Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 89

Search results for: abstraction

89 An Encapsulation of a Navigable Tree Position: Theory, Specification, and Verification

Authors: Nicodemus M. J. Mbwambo, Yu-Shan Sun, Murali Sitaraman, Joan Krone

Abstract:

This paper presents a generic data abstraction that captures a navigable tree position. The mathematical modeling of the abstraction encapsulates the current tree position, which can be used to navigate and modify the tree. The encapsulation of the tree position in the data abstraction specification avoids the use of explicit references and aliasing, thereby simplifying verification of (imperative) client code that uses the data abstraction. To ease the tasks of such specification and verification, a general tree theory, rich with mathematical notations and results, has been developed. The paper contains an example to illustrate automated verification ramifications. With sufficient tree theory development, automated proving seems plausible even in the absence of a special-purpose tree solver.

Keywords: automation, data abstraction, maps, specification, tree, verification

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
88 Discovering the Dimension of Abstractness: Structure-Based Model that Learns New Categories and Categorizes on Different Levels of Abstraction

Authors: Georgi I. Petkov, Ivan I. Vankov, Yolina A. Petrova

Abstract:

A structure-based model of category learning and categorization at different levels of abstraction is presented. The model compares different structures and expresses their similarity implicitly in the forms of mappings. Based on this similarity, the model can categorize different targets either as members of categories that it already has or creates new categories. The model is novel using two threshold parameters to evaluate the structural correspondence. If the similarity between two structures exceeds the higher threshold, a new sub-ordinate category is created. Vice versa, if the similarity does not exceed the higher threshold but does the lower one, the model creates a new category on higher level of abstraction.

Keywords: analogy-making, categorization, learning of categories, abstraction, hierarchical structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
87 Towards a Computational Model of Consciousness: Global Abstraction Workspace

Authors: Halim Djerroud, Arab Ali Cherif

Abstract:

We assume that conscious functions are implemented automatically. In other words that consciousness as well as the non-consciousness aspect of human thought, planning, and perception, are produced by biologically adaptive algorithms. We propose that the mechanisms of consciousness can be produced using similar adaptive algorithms to those executed by the mechanism. In this paper, we propose a computational model of consciousness, the ”Global Abstraction Workspace” which is an internal environmental modelling perceived as a multi-agent system. This system is able to evolve and generate new data and processes as well as actions in the environment.

Keywords: artificial consciousness, cognitive architecture, global abstraction workspace, multi-agent system

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
86 Using Audit Tools to Maintain Data Quality for ACC/NCDR PCI Registry Abstraction

Authors: Vikrum Malhotra, Manpreet Kaur, Ayesha Ghotto

Abstract:

Background: Cardiac registries such as ACC Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Registry require high quality data to be abstracted, including data elements such as nuclear cardiology, diagnostic coronary angiography, and PCI. Introduction: The audit tool created is used by data abstractors to provide data audits and assess the accuracy and inter-rater reliability of abstraction performed by the abstractors for a health system. This audit tool solution has been developed across 13 registries, including ACC/NCDR registries, PCI, STS, Get with the Guidelines. Methodology: The data audit tool was used to audit internal registry abstraction for all data elements, including stress test performed, type of stress test, data of stress test, results of stress test, risk/extent of ischemia, diagnostic catheterization detail, and PCI data elements for ACC/NCDR PCI registries. This is being used across 20 hospital systems internally and providing abstraction and audit services for them. Results: The data audit tool had inter-rater reliability and accuracy greater than 95% data accuracy and IRR score for the PCI registry in 50 PCI registry cases in 2021. Conclusion: The tool is being used internally for surgical societies and across hospital systems. The audit tool enables the abstractor to be assessed by an external abstractor and includes all of the data dictionary fields for each registry.

Keywords: abstraction, cardiac registry, cardiovascular registry, registry, data

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85 Preparation vADL.net: A Software Architecture Tool with Support to All of Architectural Concepts Title

Authors: Adel Smeda, Badr Najep

Abstract:

Software architecture is a method of describing the architecture of a software system at a high level of abstraction. It represents a common abstraction of a system that stakeholders can use as a basis for mutual understanding, negotiation, consensus, and communication. It also manifests the earliest design decisions about a system, and these early bindings carry weight far out of proportion to their individual gravity with respect to the system's remaining development, its deployment, and its maintenance life, therefore it is the earliest point at which design decisions governing the system to be built can be analyzed. In this paper, we present a tool to model the architecture of software systems. It represents the first method by which system defects can be detected, and provide a clear representation of a system’s components and interactions at a high level of abstraction. It can be distinguished from other tools by its support to all software architecture elements. The tool is built using VB.net 2010. We used this tool to describe two well know systems, i.e. Capitalize and Client/Server, and the descriptions we obtained support all architectural elements of the two systems.

Keywords: software architecture, architecture description languages, modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
84 Development of Groundwater Management Model Using Groundwater Sustainability Index

Authors: S. S. Rwanga, J. M. Ndambuki, Y. Woyessa

Abstract:

Development of a groundwater management model is an important step in the exploitation and management of any groundwater aquifer as it assists in the long-term sustainable planning of the resource. The current study was conducted in Central Limpopo province of South Africa with the overall objective of determining how much water can be withdrawn from the aquifer without producing nonreversible impacts on the groundwater quantity, hence developing a model which can sustainably protect the aquifer. The development was done through the computation of Groundwater Sustainability Index (GSI). Values of GSI close to unity and above indicated overexploitation. In this study, an index of 0.8 was considered as overexploitation. The results indicated that there is potential for higher abstraction rates compared to the current abstraction rates. GSI approach can be used in the management of groundwater aquifer to sustainably develop the resource and also provides water managers and policy makers with fundamental information on where future water developments can be carried out.

Keywords: development, groundwater, groundwater sustainability index, model

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
83 The Co-Simulation Interface SystemC/Matlab Applied in JPEG and SDR Application

Authors: Walid Hassairi, Moncef Bousselmi, Mohamed Abid

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Functional verification is a major part of today’s system design task. Several approaches are available for verification on a high abstraction level, where designs are often modeled using MATLAB/Simulink. However, different approaches are a barrier to a unified verification flow. In this paper, we propose a co-simulation interface between SystemC and MATLAB and Simulink to enable functional verification of multi-abstraction levels designs. The resulting verification flow is tested on JPEG compression algorithm. The required synchronization of both simulation environments, as well as data type conversion is solved using the proposed co-simulation flow. We divided into two encoder jpeg parts. First implemented in SystemC which is the DCT is representing the HW part. Second, consisted of quantization and entropy encoding which is implemented in Matlab is the SW part. For communication and synchronization between these two parts we use S-Function and engine in Simulink matlab. With this research premise, this study introduces a new implementation of a Hardware SystemC of DCT. We compare the result of our simulation compared to SW / SW. We observe a reduction in simulation time you have 88.15% in JPEG and the design efficiency of the supply design is 90% in SDR.

Keywords: hardware/software, co-design, co-simulation, systemc, matlab, s-function, communication, synchronization

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82 The Ethical Influence in the Political Configuration of Society: An Articulation between Phanomenologie Des Geistes and the Grundlinien Der Philosophie Des Rechts

Authors: Joao Gouveia

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This is a study about Hegelian political and moral philosophy. Our aim is to understand the relevance that Hegel attributes to ethics in the concrete political configuration of society. But our analysis isn’t limited to Hegel’s most known political work (the Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts). Instead, we also analyze the Phänomenologie des Geistes and establish a comparison between them. In the Moralität of the Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts, consciousness acquires the disposition that allows it to see any determination as its own (the certainty about itself or Gewissen). This certainty is the essential disposition that makes itself felt throughout all Sittlichkeit –the dispositions of family member and citizen (Bürger) are only configurations of it. Although consciousness is alienated in these dispositions, it doesn’t lose the certainty about itself that it reached in the Moralität. As our major finding, we point out that it is the moral learning that allows consciousness to resist the temptation of focusing so intensely on specific content that it excludes all the others (a temptation that is stimulated by the very intensity with which each content presents itself to consciousness). As the world of Bildung of the Phänomenologie des Geistes isn’t preceded by a sphere of Moralität, consciousness is thrown into a frenzy of destruction of all the powers of objectivity, and it ends up having to withdraw from the concrete contents and to focus in an abstract whole, where it doesn’t find opposite determinacies. The evidence supporting our thesis is the fact that the transition from abstraction into particularity, that we see in the Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts, allows the preservation of abstraction (it isn’t lost as we penetrate in particularity). On the other hand, the transition we find in the Phänomenologie des Geistes is a transition from particularity to abstraction, which takes every particularity to be eliminated in the war with others. While in the Phänomenologie des Geistes, the state may only be seen as a moment or facet of the object (it is only Staatsmacht); in the Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts, it is seen as a whole that contains various moments in itself (Staat). Therefore, the element of the Phänomenologie des Geistes that is closer to the State of the Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts is language (or the language of perversion) –something that can’t be defined as an individuality. This way, we want to show that, between the Phänomenologie des Geistes and the Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts, there is truly no remarkable evolution to report in Hegel’s ethical thought. What the difference in the structure of the two works show is a specific thesis respecting the influence of ethics in the configuration of society, and this thesis has implications at various levels, including in the philosophy of history.

Keywords: Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts, Hegelian ethics, Hegelian politics, Phänomenologie des Geistes

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81 Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Photoaging Pathways of Ultrafine Plastic Particles under UV Irradiation

Authors: Jiajun Duan, Yang Li, Jianan Gao, Runzi Cao, Enxiang Shang, Wen Zhang

Abstract:

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is considered as an important photoaging mechanism of microplastics (MPs) and nanoplastics (NPs). To elucidate the ROS-induced MP/NP aging processes in water under UV365 irradiation, we examined the effects of surface coatings, polymer types, and grain sizes on ROS generation and photoaging intermediates. Bare polystyrene (PS) NPs generated hydroxyl radicals (•OH) and singlet oxygen (¹O₂), while coated PS NPs (carboxyl-modified PS (PS-COOH), amino-modified PS (PS-NH₂)) and PS MPs generated fewer ROS due to coating scavenging or size effects. Polypropylene, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene terephthalate, and polycarbonate MPs only generated •OH. For aromatic polymers, •OH addition preferentially occurred at benzene rings to form monohydroxy polymers. Excess •OH resulted in H abstraction, C-C scission, and phenyl ring opening to generate aliphatic ketones, esters, aldehydes, and aromatic ketones. For coated PS NPs, •OH preferentially attacked the surface coatings to result in decarboxylation and deamination reactions. For aliphatic polymers, •OH attack resulted in the formation of carbonyl groups from peracid, aldehyde, or ketone via H abstraction and C-C scission. Moreover, ¹O₂ might participate in phenyl ring opening for PS NPs and coating degradation for coated PS NPs. This study facilitates understanding the ROS-induced weathering process of NPs/MPs in water under UV irradiation.

Keywords: microplastics, nanoplastics, photoaging, reactive oxygen species, surface coating

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80 Quantifying the UK’s Future Thermal Electricity Generation Water Use: Regional Analysis

Authors: Daniel Murrant, Andrew Quinn, Lee Chapman

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A growing population has led to increasing global water and energy demand. This demand, combined with the effects of climate change and an increasing need to maintain and protect the natural environment, represents a potentially severe threat to many national infrastructure systems. This has resulted in a considerable quantity of published material on the interdependencies that exist between the supply of water and the thermal generation of electricity, often known as the water-energy nexus. Focusing specifically on the UK, there is a growing concern that the future availability of water may at times constrain thermal electricity generation, and therefore hinder the UK in meeting its increasing demand for a secure, and affordable supply of low carbon electricity. To provide further information on the threat the water-energy nexus may pose to the UK’s energy system, this paper models the regional water demand of UK thermal electricity generation in 2030 and 2050. It uses the strategically important Energy Systems Modelling Environment model developed by the Energy Technologies Institute. Unlike previous research, this paper was able to use abstraction and consumption factors specific to UK power stations. It finds that by 2050 the South East, Yorkshire and Humber, the West Midlands and North West regions are those with the greatest freshwater demand and therefore most likely to suffer from a lack of resource. However, it finds that by 2050 it is the East, South West and East Midlands regions with the greatest total water (fresh, estuarine and seawater) demand and the most likely to be constrained by environmental standards.

Keywords: climate change, power station cooling, UK water-energy nexus, water abstraction, water resources

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
79 A Web Service-Based Framework for Mining E-Learning Data

Authors: Felermino D. M. A. Ali, S. C. Ng

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E-learning is an evolutionary form of distance learning and has become better over time as new technologies emerged. Today, efforts are still being made to embrace E-learning systems with emerging technologies in order to make them better. Among these advancements, Educational Data Mining (EDM) is one that is gaining a huge and increasing popularity due to its wide application for improving the teaching-learning process in online practices. However, even though EDM promises to bring many benefits to educational industry in general and E-learning environments in particular, its principal drawback is the lack of easy to use tools. The current EDM tools usually require users to have some additional technical expertise to effectively perform EDM tasks. Thus, in response to these limitations, this study intends to design and implement an EDM application framework which aims at automating and simplify the development of EDM in E-learning environment. The application framework introduces a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) that hides the complexity of technical details and enables users to perform EDM in an automated fashion. The framework was designed based on abstraction, extensibility, and interoperability principles. The framework implementation was made up of three major modules. The first module provides an abstraction for data gathering, which was done by extending Moodle LMS (Learning Management System) source code. The second module provides data mining methods and techniques as services; it was done by converting Weka API into a set of Web services. The third module acts as an intermediary between the first two modules, it contains a user-friendly interface that allows dynamically locating data provider services, and running knowledge discovery tasks on data mining services. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the overhead of the proposed framework through a combination of simulation and implementation. The experiments have shown that the overhead introduced by the SOA mechanism is relatively small, therefore, it has been concluded that a service-oriented architecture can be effectively used to facilitate educational data mining in E-learning environments.

Keywords: educational data mining, e-learning, distributed data mining, moodle, service-oriented architecture, Weka

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78 AMBICOM: An Ambient Computing Middleware Architecture for Heterogeneous Environments

Authors: Ekrem Aksoy, Nihat Adar, Selçuk Canbek

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Ambient Computing or Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is emerging area in computer science aiming to create intelligently connected environments and Internet of Things. In this paper, we propose communication middleware architecture for AmI. This middleware architecture addresses problems of communication, networking, and abstraction of applications, although there are other aspects (e.g. HCI and Security) within general AmI framework. Within this middleware architecture, any application developer might address HCI and Security issues with extensibility features of this platform.

Keywords: AmI, ambient computing, middleware, distributed-systems, software-defined networking

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77 Automatic Checkpoint System Using Face and Card Information

Authors: Kriddikorn Kaewwongsri, Nikom Suvonvorn

Abstract:

In the deep south of Thailand, checkpoints for people verification are necessary for the security management of risk zones, such as official buildings in the conflict area. In this paper, we propose an automatic checkpoint system that verifies persons using information from ID cards and facial features. The methods for a person’s information abstraction and verification are introduced based on useful information such as ID number and name, extracted from official cards, and facial images from videos. The proposed system shows promising results and has a real impact on the local society.

Keywords: face comparison, card recognition, OCR, checkpoint system, authentication

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
76 Reflections on Opportunities and Challenges for Systems Engineering

Authors: Ali E. Abbas

Abstract:

This paper summarizes some of the discussions that occurred in a workshop in West Virginia, U.S.A which was sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF) in February 2016. The goal of the workshop was to explore the opportunities and challenges for applying systems engineering in large enterprises, and some of the issues that still persist. The main topics of the discussion included challenges with elaboration and abstraction in large systems, interfacing physical and social systems, and the need for axiomatic frameworks for large enterprises. We summarize these main points of discussion drawing parallels with decision making in organizations to instigate research in these discussion areas.

Keywords: decision analysis, systems engineering, framing, value creation

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
75 In silico Model of Transamination Reaction Mechanism

Authors: Sang-Woo Han, Jong-Shik Shin

Abstract:

w-Transaminase (w-TA) is broadly used for synthesizing chiral amines with a high enantiopurity. However, the reaction mechanism of w-TA has been not well studied, contrary to a-transaminase (a-TA) such as AspTA. Here, we propose in silico model on the reaction mechanism of w-TA. Based on the modeling results which showed large free energy gaps between external aldimine and quinonoid on deamination (or ketimine and quinonoid on amination), withdrawal of Ca-H seemed as a critical step which determines the reaction rate on both amination and deamination reactions, which is consistent with previous researches. Hyperconjugation was also observed in both external aldimine and ketimine which weakens Ca-H bond to elevate Ca-H abstraction.

Keywords: computational modeling, reaction intermediates, w-transaminase, in silico model

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74 Architecture of a Preliminary Course on Computational Thinking

Authors: Mintu Philip, Renumol V. G.

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An introductory programming course is a major challenge faced in Computing Education. Many of the introductory programming courses fail because student concentrate mainly on writing programs using a programming language rather than involving in problem solving. Computational thinking is a general approach to solve problems. This paper proposes a new preliminary course that aims to develop computational thinking skills in students, which may help them to become good programmers. The proposed course is designed based on the four basic components of computational thinking - abstract thinking, logical thinking, modeling thinking and constructive thinking. In this course, students are engaged in hands-on problem solving activities using a new problem solving model proposed in this paper.

Keywords: computational thinking, computing education, abstraction, constructive thinking, modelling thinking

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73 Incorporating Chinese Calligraphic Concept in 3D Space

Authors: Woon Lam Ng.

Abstract:

This paper explores the basic structures of Chinese calligraphy brushwork, its textures, its characteristic forms, and how its strength can be incorporated into 3d animation. It investigates how these structures could create visual simplification and suggest movement. The conceptual difference between realistic rendering and the Chinese calligraphic concept of simplification is discussed. With the help of the Python programmable environment in Maya, the concept of Chinese calligraphy in 3d space and its idea of visual simplification and abstraction were explored. The work demonstrates how the Chinese calligraphic brushwork could suggest the dynamics of motion in 3d space. Some limitations of the Maya emitting process are also discussed. Possible further explorations through additional mathematical adjustments to the selected Maya shader are also suggested to enhance the presentation.

Keywords: calligraphy, brushwork, dynamics, movements

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72 Designing a Tool for Software Maintenance

Authors: Amir Ngah, Masita Abdul Jalil, Zailani Abdullah

Abstract:

The aim of software maintenance is to maintain the software system in accordance with advancement in software and hardware technology. One of the early works on software maintenance is to extract information at higher level of abstraction. In this paper, we present the process of how to design an information extraction tool for software maintenance. The tool can extract the basic information from old program such as about variables, based classes, derived classes, objects of classes, and functions. The tool have two main part; the lexical analyzer module that can read the input file character by character, and the searching module which is user can get the basic information from existing program. We implemented this tool for a patterned sub-C++ language as an input file.

Keywords: extraction tool, software maintenance, reverse engineering, C++

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71 Vulnerability Assessment of Groundwater Quality Deterioration Using PMWIN Model

Authors: A. Shakoor, M. Arshad

Abstract:

The utilization of groundwater resources in irrigation has significantly increased during the last two decades due to constrained canal water supplies. More than 70% of the farmers in the Punjab, Pakistan, depend directly or indirectly on groundwater to meet their crop water demands and hence, an unchecked paradigm shift has resulted in aquifer depletion and deterioration. Therefore, a comprehensive research was carried at central Punjab-Pakistan, regarding spatiotemporal variation in groundwater level and quality. Processing MODFLOW for window (PMWIN) and MT3D (solute transport model) models were used for existing and future prediction of groundwater level and quality till 2030. The comprehensive data set of aquifer lithology, canal network, groundwater level, groundwater salinity, evapotranspiration, groundwater abstraction, recharge etc. were used in PMWIN model development. The model was thus, successfully calibrated and validated with respect to groundwater level for the periods of 2003 to 2007 and 2008 to 2012, respectively. The coefficient of determination (R2) and model efficiency (MEF) for calibration and validation period were calculated as 0.89 and 0.98, respectively, which argued a high level of correlation between the calculated and measured data. For solute transport model (MT3D), the values of advection and dispersion parameters were used. The model used for future scenario up to 2030, by assuming that there would be no uncertain change in climate and groundwater abstraction rate would increase gradually. The model predicted results revealed that the groundwater would decline from 0.0131 to 1.68m/year during 2013 to 2030 and the maximum decline would be on the lower side of the study area, where infrastructure of canal system is very less. This lowering of groundwater level might cause an increase in the tubewell installation and pumping cost. Similarly, the predicted total dissolved solids (TDS) of the groundwater would increase from 6.88 to 69.88mg/L/year during 2013 to 2030 and the maximum increase would be on lower side. It was found that in 2030, the good quality would reduce by 21.4%, while marginal and hazardous quality water increased by 19.28 and 2%, respectively. It was found from the simulated results that the salinity of the study area had increased due to the intrusion of salts. The deterioration of groundwater quality would cause soil salinity and ultimately the reduction in crop productivity. It was concluded from the predicted results of groundwater model that the groundwater deteriorated with the depth of water table i.e. TDS increased with declining groundwater level. It is recommended that agronomic and engineering practices i.e. land leveling, rainwater harvesting, skimming well, ASR (Aquifer Storage and Recovery Wells) etc. should be integrated to meliorate management of groundwater for higher crop production in salt affected soils.

Keywords: groundwater quality, groundwater management, PMWIN, MT3D model

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70 Seamless MATLAB® to Register-Transfer Level Design Methodology Using High-Level Synthesis

Authors: Petri Solanti, Russell Klein

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Many designers are asking for an automated path from an abstract mathematical MATLAB model to a high-quality Register-Transfer Level (RTL) hardware description. Manual transformations of MATLAB or intermediate code are needed, when the design abstraction is changed. Design conversion is problematic as it is multidimensional and it requires many different design steps to translate the mathematical representation of the desired functionality to an efficient hardware description with the same behavior and configurability. Yet, a manual model conversion is not an insurmountable task. Using currently available design tools and an appropriate design methodology, converting a MATLAB model to efficient hardware is a reasonable effort. This paper describes a simple and flexible design methodology that was developed together with several design teams.

Keywords: design methodology, high-level synthesis, MATLAB, verification

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69 The Ordinary Way of the Appeal in Penalty Part

Authors: Abdelkadir Elhaouari

Abstract:

The priciest thing in human life since his birth is his freedom, basing on this idea, the conflict exists till now, the fight against oppression, injustice, tyranny and slavery, searching for freedom and political resistances, and this makes the freedom is deeply related to the defense for its existence all over years. This project attempts using any way to preserve this freedom, and building and maintaining bases and rules to organize this life. Appeal is a one of the most important method that human uses to protect his freedom, and we will mention in this thesis our attempt to clarify this aspect to the individual. We can say that the law does not know just one color or one logic, and is not based on one rule to be taken by heart, but the law is neutrality, the diversity, abstraction and diligence diversity. The penal law is a valued law and it deserves to be studied and searched more… so that to attempt to master it. Our thesis is just a brief explanation of an important point in this law, where we attempt to clarify and simplify the image to the normal person, so that he can preserve his rights, and we hope that we had succeeded to choose the right topic for that.

Keywords: appeal, penalization, judgement, criminal

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68 Trusted Neural Network: Reversibility in Neural Networks for Network Integrity Verification

Authors: Malgorzata Schwab, Ashis Kumer Biswas

Abstract:

In this concept paper, we explore the topic of Reversibility in Neural Networks leveraged for Network Integrity Verification and crafted the term ''Trusted Neural Network'' (TNN), paired with the API abstraction around it, to embrace the idea formally. This newly proposed high-level generalizable TNN model builds upon the Invertible Neural Network architecture, trained simultaneously in both forward and reverse directions. This allows for the original system inputs to be compared with the ones reconstructed from the outputs in the reversed flow to assess the integrity of the end-to-end inference flow. The outcome of that assessment is captured as an Integrity Score. Concrete implementation reflecting the needs of specific problem domains can be derived from this general approach and is demonstrated in the experiments. The model aspires to become a useful practice in drafting high-level systems architectures which incorporate AI capabilities.

Keywords: trusted, neural, invertible, API

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67 Adopting Collaborative Business Processes to Prevent the Loss of Information in Public Administration Organisations

Authors: A. Capodieci, G. Del Fiore, L. Mainetti

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Recently, the use of web 2.0 tools has increased in companies and public administration organizations. This phenomenon, known as "Enterprise 2.0", has, de facto, modified common organizational and operative practices. This has led “knowledge workers” to change their working practices through the use of Web 2.0 communication tools. Unfortunately, these tools have not been integrated with existing enterprise information systems, a situation that could potentially lead to a loss of information. This is an important problem in an organizational context, because knowledge of information exchanged within the organization is needed to increase the efficiency and competitiveness of the organization. In this article we demonstrate that it is possible to capture this knowledge using collaboration processes, which are processes of abstraction created in accordance with design patterns and applied to new organizational operative practices.

Keywords: business practices, business process patterns, collaboration tools, enterprise 2.0, knowledge workers

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66 Software Evolution Based Activity Diagrams

Authors: Zine-Eddine Bouras, Abdelouaheb Talai

Abstract:

During the last two decades, the software evolution community has intensively tackled the software merging issue whose main objective is to merge in a consistent way different versions of software in order to obtain a new version. Well-established approaches, mainly based on the dependence analysis techniques, have been used to bring suitable solutions. These approaches concern the source code or software architectures. However, these solutions are more expensive due to the complexity and size. In this paper, we overcome this problem by operating at a high level of abstraction. The objective of this paper is to investigate the software merging at the level of UML activity diagrams, which is a new interesting issue. Its purpose is to merge activity diagrams instead of source code. The proposed approach, based on dependence analysis techniques, is illustrated through an appropriate case study.

Keywords: activity diagram, activity diagram slicing, dependency analysis, software merging

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65 Thematic Redesign of “Nah Al Balaghe” Riverside Park: Constructing the First Cultural Tourism Center in City of Tehran

Authors: Faraz Nikpour Arani, Shahin Haghi Navand

Abstract:

After Two years of operation, the “Nahj Al Balaghe” riverside park, redesigning research was ordered by second region of Tehran municipality, the goal was to construct the first cultural tourism center in city of Tehran. After Pathological and analytical studies of existing situation, that made by field work research’s and interviews, the main problems was identified as lack of thematic design and some physical problems that reduced the activity and livability ratio of the park. The main approach of this project was thematic physical redesign and redefinition of activities in order to the “Nahj Al Balaghe’s” ideas, cultural days in “shamsi calendar”, the “7 artistic dimensions” and “four classical elements”. This paper is the abstraction of a full research that was done by writers.

Keywords: thematic redesign, Nah Al Balaghe riverside park, cultural tourism center, Tehran

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64 Copper Doping for Enhancing Photocatalytic Efficiency of Barium Ferrite in Degradation of Atrazine under Visible Light

Authors: Tarek S. Jamil, H. A. Abbas, Rabab A. Nasr, Eman S. Mansor, Rose-Noëlle Vannier

Abstract:

The citrate manner (Pechini method) was utilized in elaboration of a novel Nano-sized BaFe(1-x)CuxO3 (x=0.01, 0.05 and 0.10). The prepared photocatalysts were characterized by x-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance, TEM and the surface area. The prepared samples have a mixture of cubic perovskite structure (main) and orthorhombic phases. The effect of different loads of copper as dopant on the structural properties as well as the photocatalytic activity was demonstrated. The lattice parameter and the unit cell volume of the prepared materials are given. Doping with copper increased the photocatalytic activity of BaFeO3 several times in abstraction of hazardous atrazine that causes acute problems in drinking water treatment facilities. This may be reasoned to low band gap energy of copper doped BaFe(1-x)CuxO3 attributed to oxygen vacancies formation.

Keywords: photocatalysis, nano-sized, BaFeO3, copper doping, atrazine

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63 A Context-Sensitive Algorithm for Media Similarity Search

Authors: Guang-Ho Cha

Abstract:

This paper presents a context-sensitive media similarity search algorithm. One of the central problems regarding media search is the semantic gap between the low-level features computed automatically from media data and the human interpretation of them. This is because the notion of similarity is usually based on high-level abstraction but the low-level features do not sometimes reflect the human perception. Many media search algorithms have used the Minkowski metric to measure similarity between image pairs. However those functions cannot adequately capture the aspects of the characteristics of the human visual system as well as the nonlinear relationships in contextual information given by images in a collection. Our search algorithm tackles this problem by employing a similarity measure and a ranking strategy that reflect the nonlinearity of human perception and contextual information in a dataset. Similarity search in an image database based on this contextual information shows encouraging experimental results.

Keywords: context-sensitive search, image search, similarity ranking, similarity search

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62 Max-Entropy Feed-Forward Clustering Neural Network

Authors: Xiaohan Bookman, Xiaoyan Zhu

Abstract:

The outputs of non-linear feed-forward neural network are positive, which could be treated as probability when they are normalized to one. If we take Entropy-Based Principle into consideration, the outputs for each sample could be represented as the distribution of this sample for different clusters. Entropy-Based Principle is the principle with which we could estimate the unknown distribution under some limited conditions. As this paper defines two processes in Feed-Forward Neural Network, our limited condition is the abstracted features of samples which are worked out in the abstraction process. And the final outputs are the probability distribution for different clusters in the clustering process. As Entropy-Based Principle is considered into the feed-forward neural network, a clustering method is born. We have conducted some experiments on six open UCI data sets, comparing with a few baselines and applied purity as the measurement. The results illustrate that our method outperforms all the other baselines that are most popular clustering methods.

Keywords: feed-forward neural network, clustering, max-entropy principle, probabilistic models

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61 Configuration of Water-Based Features in Islamic Heritage Complexes and Vernacular Architecture: An Analysis into Interactions of Morphology, Form, and Climatic Performance

Authors: Mustaffa Kamal Bashar Mohd Fauzi, Puteri Shireen Jahn Kassim, Nurul Syala Abdul Latip

Abstract:

It is increasingly realized that sustainability includes both a response to the climatic and cultural context of a place. To assess the cultural context, a morphological analysis of urban patterns from heritage legacies is necessary. While the climatic form is derived from an analysis of meteorological data, cultural patterns and forms must be abstracted from a typological and morphological study. This current study aims to analyzes morphological and formal elements of water-based architectural and urban design of past Islamic vernacular complexes in the hot arid regions and how a vast utilization of water was shaped and sited to act as cooling devices for an entire complex. Apart from its pleasant coolness, water can be used in an aesthetically way such as emphasizing visual axes, vividly enhancing the visual of the surrounding environment and symbolically portraying the act of purity in the design. By comparing 2 case studies based on the analysis of interactions of water features into the form, planning and morphology of 2 Islamic heritage complexes, Fatehpur Sikri (India) and Lahore Fort (Pakistan) with a focus on Shish Mahal of Lahore Fort in terms of their mass, architecture and urban planning, it is agreeable that water plays an integral role in their climatic amelioration via different methods of water conveyance system. Both sites are known for their substantial historical values and prominent for their sustainable vernacular buildings for example; the courtyard of Shish Mahal in Lahore fort are designed to provide continuous coolness by constructing various miniatures water channels that run underneath the paved courtyard. One of the most remarkable features of this system that all water is made dregs-free before it was inducted into these underneath channels. In Fatehpur Sikri, the method of conveyance seems differed from Lahore Fort as the need to supply water to the ridge where Fatehpur Sikri situated is become the major challenges. Thus, the achievement of supplying water to the palatial complexes is solved by placing inhabitable water buildings within the two supply system for raising water. The process of raising the water can be either mechanical or laborious inside the enclosed well and water rising houses. The studies analyzes and abstract the water supply forms, patterns and flows in 3-dimensional shapes through the actions of evaporative cooling and wind-induced ventilation under arid climates. Through the abstraction analytical and descriptive relational morphology of the spatial configurations, the studies can suggest the idealized spatial system that can be used in urban design and complexes which later became a methodological and abstraction tool of sustainability to suit the modern contemporary world.

Keywords: heritage site, Islamic vernacular architecture, water features, morphology, urban design

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60 Concepts of Modern Design: A Study of Art and Architecture Synergies in Early 20ᵗʰ Century Europe

Authors: Stanley Russell

Abstract:

Until the end of the 19th century, European painting dealt almost exclusively with the realistic representation of objects and landscapes, as can be seen in the work of realist artists like Gustav Courbet. Architects of the day typically made reference to and recreated historical precedents in their designs. The curriculum of the first architecture school in Europe, The Ecole des Beaux Artes, based on the study of classical buildings, had a profound effect on the profession. Painting exhibited an increasing level of abstraction from the late 19th century, with impressionism, and the trend continued into the early 20th century when Cubism had an explosive effect sending shock waves through the art world that also extended into the realm of architectural design. Architect /painter Le Corbusier with “Purism” was one of the first to integrate abstract painting and building design theory in works that were equally shocking to the architecture world. The interrelationship of the arts, including architecture, was institutionalized in the Bauhaus curriculum that sought to find commonality between diverse art disciplines. Renowned painter and Bauhaus instructor Vassily Kandinsky was one of the first artists to make a semi-scientific analysis of the elements in “non-objective” painting while also drawing parallels between painting and architecture in his book Point and Line to plane. Russian constructivists made abstract compositions with simple geometric forms, and like the De Stijl group of the Netherlands, they also experimented with full-scale constructions and spatial explorations. Based on the study of historical accounts and original artworks, of Impressionism, Cubism, the Bauhaus, De Stijl, and Russian Constructivism, this paper begins with a thorough explanation of the art theory and several key works from these important art movements of the late 19th and early 20th century. Similarly, based on written histories and first-hand experience of built and drawn works, the author continues with an analysis of the theories and architectural works generated by the same groups, all of which actively pursued continuity between their art and architectural concepts. With images of specific works, the author shows how the trend toward abstraction and geometric purity in painting coincided with a similar trend in architecture that favored simple unornamented geometries. Using examples like the Villa Savoye, The Schroeder House, the Dessau Bauhaus, and unbuilt designs by Russian architect Chernikov, the author gives detailed examples of how the intersection of trends in Art and Architecture led to a unique and fruitful period of creative synergy when the same concepts that were used by artists to generate paintings were also used by architects in the making of objects, space, and buildings. In Conclusion, this article examines the extremely pivotal period in art and architecture history from the late 19th to early 20th century when the confluence of art and architectural theory led to many painted, drawn, and built works that continue to inspire architects and artists to this day.

Keywords: modern art, architecture, design methodologies, modern architecture

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