Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1547

Search results for: Surrogate modelling

1547 Variable-Fidelity Surrogate Modelling with Kriging

Authors: Selvakumar Ulaganathan, Ivo Couckuyt, Francesco Ferranti, Tom Dhaene, Eric Laermans


Variable-fidelity surrogate modelling offers an efficient way to approximate function data available in multiple degrees of accuracy each with varying computational cost. In this paper, a Kriging-based variable-fidelity surrogate modelling approach is introduced to approximate such deterministic data. Initially, individual Kriging surrogate models, which are enhanced with gradient data of different degrees of accuracy, are constructed. Then these Gradient enhanced Kriging surrogate models are strategically coupled using a recursive CoKriging formulation to provide an accurate surrogate model for the highest fidelity data. While, intuitively, gradient data is useful to enhance the accuracy of surrogate models, the primary motivation behind this work is to investigate if it is also worthwhile incorporating gradient data of varying degrees of accuracy.

Keywords: Kriging, CoKriging, Surrogate modelling, Variable- fidelity modelling, Gradients

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1546 An Adaptive Hybrid Surrogate-Assisted Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Expensive Structural Optimization

Authors: Xiongxiong You, Zhanwen Niu


Choosing an appropriate surrogate model plays an important role in surrogates-assisted evolutionary algorithms (SAEAs) since there are many types and different kernel functions in the surrogate model. In this paper, an adaptive selection of the best suitable surrogate model method is proposed to solve different kinds of expensive optimization problems. Firstly, according to the prediction residual error sum of square (PRESS) and different model selection strategies, the excellent individual surrogate models are integrated into multiple ensemble models in each generation. Then, based on the minimum root of mean square error (RMSE), the best suitable surrogate model is selected dynamically. Secondly, two methods with dynamic number of models and selection strategies are designed, which are used to show the influence of the number of individual models and selection strategy. Finally, some compared studies are made to deal with several commonly used benchmark problems, as well as a rotor system optimization problem. The results demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method.

Keywords: adaptive selection, expensive optimization, rotor system, surrogates assisted evolutionary algorithms

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1545 Nelder-Mead Parametric Optimization of Elastic Metamaterials with Artificial Neural Network Surrogate Model

Authors: Jiaqi Dong, Qing-Hua Qin, Yi Xiao


Some of the most fundamental challenges of elastic metamaterials (EMMs) optimization can be attributed to the high consumption of computational power resulted from finite element analysis (FEA) simulations that render the optimization process inefficient. Furthermore, due to the inherent mesh dependence of FEA, minuscule geometry features, which often emerge during the later stages of optimization, induce very fine elements, resulting in enormously high time consumption, particularly when repetitive solutions are needed for computing the objective function. In this study, a surrogate modelling algorithm is developed to reduce computational time in structural optimization of EMMs. The surrogate model is constructed based on a multilayer feedforward artificial neural network (ANN) architecture, trained with prepopulated eigenfrequency data prepopulated from FEA simulation and optimized through regime selection with genetic algorithm (GA) to improve its accuracy in predicting the location and width of the primary elastic band gap. With the optimized ANN surrogate at the core, a Nelder-Mead (NM) algorithm is established and its performance inspected in comparison to the FEA solution. The ANNNM model shows remarkable accuracy in predicting the band gap width and a reduction of time consumption by 47%.

Keywords: artificial neural network, machine learning, mechanical metamaterials, Nelder-Mead optimization

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1544 Fast Aerodynamic Evaluation of Transport Aircraft in Early Phases

Authors: Xavier Bertrand, Alexandre Cayrel


The early phase of an aircraft development is instrumental as it really drives the potential of a new concept. Any weakness in the high-level design (wing planform, moveable surfaces layout etc.) will be extremely difficult and expensive to recover later in the aircraft development process. Aerodynamic evaluation in this very early development phase is driven by two main criteria: a short lead-time to allow quick iterations of the geometrical design, and a high quality of the calculations to get an accurate & reliable assessment of the current status. These two criteria are usually quite contradictory. Actually, short lead time of a couple of hours from end-to-end can be obtained with very simple tools (semi-empirical methods for instance) although their accuracy is limited, whereas higher quality calculations require heavier/more complex tools, which obviously need more complex inputs as well, and a significantly longer lead time. At this point, the choice has to be done between accuracy and lead-time. A brand new approach has been developed within Airbus, aiming at obtaining quickly high quality evaluations of the aerodynamic of an aircraft. This methodology is based on a joint use of Surrogate Modelling and a lifting line code. The Surrogate Modelling is used to get the wing sections characteristics (e.g. lift coefficient vs. angle of attack), whatever the airfoil geometry, the status of the moveable surfaces (aileron/spoilers) or the high-lift devices deployment. From these characteristics, the lifting line code is used to get the 3D effects on the wing whatever the flow conditions (low/high Mach numbers etc.). This methodology has been applied successfully to a concept of medium range aircraft.

Keywords: aerodynamics, lifting line, surrogate model, CFD

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1543 The Gaze; Objectification of the Surrogate Mother in Cross-Border Surrogacy: An Empirical Study Applied to Surrogacy Facilitators

Authors: Yingyi Luo


Cross-border surrogacy is seen by many as a market in which women are bought and sold commodities at risk of trafficking. A surrogate can be framed as either a fully acknowledged subject, with whom intended parents engage in cross-border surrogacy—or as a tool utilized by intended parents and surrogacy facilitators in the furtherance of their own objectives. In order to identify which frame prevails, this paper applies subjectivity theory to an empirical study of cross-border surrogacy facilitated by facilitators in Australia analysing interviews with surrogate agents, counsellors and lawyers, and observations at trade show. The aim of the paper is to advance understanding of the dynamics of the relationship between intended parents, surrogates, and surrogacy facilitators by collecting new data and applying unique framework. As dominant players, surrogacy facilitators have a significant impact on determining the nature of cross-border surrogacy. However, little is known concerning the manner in which facilitators influence the inter-subjectivity between surrogate mothers and intended parents. Thus, this paper intends to identify how facilitators depict surrogate mothers, the degree to which their perspectives bear upon both the subjectivity of the surrogate mother and the relationship of intended parents with surrogate mothers. For the purpose of introducing and developing this framework in the context of cross-border surrogacy, this paper borrows from the work of theorists not often mentioned in bioethics, including Jacques Lacan, Marco Cavallaro, Michel Foucault, and others. It also applies the concept of 'the gaze' along with the dynamic of 'self' and 'other' to the cross-border surrogacy arrangement. Applying the concept of the gaze can provide a new way to interpret the power dynamic that plays out among surrogacy facilitators, intended parents, and surrogates within the commercial surrogacy arrangement and how the subjectivity is produced through the power. Viewing the relationships between the players in cross-border surrogacy through the lens of gaze theory, this paper finds that, in cross-border surrogacy, due to the structural power imbalance, affluent intended parents and surrogacy facilitators are possessors of the gaze, while surrogate mothers are under the thrall of the gaze. Specifically, facilitators frame surrogate mothers' reproductive abilities as commodities that intended parents can purchase to fulfil their urgent need to have children and experience full subjectivity, and they take a cut of the money that paid by intended parents. Therefore, commodification of the body results in degrading a surrogate mother (the object), reifying her as no more than a walking womb (the other), a process which is highly detrimental to the self of surrogate mothers. This relationship, formalized through contractual means, allows intended parents and facilitators to take advantage of surrogate mothers in the furtherance of their own objectives. This argument is enriched by new data from interviews and observations that provide nuance to this understanding of inter-subjectivity.

Keywords: cross-border surrogacy, facilitators, self, surrogate mothers

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1542 Pefloxacin as a Surrogate Marker for Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Salmonella: Study from North India

Authors: Varsha Gupta, Priya Datta, Gursimran Mohi, Jagdish Chander


Fluoroquinolones form the mainstay of therapy for the treatment of infections due to Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica. There is a complex interplay between several resistance mechanisms for quinolones and various fluoroquinolones discs, giving varying results, making detection and interpretation of fluoroquinolone resistance difficult. For detection of fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella ssp., we compared the use of pefloxacin and nalidixic acid discs as surrogate marker. Using MIC for ciprofloxacin as the gold standard, 43.5% of strains showed MIC as ≥1 μg/ml and were thus resistant to fluoroquinoloes. Based on the performance of nalidixic acid and pefloxacin discs as surrogate marker for ciprofloxacin resistance, both the discs could correctly detect all the resistant phenotypes; however, use of nalidixic acid disc showed false resistance in the majority of the sensitive phenotypes. We have also tested newer antimicrobial agents like cefixime, imipenem, tigecycline and azithromycin against Salmonella spp. Moreover, there was a comeback of susceptibility to older antimicrobials like ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and cotrimoxazole. We can also use cefixime, imipenem, tigecycline and azithromycin in the treatment of multidrug resistant S. typhi due to their high susceptibility.

Keywords: salmonella, pefloxacin, surrogate marker, chloramphenicol

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1541 Performance Evaluation of Using Genetic Programming Based Surrogate Models for Approximating Simulation Complex Geochemical Transport Processes

Authors: Hamed K. Esfahani, Bithin Datta


Transport of reactive chemical contaminant species in groundwater aquifers is a complex and highly non-linear physical and geochemical process especially for real life scenarios. Simulating this transport process involves solving complex nonlinear equations and generally requires huge computational time for a given aquifer study area. Development of optimal remediation strategies in aquifers may require repeated solution of such complex numerical simulation models. To overcome this computational limitation and improve the computational feasibility of large number of repeated simulations, Genetic Programming based trained surrogate models are developed to approximately simulate such complex transport processes. Transport process of acid mine drainage, a hazardous pollutant is first simulated using a numerical simulated model: HYDROGEOCHEM 5.0 for a contaminated aquifer in a historic mine site. Simulation model solution results for an illustrative contaminated aquifer site is then approximated by training and testing a Genetic Programming (GP) based surrogate model. Performance evaluation of the ensemble GP models as surrogate models for the reactive species transport in groundwater demonstrates the feasibility of its use and the associated computational advantages. The results show the efficiency and feasibility of using ensemble GP surrogate models as approximate simulators of complex hydrogeologic and geochemical processes in a contaminated groundwater aquifer incorporating uncertainties in historic mine site.

Keywords: geochemical transport simulation, acid mine drainage, surrogate models, ensemble genetic programming, contaminated aquifers, mine sites

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1540 Development of a Reduced Multicomponent Jet Fuel Surrogate for Computational Fluid Dynamics Application

Authors: Muhammad Zaman Shakir, Mingfa Yao, Zohaib Iqbal


This study proposed four Jet fuel surrogate (S1, S2 S3, and 4) with careful selection of seven large hydrocarbon fuel components, ranging from C₉-C₁₆ of higher molecular weight and higher boiling point, adapting the standard molecular distribution size of the actual jet fuel. The surrogate was composed of seven components, including n-propyl cyclohexane (C₉H₁₈), n- propylbenzene (C₉H₁₂), n-undecane (C₁₁H₂₄), n- dodecane (C₁₂H₂₆), n-tetradecane (C₁₄H₃₀), n-hexadecane (C₁₆H₃₄) and iso-cetane (iC₁₆H₃₄). The skeletal jet fuel surrogate reaction mechanism was developed by two approaches, firstly based on a decoupling methodology by describing the C₄ -C₁₆ skeletal mechanism for the oxidation of heavy hydrocarbons and a detailed H₂ /CO/C₁ mechanism for prediction of oxidation of small hydrocarbons. The combined skeletal jet fuel surrogate mechanism was compressed into 128 species, and 355 reactions and thereby can be used in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The extensive validation was performed for individual single-component including ignition delay time, species concentrations profile and laminar flame speed based on various fundamental experiments under wide operating conditions, and for their blended mixture, among all the surrogate, S1 has been extensively validated against the experimental data in a shock tube, rapid compression machine, jet-stirred reactor, counterflow flame, and premixed laminar flame over wide ranges of temperature (700-1700 K), pressure (8-50 atm), and equivalence ratio (0.5-2.0) to capture the properties target fuel Jet-A, while the rest of three surrogate S2, S3 and S4 has been validated for Shock Tube ignition delay time only to capture the ignition characteristic of target fuel S-8 & GTL, IPK and RP-3 respectively. Based on the newly proposed HyChem model, another four surrogate with similar components and composition, was developed and parallel validations data was used as followed for previously developed surrogate but at high-temperature condition only. After testing the mechanism prediction performance of surrogates developed by the decoupling methodology, the comparison was done with the results of surrogates developed by the HyChem model. It was observed that all of four proposed surrogates in this study showed good agreement with the experimental measurements and the study comes to this conclusion that like the decoupling methodology HyChem model also has a great potential for the development of oxidation mechanism for heavy alkanes because of applicability, simplicity, and compactness.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, decoupling methodology Hychem, jet fuel, surrogate, skeletal mechanism

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1539 Commercial Surrogacy and Rights of the Children Born

Authors: Neha Tiwari


Rights are prerequisite for individuals to pursue their aims and enrich themselves. Laski has said rights are, ‘conditions of social life without which no man can seek himself at his best.’ However with superior technology, rights of many individuals are at stake as well. One such sufferer is the babies born out of the practice of commercial surrogacy. Commercial surrogacy has emerged as the most viable option for the childless couples. The practice has garnered lot of debate in both academia and media. Some argue for a complete ban and some for strict rules and regulation. Most of the time the debate is regarding the rights of the surrogate, something which we cannot ignore. Equally important are the rights of the children born out of such arrangements. However, not much attention is being paid to them. Recently, a controversy emerged when a surrogate gave birth to twins. One of the babies, Gammy born with down syndrome was left behind by the couple. Gammy could die because his poor Thai surrogate mother may not be able to pay for his treatment. Even if he survives, he will never know his twin sister as her identity would never be disclosed. This is just one of many such cases where the future of such babies is being played with. If the rights of these children are not taken care of many of them will have to bear the brunt of society's ignorance and perhaps live with a scar which won't heal in their lifetime.

Keywords: babies, commercial surrogacy, rights, technology

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1538 Probability-Based Damage Detection of Structures Using Kriging Surrogates and Enhanced Ideal Gas Molecular Movement Algorithm

Authors: M. R. Ghasemi, R. Ghiasi, H. Varaee


Surrogate model has received increasing attention for use in detecting damage of structures based on vibration modal parameters. However, uncertainties existing in the measured vibration data may lead to false or unreliable output result from such model. In this study, an efficient approach based on Monte Carlo simulation is proposed to take into account the effect of uncertainties in developing a surrogate model. The probability of damage existence (PDE) is calculated based on the probability density function of the existence of undamaged and damaged states. The kriging technique allows one to genuinely quantify the surrogate error, therefore it is chosen as metamodeling technique. Enhanced version of ideal gas molecular movement (EIGMM) algorithm is used as main algorithm for model updating. The developed approach is applied to detect simulated damage in numerical models of 72-bar space truss and 120-bar dome truss. The simulation results show the proposed method can perform well in probability-based damage detection of structures with less computational effort compared to direct finite element model.

Keywords: probability-based damage detection (PBDD), Kriging, surrogate modeling, uncertainty quantification, artificial intelligence, enhanced ideal gas molecular movement (EIGMM)

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1537 Infilling Strategies for Surrogate Model Based Multi-disciplinary Analysis and Applications to Velocity Prediction Programs

Authors: Malo Pocheau-Lesteven, Olivier Le Maître


Engineering and optimisation of complex systems is often achieved through multi-disciplinary analysis of the system, where each subsystem is modeled and interacts with other subsystems to model the complete system. The coherence of the output of the different sub-systems is achieved through the use of compatibility constraints, which enforce the coupling between the different subsystems. Due to the complexity of some sub-systems and the computational cost of evaluating their respective models, it is often necessary to build surrogate models of these subsystems to allow repeated evaluation these subsystems at a relatively low computational cost. In this paper, gaussian processes are used, as their probabilistic nature is leveraged to evaluate the likelihood of satisfying the compatibility constraints. This paper presents infilling strategies to build accurate surrogate models of the subsystems in areas where they are likely to meet the compatibility constraint. It is shown that these infilling strategies can reduce the computational cost of building surrogate models for a given level of accuracy. An application of these methods to velocity prediction programs used in offshore racing naval architecture further demonstrates these method's applicability in a real engineering context. Also, some examples of the application of uncertainty quantification to field of naval architecture are presented.

Keywords: infilling strategy, gaussian process, multi disciplinary analysis, velocity prediction program

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1536 Human Rights in Cross-Border Surrogacy: An Exploratory Study Applied to Surrogacy Facilitators

Authors: Yingyi Luo


Cross-border commercial surrogacy, where Australians travel overseas to access reproduction through a surrogate mother, is an increasing phenomenon. This paper focuses on the role of Australian surrogacy facilitators, including lawyers, non-for-profit agents, fertility counselors, who act as intermediaries managing cross-border surrogacy arrangements in Australia. It explores the extent to which surrogacy facilitators are concerned with the human rights of children born through cross-border surrogacy, surrogate mothers in developing countries, and intended parents. Commercial surrogacy is a matter that is often cast in the language of human rights. This paper will contribute to an in-depth understanding of the dynamics between intended parents, surrogates, and surrogacy facilitators by adopting a human rights framework to inform data analysis regarding the role of facilitators. The purpose of this research is to inform debate and discussion on law reform related to surrogacy. This paper presented here centers on interviews with surrogacy facilitators in Australia and non-participant observations in Australia to generate thick, empirical data about the fertility industry. The data showed that the process of facilitating surrogacy arrangements had prompted facilitators to form a view on human rights as they applied to their works. Although facilitators claimed that the right of intended parents, surrogate mothers, and children were all taken into consideration, the researcher observed that the commercial surrogacy contracts described by these facilitators favored the interests of intended parents with the baby acting as their unique selling point. The interests and needs of surrogate mothers were not prioritized in the views or actions of facilitators. The result was a commercial transaction that entailed the purchase, through cross-border surrogacy, of a child, as a commodity, by relatively affluent intended parents from disadvantaged surrogate mothers through unfair contracts.

Keywords: cross-border surrogacy, facilitators, human rights, surrogacy

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1535 Data-Driven Surrogate Models for Damage Prediction of Steel Liquid Storage Tanks under Seismic Hazard

Authors: Laura Micheli, Majd Hijazi, Mahmoud Faytarouni


The damage reported by oil and gas industrial facilities revealed the utmost vulnerability of steel liquid storage tanks to seismic events. The failure of steel storage tanks may yield devastating and long-lasting consequences on built and natural environments, including the release of hazardous substances, uncontrolled fires, and soil contamination with hazardous materials. It is, therefore, fundamental to reliably predict the damage that steel liquid storage tanks will likely experience under future seismic hazard events. The seismic performance of steel liquid storage tanks is usually assessed using vulnerability curves obtained from the numerical simulation of a tank under different hazard scenarios. However, the computational demand of high-fidelity numerical simulation models, such as finite element models, makes the vulnerability assessment of liquid storage tanks time-consuming and often impractical. As a solution, this paper presents a surrogate model-based strategy for predicting seismic-induced damage in steel liquid storage tanks. In the proposed strategy, the surrogate model is leveraged to reduce the computational demand of time-consuming numerical simulations. To create the data set for training the surrogate model, field damage data from past earthquakes reconnaissance surveys and reports are collected. Features representative of steel liquid storage tank characteristics (e.g., diameter, height, liquid level, yielding stress) and seismic excitation parameters (e.g., peak ground acceleration, magnitude) are extracted from the field damage data. The collected data are then utilized to train a surrogate model that maps the relationship between tank characteristics, seismic hazard parameters, and seismic-induced damage via a data-driven surrogate model. Different types of surrogate algorithms, including naïve Bayes, k-nearest neighbors, decision tree, and random forest, are investigated, and results in terms of accuracy are reported. The model that yields the most accurate predictions is employed to predict future damage as a function of tank characteristics and seismic hazard intensity level. Results show that the proposed approach can be used to estimate the extent of damage in steel liquid storage tanks, where the use of data-driven surrogates represents a viable alternative to computationally expensive numerical simulation models.

Keywords: damage prediction , data-driven model, seismic performance, steel liquid storage tanks, surrogate model

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1534 Assessment of Association Between Microalbuminuria and Lung Function Test Among the Community of Jimma Town

Authors: Diriba Dereje


Background: Cardiac and renal disease are the most prevalent chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCD) affecting the community in a significant manner. The best and recommended method in halting CNCD is by working on prevention as early as possible. This is only possible if early surrogate markers are identified. As part of the stated solution, this study will identify an association between microalbuminuria (an early surrogate marker of renal and cardiac disease) and lung function test among adult in the community. Objective: The main aim of this study was to assess an association between microalbuminuria (an early surrogate marker of renal and cardiac disease) and lung function test among adult in the community. Methodology: Community based cross sectional study was conducted among 384 adult in Jimma town. A systematic sampling technique was used in selecting participants to the study. In searching for the possible association, binary and multivariate logistic regression and t-test was conducted. Finally, the association between microalbuminuria and lung function test was well stated in the form of figures and written description. Result and Conclusion: A significant association was found between microalbuminuria and different lung function test parameters.

Keywords: microalbuminuria, lung function, association, test

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1533 Establishing a Surrogate Approach to Assess the Exposure Concentrations during Coating Process

Authors: Shan-Hong Ying, Ying-Fang Wang


A surrogate approach was deployed for assessing exposures of multiple chemicals at the selected working area of coating processes and applied to assess the exposure concentration of similar exposed groups using the same chemicals but different formula ratios. For the selected area, 6 to 12 portable photoionization detector (PID) were placed uniformly in its workplace to measure its total VOCs concentrations (CT-VOCs) for 6 randomly selected workshifts. Simultaneously, one sampling strain was placed beside one of these portable PIDs, and the collected air sample was analyzed for individual concentration (CVOCi) of 5 VOCs (xylene, butanone, toluene, butyl acetate, and dimethylformamide). Predictive models were established by relating the CT-VOCs to CVOCi of each individual compound via simple regression analysis. The established predictive models were employed to predict each CVOCi based on the measured CT-VOC for each the similar working area using the same portable PID. Results show that predictive models obtained from simple linear regression analyses were found with an R2 = 0.83~0.99 indicating that CT-VOCs were adequate for predicting CVOCi. In order to verify the validity of the exposure prediction model, the sampling analysis of the above chemical substances was further carried out and the correlation between the measured value (Cm) and the predicted value (Cp) was analyzed. It was found that there is a good correction between the predicted value and measured value of each measured chemical substance (R2=0.83~0.98). Therefore, the surrogate approach could be assessed the exposure concentration of similar exposed groups using the same chemicals but different formula ratios. However, it is recommended to establish the prediction model between the chemical substances belonging to each coater and the direct-reading PID, which is more representative of reality exposure situation and more accurately to estimate the long-term exposure concentration of operators.

Keywords: exposure assessment, exposure prediction model, surrogate approach, TVOC

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1532 Microscopic Simulation of Toll Plaza Safety and Operations

Authors: Bekir O. Bartin, Kaan Ozbay, Sandeep Mudigonda, Hong Yang


The use of microscopic traffic simulation in evaluating the operational and safety conditions at toll plazas is demonstrated. Two toll plazas in New Jersey are selected as case studies and were developed and validated in Paramics traffic simulation software. In order to simulate drivers’ lane selection behavior in Paramics, a utility-based lane selection approach is implemented in Paramics Application Programming Interface (API). For each vehicle approaching the toll plaza, a utility value is assigned to each toll lane by taking into account the factors that are likely to impact drivers’ lane selection behavior, such as approach lane, exit lane and queue lengths. The results demonstrate that similar operational conditions, such as lane-by-lane toll plaza traffic volume can be attained using this approach. In addition, assessment of safety at toll plazas is conducted via a surrogate safety measure. In particular, the crash index (CI), an improved surrogate measure of time-to-collision (TTC), which reflects the severity of a crash is used in the simulation analyses. The results indicate that the spatial and temporal frequency of observed crashes can be simulated using the proposed methodology. Further analyses can be conducted to evaluate and compare various different operational decisions and safety measures using microscopic simulation models.

Keywords: microscopic simulation, toll plaza, surrogate safety, application programming interface

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1531 Reliability Modeling on Drivers’ Decision during Yellow Phase

Authors: Sabyasachi Biswas, Indrajit Ghosh


The random and heterogeneous behavior of vehicles in India puts up a greater challenge for researchers. Stop-and-go modeling at signalized intersections under heterogeneous traffic conditions has remained one of the most sought-after fields. Vehicles are often caught up in the dilemma zone and are unable to take quick decisions whether to stop or cross the intersection. This hampers the traffic movement and may lead to accidents. The purpose of this work is to develop a stop and go prediction model that depicts the drivers’ decision during the yellow time at signalised intersections. To accomplish this, certain traffic parameters were taken into account to develop surrogate model. This research investigated the Stop and Go behavior of the drivers by collecting data from 4-signalized intersections located in two major Indian cities. Model was developed to predict the drivers’ decision making during the yellow phase of the traffic signal. The parameters used for modeling included distance to stop line, time to stop line, speed, and length of the vehicle. A Kriging base surrogate model has been developed to investigate the drivers’ decision-making behavior in amber phase. It is observed that the proposed approach yields a highly accurate result (97.4 percent) by Gaussian function. It was observed that the accuracy for the crossing probability was 95.45, 90.9 and 86.36.11 percent respectively as predicted by the Kriging models with Gaussian, Exponential and Linear functions.

Keywords: decision-making decision, dilemma zone, surrogate model, Kriging

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1530 Springback Prediction for Sheet Metal Cold Stamping Using Convolutional Neural Networks

Authors: Lei Zhu, Nan Li


Cold stamping has been widely applied in the automotive industry for the mass production of a great range of automotive panels. Predicting the springback to ensure the dimensional accuracy of the cold-stamped components is a critical step. The main approaches for the prediction and compensation of springback in cold stamping include running Finite Element (FE) simulations and conducting experiments, which require forming process expertise and can be time-consuming and expensive for the design of cold stamping tools. Machine learning technologies have been proven and successfully applied in learning complex system behaviours using presentative samples. These technologies exhibit the promising potential to be used as supporting design tools for metal forming technologies. This study, for the first time, presents a novel application of a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) based surrogate model to predict the springback fields for variable U-shape cold bending geometries. A dataset is created based on the U-shape cold bending geometries and the corresponding FE simulations results. The dataset is then applied to train the CNN surrogate model. The result shows that the surrogate model can achieve near indistinguishable full-field predictions in real-time when compared with the FE simulation results. The application of CNN in efficient springback prediction can be adopted in industrial settings to aid both conceptual and final component designs for designers without having manufacturing knowledge.

Keywords: springback, cold stamping, convolutional neural networks, machine learning

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1529 Surface Roughness Analysis, Modelling and Prediction in Fused Deposition Modelling Additive Manufacturing Technology

Authors: Yusuf S. Dambatta, Ahmed A. D. Sarhan


Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is one of the most prominent rapid prototyping (RP) technologies which is being used to efficiently fabricate CAD 3D geometric models. However, the process is coupled with many drawbacks, of which the surface quality of the manufactured RP parts is among. Hence, studies relating to improving the surface roughness have been a key issue in the field of RP research. In this work, a technique of modelling the surface roughness in FDM is presented. Using experimentally measured surface roughness response of the FDM parts, an ANFIS prediction model was developed to obtain the surface roughness in the FDM parts using the main critical process parameters that affects the surface quality. The ANFIS model was validated and compared with experimental test results.

Keywords: surface roughness, fused deposition modelling (FDM), adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), orientation

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1528 Building Information Modelling: A Review to Indian Scenario

Authors: P. Agnivesh, P. V. Ponambala Moorthi


Evolution of information modelling leads to the visualisation of well-organized built environment. Building Information Modelling (BIM) is considered as evolution in the off-site construction which essentially enhances and controls the present scenario of on-site construction paradigms. Promptness, sustainability and security are considered as the important characteristics of the building information modelling. Projects that uses BIM are tied firmly by technology but distributed organizationally. This allows different team members in the project to associate and integrate the works and work flows. This will in turn improve the efficiency of work breakdown structure. Internationally BIM had been accepted as modern computer aided way of information sharing by construction industry for efficient way of manipulation in order to avoid the on-site misperceptions. Even though, in developing countries like India BIM is in the phase of start and requires lot of mandates and policies to be brought about by the government for its widespread implementations. This paper reviews the current scenario of BIM worldwide and in India and suggests for the improved implementation of building modelling for Indian policy condition.

Keywords: building information modelling, Indian polity, information modelling, information sharing, mandates and policies, sustainability.

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1527 Genetic Programming: Principles, Applications and Opportunities for Hydrological Modelling

Authors: Oluwaseun K. Oyebode, Josiah A. Adeyemo


Hydrological modelling plays a crucial role in the planning and management of water resources, most especially in water stressed regions where the need to effectively manage the available water resources is of critical importance. However, due to the complex, nonlinear and dynamic behaviour of hydro-climatic interactions, achieving reliable modelling of water resource systems and accurate projection of hydrological parameters are extremely challenging. Although a significant number of modelling techniques (process-based and data-driven) have been developed and adopted in that regard, the field of hydrological modelling is still considered as one that has sluggishly progressed over the past decades. This is majorly as a result of the identification of some degree of uncertainty in the methodologies and results of techniques adopted. In recent times, evolutionary computation (EC) techniques have been developed and introduced in response to the search for efficient and reliable means of providing accurate solutions to hydrological related problems. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the underlying principles, methodological needs and applications of a promising evolutionary computation modelling technique – genetic programming (GP). It examines the specific characteristics of the technique which makes it suitable to solving hydrological modelling problems. It discusses the opportunities inherent in the application of GP in water related-studies such as rainfall estimation, rainfall-runoff modelling, streamflow forecasting, sediment transport modelling, water quality modelling and groundwater modelling among others. Furthermore, the means by which such opportunities could be harnessed in the near future are discussed. In all, a case for total embracement of GP and its variants in hydrological modelling studies is made so as to put in place strategies that would translate into achieving meaningful progress as it relates to modelling of water resource systems, and also positively influence decision-making by relevant stakeholders.

Keywords: computational modelling, evolutionary algorithms, genetic programming, hydrological modelling

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1526 Heat Transfer and Diffusion Modelling

Authors: R. Whalley


The heat transfer modelling for a diffusion process will be considered. Difficulties in computing the time-distance dynamics of the representation will be addressed. Incomplete and irrational Laplace function will be identified as the computational issue. Alternative approaches to the response evaluation process will be provided. An illustration application problem will be presented. Graphical results confirming the theoretical procedures employed will be provided.

Keywords: heat, transfer, diffusion, modelling, computation

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1525 Drawing, Design and Building Information Modelling (BIM): Embedding Advanced Digital Tools in the Academy Programs for Building Engineers and Architects

Authors: Vittorio Caffi, Maria Pignataro, Antonio Cosimo Devito, Marco Pesenti


This paper deals with the integration of advanced digital design and modelling tools and methodologies, known as Building Information Modelling, into the traditional Academy educational programs for building engineers and architects. Nowadays, the challenge the Academy has to face is to present the new tools and their features to the pupils, making sure they acquire the proper skills in order to leverage the potential they offer also for the other courses embedded in the educational curriculum. The syllabus here presented refers to the “Drawing for building engineering”, “2D and 3D laboratory” and “3D modelling” curricula of the MSc in Building Engineering of the Politecnico di Milano. Such topics, included since the first year in the MSc program, are fundamental to give the students the instruments to master the complexity of an architectural or building engineering project with digital tools, so as to represent it in its various forms.

Keywords: BIM, BIM curricula, computational design, digital modelling

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1524 Microkinetic Modelling of NO Reduction on Pt Catalysts

Authors: Vishnu S. Prasad, Preeti Aghalayam


The major harmful automobile exhausts are nitric oxide (NO) and unburned hydrocarbon (HC). Reduction of NO using unburned fuel HC as a reductant is the technique used in hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reduction (HC-SCR). In this work, we study the microkinetic modelling of NO reduction using propene as a reductant on Pt catalysts. The selectivity of NO reduction to N2O is detected in some ranges of operating conditions, whereas the effect of inlet O2% causes a number of changes in the feasible regimes of operation.

Keywords: microkinetic modelling, NOx, platinum on alumina catalysts, selective catalytic reduction

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1523 Radial Basis Surrogate Model Integrated to Evolutionary Algorithm for Solving Computation Intensive Black-Box Problems

Authors: Abdulbaset Saad, Adel Younis, Zuomin Dong


For design optimization with high-dimensional expensive problems, an effective and efficient optimization methodology is desired. This work proposes a series of modification to the Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm for solving computation Intensive Black-Box Problems. The proposed methodology is called Radial Basis Meta-Model Algorithm Assisted Differential Evolutionary (RBF-DE), which is a global optimization algorithm based on the meta-modeling techniques. A meta-modeling assisted DE is proposed to solve computationally expensive optimization problems. The Radial Basis Function (RBF) model is used as a surrogate model to approximate the expensive objective function, while DE employs a mechanism to dynamically select the best performing combination of parameters such as differential rate, cross over probability, and population size. The proposed algorithm is tested on benchmark functions and real life practical applications and problems. The test results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is promising and performs well compared to other optimization algorithms. The proposed algorithm is capable of converging to acceptable and good solutions in terms of accuracy, number of evaluations, and time needed to converge.

Keywords: differential evolution, engineering design, expensive computations, meta-modeling, radial basis function, optimization

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1522 Artificial Neural Network Modeling and Genetic Algorithm Based Optimization of Hydraulic Design Related to Seepage under Concrete Gravity Dams on Permeable Soils

Authors: Muqdad Al-Juboori, Bithin Datta


Hydraulic structures such as gravity dams are classified as essential structures, and have the vital role in providing strong and safe water resource management. Three major aspects must be considered to achieve an effective design of such a structure: 1) The building cost, 2) safety, and 3) accurate analysis of seepage characteristics. Due to the complexity and non-linearity relationships of the seepage process, many approximation theories have been developed; however, the application of these theories results in noticeable errors. The analytical solution, which includes the difficult conformal mapping procedure, could be applied for a simple and symmetrical problem only. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are to: 1) develop a surrogate model based on numerical simulated data using SEEPW software to approximately simulate seepage process related to a hydraulic structure, 2) develop and solve a linked simulation-optimization model based on the developed surrogate model to describe the seepage occurring under a concrete gravity dam, in order to obtain optimum and safe design at minimum cost. The result shows that the linked simulation-optimization model provides an efficient and optimum design of concrete gravity dams.

Keywords: artificial neural network, concrete gravity dam, genetic algorithm, seepage analysis

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1521 Pregnancy and Birth Outcomes of Single versus Multiple Embryo Transfer in Gestational Surrogacy Arrangements: A Systematic Review

Authors: Jutharat Attawet, Alex Y. Wang, Cindy M. Farquhar, Elizabeth A. Sullivan


Background: Adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes of multiple pregnancies resulting from multiple embryo transfers (ET) has become significant concerns. This is particularly relevant for gestational carriers since they usually do not have infertility issues. Single embryo transfer (SET) therefore has been encouraged to assist reproductive technology (ART) practice in order to reduce multiple pregnancies. Objectives: This systematic review aims to investigate the pregnancy and birth outcomes of SET and multiple ET in surrogacy arrangements. Search methods: This study is a systematic review. Electronic databases were searched from CINAHL, Medline, Embase, Scopus and ProQuest for studies from 1980 to 2017. Cross-references and national ART reports were also manual searchings. Articles without restriction of English language and study types were accessed. Carrier cycles involving in SET and multiple ET were identified in database searching. The main outcome measures including clinical pregnancy, live delivery and multiple deliveries per gestational carrier cycle were compared between SET and multiple ET. Mantel-Haenzel risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), using the numbers of outcome events in SET and multiple ET of each study were calculated suing RevMan5.3. Outcomes: The search returned 97 articles of which 5 met the inclusion criteria. Approximately 50% of carrier cycles were transferred a single embryo and 50% were transferred more than one embryo. The clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) was 39% for SET and 53% for multiple ET, which was not significantly different with RR = 0.83 (95% CI: 0.67-1.03). The live delivery rate was 33% for SET and 57% for multiple ET which was not significantly different with RR = 0.78 (95% CI: 0.61-1.00). The multiple delivery rate per carrier was greater risks in the multiple ET carrier cycles (RR =0.4, 95% CI: 0.01-0.26). There were 104 sets of twins (including one set of twins selectively reduced from triplets to twins) and 1 set of triples in the multiple ET carrier cycle. In the SET carrier cycles, there were 2 sets of twins. Significance of the study: SET should be advocated among surrogate carriers to prevent multiple pregnancies and subsequent adverse outcomes for both carrier and baby. Surrogacy practice should be reviewed and surrogate carriers should be fully informed of the risk of adverse maternal and birth outcome of multiple pregnancies due to multiple embryo transfers.

Keywords: assisted reproduction, birth outcomes, carrier, gestational surrogacy, multiple embryo transfer, multiple pregnancy, pregnancy outcomes, single embryo transfer, surrogate mother, systematic review

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1520 Early Requirement Engineering for Design of Learner Centric Dynamic LMS

Authors: Kausik Halder, Nabendu Chaki, Ranjan Dasgupta


We present a modelling framework that supports the engineering of early requirements specifications for design of learner centric dynamic Learning Management System. The framework is based on i* modelling tool and Means End Analysis, that adopts primitive concepts for modelling early requirements (such as actor, goal, and strategic dependency). We show how pedagogical and computational requirements for designing a learner centric Learning Management system can be adapted for the automatic early requirement engineering specifications. Finally, we presented a model on a Learner Quanta based adaptive Courseware. Our early requirement analysis shows that how means end analysis reveals gaps and inconsistencies in early requirements specifications that are by no means trivial to discover without the help of formal analysis tool.

Keywords: adaptive courseware, early requirement engineering, means end analysis, organizational modelling, requirement modelling

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1519 Prediction of Energy Storage Areas for Static Photovoltaic System Using Irradiation and Regression Modelling

Authors: Kisan Sarda, Bhavika Shingote


This paper aims to evaluate regression modelling for prediction of Energy storage of solar photovoltaic (PV) system using Semi parametric regression techniques because there are some parameters which are known while there are some unknown parameters like humidity, dust etc. Here irradiation of solar energy is different for different places on the basis of Latitudes, so by finding out areas which give more storage we can implement PV systems at those places and our need of energy will be fulfilled. This regression modelling is done for daily, monthly and seasonal prediction of solar energy storage. In this, we have used R modules for designing the algorithm. This algorithm will give the best comparative results than other regression models for the solar PV cell energy storage.

Keywords: semi parametric regression, photovoltaic (PV) system, regression modelling, irradiation

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1518 Optimizing Stormwater Sampling Design for Estimation of Pollutant Loads

Authors: Raja Umer Sajjad, Chang Hee Lee


Stormwater runoff is the leading contributor to pollution of receiving waters. In response, an efficient stormwater monitoring program is required to quantify and eventually reduce stormwater pollution. The overall goals of stormwater monitoring programs primarily include the identification of high-risk dischargers and the development of total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). The challenge in developing better monitoring program is to reduce the variability in flux estimates due to sampling errors; however, the success of monitoring program mainly depends on the accuracy of the estimates. Apart from sampling errors, manpower and budgetary constraints also influence the quality of the estimates. This study attempted to develop optimum stormwater monitoring design considering both cost and the quality of the estimated pollutants flux. Three years stormwater monitoring data (2012 – 2014) from a mix land use located within Geumhak watershed South Korea was evaluated. The regional climate is humid and precipitation is usually well distributed through the year. The investigation of a large number of water quality parameters is time-consuming and resource intensive. In order to identify a suite of easy-to-measure parameters to act as a surrogate, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied. Means, standard deviations, coefficient of variation (CV) and other simple statistics were performed using multivariate statistical analysis software SPSS 22.0. The implication of sampling time on monitoring results, number of samples required during the storm event and impact of seasonal first flush were also identified. Based on the observations derived from the PCA biplot and the correlation matrix, total suspended solids (TSS) was identified as a potential surrogate for turbidity, total phosphorus and for heavy metals like lead, chromium, and copper whereas, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) was identified as surrogate for organic matter. The CV among different monitored water quality parameters were found higher (ranged from 3.8 to 15.5). It suggests that use of grab sampling design to estimate the mass emission rates in the study area can lead to errors due to large variability. TSS discharge load calculation error was found only 2 % with two different sample size approaches; i.e. 17 samples per storm event and equally distributed 6 samples per storm event. Both seasonal first flush and event first flush phenomena for most water quality parameters were observed in the study area. Samples taken at the initial stage of storm event generally overestimate the mass emissions; however, it was found that collecting a grab sample after initial hour of storm event more closely approximates the mean concentration of the event. It was concluded that site and regional climate specific interventions can be made to optimize the stormwater monitoring program in order to make it more effective and economical.

Keywords: first flush, pollutant load, stormwater monitoring, surrogate parameters

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