Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: thermoplastics

26 Fiber Orientation Measurements in Reinforced Thermoplastics

Authors: Ihsane Modhaffar

Abstract:

Fiber orientation is essential for the physical properties of composite materials. The theoretical parameters of a given reinforcement are usually known and widely used to predict the behavior of the material. In this work, we propose an image processing approach to estimate true principal directions and fiber orientation during injection molding processes of short fiber reinforced thermoplastics. Generally, a group of fibers are described in terms of probability distribution function or orientation tensor. Numerical techniques for the prediction of fiber orientation are also considered for concentrated situations. The flow was considered to be incompressible, and behave as Newtonian fluid containing suspensions of short-fibers. The governing equations, of this problem are: the continuity, the momentum and the energy. The obtained results were compared to available experimental findings. A good agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data was achieved.

Keywords: injection, composites, short-fiber reinforced thermoplastics, fiber orientation, incompressible fluid, numerical simulation

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25 Influence of Processing Regime and Contaminants on the Properties of Postconsumer Thermoplastics

Authors: Fares Alsewailem

Abstract:

Material recycling of thermoplastic waste offers practical solution for municipal solid waste reduction. Post-consumer plastics such as polyethylene (PE), polyethyleneterephtalate (PET), and polystyrene (PS) may be separated from each other by physical methods such as density difference and hence processed as single plastic, however one should be cautious about the contaminants presence in the waste stream inform of paper, glue, etc. since these articles even in trace amount may deteriorate properties of the recycled plastics especially the mechanical properties. furthermore, melt processing methods used to recycle thermoplastics such as extrusion and compression molding may induce degradation of some of the recycled plastics such as PET and PS. In this research, it is shown that care should be taken when processing recycled plastics by melt processing means in two directions, first contaminants should be extremely minimized, and secondly melt processing steps should also be minimum.

Keywords: Recycling, PET, PS, HDPE, mechanical

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24 Design of 3D Bioprinted Scaffolds for Cartilage Regeneration

Authors: Gloria Pinilla, Jose Manuel Baena, Patricia Gálvez-Martín, Juan Antonio Marchad

Abstract:

Cartilage is a dense connective tissue with limited self-repair properties. Currently, the therapeutic use of autologous or allogenic chondrocytes makes up an alternative therapy to the pharmacological treatment. The design of a bioprinted 3D cartilage with chondrocytes and biodegradable biomaterials offers a new therapeutic alternative able of bridging the limitations of current therapies in the field. We have developed an enhanced printing processes-Injection Volume Filling (IVF) to increase the viability and survival of the cells when working with high-temperature thermoplastics without the limitation of the scaffold geometry in contact with cells. We have demonstrated the viability of the printing process using chondrocytes for cartilage regeneration. This development will accelerate the clinical uptake of the technology and overcomes the current limitation when using thermoplastics as scaffolds. An alginate-based hydrogel combined with human chondrocytes (isolated from osteoarthritis patients) was formulated as bioink-A and the polylactic acid as bioink-B. The bioprinting process was carried out with the REGEMAT V1 bioprinter (Regemat 3D, Granada-Spain) through a IVF. The printing capacity of the bioprinting plus the viability and cell proliferation of bioprinted chondrociytes was evaluated after five weeks by confocal microscopy and Alamar Blue Assay (Biorad). Results showed that the IVF process does not decrease the cell viability of the chondrocytes during the printing process as the cells do not have contact with the thermoplastic at elevated temperatures. The viability and cellular proliferation of the bioprinted artificial 3D cartilage increased after 5 weeks. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the potential use of Regemat V1 for 3D bioprinting of cartilage and the viability of bioprinted chondrocytes in the scaffolds for application in regenerative medicine.

Keywords: cartilage regeneration, bioprinting, bioink, scaffold, chondrocyte

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23 Coupled Space and Time Homogenization of Viscoelastic-Viscoplastic Composites

Authors: Sarra Haouala, Issam Doghri

Abstract:

In this work, a multiscale computational strategy is proposed for the analysis of structures, which are described at a refined level both in space and in time. The proposal is applied to two-phase viscoelastic-viscoplastic (VE-VP) reinforced thermoplastics subjected to large numbers of cycles. The main aim is to predict the effective long time response while reducing the computational cost considerably. The proposed computational framework is a combination of the mean-field space homogenization based on the generalized incrementally affine formulation for VE-VP composites, and the asymptotic time homogenization approach for coupled isotropic VE-VP homogeneous solids under large numbers of cycles. The time homogenization method is based on the definition of micro and macro-chronological time scales, and on asymptotic expansions of the unknown variables. First, the original anisotropic VE-VP initial-boundary value problem of the composite material is decomposed into coupled micro-chronological (fast time scale) and macro-chronological (slow time-scale) problems. The former is purely VE, and solved once for each macro time step, whereas the latter problem is nonlinear and solved iteratively using fully implicit time integration. Second, mean-field space homogenization is used for both micro and macro-chronological problems to determine the micro and macro-chronological effective behavior of the composite material. The response of the matrix material is VE-VP with J2 flow theory assuming small strains. The formulation exploits the return-mapping algorithm for the J2 model, with its two steps: viscoelastic predictor and plastic corrections. The proposal is implemented for an extended Mori-Tanaka scheme, and verified against finite element simulations of representative volume elements, for a number of polymer composite materials subjected to large numbers of cycles.

Keywords: asymptotic expansions, cyclic loadings, inclusion-reinforced thermoplastics, mean-field homogenization, time homogenization

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22 Time Temperature Dependence of Long Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Manufactured by Direct Long Fiber Thermoplastic Process

Authors: K. A. Weidenmann, M. Grigo, B. Brylka, P. Elsner, T. Böhlke

Abstract:

In order to reduce fuel consumption, the weight of automobiles has to be reduced. Fiber reinforced polymers offer the potential to reach this aim because of their high stiffness to weight ratio. Additionally, the use of fiber reinforced polymers in automotive applications has to allow for an economic large-scale production. In this regard, long fiber reinforced thermoplastics made by direct processing offer both mechanical performance and processability in injection moulding and compression moulding. The work presented in this contribution deals with long glass fiber reinforced polypropylene directly processed in compression moulding (D-LFT). For the use in automotive applications both the temperature and the time dependency of the materials properties have to be investigated to fulfill performance requirements during crash or the demands of service temperatures ranging from -40 °C to 80 °C. To consider both the influence of temperature and time, quasistatic tensile tests have been carried out at different temperatures. These tests have been complemented by high speed tensile tests at different strain rates. As expected, the increase in strain rate results in an increase of the elastic modulus which correlates to an increase of the stiffness with decreasing service temperature. The results are in good accordance with results determined by dynamic mechanical analysis within the range of 0.1 to 100 Hz. The experimental results from different testing methods were grouped and interpreted by using different time temperature shift approaches. In this regard, Williams-Landel-Ferry and Arrhenius approach based on kinetics have been used. As the theoretical shift factor follows an arctan function, an empirical approach was also taken into consideration. It could be shown that this approach describes best the time and temperature superposition for glass fiber reinforced polypropylene manufactured by D-LFT processing.

Keywords: composite, dynamic mechanical analysis, long fibre reinforced thermoplastics, mechanical properties, time temperature superposition

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21 An Experimental Modeling of Steel Surfaces Wear in Injection of Plastic Materials with SGF

Authors: L. Capitanu, V. Floresci, L. L. Badita

Abstract:

Starting from the idea that the greatest pressure and velocity of composite melted is in the die nozzle, was an experimental nozzle with wear samples of sizes and weights which can be measured with precision as good. For a larger accuracy of measurements, we used a method for radiometric measuring, extremely accurate. Different nitriding steels have been studied as nitriding treatments, as well as some special steels and alloyed steels. Besides these, there have been preliminary attempts made to describe and checking corrosive action of thermoplastics on metals.

Keywords: plastics, composites with short glass fibres, moulding, wear, experimental modelling, glass fibres content influence

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20 Thermoplastic-Intensive Battery Trays for Optimum Electric Vehicle Battery Pack Performance

Authors: Dinesh Munjurulimana, Anil Tiwari, Tingwen Li, Carlos Pereira, Sreekanth Pannala, John Waters

Abstract:

With the rapid transition to electric vehicles (EVs) across the globe, car manufacturers are in need of integrated and lightweight solutions for the battery packs of these vehicles. An integral part of a battery pack is the battery tray, which constitutes a significant portion of the pack’s overall weight. Based on the functional requirements, cost targets, and packaging space available, a range of materials –from metals, composites, and plastics– are often used to develop these battery trays. This paper considers the design and development of integrated thermoplastic-intensive battery trays, using the available packaging space from a representative EV battery pack. Presented as a proposed alternative are multiple concepts to integrate several connected systems such as cooling plates and underbody impact protection parts of a multi-piece incumbent battery pack. The resulting digital prototype was evaluated for several mechanical performance measures such as mechanical shock, drop, crush resistance, modal analysis, and torsional stiffness. The performance of this alternative design is then compared with the incumbent solution. In addition, insights are gleaned into how these novel approaches can be optimized to meet or exceed the performance of incumbent designs. Preliminary manufacturing feasibility of the optimal solution using injection molding and other commonly used manufacturing methods for thermoplastics is briefly explained. Then numerical and analytical evaluations are performed to show a representative Pareto front of cost vs. volume of the production parts. The proposed solution is observed to offer weight savings of up to 40% on a component level and part elimination of up to two systems in the battery pack of a typical battery EV while offering the potential to meet the required performance measures highlighted above. These conceptual solutions are also observed to potentially offer secondary benefits such as improved thermal and electrical isolations and be able to achieve complex geometrical features, thus demonstrating the ability to use the complete packaging space available in the vehicle platform considered. The detailed study presented in this paper serves as a valuable reference for researches across the globe working on the development of EV battery packs – especially those with an interest in the potential of employing alternate solutions as part of a mixed-material system to help capture untapped opportunities to optimize performance and meet critical application requirements.

Keywords: thermoplastics, lightweighting, part integration, electric vehicle battery packs

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19 Recovery of Polymers from Electronic Waste - An Analysis

Authors: Anis A. Ansari, Syed Javed Arif

Abstract:

From the last two-three decades, all countries are continuously generating huge quantities of electronic waste in the form of obsolete computers, gadgets and other discarded electronic instruments mainly due to evolution of newer technologies as a result of constant efforts in research and development in this area. This is the primary reason why waste from the electronic industry is increasing exponentially day by day. Thermoset and thermoplastic polymers, which are the major constituents in every electronic waste, may create a new business opportunity if these are recovered and recycled properly. This may reduce our directly dependency on petroleum and petro-products for polymer materials and also create a potential market for recycled polymers to improve economy. The main theme of this paper is to evolve the potential of recovery and recycling of polymers from the waste being generated globally in the form of discarded electronic products.

Keywords: polymer recovery, electronic waste, petroleum, thermoplastics

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18 Influence of Temperature and Immersion on the Behavior of a Polymer Composite

Authors: Quentin C.P. Bourgogne, Vanessa Bouchart, Pierre Chevrier, Emmanuel Dattoli

Abstract:

This study presents an experimental and theoretical work conducted on a PolyPhenylene Sulfide reinforced with 40%wt of short glass fibers (PPS GF40) and its matrix. Thermoplastics are widely used in the automotive industry to lightweight automotive parts. The replacement of metallic parts by thermoplastics is reaching under-the-hood parts, near the engine. In this area, the parts are subjected to high temperatures and are immersed in cooling liquid. This liquid is composed of water and glycol and can affect the mechanical properties of the composite. The aim of this work was thus to quantify the evolution of mechanical properties of the thermoplastic composite, as a function of temperature and liquid aging effects, in order to develop a reliable design of parts. An experimental campaign in the tensile mode was carried out at different temperatures and for various glycol proportions in the cooling liquid, for monotonic and cyclic loadings on a neat and a reinforced PPS. The results of these tests allowed to highlight some of the main physical phenomena occurring during these solicitations under tough hydro-thermal conditions. Indeed, the performed tests showed that temperature and liquid cooling aging can affect the mechanical behavior of the material in several ways. The more the cooling liquid contains water, the more the mechanical behavior is affected. It was observed that PPS showed a higher sensitivity to absorption than to chemical aggressiveness of the cooling liquid, explaining this dominant sensitivity. Two kinds of behaviors were noted: an elasto-plastic type under the glass transition temperature and a visco-pseudo-plastic one above it. It was also shown that viscosity is the leading phenomenon above the glass transition temperature for the PPS and could also be important under this temperature, mostly under cyclic conditions and when the stress rate is low. Finally, it was observed that soliciting this composite at high temperatures is decreasing the advantages of the presence of fibers. A new phenomenological model was then built to take into account these experimental observations. This new model allowed the prediction of the evolution of mechanical properties as a function of the loading environment, with a reduced number of parameters compared to precedent studies. It was also shown that the presented approach enables the description and the prediction of the mechanical response with very good accuracy (2% of average error at worst), over a wide range of hydrothermal conditions. A temperature-humidity equivalence principle was underlined for the PPS, allowing the consideration of aging effects within the proposed model. Then, a limit of improvement of the reachable accuracy was determinate for all models using this set of data by the application of an artificial intelligence-based model allowing a comparison between artificial intelligence-based models and phenomenological based ones.

Keywords: aging, analytical modeling, mechanical testing, polymer matrix composites, sequential model, thermomechanical

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17 Modeling Study of Short Fiber Orientation in Simple Injection Molding Processes

Authors: Ihsane Modhaffar, Kamal Gueraoui, Abouelkacem Qais, Abderrahmane Maaouni, Samir Men-La-Yakhaf, Hamid Eltourroug

Abstract:

The main objective of this paper is to develop a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model to simulate and characterize the fiber suspension in flow in rectangular cavities. The model is intended to describe the velocity profile and to predict the fiber orientation. The flow was considered to be incompressible, and behave as Newtonian fluid containing suspensions of short-fibers. The numerical model for determination of velocity profile and fiber orientation during mold-filling stage of injection molding process was solved using finite volume method. The governing equations of this problem are: the continuity, the momentum and the energy. The obtained results were compared to available experimental findings. A good agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data was achieved.

Keywords: injection, composites, short-fiber reinforced thermoplastics, fiber orientation, incompressible fluid, numerical simulation

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16 Evaluation of the Fire Propagation Characteristics of Thermoplastics

Authors: Ji-Hun Choi, Kyoung-Suk Cho, Seung-Un Chae

Abstract:

Consisting of organic compounds, plastic ignites easily and burns fast. In addition, a large amount of toxic gas is produced while it is burning. When plastic is heated, its volume decreases because its surface is melted. The decomposition of its molecular bond generates combustible liquid of low viscosity, which accelerates plastic combustion and spreads the flames. Radiant heat produced in the process propagates the fire to increase the risk of human and property damages. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to identify chemical, thermal and combustion characteristics of thermoplastic plastics using the fire propagation apparatus based on experimental criteria of ISO 12136 and ASTM E 2058. By the experiment result, as the ignition time increased, the thermal response parameter (TRP) decreased and as the TRP increased, the slope decreased. In other words, the large the TRP was, the longer the time taken for heating and ignition of the material was. It was identified that the fire propagation speed dropped accordingly.

Keywords: fire propagation apparatus (FPA), ISO 12136, thermal response parameter (TRP), fire propagation index (FPI)

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15 Simulation of the Reactive Rotational Molding Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

Authors: A. Hamidi, S. Khelladi, L. Illoul, A. Tcharkhtchi

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Reactive rotational molding (RRM) is a process to manufacture hollow plastic parts with reactive material has several advantages compared to conventional roto molding of thermoplastic powders: process cycle time is shorter; raw material is less expensive because polymerization occurs during processing and high-performance polymers may be used such as thermosets, thermoplastics or blends. However, several phenomena occur during this process which makes the optimization of the process quite complex. In this study, we have used a mixture of isocyanate and polyol as a reactive system. The chemical transformation of this system to polyurethane has been studied by thermal analysis and rheology tests. Thanks to these results of the curing process and rheological measurements, the kinetic and rheokinetik of polyurethane was identified. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics, a Lagrangian meshless method, was chosen to simulate reactive fluid flow in 2 and 3D configurations of the polyurethane during the process taking into account the chemical, and chemiorehological results obtained experimentally in this study.

Keywords: reactive rotational molding, simulation, smoothed particle hydrodynamics, surface tension, rheology, free surface flows, viscoelastic, interpolation

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14 The Applications of Wire Print in Composite Material Research and Fabrication Process

Authors: Hsu Yi-Chia, Hoy June-Hao

Abstract:

FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling) is a rapid proofing method without mold, however, high material and time costs have always been a major disadvantage. Wire-printing is the next generation technology that can more flexible, and also easier to apply on a 3D printer and robotic arms printing. It can create its own construction methods. The research is mainly divided into three parts. The first is about the method of parameterizing the generated paths and the conversion of g-code to the wire-printing. The second is about material attempts and the application of effects. Third, is about the improvement of the operation of mechanical equipment and the design of robotic tool-head. The purpose of this study is to develop a new wire-print method that can efficiently generate line segments and paths in three- dimensions space. The parametric modeling software transforms the digital model into a 3D printer or robotic arms g-code, this article uses thermoplastics/ clay/composites materials for testing. The combination of materials and wire-print process makes architects and designers have the ability to research and develop works and construction in the future.

Keywords: parametric software, wire print, robotic arms fabrication, composite filament additive manufacturing

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13 Determination of Foaming Behavior in Thermoplastic Composite Nonwoven Structures for Automotive Applications

Authors: Zulfiye Ahan, Mustafa Dogu, Elcin Yilmaz

Abstract:

The use of nonwoven textile materials in many application areas is rapidly increasing thanks to their versatile performance properties. The automotive industry is one of the largest sectors in the world with a potential market of more than 2 billion euros for nonwoven textile materials applications. Lightweight materials having higher mechanical performance, better sound and heat insulation properties are of interest in many applications. Since the usage of nonwoven surfaces provides many of these advantages, the demand for this kind of materials is gradually growing especially in the automotive industry. Nonwoven materials used in lightweight vehicles can contain economical and high strength thermoplastics as well as durable components such as glass fiber. By bringing these composite materials into foam structure containing micro or nanopores, products with high absorption ability, light and mechanically stronger can be fabricated. In this respect, our goal is to produce thermoplastic composite nonwoven by using nonwoven glass fiber fabric reinforced polypropylene (PP). Azodicarbonamide (ADC) was selected as a foaming agent and a thermal process was applied to obtain porous structure. Various foaming temperature ranges and residence times were studied to examine the foaming behaviour of the thermoplastic composite nonwoven. Physicochemical and mechanical tests were applied in order to analyze the characteristics of composite foams.

Keywords: composite nonwoven, thermoplastic foams, foaming agent, foaming behavior

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12 Determination of Foaming Behavior in thermoplastic Composite Nonwoven Structures for Automotive Applications

Authors: Zulfiye Ahan, Mustafa Dogu, Elcin Yilmaz

Abstract:

The use of nonwoven textile materials in many application areas is rapidly increasing thanks to their versatile performance properties. The automotive industry is one of the largest sectors in the world, with a potential market of more than 2 billion euros for nonwoven textile materials applications. Lightweight materials having higher mechanical performance, better sound and heat insulation properties are of interest in many applications. Since the usage of nonwoven surfaces provides many of these advantages, the demand for this kind of material is gradually growing, especially in the automotive industry. Nonwoven materials used in lightweight vehicles can contain economical and high strength thermoplastics as well as durable components such as glass fiber. By bringing these composite materials into foam structure containing micro or nanopores, products with high absorption ability, light and mechanically stronger can be fabricated. In this respect, our goal is to produce thermoplastic composite nonwoven by using nonwoven glass fiber fabric reinforced polypropylene (PP). Azodicarbonamide (ADC) was selected as a foaming agent, and a thermal process was applied to obtain a porous structure. Various foaming temperature ranges and residence times were studied to examine the foaming behaviour of the thermoplastic composite nonwoven. Physicochemical and mechanical tests were applied in order to analyze the characteristics of composite foams.

Keywords: composite nonwoven, thermoplastic foams, foaming agent, foaming behavior

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11 Characterization of Carbon/Polyamide 6,6 (C/PA66) Composite Material for Dry and Wet Conditions

Authors: Tariq Bashir, Muhammad Waseem Tahir, Ulf Stigh, Behnaz Baghaie, Mikael Skrifvars

Abstract:

Absorption of moisture may cause many problems in a composite material, such as delamination, degradation of the strength and increase in the weight. For small coupons, the increase in weight may be negligible, however, for large structures increase in weight due to moisture absorption may be quite significant. Polyamides (PA6, PA66) absorb more moisture as compared to other thermoplastics. There are many parameters which affect the moisture absorption of the composite material for example temperature, pressure, type of matrix and fibers, thickness of the material and relative humidity (RH) etc. So, it is utmost important to investigate the impact of moisture on PA66 based composites which can be done by characterizing the mechanical properties of composite materials both for dry and wet conditions. In this study, laminates of C/PA66 composite are manufactured by first heating the commingled material in conventional oven at a temperature of 220 °C followed by pressing in a manual hot press for 20 minutes with preheated platen at 220 °C. To observe the moisture absorption of the composite, coupons of the material were placed in a climate chamber at five different conditions 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% RH for 24 hours. Five specimens were used for each condition. These coupons were weighed before placing in the climate chamber and just after removing from the chamber to observe the moisture absorption of the material. The mechanical characterization such as tensile strength, flexural modulus, impact strength and DMTA of C/PA66 material are performed at 0, 50 and 100 % RH. The work is going on for the testing of the material and results will be presented in full paper.

Keywords: Carbon/Polyamide 66 composites, structural composites, mechanical characterizations, wet and dry conditions

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10 Visco - Plastic Transition and Transfer of Plastic Material with SGF in case of Linear Dry Friction Contact on Steel Surfaces

Authors: Lucian Capitanu, Virgil Florescu

Abstract:

Often for the laboratory studies, modeling of specific tribological processes raises special problems. One such problem is the modeling of some temperatures and extremely high contact pressures, allowing modeling of temperatures and pressures at which the injection or extrusion processing of thermoplastic materials takes place. Tribological problems occur mainly in thermoplastics materials reinforced with glass fibers. They produce an advanced wear to the barrels and screws of processing machines, in short time. Obtaining temperatures around 210 °C and higher, as well as pressures around 100 MPa is very difficult in the laboratory. This paper reports a simple and convenient solution to get these conditions, using friction sliding couples with linear contact, cylindrical liner plastic filled with glass fibers on plate steel samples, polished and super-finished. C120 steel, which is a steel for moulds and Rp3 steel, high speed steel for tools, were used. Obtaining the pressure was achieved by continuous request of the liner in rotational movement up to its elasticity limits, when the dry friction coefficient reaches or exceeds the hardness value of 0.5 HB. By dissipation of the power lost by friction on flat steel sample, are reached contact temperatures at the metal surface that reach and exceed 230 °C, being placed in the range temperature values of the injection. Contact pressures (in load and materials conditions used) ranging from 16.3-36.4 MPa were obtained depending on the plastic material used and the glass fibers content.

Keywords: plastics with glass fibers, dry friction, linear contact, contact temperature, contact pressure, experimental simulation

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9 Low-Complex, High-Fidelity Two-Grades Cyclo-Olefin Copolymer (COC) Based Thermal Bonding Technique for Sealing a Thermoplastic Microfluidic Biosensor

Authors: Jorge Prada, Christina Cordes, Carsten Harms, Walter Lang

Abstract:

The development of microfluidic-based biosensors over the last years has shown an increasing employ of thermoplastic polymers as constitutive material. Their low-cost production, high replication fidelity, biocompatibility and optical-mechanical properties are sought after for the implementation of disposable albeit functional lab-on-chip solutions. Among the range of thermoplastic materials on use, the Cyclo-Olefin Copolymer (COC) stands out due to its optical transparency, which makes it a frequent choice as manufacturing material for fluorescence-based biosensors. Moreover, several processing techniques to complete a closed COC microfluidic biosensor have been discussed in the literature. The reported techniques differ however in their implementation, and therefore potentially add more or less complexity when using it in a mass production process. This work introduces and reports results on the application of a purely thermal bonding process between COC substrates, which were produced by the hot-embossing process, and COC foils containing screen-printed circuits. The proposed procedure takes advantage of the transition temperature difference between two COC grades foils to accomplish the sealing of the microfluidic channels. Patterned heat injection to the COC foil through the COC substrate is applied, resulting in consistent channel geometry uniformity. Measurements on bond strength and bursting pressure are shown, suggesting that this purely thermal bonding process potentially renders a technique which can be easily adapted into the thermoplastic microfluidic chip production workflow, while enables a low-cost as well as high-quality COC biosensor manufacturing process.

Keywords: biosensor, cyclo-olefin copolymer, hot embossing, thermal bonding, thermoplastics

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8 A Facile One Step Modification of Poly(dimethylsiloxane) via Smart Polymers for Biomicrofluidics

Authors: A. Aslihan Gokaltun, Martin L. Yarmush, Ayse Asatekin, O. Berk Usta

Abstract:

Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) is one of the most widely used materials in the fabrication of microfluidic devices. It is easily patterned and can replicate features down to nanometers. Its flexibility, gas permeability that allows oxygenation, and low cost also drive its wide adoption. However, a major drawback of PDMS is its hydrophobicity and fast hydrophobic recovery after surface hydrophilization. This results in significant non-specific adsorption of proteins as well as small hydrophobic molecules such as therapeutic drugs limiting the utility of PDMS in biomedical microfluidic circuitry. While silicon, glass, and thermoplastics have been used, they come with problems of their own such as rigidity, high cost, and special tooling needs, which limit their use to a smaller user base. Many strategies to alleviate these common problems with PDMS are lack of general practical applicability, or have limited shelf lives in terms of the modifications they achieve. This restricts large scale implementation and adoption by industrial and research communities. Accordingly, we aim to tailor biocompatible PDMS surfaces by developing a simple and one step bulk modification approach with novel smart materials to reduce non-specific molecular adsorption and to stabilize long-term cell analysis with PDMS substrates. Smart polymers that blended with PDMS during device manufacture, spontaneously segregate to surfaces when in contact with aqueous solutions and create a < 1 nm layer that reduces non-specific adsorption of organic and biomolecules. Our methods are fully compatible with existing PDMS device manufacture protocols without any additional processing steps. We have demonstrated that our modified PDMS microfluidic system is effective at blocking the adsorption of proteins while retaining the viability of primary rat hepatocytes and preserving the biocompatibility, oxygen permeability, and transparency of the material. We expect this work will enable the development of fouling-resistant biomedical materials from microfluidics to hospital surfaces and tubing.

Keywords: cell culture, microfluidics, non-specific protein adsorption, PDMS, smart polymers

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7 Development and Characterization of Expandable TPEs Compounds for Footwear Applications

Authors: Ana Elisa Ribeiro Costa, Sónia Daniela Ferreira Miranda, João Pedro De Carvalho Pereira, João Carlos Simões Bernardo

Abstract:

Elastomeric thermoplastics (TPEs) have been widely used in the footwear industry over the years. Recently this industry has been requesting materials that can combine lightweight and high abrasion resistance. Although there are blowing agents on the market to improve the lightweight, when these are incorporated into molten polymers during the extrusion or injection molding, it is necessary to have some specific processing conditions (e.g. effect of temperature and hydrodynamic stresses) to obtain good properties and acceptable surface appearance on the final products. Therefore, it is a great advantage for the compounder industry to acquire compounds that already include the blowing agents. In this way, they can be handled and processed under the same conditions as a conventional raw material. In this work, the expandable TPEs compounds, namely a TPU and a SEBS, with the incorporation of blowing agents, have been developed through a co-rotating modular twin-screw parallel extruder. Different blowing agents such as thermo-expandable microspheres and an azodicarbonamide were selected and different screw configurations and temperature profiles were evaluated since these parameters have a particular influence on the expansion inhibition of the blowing agents. Furthermore, percentages of incorporation were varied in order to investigate their influence on the final product properties. After the extrusion of these compounds, expansion was tested by the injection process. The mechanical and physical properties were characterized by different analytical methods like tensile, flexural and abrasive tests, determination of hardness and density measurement. Also, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed. It was observed that it is possible to incorporate the blowing agents on the TPEs without their expansion on the extrusion process. Only with reprocessing (injection molding) did the expansion of the agents occur. These results are corroborated by SEM micrographs, which show a good distribution of blowing agents in the polymeric matrices. The other experimental results showed a good mechanical performance and its density decrease (30% for SEBS and 35% for TPU). This study suggested that it is possible to develop optimized compounds for footwear applications (e.g., sole shoes), which only will be able to expand during the injection process.

Keywords: blowing agents, expandable thermoplastic elastomeric compounds, low density, footwear applications

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6 Kinetic Study of Municipal Plastic Waste

Authors: Laura Salvia Diaz Silvarrey, Anh Phan

Abstract:

Municipal Plastic Waste (MPW) comprises a mixture of thermoplastics such as high and low density polyethylene (HDPE and LDPE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Recycling rate of these plastics is low, e.g. only 27% in 2013. The remains were incinerated or disposed in landfills. As MPW generation increases approximately 5% per annum, MPW management technologies have to be developed to comply with legislation . Pyrolysis, thermochemical decomposition, provides an excellent alternative to convert MPW into valuable resources like fuels and chemicals. Most studies on waste plastic kinetics only focused on HDPE and LDPE with a simple assumption of first order decomposition, which is not the real reaction mechanism. The aim of this study was to develop a kinetic study for each of the polymers in the MPW mixture using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) over a range of heating rates (5, 10, 20 and 40°C/min) in N2 atmosphere and sample size of 1 – 4mm. A model-free kinetic method was applied to quantify the activation energy at each level of conversion. Kissinger–Akahira–Sunose (KAS) and Flynn–Wall–Ozawa (FWO) equations jointly with Master Plots confirmed that the activation energy was not constant along all the reaction for all the five plastic studied, showing that MPW decomposed through a complex mechanism and not by first-order kinetics. Master plots confirmed that MPW decomposed following a random scission mechanism at conversions above 40%. According to the random scission mechanism, different radicals are formed along the backbone producing the cleavage of bonds by chain scission into molecules of different lengths. The cleavage of bonds during random scission follows first-order kinetics and it is related with the conversion. When a bond is broken one part of the initial molecule becomes an unsaturated one and the other a terminal free radical. The latter can react with hydrogen from and adjacent carbon releasing another free radical and a saturated molecule or reacting with another free radical and forming an alkane. Not every time a bonds is broken a molecule is evaporated. At early stages of the reaction (conversion and temperature below 40% and 300°C), most products are not short enough to evaporate. Only at higher degrees of conversion most of cleavage of bonds releases molecules small enough to evaporate.

Keywords: kinetic, municipal plastic waste, pyrolysis, random scission

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5 Identification of the Best Blend Composition of Natural Rubber-High Density Polyethylene Blends for Roofing Applications

Authors: W. V. W. H. Wickramaarachchi, S. Walpalage, S. M. Egodage

Abstract:

Thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) is a multifunctional polymeric material which possesses a combination of excellent properties of parent materials. Basically, TPE has a rubber phase and a thermoplastic phase which gives processability as thermoplastics. When the rubber phase is partially or fully crosslinked in the thermoplastic matrix, TPE is called as thermoplastic elastomer vulcanizate (TPV). If the rubber phase is non-crosslinked, it is called as thermoplastic elastomer olefin (TPO). Nowadays TPEs are introduced into the commercial market with different products. However, the application of TPE as a roofing material is limited. Out of the commercially available roofing products from different materials, only single ply roofing membranes and plastic roofing sheets are produced from rubbers and plastics. Natural rubber (NR) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) are used in various industrial applications individually with some drawbacks. Therefore, this study was focused to develop both TPO and TPV blends from NR and HDPE at different compositions and then to identify the best blend composition to use as a roofing material. A series of blends by varying NR loading from 10 wt% to 50 wt%, at 10 wt% intervals, were prepared using a twin screw extruder. Dicumyl peroxide was used as a crosslinker for TPV. The standard properties for a roofing material like tensile properties tear strength, hardness, impact strength, water absorption, swell/gel analysis and thermal characteristics of the blends were investigated. Change of tensile strength after exposing to UV radiation was also studied. Tensile strength, hardness, tear strength, melting temperature and gel content of TPVs show higher values compared to TPOs at every loading studied, while water absorption and swelling index show lower values, suggesting TPVs are more suitable than TPOs for roofing applications. Most of the optimum properties were shown at 10/90 (NR/HDPE) composition. However, high impact strength and gel content were shown at 20/80 (NR/HDPE) composition. Impact strength, as being an energy absorbing property, is the most important for a roofing material in order to resist impact loads. Therefore, 20/80 (NR/HDPE) is identified as the best blend composition. UV resistance and other properties required for a roofing material could be achieved by incorporating suitable additives to TPVs.

Keywords: thermoplastic elastomer, natural rubber, high density polyethylene, roofing material

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4 Flexural Properties of Carbon/Polypropylene Composites: Influence of Matrix Forming Polypropylene in Fiber, Powder, and Film States

Authors: Vijay Goud, Ramasamy Alagirusamy, Apurba Das, Dinesh Kalyanasundaram

Abstract:

Thermoplastic composites render new opportunities as effective processing technology while crafting newer complications into processing. One of the notable challenges is in achieving thorough wettability that is significantly deterred by the high viscosity of the long molecular chains of the thermoplastics. As a result of high viscosity, it is very difficult to impregnate the resin into a tightly interlaced textile structure to fill the voids present in the structure. One potential solution to the above problem, is to pre-deposit resin on the fiber, prior to consolidation. The current study compares DREF spinning, powder coating and film stacking methods of predeposition of resin onto fibers. An investigation into the flexural properties of unidirectional composites (UDC) produced from blending of carbon fiber and polypropylene (PP) matrix in varying forms of fiber, powder and film are reported. Dr. Ernst Fehrer (DREF) yarns or friction spun hybrid yarns were manufactured from PP fibers and carbon tows. The DREF yarns were consolidated to yield unidirectional composites (UDCs) referred to as UDC-D. PP in the form of powder was coated on carbon tows by electrostatic spray coating. The powder-coated towpregs were consolidated to form UDC-P. For the sake of comparison, a third UDC referred as UDC-F was manufactured by the consolidation of PP films stacked between carbon tows. The experiments were designed to yield a matching fiber volume fraction of about 50 % in all the three UDCs. A comparison of mechanical properties of the three composites was studied to understand the efficiency of matrix wetting and impregnation. Approximately 19% and 68% higher flexural strength were obtained for UDC-P than UDC-D and UDC-F respectively. Similarly, 25% and 81% higher modulus were observed in UDC-P than UDC-D and UDC-F respectively. Results from micro-computed tomography, scanning electron microscopy, and short beam tests indicate better impregnation of PP matrix in UDC-P obtained through electrostatic spray coating process and thereby higher flexural strength and modulus.

Keywords: DREF spinning, film stacking, flexural strength, powder coating, thermoplastic composite

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3 Hybrid Manufacturing System to Produce 3D Structures for Osteochondral Tissue Regeneration

Authors: Pedro G. Morouço

Abstract:

One utmost challenge in Tissue Engineering is the production of 3D constructs capable of mimicking the functional hierarchy of native tissues. This is well stated for osteochondral tissue due to the complex mechanical functional unit based on the junction of articular cartilage and bone. Thus, the aim of the present study was to develop a new additive manufacturing system coupling micro-extrusion with hydrogels printing. An integrated system was developed with 2 main features: (i) the printing of up to three distinct hydrogels; (ii) in coordination with the printing of a thermoplastic structural support. The hydrogel printing module was projected with a ‘revolver-like’ system, where the hydrogel selection was made by a rotating mechanism. The hydrogel deposition was then controlled by pressured air input. The use of specific components approved for medical use was incorporated in the material dispensing system (Nordson EDF Optimum® fluid dispensing system). The thermoplastic extrusion modulus enabled the control of required extrusion temperature through electric resistances in the polymer reservoir and the extrusion system. After testing and upgrades, a hydrogel modulus with 3 syringes (3cm3 capacity each), with a pressure range of 0-2.5bar, a rotational speed of 0-5rpm, and working with needles from 200-800µm was obtained. This modulus was successfully coupled to the extrusion system that presented a temperature up to 300˚C, a pressure range of 0-12bar, and working with nozzles from 200-500µm. The applied motor could provide a velocity range 0-2000mm/min. Although, there are distinct printing requirements for hydrogels and polymers, the novel system could develop hybrid scaffolds, combining the 2 moduli. The morphological analysis showed high reliability (n=5) between the theoretical and obtained filament and pore size (350µm and 300µm vs. 342±4µm and 302±3µm, p>0.05, respectively) of the polymer; and multi-material 3D constructs were successfully obtained. Human tissues present very distinct and complex structures regarding their mechanical properties, organization, composition and dimensions. For osteochondral regenerative medicine, a multiphasic scaffold is required as subchondral bone and overlying cartilage must regenerate at the same time. Thus, a scaffold with 3 layers (bone, intermediate and cartilage parts) can be a promising approach. The developed system may give a suitable solution to construct those hybrid scaffolds with enhanced properties. The present novel system is a step-forward regarding osteochondral tissue engineering due to its ability to generate layered mechanically stable implants through the double-printing of hydrogels with thermoplastics.

Keywords: 3D bioprinting, bone regeneration, cartilage regeneration, regenerative medicine, tissue engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
2 Damage Tolerance of Composites Containing Hybrid, Carbon-Innegra, Fibre Reinforcements

Authors: Armin Solemanifar, Arthur Wilkinson, Kinjalkumar Patel

Abstract:

Carbon fibre (CF) - polymer laminate composites have very low densities (approximately 40% lower than aluminium), high strength and high stiffness but in terms of toughness properties they often require modifications. For example, adding rubbers or thermoplastics toughening agents are common ways of improving the interlaminar fracture toughness of initially brittle thermoset composite matrices. The main aim of this project was to toughen CF-epoxy resin laminate composites using hybrid CF-fabrics incorporating Innegra™ a commercial highly-oriented polypropylene (PP) fibre, in which more than 90% of its crystal orientation is parallel to the fibre axis. In this study, the damage tolerance of hybrid (carbon-Innegra, CI) composites was investigated. Laminate composites were produced by resin-infusion using: pure CF fabric; fabrics with different ratios of commingled CI, and two different types of pure Innegra fabrics (Innegra 1 and Innegra 2). Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) was used to measure the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the composite matrix and values of flexural storage modulus versus temperature. Mechanical testing included drop-weight impact, compression-after-impact (CAI), and interlaminar (short-beam) shear strength (ILSS). Ultrasonic C-Scan imaging was used to determine the impact damage area and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to observe the fracture mechanisms that occur during failure of the composites. For all composites, 8 layers of fabrics were used with a quasi-isotropic sequence of [-45°, 0°, +45°, 90°]s. DMTA showed the Tg of all composites to be approximately same (123 ±3°C) and that flexural storage modulus (before the onset of Tg) was the highest for the pure CF composite while the lowest were for the Innegra 1 and 2 composites. Short-beam shear strength of the commingled composites was higher than other composites, while for Innegra 1 and 2 composites only inelastic deformation failure was observed during the short-beam test. During impact, the Innegra 1 composite withstood up to 40 J without any perforation while for the CF perforation occurred at 10 J. The rate of reduction in compression strength upon increasing the impact energy was lowest for the Innegra 1 and 2 composites, while CF showed the highest rate. On the other hand, the compressive strength of the CF composite was highest of all the composites at all impacted energy levels. The predominant failure modes for Innegra composites observed in cross-sections of fractured specimens were fibre pull-out, micro-buckling, and fibre plastic deformation; while fibre breakage and matrix delamination were a major failure observed in the commingled composites due to the more brittle behaviour of CF. Thus, Innegra fibres toughened the CF composites but only at the expense of reducing compressive strength.

Keywords: hybrid composite, thermoplastic fibre, compression strength, damage tolerance

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
1 Integrated Manufacture of Polymer and Conductive Tracks for Functional Objects Fabrication

Authors: Barbara Urasinska-Wojcik, Neil Chilton, Peter Todd, Christopher Elsworthy, Gregory J. Gibbons

Abstract:

The recent increase in the application of Additive Manufacturing (AM) of products has resulted in new demands on capability. The ability to integrate both form and function within printed objects is the next frontier in the 3D printing area. To move beyond prototyping into low volume production, we demonstrate a UK-designed and built AM hybrid system that combines polymer based structural deposition with digital deposition of electrically conductive elements. This hybrid manufacturing system is based on a multi-planar build approach to improve on many of the limitations associated with AM, such as poor surface finish, low geometric tolerance, and poor robustness. Specifically, the approach involves a multi-planar Material Extrusion (ME) process in which separated build stations with up to 5 axes of motion replace traditional horizontally-sliced layer modeling. The construction of multi-material architectures also involved using multiple print systems in order to combine both ME and digital deposition of conductive material. To demonstrate multi-material 3D printing, three thermoplastics, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polyamide 6,6/6 copolymers (CoPA) and polyamide 12 (PA) were used to print specimens, on top of which our high viscosity Ag-particulate ink was printed in a non-contact process, during which drop characteristics such as shape, velocity, and volume were assessed using a drop watching system. Spectroscopic analysis of these 3D printed materials in the IR region helped to determine the optimum in-situ curing system for implementation into the AM system to achieve improved adhesion and surface refinement. Thermal Analyses were performed to determine the printed materials glass transition temperature (Tg), stability and degradation behavior to find the optimum annealing conditions post printing. Electrical analysis of printed conductive tracks on polymer surfaces during mechanical testing (static tensile and 3-point bending and dynamic fatigue) was performed to assess the robustness of the electrical circuits. The tracks on CoPA, ABS, and PA exhibited low electrical resistance, and in case of PA resistance values of tracks remained unchanged across hundreds of repeated tensile cycles up to 0.5% strain amplitude. Our developed AM printer has the ability to fabricate fully functional objects in one build, including complex electronics. It enables product designers and manufacturers to produce functional saleable electronic products from a small format modular platform. It will make 3D printing better, faster and stronger.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, conductive tracks, hybrid 3D printer, integrated manufacture

Procedia PDF Downloads 80