Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5025

Search results for: contextualized learning

5025 Teachers’ Awareness of the Significance of Lifelong Learning: A Case Study of Secondary School Teachers of Batna - Algeria

Authors: Bahloul Amel

Abstract:

This study is an attempt to raise the awareness of the stakeholders and the authorities on the sensitivity of Algerian secondary school teachers of English as a Foreign Language about the students’ loss of English language skills learned during formal schooling with effort and at expense and the supposed measures to arrest that loss. Data was collected from secondary school teachers of EFL and analyzed quantitatively using a questionnaire containing open-ended and close-ended questions. The results advocate a consensus about the need for actions to be adopted to make assessment techniques outcome-oriented. Most of the participants were in favor of including curricular activities involving contextualized learning, problem-solving learning critical self-awareness, self and peer-assisted learning, use of computers and internet so as to make learners autonomous.

Keywords: lifelong learning, EFL, contextualized learning, Algeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
5024 Visual Impairment Through Contextualized Lived Experiences: The Story of James

Authors: Jentel Van Havermaet, Geert Van Hove, Elisabeth De Schauwer

Abstract:

This study re-conceptualizes visual impairment in the interdependent context of James, his family, and allies. Living with a visual impairment is understood as an entanglement of assemblages, dynamics, disablism, systems… We narrated this diffractively into two meaningful events: decisions and processes on (inclusive) education and hinderances in connecting with others. We entangled and (un)raveled lived experiences in assemblages in which the contextualized meaning of visual impairment became more clearly. The contextualized narrative of James interwove complex intra-actions; showed the complexity and contextualization of entangled relationalities.

Keywords: disability studies, contextualization, visual impairment, assemblage, entanglement, lived experiences

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
5023 Principal Creative Leadership for Teacher Learning and School Culture

Authors: Yashi Ye

Abstract:

Principles play vital roles in shaping the learning culture of schools by exerting their leadership by encouraging the learning culture and development of the teacher professional learning community. In the changing time of the 21st century, the creative leadership of school leaders is increasingly important in cultivating teachers for future learners. This study examines under what conditions and how principal creative leadership contributes to teachers’ professional learning and school learning culture. Data collected from 500 to 600 teachers in 30 primary and middle schools in mainland China will be analyzed using structural equation modeling and bootstrapping tests. A moderated mediation model of principle creative leadership effects will be used to analyze professional teacher learning and school learning culture in which the mediator will be teacher self-efficacy and the moderator will be the school culture. It is expected to draw the conclusion that the effects of principal creative leadership on teacher learning are directly and indirectly significant. Furthermore, the individual power distance orientation of teachers may moderate principal creative leadership effects on teacher professional learning and teacher efficacy. It is assumed that the perception of lower distance orientation in relation to principals would stimulate teacher efficacy and therefore promote professional teacher learning. The study will further discuss the implications for principal creative leadership during an era of change based on the contextualized nature of schools as learning organizations.

Keywords: teacher professional learning, principal leadership, creative leadership, culture

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5022 Autonomy in Teaching and Learning Subject-Specific Academic Literacy

Authors: Maureen Lilian Klos

Abstract:

In this paper, the notion of autonomy in language teaching and learning is explored with a view to designing particular subject-specific academic literacy at higher education level, for mostly English second or third language learners at the Nelson Mandela University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa. These courses that are contextualized in subject-specific fields studied by students in Arts, Education and Social Science Faculties aim to facilitate learners in the manipulation of cognitively demanding academic texts. However, classroom contact time for these courses is limited to one ninety sessions per week. Thus, learners need to be autonomously responsible for developing their own skills when manipulating and negotiating appropriate academic textual conventions. Thus, a model was designed to allow for gradual learner independence in language learning skills. Learners experience of the model was investigated using the Phenomenological Research Approach. Data in the form of individual written reflections and transcripts of unstructured group interviews were analyzed for themes and sub-themes. These findings are discussed in the article with a view to addressing the practical concerns of the learners in this case study.

Keywords: academic literacies, autonomy, language learning and teaching, subject-specific language

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
5021 A Review of Machine Learning for Big Data

Authors: Devatha Kalyan Kumar, Aravindraj D., Sadathulla A.

Abstract:

Big data are now rapidly expanding in all engineering and science and many other domains. The potential of large or massive data is undoubtedly significant, make sense to require new ways of thinking and learning techniques to address the various big data challenges. Machine learning is continuously unleashing its power in a wide range of applications. In this paper, the latest advances and advancements in the researches on machine learning for big data processing. First, the machine learning techniques methods in recent studies, such as deep learning, representation learning, transfer learning, active learning and distributed and parallel learning. Then focus on the challenges and possible solutions of machine learning for big data.

Keywords: active learning, big data, deep learning, machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
5020 Leveraging Learning Analytics to Inform Learning Design in Higher Education

Authors: Mingming Jiang

Abstract:

This literature review aims to offer an overview of existing research on learning analytics and learning design, the alignment between the two, and how learning analytics has been leveraged to inform learning design in higher education. Current research suggests a need to create more alignment and integration between learning analytics and learning design in order to not only ground learning analytics on learning sciences but also enable data-driven decisions in learning design to improve learning outcomes. In addition, multiple conceptual frameworks have been proposed to enhance the synergy and alignment between learning analytics and learning design. Future research should explore this synergy further in the unique context of higher education, identifying learning analytics metrics in higher education that can offer insight into learning processes, evaluating the effect of learning analytics outcomes on learning design decision-making in higher education, and designing learning environments in higher education that make the capturing and deployment of learning analytics outcomes more efficient.

Keywords: learning analytics, learning design, big data in higher education, online learning environments

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5019 Fostering Students' Engagement with Historical Issues Surrounding the Field of Graphic Design

Authors: Sara Corvino

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to explore the potential of inclusive learning and assessment strategies to foster students' engagement with historical debates surrounding the field of graphic design. The goal is to respond to the diversity of L4 Graphic Design students, at Nottingham Trent University, in a way that instead of 'lowering standards' can benefit everyone. This research tests, measures, and evaluates the impact of a specific intervention, an assessment task, to develop students' critical visual analysis skills and stimulate a deeper engagement with the subject matter. Within the action research approach, this work has followed a case study research method to understand students' views and perceptions of a specific project. The primary methods of data collection have been: anonymous electronic questionnaire and a paper-based anonymous critical incident questionnaire. NTU College of Business Law and Social Sciences Research Ethics Committee granted the Ethical approval for this research in November 2019. Other methods used to evaluate the impact of this assessment task have been Evasys's report and students' performance. In line with the constructivist paradigm, this study embraces an interpretative and contextualized analysis of the collected data within the triangulation analytical framework. The evaluation of both qualitative and quantitative data demonstrates that active learning strategies and the disruption of thinking patterns can foster greater students' engagement and can lead to meaningful learning.

Keywords: active learning, assessment for learning, graphic design, higher education, student engagement

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5018 Contextualization and Localization: Acceptability of the Developed Activity Sheets in Science 5 Integrating Climate Change Adaptation

Authors: Kim Alvin De Lara

Abstract:

The research aimed to assess the level of acceptability of the developed activity sheets in Science 5 integrating climate change adaptation of grade 5 science teachers in the District of Pililla school year 2016-2017. In this research, participants were able to recognize and understand the importance of environmental education in improving basic education and integrating them in lessons through localization and contextualization. The researcher conducted the study to develop a material to use by Science teachers in Grade 5. It served also as a self-learning resource for students. The respondents of the study were the thirteen Grade 5 teachers teaching Science 5 in the District of Pililla. Respondents were selected purposively and identified by the researcher. A descriptive method of research was utilized in the research. The main instrument was a checklist which includes items on the objectives, content, tasks, contextualization and localization of the developed activity sheets. The researcher developed a 2-week lesson in Science 5 for 4th Quarter based on the curriculum guide with integration of climate change adaptation. The findings revealed that majority of respondents are female, 31 years old and above, 10 years above in teaching science and have units in master’s degree. With regards to the level of acceptability, the study revealed developed activity sheets in science 5 is very much acceptable. In view of the findings, lessons in science 5 must be contextualized and localized to improve to make the curriculum responds, conforms, reflects, and be flexible to the needs of the learners, especially the 21st century learners who need to be holistically and skillfully developed. As revealed by the findings, it is more acceptable to localized and contextualized the learning materials for pupils. Policy formation and re-organization of the lessons and competencies in Science must be reviewed and re-evaluated. Lessons in science must also be integrated with climate change adaptation since nowadays, people are experiencing change in climate due to global warming and other factors. Through developed activity sheets, researcher strongly supports environmental education and believes this to serve as a way to instill environmental literacy to students.

Keywords: activity sheets, climate change adaptation, contextualization, localization

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5017 How to Guide Students from Surface to Deep Learning: Applied Philosophy in Management Education

Authors: Lihong Wu, Raymond Young

Abstract:

The ability to learn is one of the most critical skills in the information age. However, many students do not have a clear understanding of what learning is, what they are learning, and why they are learning. Many students study simply to pass rather than to learn something useful for their career and their life. They have a misconception about learning and a wrong attitude towards learning. This research explores student attitudes to study in management education and explores how to intercede to lead students from shallow to deeper modes of learning.

Keywords: knowledge, surface learning, deep learning, education

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
5016 Blended Learning through Google Classroom

Authors: Lee Bih Ni

Abstract:

This paper discusses that good learning involves all academic groups in the school. Blended learning is learning outside the classroom. Google Classroom is a free service learning app for schools, non-profit organizations and anyone with a personal Google account. Facilities accessed through computers and mobile phones are very useful for school teachers and students. Blended learning classrooms using both traditional and technology-based methods for teaching have become the norm for many educators. Using Google Classroom gives students access to online learning. Even if the teacher is not in the classroom, the teacher can provide learning. This is the supervision of the form of the teacher when the student is outside the school.

Keywords: blended learning, learning app, google classroom, schools

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
5015 Cultural Stereotypes in EFL Classrooms and Their Implications on English Language Procedures in Cameroon

Authors: Eric Enongene Ekembe

Abstract:

Recent calls on EFL teaching posit the centrality of context factors and argue for a correlation between effectiveness in teaching with the learners’ culture in the EFL classroom. Context is not everything; it is defined with indicators of learners’ cultural artifacts and stereotypes in meaningful interactions in the language classroom. In keeping with this, it is difficult to universalise pedagogic procedures given that appropriate procedures are context-sensitive- and contexts differ. It is necessary to investigate what counts as cultural specificities or stereotypes of specific learners to reflect on how different language learning contexts affect or are affected by English language teaching procedures, most especially in under-represented cultures, which have appropriated the English language. This paper investigates cultural stereotypes of EFL learners in the culturally diverse Cameroon to examine how they mediate teaching and learning. Data collected on mixed-method basis from 83 EFL teachers and 1321 learners in Cameroon reveal a strong presence of typical cultural artifacts and stereotypes. Statistical analysis and thematic coding demonstrate that teaching procedures in place were insensitive to the cultural artifacts and stereotypes, resulting in trending tension between teachers and learners. The data equally reveal a serious contradiction between the communicative goals of language teaching and learning: what teachers held as effective teaching was diametrically opposed to success in learning. In keeping with this, the paper argues for a ‘decentred’ teacher preparation in Cameroon that is informed by systemic learners’ feedback. On this basis, applied linguistics has the urgent task of exploring dimensions of what actually counts as contextualized practice in ELT.

Keywords: cultural stereotypes, EFL, implications, procedures

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5014 The Design of the Blended Learning System via E-Media and Online Learning for the Asynchronous Learning: Case Study of Process Management Subject

Authors: Pimploi Tirastittam, Suppara Charoenpoom

Abstract:

Nowadays the asynchronous learning has granted the permission to the anywhere and anything learning via the technology and E-media which give the learner more convenient. This research is about the design of the blended and online learning for the asynchronous learning of the process management subject in order to create the prototype of this subject asynchronous learning which will create the easiness and increase capability in the learning. The pattern of learning is the integration between the in-class learning and online learning via the internet. This research is mainly focused on the online learning and the online learning can be divided into 5 parts which are virtual classroom, online content, collaboration, assessment and reference material. After the system design was finished, it was evaluated and tested by 5 experts in blended learning design and 10 students which the user’s satisfaction level is good. The result is as good as the assumption so the system can be used in the process management subject for a real usage.

Keywords: blended learning, asynchronous learning, design, process management

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
5013 A Study on the HTML5 Based Multi Media Contents Authority Tool

Authors: Heesuk Seo, Yongtae Kim

Abstract:

Online learning started in the 1990s, the spread of the Internet has been through the era of e-learning paradigm of online education in the era of smart learning change. Reflecting the different nature of the mobile to anywhere anytime, anywhere was also allows the form of learning, it was also available through the learning content and interaction. We are developing a cloud system, 'TLINKS CLOUD' that allows you to configure the environment of the smart learning without the need for additional infrastructure. Using the big-data analysis for e-learning contents, we provide an integrated solution for e-learning tailored to individual study.

Keywords: authority tool, big data analysis, e-learning, HTML5

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
5012 The Different Learning Path Analysis of Students with Different Learning Attitudes and Styles in Arts Creation

Authors: Tracy Ho, Huann-Shyang Lin, Mina Lin

Abstract:

This study investigated the different learning path of students with different learning attitude and learning styles in Arts Creation. Based on direct instruction, guided-discovery learning, and discovery learning theories, a tablet app including the following three learning areas were developed for students: (1) replication and remix practice area, (2) guided creation area, and (3) free creation area. Thirty. students with different learning attitude and learning styles were invited to use this app. Students’ learning behaviors were categorized and defined. The results will provide both educators and researchers with insights that can form a useful foundation for designing different content and strategy with the application of new technologies in school teaching. It also sheds light on how an educational App can be designed to enhance Arts Creation.

Keywords: App, arts creation, learning attitude, learning style, tablet

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5011 Modern Machine Learning Conniptions for Automatic Speech Recognition

Authors: S. Jagadeesh Kumar

Abstract:

This expose presents a luculent of recent machine learning practices as employed in the modern and as pertinent to prospective automatic speech recognition schemes. The aspiration is to promote additional traverse ablution among the machine learning and automatic speech recognition factions that have transpired in the precedent. The manuscript is structured according to the chief machine learning archetypes that are furthermore trendy by now or have latency for building momentous hand-outs to automatic speech recognition expertise. The standards offered and convoluted in this article embraces adaptive and multi-task learning, active learning, Bayesian learning, discriminative learning, generative learning, supervised and unsupervised learning. These learning archetypes are aggravated and conferred in the perspective of automatic speech recognition tools and functions. This manuscript bequeaths and surveys topical advances of deep learning and learning with sparse depictions; further limelight is on their incessant significance in the evolution of automatic speech recognition.

Keywords: automatic speech recognition, deep learning methods, machine learning archetypes, Bayesian learning, supervised and unsupervised learning

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5010 The Effect of Online Learning During the COVID-19 Pandemic on Student Mental

Authors: Adelia Desi Agnesita

Abstract:

The advent of a new disease called covid-19 made many major changes in the world, one of which is the process of learning and teaching. Learning formerly offline but now is done online, which makes students need adaptation to the learning process. The covid-19 pandemic that occurs almost worldwide causes activities that involve many people to be avoided, one of which is learning to teach. In Indonesia, since March 2020, the process of college learning is turning into online/ long-distance learning. It's to prevent the spread of the covid-19. Student online learning presents some of the obstacles to poor signals, many of the tasks, lack of focus, difficulty sleeping, and resulting stress.

Keywords: learning, online, covid-19, pandemic

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5009 Development of Multimedia Learning Application for Mastery Learning Style: A Graduated Difficulty Strategy

Authors: Nur Azlina Mohamed Mokmin, Mona Masood

Abstract:

Guided by the theory of learning style, this study is based on the development of a multimedia learning application for students with mastery learning style. The learning material was developed by applying a graduated difficulty learning strategy. Algebraic fraction was chosen as the learning topic for this application. The effectiveness of this application in helping students learn is measured by giving a pre- and post-test. The result shows that students who learn using the learning material that matches their preferred learning style performs better than the students with a non-personalized learning material.

Keywords: algebraic fractions, graduated difficulty, mastery learning style, multimedia

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5008 Implementation of the Collaborative Learning Approach in Learning of Second Language English

Authors: Ashwini Mahesh Jagatap

Abstract:

This paper presents the language learning strategy with respect to speaking skill with collaborative learning approach. Collaborative learning has been proven to be efficient learning methodology for all kinds of students. Students are working in groups of two or more, reciprocally searching for understanding, Solutions, or meanings, or creating a product. The presentation highlights the different stages which can be implemented during actual implementation of the methodology in the class room teaching learning process.

Keywords: collaborative classroom, collaborative learning approach, language skills, traditional teaching

Procedia PDF Downloads 471
5007 Implications of Learning Resource Centre in a Web Environment

Authors: Darshana Lal, Sonu Rana

Abstract:

Learning Resource Centers (LRC) are acquiring different kinds of documents like books, journals, thesis, dissertations, standard, databases etc. in print and e-form. This article deals with the different types of sources available in LRC. It also discusses the concept of the web, as a tool, as a multimedia system and the different interfaces available on the web. The reasons for establishing LRC are highlighted along with the assignments of LRC. Different features of LRC‘S like self-learning and group learning are described. It also implements a group of activities like reading, learning, educational etc. The use of LRC by students and faculties are given and concluded with the benefits.

Keywords: internet, search engine, resource centre, opac, self-learning, group learning

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5006 Active Learning: Increase Learning through Engagement

Authors: Jihan Albayati, Kim Abdullah

Abstract:

This poster focuses on the significance of active learning strategies and their usage in the ESL classroom. Active learning is a big shift from traditional lecturing to active student engagement which can enhance and enrich student learning; therefore, engaging students is the core of this approach. Students learn more when they participate in the process of learning such as discussions, debates, analysis, synthesis, or any form of activity that requires student involvement. In order to achieve active learning, teachers can use different instructional strategies that are conducive to learning and the selection of these strategies depends on student learning outcomes. Active learning techniques must be carefully designed and integrated into the classroom to increase critical thinking and student participation. This poster provides a concise definition of active learning and its importance, instructional strategies, active learning techniques and their impact on student engagement. Also, it demonstrates the differences between passive and active learners.

Keywords: active learning, learner engagement, student-centered, teaching strategies

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
5005 The Influence of Learning Styles on Learners Grade Achievement in E-Learning Environments: An Empirical Study

Authors: Thomas Yeboah, Gifty Akouko Sarpong

Abstract:

Every learner has a specific learning style that helps him/her to study best. This means that any learning method (e-learning method or traditional face-to-face method) a learner chooses should address the learning style of the learner. Therefore, the main purpose of this research is to investigate whether learners’ grade achievement in e-learning environment is improved for learners with a particular learning style. In this research, purposive sampling technique was employed for selecting the sample size of three hundred and twenty (320) students studying a course UGRC 140 Science and Technology in our Lives at Christian Service University College. Data were analyzed by using, percentages, T -test, and one-way ANOVA. A thorough analysis was done on the data collected and the results revealed that learners with the Assimilator learning style and the converger learning style obtained higher grade achievement than both diverger learning style and accommodative learning style. Again, the results also revealed that accommodative learning style was not good enough for e-learning method.

Keywords: e-learning, learning style, grade achievement, accomodative, divergent, convergent, assimilative

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5004 Intentional Learning vs Incidental Learning

Authors: Shahbaz Ahmed

Abstract:

This study is conducted to demonstrate the knowledge of intentional learning and incidental learning. Hypothesis of this experiment is intentional learning is better than incidental learning, participants were demonstrated and were asked to learn the 10 nonsense syllables in a specific sequence from the colored cards in the end they were asked to recall the background color of each card instead of nonsense syllables. Independent variables of the experiment are the colored cards containing nonsense syllables which are to be memorized by the participants, dependent variables are the number of correct responses made by the participant. The findings of the experiment concluded that intentional learning is better than incidental learning, hence hypothesis is proved.

Keywords: intentional learning, incidental learning, non-sense syllable cards, score sheets

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
5003 Contextual Sentiment Analysis with Untrained Annotators

Authors: Lucas A. Silva, Carla R. Aguiar

Abstract:

This work presents a proposal to perform contextual sentiment analysis using a supervised learning algorithm and disregarding the extensive training of annotators. To achieve this goal, a web platform was developed to perform the entire procedure outlined in this paper. The main contribution of the pipeline described in this article is to simplify and automate the annotation process through a system of analysis of congruence between the notes. This ensured satisfactory results even without using specialized annotators in the context of the research, avoiding the generation of biased training data for the classifiers. For this, a case study was conducted in a blog of entrepreneurship. The experimental results were consistent with the literature related annotation using formalized process with experts.

Keywords: sentiment analysis, untrained annotators, naive bayes, entrepreneurship, contextualized classifier

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
5002 The Relevance of Smart Technologies in Learning

Authors: Rachael Olubukola Afolabi

Abstract:

Immersive technologies known as X Reality or Cross Reality that include virtual reality augmented reality, and mixed reality have pervaded into the education system at different levels from elementary school to adult learning. Instructors, instructional designers, and learning experience specialists continue to find new ways to engage students in the learning process using technology. While the progression of web technologies has enhanced digital learning experiences, analytics on learning outcomes continue to be explored to determine the relevance of these technologies in learning. Digital learning has evolved from web 1.0 (static) to 4.0 (dynamic and interactive), and this evolution of technologies has also advanced teaching methods and approaches. This paper explores how these technologies are being utilized in learning and the results that educators and learners have identified as effective learning opportunities and approaches.

Keywords: immersive technologoes, virtual reality, augmented reality, technology in learning

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5001 How to Use E-Learning to Increase Job Satisfaction in Large Commercial Bank in Bangkok

Authors: Teerada Apibunyopas, Nithinant Thammakoranonta

Abstract:

Many organizations bring e-Learning to use as a tool in their training and human development department. It is getting more popular because it is easy to access to get knowledge all the time and also it provides a rich content, which can develop the employees skill efficiently. This study focused on the factors that affect using e-Learning efficiently, so it will make job satisfaction increased. The questionnaires were sent to employees in large commercial banks, which use e-Learning located in Bangkok, the results from multiple linear regression analysis showed that employee’s characteristics, characteristics of e-Learning, learning and growth have influence on job satisfaction.

Keywords: e-Learning, job satisfaction, learning and growth, Bangkok

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5000 Learning Compression Techniques on Smart Phone

Authors: Farouk Lawan Gambo, Hamada Mohammad

Abstract:

Data compression shrinks files into fewer bits than their original presentation. It has more advantage on the internet because the smaller a file, the faster it can be transferred but learning most of the concepts in data compression are abstract in nature, therefore, making them difficult to digest by some students (engineers in particular). This paper studies the learning preference of engineering students who tend to have strong, active, sensing, visual and sequential learning preferences, the paper also studies the three shift of technology-aided that learning has experienced, which mobile learning has been considered to be the feature of learning that will integrate other form of the education process. Lastly, we propose a design and implementation of mobile learning application using software engineering methodology that will enhance the traditional teaching and learning of data compression techniques.

Keywords: data compression, learning preference, mobile learning, multimedia

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4999 An Online Mastery Learning Method Based on a Dynamic Formative Evaluation

Authors: Jeongim Kang, Moon Hee Kim, Seong Baeg Kim

Abstract:

This paper proposes a novel e-learning model that is based on a dynamic formative evaluation. On evaluating the existing format of e-learning, conditions regarding repetitive learning to achieve mastery, causes issues for learners to lose tension and become neglectful of learning. The dynamic formative evaluation proposed is able to supplement limitation of the existing approaches. Since a repetitive learning method does not provide a perfect feedback, this paper puts an emphasis on the dynamic formative evaluation that is able to maximize learning achievement. Through the dynamic formative evaluation, the instructor is able to refer to the evaluation result when making estimation about the learner. To show the flow chart of learning, based on the dynamic formative evaluation, the model proves its effectiveness and validity.

Keywords: online learning, dynamic formative evaluation, mastery learning, repetitive learning method, learning achievement

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4998 Using Indigenous Knowledge Systems in Teaching Early Literacy: A Case Study of Zambian Public Preschools

Authors: Ronald L. Kaunda

Abstract:

The education system in Zambia still bears scars of colonialism in the area of policy, curriculum and implementation. This historical context resulted in the failure by the Government of the Republic of Zambia to achieve literacy goals expected among school going children. Specifically, research shows that the use of English for initial literacy and Western based teaching methods to engage learners in literacy activities at lower levels of education including preschool has exacerbated this situation. In 2014, the Government of the Republic of Zambia implemented a new curriculum that, among others things, required preschool teachers to use local and cultural materials and familiar languages for early literacy teaching from preschool to grade 4. This paper presents findings from a study that sought to establish ways in which preschool teachers use Zambian Indigenous knowledge systems and Indigenous teaching strategies to support literacy development among preschool children. The study used Indigenous research methodology for data collection and iterative feature of Constructivist Grounded Theory (CGT) in the data collection process and analysis. This study established that, as agents of education, preschool teachers represented community adult educators because of some roles which they played beyond their academic mandate. The study further found that classrooms as venues of learning were equipped with learning corners reflecting Indigenous literacy materials and Indigenous ways of learning. Additionally, the study found that learners were more responsive to literacy lessons because of the use of familiar languages and local contextualized environments that supported their own cultural ways of learning. The study recommended that if the education system in Zambia is to be fully inclusive of Indigenous knowledge systems and cultural ways of learning, the education policy and curriculum should include conscious steps on how this should be implemented at the classroom level. The study further recommended that more diverse local literacy materials and teaching aids should be produced for use in the classroom.

Keywords: agents of learning, early literacy, indigenous knowledge systems, venues of education

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4997 Using the Semantic Web Technologies to Bring Adaptability in E-Learning Systems

Authors: Fatima Faiza Ahmed, Syed Farrukh Hussain

Abstract:

The last few decades have seen a large proportion of our population bending towards e-learning technologies, starting from learning tools used in primary and elementary schools to competency based e-learning systems specifically designed for applications like finance and marketing. The huge diversity in this crowd brings about a large number of challenges for the designers of these e-learning systems, one of which is the adaptability of such systems. This paper focuses on adaptability in the learning material in an e-learning course and how artificial intelligence and the semantic web can be used as an effective tool for this purpose. The study proved that the semantic web, still a hot topic in the area of computer science can prove to be a powerful tool in designing and implementing adaptable e-learning systems.

Keywords: adaptable e-learning, HTMLParser, information extraction, semantic web

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4996 Testing Supportive Feedback Strategies in Second/Foreign Language Vocabulary Acquisition between Typically Developing Children and Children with Learning Disabilities

Authors: Panagiota A. Kotsoni, George S. Ypsilandis

Abstract:

Learning an L2 is a demanding process for all students and in particular for those with learning disabilities (LD) who demonstrate an inability to catch up with their classmates’ progress in a given period of time. This area of study, i.e. examining children with learning disabilities in L2 has not (yet) attracted the growing interest that is registered in L1 and thus remains comparatively neglected. It is this scientific field that this study wishes to contribute to. The longitudinal purpose of this study is to locate effective Supportive Feedback Strategies (SFS) and add to the quality of learning in second language vocabulary in both typically developing (TD) and LD children. Specifically, this study aims at investigating and comparing the performance of TD with LD children on two different types of SFSs related to vocabulary short and long-term retention. In this study two different SFSs have been examined to a total of ten (10) unknown vocabulary items. Both strategies provided morphosyntactic clarifications upon new contextualized vocabulary items. The traditional SFS (direct) provided the information only in one hypertext page with a selection on the relevant item. The experimental SFS (engaging) provided the exact same split information in three successive hypertext pages in the form of a hybrid dialogue asking from the subjects to move on to the next page by selecting the relevant link. It was hypothesized that this way the subjects would engage in their own learning process by actively asking for more information which would further lead to their better retention. The participants were fifty-two (52) foreign language learners (33 TD and 19 LD) aged from 9 to 12, attending an English language school at the level of A1 (CEFR). The design of the study followed a typical pre-post-post test procedure after an hour and after a week. The results indicated statistically significant group differences with TD children performing significantly better than the LD group in both short and long-term memory measurements and in both SFSs. As regards the effectiveness of one SFS over another the initial hypothesis was not supported by the evidence as the traditional SFS was more effective compared to the experimental one in both TD and LD children. This difference proved to be statistically significant only in the long-term memory measurement and only in the TD group. It may be concluded that the human brain seems to adapt to different SFS although it shows a small preference when information is provided in a direct manner.

Keywords: learning disabilities, memory, second/foreign language acquisition, supportive feedback

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