion that our model outperforms not only the standard dynamic conditional correlation model but also a competing range-based dynamic conditional correlation model.

Keywords: volatility, DCC model, high and low prices, range-based models, covariance forecasting

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3768 Optimal Energy Management System for Electrical Vehicles to Further Extend the Range

Authors: M. R. Rouhi, S. Shafiei, A. Taghavipour, H. Adibi-Asl, A. Doosthoseini


This research targets at alleviating the problem of range anxiety associated with the battery electric vehicles (BEVs) by considering mechanical and control aspects of the powertrain. In this way, all the energy consuming components and their effect on reducing the range of the BEV and battery life index are identified. On the other hand, an appropriate control strategy is designed to guarantee the performance of the BEV and the extended electric range which is evaluated by an extensive simulation procedure and a real-world driving schedule.

Keywords: battery, electric vehicles, ultra-capacitor, model predictive control

Procedia PDF Downloads 160