Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22388

Search results for: life-cycle analysis

22388 Mitigation of High Voltage Equipment Design Deficiencies for Improved Operation and Maintenance

Authors: Riyad Awad, Abdulmohsen Alghadeer, Meshari Otaibi

Abstract:

Proper operation and maintenance (O&M) activities of high voltage equipment can lead to an increased asset lifecycle and maintain its integrity and reliability. Such a vital process is important to be proactively considered during equipment design and manufacturing phases by removing and eliminating any obstacles in the equipment which adversely affect the (O&M) activities. This paper presents a gap analysis pertaining to difficulties in performing operations and maintenance (O&M) high voltage electrical equipment, includes power transformers, switch gears, motor control center, disconnect switches and circuit breakers. The difficulties are gathered from field personnel, equipment design review comments, quality management system, and lessons learned database. The purpose of the gap analysis is to mitigate and prevent the (O&M) difficulties as early as possible in the design stage of the equipment lifecycle. The paper concludes with several recommendations and corrective actions for all identified gaps in order to reduce the cost (O&M) difficulties and improve the equipment lifecycle.

Keywords: operation and maintenance, high voltage equipment, equipment lifecycle, reduce the cost of maintenance

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22387 Uncertainty in Building Energy Performance Analysis at Different Stages of the Building’s Lifecycle

Authors: Elham Delzendeh, Song Wu, Mustafa Al-Adhami, Rima Alaaeddine

Abstract:

Over the last 15 years, prediction of energy consumption has become a common practice and necessity at different stages of the building’s lifecycle, particularly, at the design and post-occupancy stages for planning and maintenance purposes. This is due to the ever-growing response of governments to address sustainability and reduction of CO₂ emission in the building sector. However, there is a level of uncertainty in the estimation of energy consumption in buildings. The accuracy of energy consumption predictions is directly related to the precision of the initial inputs used in the energy assessment process. In this study, multiple cases of large non-residential buildings at design, construction, and post-occupancy stages are investigated. The energy consumption process and inputs, and the actual and predicted energy consumption of the cases are analysed. The findings of this study have pointed out and evidenced various parameters that cause uncertainty in the prediction of energy consumption in buildings such as modelling, location data, and occupant behaviour. In addition, unavailability and insufficiency of energy-consumption-related inputs at different stages of the building’s lifecycle are classified and categorized. Understanding the roots of uncertainty in building energy analysis will help energy modellers and energy simulation software developers reach more accurate energy consumption predictions in buildings.

Keywords: building lifecycle, efficiency, energy analysis, energy performance, uncertainty

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22386 Design On Demand (DoD): Spiral Model of The Lifecycle of Products in The Personal 3D-Printed Products' Market

Authors: Zuk Nechemia Turbovich

Abstract:

This paper introduces DoD, a contextual spiral model that describes the lifecycle of products intended for manufacturing using Personal 3D Printers (P3DP). The study is based on a review of the desktop P3DPs market that shows that the combination of digital connectivity, coupled with the potential ownership of P3DP by home users, is radically changing the form of the product lifecycle, comparatively to familiar lifecycle paradigms. The paper presents the change in the design process, considering the characterization of product types in the P3DP market and the possibility of having a direct dialogue between end-user and product designers. The model, as an updated paradigm, provides a strategic perspective on product design and tools for success, understanding that design is subject to rapid and continuous improvement and that products are subject to repair, update, and customization. The paper will include a review of real cases.

Keywords: lifecycle, mass-customization, personal 3d-printing, user involvement

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22385 Gender and Older People: Reframing Gender Analysis through Lifecycle Lens

Authors: Supriya Akerkar

Abstract:

The UN Decade on Healthy Ageing (2021-2030) provides a new opportunity to address ageing and gender issues in different societies. The concept of gender has been used to unpack and analyse the power and constructions of gender relations in different societies. Such analysis has been employed and used to inform policy and practices of governments and non-governmental organisations to further gender equalities in their work. Yet, experiences of older women and men are often left out of such mainstream gender analysis, marginalising their existence and issues. This paper argues that new critical analytical tools are needed to capture the realities and issues of interest to older women and men. In particular, it argues that gender analysis needs to integrate analytical concepts of ageing and lifecycle approach in its framework. The paper develops such a framework by critical interrogation of the gender analysis tools that are currently applied for framing gender issues in international development and humanitarian work. Informed by the realities and experiences of older women and men, developed through a synthesis of available literature, the paper will develop a new framework for gender analysis that can be used by governments and non-government organisations in their work to further gender justice across the life cycle.

Keywords: ageing, gender, older people, social inclusion

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22384 Systems Engineering Management Using Transdisciplinary Quality System Development Lifecycle Model

Authors: Mohamed Asaad Abdelrazek, Amir Taher El-Sheikh, M. Zayan, A.M. Elhady

Abstract:

The successful realization of complex systems is dependent not only on the technology issues and the process for implementing them, but on the management issues as well. Managing the systems development lifecycle requires technical management. Systems engineering management is the technical management. Systems engineering management is accomplished by incorporating many activities. The three major activities are development phasing, systems engineering process and lifecycle integration. Systems engineering management activities are performed across the system development lifecycle. Due to the ever-increasing complexity of systems as well the difficulty of managing and tracking the development activities, new ways to achieve systems engineering management activities are required. This paper presents a systematic approach used as a design management tool applied across systems engineering management roles. In this approach, Transdisciplinary System Development Lifecycle (TSDL) Model has been modified and integrated with Quality Function Deployment. Hereinafter, the name of the systematic approach is the Transdisciplinary Quality System Development Lifecycle (TQSDL) Model. The QFD translates the voice of customers (VOC) into measurable technical characteristics. The modified TSDL model is based on Axiomatic Design developed by Suh which is applicable to all designs: products, processes, systems and organizations. The TQSDL model aims to provide a robust structure and systematic thinking to support the implementation of systems engineering management roles. This approach ensures that the customer requirements are fulfilled as well as satisfies all the systems engineering manager roles and activities.

Keywords: axiomatic design, quality function deployment, systems engineering management, system development lifecycle

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22383 Building Information Modelling Implementation in the Lifecycle of Sustainable Buildings

Authors: Scarlet Alejandra Romano, Joni Kareco

Abstract:

The three pillars of sustainability (social, economic and environmental) are relevant concepts to the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry because of the increase of international agreements and guidelines related to this topic during the last years. Considering these three pillars, the AEC industry faces important challenges, for instance, to decrease the carbon emissions (environmental challenge), design sustainable spaces for people (social challenge), and improve the technology of this field to reduce costs and environmental problems (economic and environmental challenge). One alternative to overcome these challenges is Building Information Modelling program (BIM) because according to several authors, this technology improves the performance of the sustainable buildings in all their lifecycle phases. The main objective of this paper is to explore and analyse the current advantages and disadvantages of the BIM implementation in the life-cycle of sustainable buildings considering the three pillars of sustainability as analysis parameters. The methodology established to achieve this objective is exploratory-descriptive with the literature review technique. The partial results illustrate that despite the BIM disadvantages and the lack of information about its social sustainability advantages, this software represents a significant opportunity to improve the three sustainable pillars of the sustainable buildings.

Keywords: building information modelling, building lifecycle analysis, sustainability, sustainable buildings

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22382 A Review of Benefit-Risk Assessment over the Product Lifecycle

Authors: M. Miljkovic, A. Urakpo, M. Simic-Koumoutsaris

Abstract:

Benefit-risk assessment (BRA) is a valuable tool that takes place in multiple stages during a medicine's lifecycle, and this assessment can be conducted in a variety of ways. The aim was to summarize current BRA methods used during approval decisions and in post-approval settings and to see possible future directions. Relevant reviews, recommendations, and guidelines published in medical literature and through regulatory agencies over the past five years have been examined. BRA implies the review of two dimensions: the dimension of benefits (determined mainly by the therapeutic efficacy) and the dimension of risks (comprises the safety profile of a drug). Regulators, industry, and academia have developed various approaches, ranging from descriptive textual (qualitative) to decision-analytic (quantitative) models, to facilitate the BRA of medicines during the product lifecycle (from Phase I trials, to authorization procedure, post-marketing surveillance and health technology assessment for inclusion in public formularies). These approaches can be classified into the following categories: stepwise structured approaches (frameworks); measures for benefits and risks that are usually endpoint specific (metrics), simulation techniques and meta-analysis (estimation techniques), and utility survey techniques to elicit stakeholders’ preferences (utilities). All these approaches share the following two common goals: to assist this analysis and to improve the communication of decisions, but each is subject to its own specific strengths and limitations. Before using any method, its utility, complexity, the extent to which it is established, and the ease of results interpretation should be considered. Despite widespread and long-time use, BRA is subject to debate, suffers from a number of limitations, and currently is still under development. The use of formal, systematic structured approaches to BRA for regulatory decision-making and quantitative methods to support BRA during the product lifecycle is a standard practice in medicine that is subject to continuous improvement and modernization, not only in methodology but also in cooperation between organizations.

Keywords: benefit-risk assessment, benefit-risk profile, product lifecycle, quantitative methods, structured approaches

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22381 Arsenic Removal by Membrane Technology, Adsorption and Ion Exchange: An Environmental Lifecycle Assessment

Authors: Karan R. Chavan, Paula Saavalainen, Kumudini V. Marathe, Riitta L. Keiski, Ganapati D. Yadav

Abstract:

Co-contamination of groundwaters by arsenic in different forms is often observed around the globe. Arsenic is introduced into the waters by several mechanisms and different technologies are proposed and practiced for effective removal. The assessment of three prominent technologies, namely, adsorption, ion exchange and nanofiltration was carried out in this study based on lifecycle methodology. The life of the technologies was divided into two stages: cradle to gate (C-G) and gate to gate (G-G), in order to find out the impacts in different categories of environmental burdens, human health and resource consumption. Life cycle inventory was estimated by use of models and design equations concerning with the different technologies. Regeneration was considered for each technology and over the course of its full lifetime. The impact values of adsorption technology for the C-G stage are greater by thousand times (103) and million times (106) compared to ion exchange and nanofiltration technologies, respectively. The impact of G-G stage of the lifecycle is the major contributor of the impact for all the 3 technologies due to electricity consumption during the operation. Overall, the ion Exchange technology fares well in this study of removal of As (V) only.

Keywords: arsenic, nanofiltration, lifecycle assessment, membrane technology

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22380 LCA/CFD Studies of Artisanal Brick Manufacture in Mexico

Authors: H. A. Lopez-Aguilar, E. A. Huerta-Reynoso, J. A. Gomez, J. A. Duarte-Moller, A. Perez-Hernandez

Abstract:

Environmental performance of artisanal brick manufacture was studied by Lifecycle Assessment (LCA) methodology and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis in Mexico. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the environmental impact during artisanal brick manufacture. LCA cradle-to-gate approach was complemented with CFD analysis to carry out an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). The lifecycle includes the stages of extraction, baking and transportation to the gate. The functional unit of this study was the production of a single brick in Chihuahua, Mexico and the impact categories studied were carcinogens, respiratory organics and inorganics, climate change radiation, ozone layer depletion, ecotoxicity, acidification/ eutrophication, land use, mineral use and fossil fuels. Laboratory techniques for fuel characterization, gas measurements in situ, and AP42 emission factors were employed in order to calculate gas emissions for inventory data. The results revealed that the categories with greater impacts are ecotoxicity and carcinogens. The CFD analysis is helpful in predicting the thermal diffusion and contaminants from a defined source. LCA-CFD synergy complemented the EIA and allowed us to identify the problem of thermal efficiency within the system.

Keywords: LCA, CFD, brick, artisanal

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22379 VISMA: A Method for System Analysis in Early Lifecycle Phases

Authors: Walter Sebron, Hans Tschürtz, Peter Krebs

Abstract:

The choice of applicable analysis methods in safety or systems engineering depends on the depth of knowledge about a system, and on the respective lifecycle phase. However, the analysis method chain still shows gaps as it should support system analysis during the lifecycle of a system from a rough concept in pre-project phase until end-of-life. This paper’s goal is to discuss an analysis method, the VISSE Shell Model Analysis (VISMA) method, which aims at closing the gap in the early system lifecycle phases, like the conceptual or pre-project phase, or the project start phase. It was originally developed to aid in the definition of the system boundary of electronic system parts, like e.g. a control unit for a pump motor. Furthermore, it can be also applied to non-electronic system parts. The VISMA method is a graphical sketch-like method that stratifies a system and its parts in inner and outer shells, like the layers of an onion. It analyses a system in a two-step approach, from the innermost to the outermost components followed by the reverse direction. To ensure a complete view of a system and its environment, the VISMA should be performed by (multifunctional) development teams. To introduce the method, a set of rules and guidelines has been defined in order to enable a proper shell build-up. In the first step, the innermost system, named system under consideration (SUC), is selected, which is the focus of the subsequent analysis. Then, its directly adjacent components, responsible for providing input to and receiving output from the SUC, are identified. These components are the content of the first shell around the SUC. Next, the input and output components to the components in the first shell are identified and form the second shell around the first one. Continuing this way, shell by shell is added with its respective parts until the border of the complete system (external border) is reached. Last, two external shells are added to complete the system view, the environment and the use case shell. This system view is also stored for future use. In the second step, the shells are examined in the reverse direction (outside to inside) in order to remove superfluous components or subsystems. Input chains to the SUC, as well as output chains from the SUC are described graphically via arrows, to highlight functional chains through the system. As a result, this method offers a clear and graphical description and overview of a system, its main parts and environment; however, the focus still remains on a specific SUC. It helps to identify the interfaces and interfacing components of the SUC, as well as important external interfaces of the overall system. It supports the identification of the first internal and external hazard causes and causal chains. Additionally, the method promotes a holistic picture and cross-functional understanding of a system, its contributing parts, internal relationships and possible dangers within a multidisciplinary development team.

Keywords: analysis methods, functional safety, hazard identification, system and safety engineering, system boundary definition, system safety

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22378 Managing Configuration Management in Different Types of Organizations

Authors: Dilek Bilgiç

Abstract:

Configuration Management (CM) is a discipline assuring the consistency between product information the reality all along the product lifecycle. Although the extensive benefits of this discipline, such as the direct impact on increasing return on investment, reducing lifecycle costs, are realized by most organizations. It is worth evaluating that CM functions might be successfully implemented in some organized anarchies. This paper investigates how to manage ambiguity in CM processes as an opportunity within an environment that has different types of complexities and choice arenas. It is not explained how to establish a configuration management organization in a company; more specifically, it is analyzed how to apply configuration management processes when different types of streams exist. From planning to audit, all the CM functions may provide different organization learning opportunities when those applied with the right leadership methods.

Keywords: configuration management, leadership, organizational analysis, organized anarchy, cm process, organizational learning, organizational maturity, configuration status accounting, leading innovation, change management

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22377 Multilayer Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic Based Software Quality Prediction

Authors: Sadaf Sahar, Usman Qamar, Sadaf Ayaz

Abstract:

In the software development lifecycle, the quality prediction techniques hold a prime importance in order to minimize future design errors and expensive maintenance. There are many techniques proposed by various researchers, but with the increasing complexity of the software lifecycle model, it is crucial to develop a flexible system which can cater for the factors which in result have an impact on the quality of the end product. These factors include properties of the software development process and the product along with its operation conditions. In this paper, a neural network (perceptron) based software quality prediction technique is proposed. Using this technique, the stakeholders can predict the quality of the resulting software during the early phases of the lifecycle saving time and resources on future elimination of design errors and costly maintenance. This technique can be brought into practical use using successful training.

Keywords: software quality, fuzzy logic, perception, prediction

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22376 Preliminary Study of the Cost-Effectiveness of Green Walls: Analyzing Cases from the Perspective of Life Cycle

Authors: Jyun-Huei Huang, Ting-I Lee

Abstract:

Urban heat island effect is derived from the reduction of vegetative cover by urban development. Because plants can improve air quality and microclimate, green walls have been applied as a sustainable design approach to cool building temperature. By using plants to green vertical surfaces, they decrease room temperature and, as a result, decrease the energy use for air conditioning. Based on their structures, green walls can be divided into two categories, green façades and living walls. A green façade uses the climbing ability of a plant itself, while a living wall assembles planter modules. The latter one is widely adopted in public space, as it is time-effective and less limited. Although a living wall saves energy spent on cooling, it is not necessarily cost-effective from the perspective of a lifecycle analysis. The Italian study shows that the overall benefit of a living wall is only greater than its costs after 47 years of its establishment. In Taiwan, urban greening policies encourage establishment of green walls by referring to their benefits of energy saving while neglecting their low performance on cost-effectiveness. Thus, this research aims at understanding the perception of appliers and consumers on the cost-effectiveness of their living wall products from the lifecycle viewpoint. It adopts semi-structured interviews and field observations on the maintenance of the products. By comparing the two results, it generates insights for sustainable urban greening policies. The preliminary finding shows that stakeholders do not have a holistic sense of lifecycle or cost-effectiveness. Most importantly, a living wall well maintained is often with high input due to the availability of its maintenance budget, and thus less sustainable. In conclusion, without a comprehensive sense of cost-effectiveness throughout a product’s lifecycle, it is very difficult for suppliers and consumers to maintain a living wall system while achieve sustainability.

Keywords: case study, maintenance, post-occupancy evaluation, vertical greening

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22375 MLOps Scaling Machine Learning Lifecycle in an Industrial Setting

Authors: Yizhen Zhao, Adam S. Z. Belloum, Goncalo Maia Da Costa, Zhiming Zhao

Abstract:

Machine learning has evolved from an area of academic research to a real-word applied field. This change comes with challenges, gaps and differences exist between common practices in academic environments and the ones in production environments. Following continuous integration, development and delivery practices in software engineering, similar trends have happened in machine learning (ML) systems, called MLOps. In this paper we propose a framework that helps to streamline and introduce best practices that facilitate the ML lifecycle in an industrial setting. This framework can be used as a template that can be customized to implement various machine learning experiment. The proposed framework is modular and can be recomposed to be adapted to various use cases (e.g. data versioning, remote training on cloud). The framework inherits practices from DevOps and introduces other practices that are unique to the machine learning system (e.g.data versioning). Our MLOps practices automate the entire machine learning lifecycle, bridge the gap between development and operation.

Keywords: cloud computing, continuous development, data versioning, DevOps, industrial setting, MLOps

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22374 The Egyptian eGovernment Journey

Authors: Ali Abdelsattar Elshabrawy

Abstract:

The Egyptian government is struggling to build it's eGovernment project. They succeeded to build the Egyptian digital portal, which contain links for number of services provided by different ministries. For achieving such success, their are requirements necessary to build such a project such as: internet dissemination, IT literacy, Strategy, disqualification of paper based services. This paper is going to clarify the main obstacles to the Egyptian eGovernment project from both the supply and demand sides. Also will clarify the most critical requirements in this phase of the project lifecycle. This paper should be in great value for the project team and also for many other developing countries that share the same obstacles.

Keywords: the egyptian egovernment project lifecycle, supply side barriers, demand side barriers, egovernment project requirements

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22373 Overcoming the Impacts of Covid-19 Outbreak Using Value Integrated Project Delivery Model

Authors: G. Ramya

Abstract:

Value engineering is a systematic approach, widely used to optimize the design or process or product in the designing stage. It used to achieve the client's obligation by increasing the functionality and attain the targeted cost in the cost planning. Value engineering effectiveness and benefits decrease along with the progress of the project since the change in the scope of the work and design will account for more cost all along the lifecycle of the project. Integrating the value engineering with other project management activities will promote cost minimization, client satisfaction, and ensure early completion of the project in time. Previous research studies suggested that value engineering can integrate with other project delivery activities, but research studies unable to frame a model that collaborates the project management activities with the job plan of value engineering approach. I analyzed various project management activities and their synergy between each other. The project management activities and processes like a)risk analysis b)lifecycle cost analysis c)lean construction d)facility management e)Building information modelling f)Contract administration, collaborated, and project delivery model planned along with the RIBA plan of work. The key outcome of the research is a value-driven project delivery model, which will succeed in dealing with the economic impact, constraints and conflicts arise due to the COVID-19 outbreak in the Indian construction sector. Benefits associated with the structured framework is construction project delivery that ensures early contractor involvement, mutual risk sharing, and reviving the project with a cost overrun and delay back on track ,are discussed. Keywords: Value-driven project delivery model, Integration, RIBA plan of work Themes: Design Economics

Keywords: value-driven project delivery model, Integration, RIBA

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22372 An Historical Revision of Change and Configuration Management Process

Authors: Expedito Pinto De Paula Junior

Abstract:

Current systems such as artificial satellites, airplanes, automobiles, turbines, power systems and air traffic controls are becoming increasingly more complex and/or highly integrated as defined in SAE-ARP-4754A (Society Automotive Engineering - Certification considerations for highly-integrated or complex aircraft systems standard). Among other processes, the development of such systems requires careful Change and Configuration Management (CCM) to establish and maintain product integrity. Understand the maturity of CCM process based in historical approach is crucial for better implementation in hardware and software lifecycle. The sense of work organization, in all fields of development is directly related to the order and interrelation of the parties, changes in time, and record of these changes. Generally, is observed that engineers, administrators and managers invest more time in technical activities than in organization of work. More these professionals are focused in solving complex problems with a purely technical bias. CCM process is fundamental for development, production and operation of new products specially in the safety critical systems. The objective of this paper is open a discussion about the historical revision based in standards focus of CCM around the world in order to understand and reflect the importance across the years, the contribution of this process for technology evolution, to understand the mature of organizations in the system lifecycle project and the benefits of CCM to avoid errors and mistakes during the Lifecycle Product.

Keywords: changes, configuration management, historical, revision

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22371 Techno-Economic Analysis of Solar Energy for Cathodic Protection of Oil and Gas Buried Pipelines in Southwestern of Iran

Authors: M. Goodarzi, M. Mohammadi, A. Gharib

Abstract:

Solar energy is a renewable energy which has attracted special attention in many countries. Solar cathodic protectionsystems harness the sun’senergy to protect underground pipelinesand tanks from galvanic corrosion. The object of this study is to design and the economic analysis a cathodic protection system by impressed current supplied with solar energy panels applied to underground pipelines. In the present study, the technical and economic analysis of using solar energy for cathodic protection system in southwestern of Iran (Khuzestan province) is investigated. For this purpose, the ecological conditions such as the weather data, air clearness and sunshine hours are analyzed. The economic analyses were done using computer code to investigate the feasibility analysis from the using of various energy sources in order to cathodic protection system. The overall research methodology is divided into four components: Data collection, design of elements, techno economical evaluation, and output analysis. According to the results, solar renewable energy systems can supply adequate power for cathodic protection system purposes.

Keywords: renewable energy, solar energy, solar cathodic protection station, lifecycle cost method

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22370 Decision Making during the Project Management Life Cycle of Infrastructure Projects

Authors: Karrar Raoof Kareem Kamoona, Enas Fathi Taher AlHares, Zeynep Isik

Abstract:

The various disciplines in the construction industry and the co-existence of the people in the various disciplines are what builds well-developed, closely-knit interpersonal skills at various hierarchical levels thus leading to a varied way of leadership. The varied decision making aspects during the lifecycle of a project include: autocratic, participatory and last but not least, free-rein. We can classify some of the decision makers in the construction industry in a hierarchical manner as follows: project executive, project manager, superintendent, office engineer and finally the field engineer. This survey looked at how decisions are made during the construction period by the key stakeholders in the project. From the paper it is evident that the three decision making aspects can be used at different times or at times together in order to bring out the best leadership decision. A blend of different leadership styles should be used to enhance the success rate during the project lifecycle.

Keywords: leadership style, construction, decision-making, built environment

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22369 Cost Effectiveness and Performance Study of Perpetual Pavement Using ABAQUS

Authors: Mansour Fakhri, Monire Zokaei

Abstract:

Where there are many demolitions on conventional asphalt pavements, heavy costs are paid to repair and reconstruct the pavement roads annually. Recently some research has been done in order to increase the pavement life. Perpetual pavement is regarded as one of them which can improve the pavement life and minimize the maintenance activity and cost. In this research, ABAQUS which is a finite element software is implemented for analyzing and simulation of perpetual pavement. Viscoelastic model of material is used and loading wheel is considered to be dynamic. Effect of different parameters on pavement function has been considered. Because of high primary cost these pavements are not widely used. In this regard, life cost analysis was also carried out to compare perpetual pavement to conventional asphalt concrete pavement. It was concluded that although the initial cost of perpetual pavement is higher than that of conventional asphalt pavement, life cycle cost analysis during 50 years of service life showed that the performance of this pavement is better and the whole life cost of that is less.

Keywords: ABAQUS, lifecycle cost analysis, mechanistic empirical, perpetual pavement

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22368 A Study on the Functional Safety Analysis of Stage Control System Based on International Electronical Committee 61508-2

Authors: Youn-Sung Kim, Hye-Mi Kim, Sang-Hoon Seo, Jaden Cha

Abstract:

This International standard IEC 61508 sets out a generic approach for all safety lifecycle activities for systems comprised of electrical/electronic/programmable electronic (E/E/PE) elements that are used to perform safety functions. The control unit in stage control system is safety related facilities to control state and speed for stage system running, and it performs safety-critical function by stage control system. The controller unit is part of safety loops corresponding to the IEC 61508 and classified as logic part in the safety loop. In this paper, we analyze using FMEDA (Failure Mode Effect and Diagnostic Analysis) to verification for fault tolerance methods and functional safety of control unit. Moreover, we determined SIL (Safety Integrity Level) for control unit according to the safety requirements defined in IEC 61508-2 based on an analyzed functional safety.

Keywords: safety function, failure mode effect, IEC 61508-2, diagnostic analysis, stage control system

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22367 Healthy and Smart Building Projects

Authors: Ali A. Karakhan

Abstract:

Stakeholders in the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry have been always searching for strategies to develop, design, and construct healthy and smart building projects. Healthy and smart building projects require that the building process including design and construction be altered and carefully implemented in order to bring about sustainable outcomes throughout the facility lifecycle. Healthy and smart building projects are expected to positively influence organizational success and facility performance across the project lifecycle leading to superior outcomes in terms of people, economy, and the environment. The present study aims to identify potential strategies that AEC organizations can implement to achieve healthy and smart building projects. Drivers and barriers for healthy and smart building features are also examined. The study findings indicate that there are three strategies to advance the development of healthy and smart building projects: (1) the incorporation of high-quality products and low chemical-emitting materials, (2) the integration of innovative designs, methods, and practices, and (3) the adoption of smart technology throughout the facility lifecycle. Satisfying external demands, achievement of a third-party certification, obtaining financial incentives, and a desire to fulfill professional duty are identified as the key drivers for developing healthy and smart building features; whereas, lack of knowledge and training, time/cost constrains, preference for/adherence to customary practices, and unclear business case for why healthy buildings are advantageous are recognized as the primary barriers toward a wider diffusion of healthy and smart building projects. The present study grounded in previous engineering, medical, and public health research provides valuable technical and practical recommendations for facility owners and industry professionals interested in pursuing sustainable, yet healthy and smart building projects.

Keywords: healthy buildings, smart construction, innovative designs, sustainable projects

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22366 Multiresolution Mesh Blending for Surface Detail Reconstruction

Authors: Honorio Salmeron Valdivieso, Andy Keane, David Toal

Abstract:

In the area of mechanical reverse engineering, processes often encounter difficulties capturing small, highly localized surface information. This could be the case if a physical turbine was 3D scanned for lifecycle management or robust design purposes, with interest on eroded areas or scratched coating. The limitation partly is due to insufficient automated frameworks for handling -localized - surface information during the reverse engineering pipeline. We have developed a tool for blending surface patches with arbitrary irregularities into a base body (e.g. a CAD solid). The approach aims to transfer small surface features while preserving their shape and relative placement by using a multi-resolution scheme and rigid deformations. Automating this process enables the inclusion of outsourced surface information in CAD models, including samples prepared in mesh handling software, or raw scan information discarded in the early stages of reverse engineering reconstruction.

Keywords: application lifecycle management, multiresolution deformation, reverse engineering, robust design, surface blending

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22365 Automation of Embodied Energy Calculations for Buildings through Building Information Modelling

Authors: Ahmad Odeh

Abstract:

Researchers are currently more concerned about the calculations of energy at the operational stage, mainly due to its larger environmental impact, but the fact remains, embodied energies represent a substantial contributor unaccounted for in the overall energy computation method. The calculation of materials’ embodied energy during the construction stage is complicated. This is due to the various factors involved. The equipment used, fuel needed, and electricity required for each type of materials varies with location and thus the embodied energy will differ for each project. Moreover, the method used in manufacturing, transporting and putting in place will have significant influence on the materials’ embodied energy. This anomaly has made it difficult to calculate or even bench mark the usage of such energies. This paper presents a model aimed at calculating embodied energies based on such variabilities. It presents a systematic approach that uses an efficient method of calculation to provide a new insight for the selection of construction materials. The model is developed in a BIM environment. The quantification of materials’ energy is determined over the three main stages of their lifecycle: manufacturing, transporting and placing. The model uses three major databases each of which contains set of the construction materials that are most commonly used in building projects. The first dataset holds information about the energy required to manufacture any type of materials, the second includes information about the energy required for transporting the materials while the third stores information about the energy required by machinery to place the materials in their intended locations. Through geospatial data analysis, the model automatically calculates the distances between the suppliers and construction sites and then uses dataset information for energy computations. The computational sum of all the energies is automatically calculated and then the model provides designers with a list of usable equipment along with the associated embodied energies.

Keywords: BIM, lifecycle energy assessment, building automation, energy conservation

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22364 Considering Uncertainties of Input Parameters on Energy, Environmental Impacts and Life Cycle Costing by Monte Carlo Simulation in the Decision Making Process

Authors: Johannes Gantner, Michael Held, Matthias Fischer

Abstract:

The refurbishment of the building stock in terms of energy supply and efficiency is one of the major challenges of the German turnaround in energy policy. As the building sector accounts for 40% of Germany’s total energy demand, additional insulation is key for energy efficient refurbished buildings. Nevertheless the energetic benefits often the environmental and economic performances of insulation materials are questioned. The methods Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as well as Life Cycle Costing (LCC) can form the standardized basis for answering this doubts and more and more become important for material producers due efforts such as Product Environmental Footprint (PEF) or Environmental Product Declarations (EPD). Due to increasing use of LCA and LCC information for decision support the robustness and resilience of the results become crucial especially for support of decision and policy makers. LCA and LCC results are based on respective models which depend on technical parameters like efficiencies, material and energy demand, product output, etc.. Nevertheless, the influence of parameter uncertainties on lifecycle results are usually not considered or just studied superficially. Anyhow the effect of parameter uncertainties cannot be neglected. Based on the example of an exterior wall the overall lifecycle results are varying by a magnitude of more than three. As a result simple best case worst case analyses used in practice are not sufficient. These analyses allow for a first rude view on the results but are not taking effects into account such as error propagation. Thereby LCA practitioners cannot provide further guidance for decision makers. Probabilistic analyses enable LCA practitioners to gain deeper understanding of the LCA and LCC results and provide a better decision support. Within this study, the environmental and economic impacts of an exterior wall system over its whole lifecycle are illustrated, and the effect of different uncertainty analysis on the interpretation in terms of resilience and robustness are shown. Hereby the approaches of error propagation and Monte Carlo Simulations are applied and combined with statistical methods in order to allow for a deeper understanding and interpretation. All in all this study emphasis the need for a deeper and more detailed probabilistic evaluation based on statistical methods. Just by this, misleading interpretations can be avoided, and the results can be used for resilient and robust decisions.

Keywords: uncertainty, life cycle assessment, life cycle costing, Monte Carlo simulation

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22363 Factors of Influence in Software Process Improvement: An ISO/IEC 29110 for Very-Small Entities

Authors: N. Wongsai, R. Wetprasit, V. Siddoo

Abstract:

The recently introduced ISO/IEC 29110 standard Lifecycle profile for Very Small Entities (VSE) has been adopted and practiced in many small and medium software companies, including in Thailand’s software industry. Many Thai companies complete their software process improvement (SPI) initiative program and have been certified. There are, however, a number of participants fail to success. This study was concerned with the factors that influence the accomplishment of the standard implementation in various VSE characteristics. In order to achieve this goal, exploring and extracting critical factors from prior studies were carried out and then the obtained factors were validated by the standard experts. Data analysis of comments and recommendations was performed using a qualitative content analysis method. This paper presents the initial set of influence factors in both positive and negative impact the ISO/IEC 29110 implementation with an aim at helping such SPI practitioners with some considerations to manage appropriate adoption approach in order to achieve its implementation.

Keywords: barriers, critical success factors, ISO/IEC 29110, Software Process Improvement, SPI, Very-Small Entity, VSE

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22362 Willingness to Adopt "Green Steel" Products: A Case Study from the Automotive Sector

Authors: Hasan Muslemani, Jeffrey Wilson, Xi Liang, Francisco Ascui, Katharina Kaesehage

Abstract:

This paper aims to examine consumer behaviour towards, and the willingness to adopt, green steel use in the automotive sector, in order to identify potential barriers and opportunities for its widespread adoption. Semi-structured interviews were held with experts from global, regional and country-specific industry associations and automakers. The analysis shows there is a new shift towards lifecycle thinking in the sector, although these efforts have been voluntary and driven by customer and employee pressures rather than regulation. The paper further appraises possible demand for green steel within different vehicle types (based on size and powertrain), and shows that manufacturers of electric heavy-duty vehicles are most likely to adopt green steel in the first instance, given the amount of incorporated steel in the vehicles and the fact that lifecycle emissions lie predominantly in their manufacturing phase. A case for green advanced higher-strength steels (AHSS) can also be made in light-duty passenger vehicles, which may mitigate competition from light-weight alternative materials in terms of cost and greenness (depending on source and utilisation zones). This work builds on a wide sustainability-related literature in the automotive sector and highlights areas in need of urgent action if the sector as a whole were to meet its Paris Agreement climate targets, in particular a need to revisit current CO2 performance regulations to include Scope 1 and Scope 2 emissions, engage in educational green marketing campaigns, and explore innovative market-based mechanisms to bridge the gap between relatively-low carbon abatement costs of steelmaking and high abatement costs of vehicle manufacturing.

Keywords: Green steel, Consumer behaviour, Automotive industry, Environmental sustainability

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22361 A Predictive Analytics Approach to Project Management: Reducing Project Failures in Web and Software Development Projects

Authors: Tazeen Fatima

Abstract:

Use of project management in web & software development projects is very significant. It has been observed that even with the application of effective project management, projects usually do not complete their lifecycle and fail. To minimize these failures, key performance indicators have been introduced in previous studies to counter project failures. However, there are always gaps and problems in the KPIs identified. Despite of incessant efforts at technical and managerial levels, projects still fail. There is no substantial approach to identify and avoid these failures in the very beginning of the project lifecycle. In this study, we aim to answer these research problems by analyzing the concept of predictive analytics which is a specialized technology and is very easy to use in this era of computation. Project organizations can use data gathering, compute power, and modern tools to render efficient Predictions. The research aims to identify such a predictive analytics approach. The core objective of the study was to reduce failures and introduce effective implementation of project management principles. Existing predictive analytics methodologies, tools and solution providers were also analyzed. Relevant data was gathered from projects and was analyzed via predictive techniques to make predictions well advance in time to render effective project management in web & software development industry.

Keywords: project management, predictive analytics, predictive analytics methodology, project failures

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22360 A Methodological Approach to Digital Engineering Adoption and Implementation for Organizations

Authors: Sadia H. Syeda, Zain H. Malik

Abstract:

As systems continue to become more complex and the interdependencies of processes and sub-systems continue to grow and transform, the need for a comprehensive method of tracking and linking the lifecycle of the systems in a digital form becomes ever more critical. Digital Engineering (DE) provides an approach to managing an authoritative data source that links, tracks, and updates system data as it evolves and grows throughout the system development lifecycle. DE enables the developing, tracking, and sharing system data, models, and other related artifacts in a digital environment accessible to all necessary stakeholders. The DE environment provides an integrated electronic repository that enables traceability between design, engineering, and sustainment artifacts. The DE activities' primary objective is to develop a set of integrated, coherent, and consistent system models for the program. It is envisioned to provide a collaborative information-sharing environment for various stakeholders, including operational users, acquisition personnel, engineering personnel, and logistics and sustainment personnel. Examining the processes that DE can support in the systems engineering life cycle (SELC) is a primary step in the DE adoption and implementation journey. Through an analysis of the U.S Department of Defense’s (DoD) Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD’s) Digital Engineering Strategy and their implementation, examples of DE implementation by the industry and technical organizations, this paper will provide descriptions of the current DE processes and best practices of implementing DE across an enterprise. This will help identify the capabilities, environment, and infrastructure needed to develop a potential roadmap for implementing DE practices consistent with its business strategy. A capability maturity matrix will be provided to assess the organization’s DE maturity emphasizing how all the SELC elements interlink to form a cohesive ecosystem. If implemented, DE can increase efficiency and improve the systems engineering processes' quality and outcomes.

Keywords: digital engineering, digital environment, digital maturity model, single source of truth, systems engineering life-cycle

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22359 Short Life Cycle Time Series Forecasting

Authors: Shalaka Kadam, Dinesh Apte, Sagar Mainkar

Abstract:

The life cycle of products is becoming shorter and shorter due to increased competition in market, shorter product development time and increased product diversity. Short life cycles are normal in retail industry, style business, entertainment media, and telecom and semiconductor industry. The subject of accurate forecasting for demand of short lifecycle products is of special enthusiasm for many researchers and organizations. Due to short life cycle of products the amount of historical data that is available for forecasting is very minimal or even absent when new or modified products are launched in market. The companies dealing with such products want to increase the accuracy in demand forecasting so that they can utilize the full potential of the market at the same time do not oversupply. This provides the challenge to develop a forecasting model that can forecast accurately while handling large variations in data and consider the complex relationships between various parameters of data. Many statistical models have been proposed in literature for forecasting time series data. Traditional time series forecasting models do not work well for short life cycles due to lack of historical data. Also artificial neural networks (ANN) models are very time consuming to perform forecasting. We have studied the existing models that are used for forecasting and their limitations. This work proposes an effective and powerful forecasting approach for short life cycle time series forecasting. We have proposed an approach which takes into consideration different scenarios related to data availability for short lifecycle products. We then suggest a methodology which combines statistical analysis with structured judgement. Also the defined approach can be applied across domains. We then describe the method of creating a profile from analogous products. This profile can then be used for forecasting products with historical data of analogous products. We have designed an application which combines data, analytics and domain knowledge using point-and-click technology. The forecasting results generated are compared using MAPE, MSE and RMSE error scores. Conclusion: Based on the results it is observed that no one approach is sufficient for short life-cycle forecasting and we need to combine two or more approaches for achieving the desired accuracy.

Keywords: forecast, short life cycle product, structured judgement, time series

Procedia PDF Downloads 264