Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17571

Search results for: conventional method

17571 Production of Sr-Ferrite Sub-Micron Powder by Conventional and Sol-Gel Auto-Combustion Methods

Authors: M. Ghobeiti-Hasab

Abstract:

Magnetic powder of Sr-ferrite was prepared by conventional and sol-gel auto-combustion methods. In conventional method, strontium carbonate and ferric oxide powders were mixed together and then mixture was calcined. In sol-gel auto-combustion method, a solution containing strontium nitrate, ferric nitrate and citric acid was heated until the combustion took place automatically; then, as-burnt powder was calcined. Thermal behavior, phase identification, morphology and magnetic properties of powders obtained by these two methods were compared by DTA, XRD, SEM, and VSM techniques. According to the results of DTA analysis, formation temperature of Sr-ferrite obtained by conventional and sol-gel auto-combustion methods were 1300 °C and 1000 °C, respectively. XRD results confirmed the formation of pure Sr-ferrite at the mentioned temperatures. Plate and hexagonal-shape particles of Sr-ferrite were observed using SEM. The Sr-ferrite powder obtained by sol-gel auto-combustion method had saturation magnetization of 66.03 emu/g and coercivity of 5731 Oe in comparison with values of 58.20 emu/g and 4378 Oe obtained by conventional method.

Keywords: Sr-ferrite, sol-gel, magnetic properties, calcination

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17570 Estimation and Validation of Free Lime Analysis of Clinker by Quantitative Phase Analysis Using X ray diffraction

Authors: Suresh Palla, Kalpna Sharma, Gaurav Bhatnagar, S. K. Chaturvedi, B. N. Mohapatra

Abstract:

Determining the content of free lime is especially important to judge reactivity of the raw materials and clinker quality. The free lime limit isn’t the same for all cements; it depends on several factors, especially the temperature reached during the cooking and the grain size distribution in cement after grinding. Estimation of free lime by conventional method is influenced by the presence of portlandite and misleads the actual free lime content in the clinker for quality check up conditions. To ensure the product quality according to the standard specifications in terms of within the quality limits or not, a reliable, precise, and very reproducible method to quantify the relative phase abundances in the Portland Cement clinker and Portland Cements is to use X-ray diffraction (XRD) in combination with the Rietveld method. In the present study, a methodology was proposed using XRD to validate the obtained results of free lime by conventional method. The XRD and TG/DTA results confirm the presence of portlandite in the clinker to take the decision on the obtained free lime results through conventional method.

Keywords: free lime, quantitative phase analysis, conventional method, x ray diffraction

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17569 Production and Evaluation of Mango Pulp by Using Ohmic Heating Process

Authors: Sobhy M. Mohsen, Mohamed M. El-Nikeety, Tarek G. Mohamed, Michael Murkovic

Abstract:

The present work aimed to study the use of ohmic heating in the processing of mango pulp comparing to conventional method. Mango pulp was processed by using ohmic heating under the studied suitable conditions. Physical, chemical and microbiological properties of mango pulp were studied. The results showed that processing of mango pulp by using either ohmic heating or conventional method caused a decrease in the contents of TSS, total carbohydrates, total acidity, total sugars (reducing and non-reducing sugar) and an increase in phenol content, ascorbic acid and carotenoids compared to the conventional process. The increase in electric conductivity of mango pulp during ohmic heating was due to the addition of some electrolytes (salts) to increase the ions and enhance the process. The results also indicate that mango pulp processed by ohmic heating contained more phenols, carbohydrates and vitamin C and less HMF compared to that produced by conventional one. Total pectin and its fractions had slightly reduced by ohmic heating compared to conventional method. Enzymatic activities showed a reduction in poly phenoloxidase (PPO) and polygalacturonase (PG) activity in mango pulp processed by conventional method. However, ohmic heating completely inhibited PPO and PG activities.

Keywords: ohmic heating, mango pulp, phenolic, sarotenoids

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17568 Effects of E-Learning Mode of Instruction and Conventional Mode of Instruction on Student’s Achievement in English Language in Senior Secondary Schools, Ibadan Municipal, Nigeria

Authors: Ibode Osa Felix

Abstract:

The use of e-Learning is presently intensified in the academic world following the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic in early 2020. Hitherto, e-learning had made its debut in teaching and learning many years ago when it emerged as an aspect of Computer Based Teaching, but never before has its patronage become so important and popular as currently obtains. Previous studies revealed that there is an ongoing debate among researchers on the efficacy of the E-learning mode of instruction over the traditional teaching method. Therefore, the study examined the effect of E-learning and Conventional Mode of Instruction on Students Achievement in the English Language. The study is a quasi-experimental study in which 230 students, from three public secondary schools, were selected through a simple random sampling technique. Three instruments were developed, namely, E-learning Instructional Guide (ELIG), Conventional Method of Instructional Guide (CMIG), and English Language Achievement Test (ELAT). The result revealed that students taught through the conventional method had better results than students taught online. The result also shows that girls taught with the conventional method of teaching performed better than boys in the English Language. The study, therefore, recommended that effort should be made by the educational authorities in Nigeria to provide internet facilities to enhance practices among learners and provide electricity to power e-learning equipment in the secondary schools. This will boost e-learning practices among teachers and students and consequently overtake conventional method of teaching in due course.

Keywords: e-learning, conventional method of teaching, achievement in english, electricity

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17567 Sensory Evaluation of Meat from Broilers Bird Fed Detoxified Jatropher Curcas and that Fed Conventional Feed

Authors: W. S. Lawal, T. A. Akande

Abstract:

Four (4) different methods were employed to detoxified jatropha caucas, they are physical method (if include soaking and drying) chemical method (use of methylated spirit, hexane and methene) biological method,(use of Aspergillus niger and Sunday for 7 days and then baccillus lichifarming) and finally combined method (combination of all these methods). Phobol esther andysis was carried out after the detoxification and was found that combined method is better off (P>0.05). 100 broiler birds was used to further test the effect of detoxified Jatropha by combined method, 50 birds for Jatropha made feed at 10 birds per treatment and was replicated five times, this was also repeated for another 50 birds fed conventional feed, Jatropha made feed was compranded at 8% inclusion level. At the end of the 8th weeks, 8 birds were sacrificed each from each treatment and one bird each was fry, roast, boil and grilled from both conventional and Jatropha fed birds and panelist were served for evaluation. It was found that feeding Jatropha to poultry birds has no effect on the taste of the meat.

Keywords: phobol esther, inclusion level, tolerance level, Jatropha carcass

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17566 A Comparison Study of Different Methods Used in the Detection of Giardia lamblia on Fecal Specimen of Children

Authors: Muhammad Farooq Baig

Abstract:

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare results obtained using a single fecal specimen for O&P examination, direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA), and two conventional staining methods. Design: Hundred and fifty children fecal specimens were collected and examined by each method. The O&P and the DFA were used as the reference method. Setting: The study was performed at the laboratory in the Basic Medical Science Institute JPMC Karachi. Patients or Other Participants: The fecal specimens were collected from children with a suspected Giardia lamblia infection. Main Outcome Measures: The amount of agreement and disagreement between methods.1) Presence of giardiasis in our population. 2) The sensitivity and specificity of each method. Results: There was 45(30%) positive 105 (70%) negative on DFA, 41 (27.4%) positive 109 (72.6%) negative on iodine and 34 (22.6%) positive 116(77.4%) on saline method. The sensitivity and specificity of DFA in comparision to iodine were 92.2%, 92.7% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of DFA in comparisoin to saline method were 91.2%, 87.9% respectively. The sensitivity of iodine method and saline method in compariosn to DFA were 82.2%, 68.8% respectively. There is mark diffrence in sensitivity of DFA to conventional method. Conclusion: The study supported findings of other investigators who concluded that DFA method have the greater sensitivity. The immunologic methods were more efficient and quicker than the conventional O&P method.

Keywords: direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA), ova and parasite (O&P), Giardia lamblia, children, medical science

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17565 Comparative Study of Computer Assisted Instruction and Conventional Method in Attaining and Retaining Mathematical Concepts

Authors: Nirupma Bhatti

Abstract:

This empirical study was aimed to compare the effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) and Conventional Method (CM) in attaining and retaining mathematical concepts. Instructional and measuring tools were developed for five units of Matrix Algebra, two of Calculus and five of Numerical Analysis. Reliability and validity of these tools were also examined in pilot study. Ninety undergraduates participated in this study. Pre-test – post-test equivalent – groups research design was used. SPSS v.16 was used for data analysis. Findings supported CAI as better mode of instruction for attainment and retention of basic mathematical concepts. Administrators should motivate faculty members to develop Computer Assisted Instructional Material (CAIM) in mathematics for higher education.

Keywords: attainment, CAI, CAIM, conventional method, retention

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
17564 Modified Newton's Iterative Method for Solving System of Nonlinear Equations in Two Variables

Authors: Sara Mahesar, Saleem M. Chandio, Hira Soomro

Abstract:

Nonlinear system of equations in two variables is a system which contains variables of degree greater or equal to two or that comprises of the transcendental functions. Mathematical modeling of numerous physical problems occurs as a system of nonlinear equations. In applied and pure mathematics it is the main dispute to solve a system of nonlinear equations. Numerical techniques mainly used for finding the solution to problems where analytical methods are failed, which leads to the inexact solutions. To find the exact roots or solutions in case of the system of non-linear equations there does not exist any analytical technique. Various methods have been proposed to solve such systems with an improved rate of convergence and accuracy. In this paper, a new scheme is developed for solving system of non-linear equation in two variables. The iterative scheme proposed here is modified form of the conventional Newton’s Method (CN) whose order of convergence is two whereas the order of convergence of the devised technique is three. Furthermore, the detailed error and convergence analysis of the proposed method is also examined. Additionally, various numerical test problems are compared with the results of its counterpart conventional Newton’s Method (CN) which confirms the theoretic consequences of the proposed method.

Keywords: conventional Newton’s method, modified Newton’s method, order of convergence, system of nonlinear equations

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17563 A Periodogram-Based Spectral Method Approach: The Relationship between Tourism and Economic Growth in Turkey

Authors: Mesut BALIBEY, Serpil TÜRKYILMAZ

Abstract:

A popular topic in the econometrics and time series area is the cointegrating relationships among the components of a nonstationary time series. Engle and Granger’s least squares method and Johansen’s conditional maximum likelihood method are the most widely-used methods to determine the relationships among variables. Furthermore, a method proposed to test a unit root based on the periodogram ordinates has certain advantages over conventional tests. Periodograms can be calculated without any model specification and the exact distribution under the assumption of a unit root is obtained. For higher order processes the distribution remains the same asymptotically. In this study, in order to indicate advantages over conventional test of periodograms, we are going to examine a possible relationship between tourism and economic growth during the period 1999:01-2010:12 for Turkey by using periodogram method, Johansen’s conditional maximum likelihood method, Engle and Granger’s ordinary least square method.

Keywords: cointegration, economic growth, periodogram ordinate, tourism

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17562 Maintenance Management Practice for Building

Authors: Harold Jideofor Nnachetam

Abstract:

Maintenance management in Nigeria Polytechnic faced many issues due to poor service delivery, inadequate finance, and poor maintenance plan and maintenance backlogs. The purpose of this study is to improve the conventional method practices which tend to be ineffective in Nigeria Polytechnic. The case study was conducted with eight Polytechnics in Nigeria. The selected Polytechnic is based on conventional method practices and its major problems, attempt to implement computerized technology and the willingness of staff to share their experiences. All feedbacks from respondents through semi-structured interview were recorded using video camera and transcribed verbatim. The overall findings of this research indicated; poor service delivery, inadequate financial, poor maintenance planning and maintenance backlogs. There is also need to overcome less man power competencies of maintenance management practices which existed with all eight Polytechnics. In addition, the study also found that the Polytechnics still use conventional maintenance management processes in managing building facility condition. As a result, the maintenance management staff was not able to improve the maintenance management performance at the Polytechnics. The findings are intended to be used for maintenance management practices at Nigeria Polytechnics in order to provide high-quality of building facility with safe and healthy environments.

Keywords: maintenance management, conventional method, maintenance management system, Nigeria polytechnic

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17561 An Experimental Study on Heat and Flow Characteristics of Water Flow in Microtube

Authors: Zeynep Küçükakça, Nezaket Parlak, Mesut Gür, Tahsin Engin, Hasan Küçük

Abstract:

In the current research, the single phase fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are experimentally investigated. The experiments are conducted to cover transition zone for the Reynolds numbers ranging from 100 to 4800 by fused silica and stainless steel microtubes having diameters of 103-180 µm. The applicability of the Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) method is revealed and an experimental method is developed to calculate the heat transfer coefficient. Heat transfer is supplied by a water jacket surrounding the microtubes and heat transfer coefficients are obtained by LMTD method. The results are compared with data obtained by the correlations available in the literature in the study. The experimental results indicate that the Nusselt numbers of microtube flows do not accord with the conventional results when the Reynolds number is lower than 1000. After that, the Nusselt number approaches the conventional theory prediction. Moreover, the scaling effects in micro scale such as axial conduction, viscous heating and entrance effects are discussed. On the aspect of fluid characteristics, the friction factor is well predicted with conventional theory and the conventional friction prediction is valid for water flow through microtube with a relative surface roughness less than about 4 %.

Keywords: microtube, laminar flow, friction factor, heat transfer, LMTD method

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
17560 Influence of Alccofine on Semi-Light Weight Concrete under Accelerated Curing and Conventional Curing Regimes

Authors: P. Parthiban, J. Karthikeyan

Abstract:

This paper deals with the performance of semi-light weight concrete, prepared by using wood ash pellets as coarse aggregates which were improved by partial replacement of cement with alccofine. Alccofine is a mineral admixture which contains high glass content obtained through the process of controlled granulation. This is finer than cement which carries its own pozzolanic property. Therefore, cement could be replaced by alccofine as 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, and 70% to enhance the strength and durability properties of concrete. High range water reducing admixtures (HRWA) were used in these mixes which were dosed up to 1.5% weight of the total cementitious content (alccofine & cement). It also develops the weaker transition zone into more impermeable layer. Specimens were subjected in both the accelerated curing method as well as conventional curing method. Experimental results were compared and reported, in that the maximum compressive strength of 32.6 MPa was achieved on 28th day with 30% replacement level in a density of 2200 kg/m3 to a conventional curing, while in the accelerated curing, maximum compressive strength was achieved at 40% replacement level. Rapid chloride penetration test (RCPT) output results for the conventional curing method at 0% and 70% give 3296.7 and 545.6 coulombs.

Keywords: Alccofine, compressive strength, RCPT, wood ash pellets

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17559 The Effect of Ethylene Glycol on Cryopreserved Bovine Oocytes

Authors: Sri Wahjuningsih, Nur Ihsan, Hadiah

Abstract:

In the embryo transfer program, to address the limited production of embryos in vivo, in vitro embryo production has become an alternative approach that is relatively inexpensive. One potential source of embryos that can be developed is to use immature oocytes then conducted in vitro maturation and in vitro fertilization. However, obstacles encountered were oocyte viability mammals have very limited that it cannot be stored for a long time, so we need oocyte cryopreservation. The research was conducted to know the optimal concentration use of ethylene glycol as a cryoprotectant on oocytes freezing.Material use in this research was immature oocytes; taken from abbatoir which was aspirated from follicle with diameter 2-6 mm. Concentration ethylen glycol used were 0,5 M, I M, 1,5 M and 2M. The freezing method used was conventional method combined with a five-step protocol washing oocytes from cryoprotectant after thawing. The result showed that concentration ethylen glycol have the significant effect (P<0.05) on oocytes quality after thawing and in vitro maturation. It was concluded that concentration 1,5 M was the best concentration for freezing oocytes using conventional method.

Keywords: bovine, conventional freezing, ethylen glycol, oocytes

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17558 Comparative Study of Fenton and Activated Carbon Treatment for Dyeing Waste Water

Authors: Prem Mohan, Namrata Jariwala

Abstract:

In recent years 10000 dyes are approximately used by dying industry which makes dyeing wastewater more complex in nature. It is very difficult to treat dyeing wastewater by conventional methods. Here an attempt has been made to treat dyeing wastewater by the conventional and advanced method for removal of COD. Fenton process is the advanced method and activated carbon treatment is the conventional method. Experiments have been done on synthetic wastewater prepared from three different dyes; acidic, disperse and reactive. Experiments have also been conducted on real effluent obtained from industry. The optimum dose of catalyst and hydrogen peroxide in Fenton process and optimum activated carbon dose for each of these wastewaters were obtained. In Fenton treatment, COD removal was obtained up to 95% whereas 70% removal was obtained with activated carbon treatment.

Keywords: activated carbon, advanced oxidation process, dyeing waste water, fenton oxidation process

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
17557 Sensitivity Analysis of Prestressed Post-Tensioned I-Girder and Deck System

Authors: Tahsin A. H. Nishat, Raquib Ahsan

Abstract:

Sensitivity analysis of design parameters of the optimization procedure can become a significant factor while designing any structural system. The objectives of the study are to analyze the sensitivity of deck slab thickness parameter obtained from both the conventional and optimum design methodology of pre-stressed post-tensioned I-girder and deck system and to compare the relative significance of slab thickness. For analysis on conventional method, the values of 14 design parameters obtained by the conventional iterative method of design of a real-life I-girder bridge project have been considered. On the other side for analysis on optimization method, cost optimization of this system has been done using global optimization methodology 'Evolutionary Operation (EVOP)'. The problem, by which optimum values of 14 design parameters have been obtained, contains 14 explicit constraints and 46 implicit constraints. For both types of design parameters, sensitivity analysis has been conducted on deck slab thickness parameter which can become too sensitive for the obtained optimum solution. Deviations of slab thickness on both the upper and lower side of its optimum value have been considered reflecting its realistic possible ranges of variations during construction. In this procedure, the remaining parameters have been kept unchanged. For small deviations from the optimum value, compliance with the explicit and implicit constraints has been examined. Variations in the cost have also been estimated. It is obtained that without violating any constraint deck slab thickness obtained by the conventional method can be increased up to 25 mm whereas slab thickness obtained by cost optimization can be increased only up to 0.3 mm. The obtained result suggests that slab thickness becomes less sensitive in case of conventional method of design. Therefore, for realistic design purpose sensitivity should be conducted for any of the design procedure of girder and deck system.

Keywords: sensitivity analysis, optimum design, evolutionary operations, PC I-girder, deck system

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17556 Comparison of Microwave-Assisted and Conventional Leaching for Extraction of Copper from Chalcopyrite Concentrate

Authors: Ayfer Kilicarslan, Kubra Onol, Sercan Basit, Muhlis Nezihi Saridede

Abstract:

Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) is the most common primary mineral used for the commercial production of copper. The low dissolution efficiency of chalcopyrite in sulfate media has prevented an efficient industrial leaching of this mineral in sulfate media. Ferric ions, bacteria, oxygen and other oxidants have been used as oxidizing agents in the leaching of chalcopyrite in sulfate and chloride media under atmospheric or pressure leaching conditions. Two leaching methods were studied to evaluate chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) dissolution in acid media. First, the conventional oxidative acid leaching method was carried out using sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) as oxidant at atmospheric pressure. Second, microwave-assisted acid leaching was performed using the microwave accelerated reaction system (MARS) for same reaction media. Parameters affecting the copper extraction such as leaching time, leaching temperature, concentration of H2SO4 and concentration of K2Cr2O7 were investigated. The results of conventional acid leaching experiments were compared to the microwave leaching method. It was found that the copper extraction obtained under high temperature and high concentrations of oxidant with microwave leaching is higher than those obtained conventionally. 81% copper extraction was obtained by the conventional oxidative acid leaching method in 180 min, with the concentration of 0.3 mol/L K2Cr2O7 in 0.5M H2SO4 at 50 ºC, while 93.5% copper extraction was obtained in 60 min with microwave leaching method under same conditions.

Keywords: extraction, copper, microwave-assisted leaching, chalcopyrite, potassium dichromate

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17555 The Differences on the Surface Roughness of Glass Ionomer Cement as the Results of Brushing with Whitening and Conventional Toothpaste

Authors: Aulina R. Rahmi, Farid Yuristiawan, Annisa Ibifadillah, Ummu H. Amri, Hidayati Gunawan

Abstract:

Glass ionomer cement is one of the filling material that often used on the field of dentistry because it is relatively less expensive and mostly available. Restoration materials could undergo changes in their clinical properties such as changes in roughness of the restoration`s surface. An increase of surface roughness accelerates bacterial colonization and plaque maturation. In the oral cavity, GIC was exposed to various substances, such as toothpaste, an oral care product used during toothbrushing. One of the popular toothpaste is whitening toothpaste. Abrasive and chemical agents such as hydrogen peroxide in whitening toothpaste could increase the surface roughness of restorative materials. Objective: To determine the differences on the surface roughness of glass ionomer cement that was brushed with whitening and conventional toothpaste. Method: This study was done using experimental laboratory method with pre and post test design. There were 36 samples which were divided into 2 groups. The first group was brushed with whitening toothpaste and the second group was brushed with conventional toothpaste, each for 2 minutes. Surface roughness value of the specimens was measured by using Roughness Tester test. Result: The data was analyzed by using independent t-test and the result of this study showed there was a significant difference between the surface of glass ionomer cement which was brushed with whitening and conventional toothpaste (p=0,000). Conclusion: Glass ionomer cement that was brushed with whitening toothpaste produced more roughness than conventional toothpaste.

Keywords: glass ionomer cement, surface roughness, toothpaste, roughness tester

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17554 DGA Data Interpretation Using Extension Theory for Power Transformer Diagnostics

Authors: O. P. Rahi, Manoj Kumar

Abstract:

Power transformers are essential and expensive equipments in electrical power system. Dissolved gas analysis (DGA) is one of the most useful techniques to detect incipient faults in power transformers. However, the identification of the faulted location by conventional method is not always an easy task due to variability of gas data and operational variables. In this paper, an extension theory based power transformer fault diagnosis method is presented. Extension theory tries to solve contradictions and incompatibility problems. This paper first briefly introduces the basic concept of matter element theory, establishes the matter element models for three-ratio method, and then briefly discusses extension set theory. Detailed analysis is carried out on the extended relation function (ERF) adopted in this paper for transformer fault diagnosis. The detailed diagnosing steps are offered. Simulation proves that the proposed method can overcome the drawbacks of the conventional three-ratio method, such as no matching and failure to diagnose multi-fault. It enhances diagnosing accuracy.

Keywords: DGA, extension theory, ERF, fault diagnosis power transformers, fault diagnosis, fuzzy logic

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17553 Direct Transient Stability Assessment of Stressed Power Systems

Authors: E. Popov, N. Yorino, Y. Zoka, Y. Sasaki, H. Sugihara

Abstract:

This paper discusses the performance of critical trajectory method (CTrj) for power system transient stability analysis under various loading settings and heavy fault condition. The method obtains Controlling Unstable Equilibrium Point (CUEP) which is essential for estimation of power system stability margins. The CUEP is computed by applying the CTrjto the boundary controlling unstable equilibrium point (BCU) method. The Proposed method computes a trajectory on the stability boundary that starts from the exit point and reaches CUEP under certain assumptions. The robustness and effectiveness of the method are demonstrated via six power system models and five loading conditions. As benchmark is used conventional simulation method whereas the performance is compared with and BCU Shadowing method.

Keywords: power system, transient stability, critical trajectory method, energy function method

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17552 Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Lycopene from Gac Arils (Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng)

Authors: Yardfon Tanongkankit, Kanjana Narkprasom, Nukrob Narkprasom, Khwanruthai Saiupparat, Phatthareeya Siriwat

Abstract:

Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng) possesses high potential for health food as it contains high lycopene contents. The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction of lycopene from gac arils using the microwave extraction method. Response surface method was used to find the conditions that optimize the extraction of lycopene from gac arils. The parameters of extraction used in this study were extraction time (120-600 seconds), the solvent to sample ratio (10:1, 20:1, 30:1, 40:1 and 50:1 mL/g) and set microwave power (100-800 watts). The results showed that the microwave extraction condition at the extraction time of 360 seconds, the sample ratio of 30:1 mL/g and the microwave power of 450 watts were suggested since it exhibited the highest value of lycopene content of 9.86 mg/gDW. It was also observed that lycopene contents extracted from gac arils by microwave method were higher than that by the conventional method.

Keywords: conventional extraction, Gac arils, microwave-assisted extraction, Lycopene

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17551 Real-Time Measurement Approach for Tracking the ΔV10 Estimate Value of DC EAF

Authors: Jin-Lung Guan, Jyh-Cherng Gu, Chun-Wei Huang, Hsin-Hung Chang

Abstract:

This investigation develops a revisable method for estimating the estimate value of equivalent 10 Hz voltage flicker (DV10) of a DC Electric Arc Furnace (EAF). This study also discusses three 161kV DC EAFs by field measurement, with those results indicating that the estimated DV10 value is significantly smaller than the survey value. The key point is that the conventional means of estimating DV10 is inappropriate. There is a main cause as the assumed Qmax is too small. Although DC EAF is regularly operated in a constant MVA mode, the reactive power variation in the Main Transformer (MT) is more significant than that in the Furnace Transformer (FT). A substantial difference exists between estimated maximum reactive power fluctuation (DQmax) and the survey value from actual DC EAF operations. However, this study proposes a revisable method that can obtain a more accurate DV10 estimate than the conventional method.

Keywords: voltage flicker, dc EAF, estimate value, DV10

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17550 Influence of Recombination of Free and Trapped Charge Carriers on the Efficiency of Conventional and Inverted Organic Solar Cells

Authors: Hooman Mehdizadeh Rad, Jai Singh

Abstract:

Organic solar cells (OSCs) have been actively investigated in the last two decades due to their several merits such as simple fabrication process, low-cost manufacturing, and lightweight. In this paper, using the optical transfer matrix method (OTMM) and solving the drift-diffusion equations processes of recombination are studied in inverted and conventional bulk heterojunction (BHJ) OSCs. Two types of recombination processes are investigated: 1) recombination of free charge carriers using the Langevin theory and 2) of trapped charge carriers in the tail states with exponential energy distribution. These recombination processes are incorporated in simulating the current- voltage characteristics of both conventional and inverted BHJ OSCs. The results of this simulation produces a higher power conversion efficiency in the inverted structure in comparison with conventional structure, which agrees well with the experimental results.

Keywords: conventional organic solar cells, exponential tail state recombination, inverted organic solar cells, Langevin recombination

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17549 Characteristic Study on Conventional and Soliton Based Transmission System

Authors: Bhupeshwaran Mani, S. Radha, A. Jawahar, A. Sivasubramanian

Abstract:

Here, we study the characteristic feature of conventional (ON-OFF keying) and soliton based transmission system. We consider 20 Gbps transmission system implemented with Conventional Single Mode Fiber (C-SMF) to examine the role of Gaussian pulse which is the characteristic of conventional propagation and hyperbolic-secant pulse which is the characteristic of soliton propagation in it. We note the influence of these pulses with respect to different dispersion lengths and soliton period in conventional and soliton system, respectively, and evaluate the system performance in terms of quality factor. From the analysis, we could prove that the soliton pulse has more consistent performance even for long distance without dispersion compensation than the conventional system as it is robust to dispersion. For the length of transmission of 200 Km, soliton system yielded Q of 33.958 while the conventional system totally exhausted with Q=0.

Keywords: dispersion length, retrun-to-zero (rz), soliton, soliton period, q-factor

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17548 Spectral Domain Fast Multipole Method for Solving Integral Equations of One and Two Dimensional Wave Scattering

Authors: Mohammad Ahmad, Dayalan Kasilingam

Abstract:

In this paper, a spectral domain implementation of the fast multipole method is presented. It is shown that the aggregation, translation, and disaggregation stages of the fast multipole method (FMM) can be performed using the spectral domain (SD) analysis. The spectral domain fast multipole method (SD-FMM) has the advantage of eliminating the near field/far field classification used in conventional FMM formulation. The study focuses on the application of SD-FMM to one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) electric field integral equation (EFIE). The case of perfectly conducting strip, circular and square cylinders are numerically analyzed and compared with the results from the standard method of moments (MoM).

Keywords: electric field integral equation, fast multipole method, method of moments, wave scattering, spectral domain

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17547 Implementation of 'Bay Al-Salam' in Agricultural Banking of Bangladesh: An Islamic Banking Perspective

Authors: M. Obydul Haque Kamaly

Abstract:

This paper aims to provide a brief discussion on bay al-salam as a method of implementing Islamic Banking in the agricultural arena of Bangladesh. For this purpose, the nature and conditions of bay al-salam contracts will be first discussed. Next, the paper will focus on the comparison between conventional banks and Islamic banks and should answer how bay al-salam can be used as a popular method in agricultural transactions in the country. The paper is based on secondary data which is to describe bay al-salam as future proceedings for Islamic banking. Evidence suggests Islamic banking is very much practiced like modern conventional banking with certain restrictions imposed by Sharia and addresses a large number of business requirements successfully. Thus, it’s time for us to implement Islamic banking (bay al-salam) on our agricultural arena and to get most benefits from them.

Keywords: bay al-salam, agricultural banking, Islamic banking, implementation

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17546 Design and Study of a Low Power High Speed Full Adder Using GDI Multiplexer

Authors: Biswarup Mukherjee, Aniruddha Ghosal

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new technique for implementing a low power full adder using a set of GDI multiplexers. Full adder circuits are used comprehensively in Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). Thus it is desirable to have low power operation for the sub components. The explored method of implementation achieves a low power design for the full adder. Simulated results using state-of-art Tanner tool indicates the superior performance of the proposed technique over conventional CMOS full adder. Detailed comparison of simulated results for the conventional and present method of implementation is presented.

Keywords: low power full adder, 2-T GDI MUX, ASIC (application specific integrated circuit), 12-T FA, CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor)

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17545 Implicature of Jokes in Broadcast Messages

Authors: Yuli Widiana

Abstract:

The study of implicature which is one of the discussions of pragmatics is an interesting and challenging topic to discuss. Implicature is a meaning which is implied in an utterance which is not the same as its literal meaning. The rapid development of information technology results in social networks as media to broadcast messages. The broadcast messages may be in the form of jokes which contain implicature. The research applies the pragmatic equivalent method to analyze the topics of jokes based on the implicatures contained in them. Furthermore, the method is also applied to reveal the purpose of creating implicature in jokes. The findings include the kinds of implicature found in jokes which are classified into conventional implicature and conversational implicature. Then, in detailed analysis, implicature in jokes is divided into implicature related to gender, culture, and social phenomena. Furthermore, implicature in jokes may not only be used to give entertainment but also to soften criticisms or satire so that it does not sound rude and harsh.

Keywords: implicature, broadcast messages, conventional implicature, conversational implicature

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17544 Effects of Gamification on Lower Secondary School Students’ Motivation and Engagement

Authors: Goh Yung Hong, Mona Masood

Abstract:

This paper explores the effects of gamification on lower secondary school students’ motivation and engagement in the classroom. Two-group posttest-only experimental design were employed to study the influence of gamification teaching method (GTM) when compared with conventional teaching method (CTM) on 60 lower secondary school students. The Student Engagement Instrument (SEI) and Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) were used to assess students’ intrinsic motivation and engagement level towards the respective teaching method. Finding indicates that students who completed the GTM lesson were significantly higher in intrinsic motivation to learn than those from the CTM. Although the result were insignificant and only marginal difference in the engagement mean, GTM still show better potential in raising student’s engagement in class when compared with CTM. This finding proves that the GTM is likely to solve the current issue of low motivation to learn and low engagement in class among lower secondary school students in Malaysia. On the other hand, despite being not significant, higher mean indicates that CTM positively contribute to higher peer support for learning and better teacher and student relationship when compared with GTM. As a conclusion, gamification approach is flexible and can be adapted into many learning content to enhance the intrinsic motivation to learn and to some extent, encourage better student engagement in class.

Keywords: conventional teaching method, gamification teaching method, motivation, engagement

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17543 Formulation of Corrector Methods from 3-Step Hybid Adams Type Methods for the Solution of First Order Ordinary Differential Equation

Authors: Y. A. Yahaya, Ahmad Tijjani Asabe

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the formulation of 3-step hybrid Adams type method for the solution of first order differential equation (ODE). The methods which was derived on both grid and off grid points using multistep collocation schemes and also evaluated at some points to produced Block Adams type method and Adams moulton method respectively. The method with the highest order was selected to serve as the corrector. The convergence was valid and efficient. The numerical experiments were carried out and reveal that hybrid Adams type methods performed better than the conventional Adams moulton method.

Keywords: adam-moulton type (amt), corrector method, off-grid, block method, convergence analysis

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17542 Modification of ZnMgO NPs for Improving Device Performance of Quantum Dot Light-emitting Diodes

Authors: Juyon Lee, Myoungjin Park, Jonghoon Kim, Jaekook Ha, Chanhee Lee

Abstract:

We demonstrated a new positive aging methods of QLEDs devices that can apply in large size inkjet printing display. Conventional positive aging method using photo-curable resin remains unclear mechanism of the phenomenon and also there are many limitations to apply large size panels in commercial process. Through the photo acid generator (PAG) in ETL Ink, we achieved 90% of the efficiency of the conventional method and up to 1000h life time stability (T80). This techniques could be applied to next generation of QLEDs panels and also can prove the working mechanism of positive aging in QLED related to modification of ZnMgO NPs.

Keywords: quantum dots, QLED, printing, positive aging, ZnMgO NPs

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