Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: Samiyah Tasleem

3 Recovery and Identification of Phenolic Acids in Honey Samples from Different Floral Sources of Pakistan Having Antimicrobial Activity

Authors: Samiyah Tasleem, Muhammad Abdul Haq, Syed Baqir Shyum Naqvi, Muhammad Abid Husnain, Sajjad Haider Naqvi

Abstract:

The objective of the present study was: a) to investigate the antimicrobial activity of honey samples of different floral sources of Pakistan, b) to recover the phenolic acids in them as a possible contributing factor of antimicrobial activity. Six honey samples from different floral sources, namely: Trachysperm copticum, Acacia species, Helianthus annuus, Carissa opaca, Zizyphus and Magnifera indica were used. The antimicrobial activity was investigated by the disc diffusion method against eight freshly isolated clinical isolates (Staphylococci aureus, Staphylococci epidermidis, Streptococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans). Antimicrobial activity of honey was compared with five commercial antibiotics, namely: doxycycline (DO-30ug/mL), oxytetracycline (OT-30ug/mL), clarithromycin (CLR–15ug/mL), moxifloxacin (MXF-5ug/mL) and nystatin (NT – 100 UT). The fractions responsible for antimicrobial activity were extracted using ethyl acetate. Solid phase extraction (SPE) was used to recover the phenolic acids of honey samples. Identification was carried out via High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that antimicrobial activity was present in all honey samples and found comparable to the antibiotics used in the study. In the microbiological assay, the ethyl acetate honey extract was found to exhibit a very promising antimicrobial activity against all the microorganisms tested, indicating the existence of phenolic compounds. Six phenolic acids, namely: gallic, caffeic, ferulic, vanillic, benzoic and cinnamic acids were identified besides some unknown substance by HPLC. In conclusion, Pakistani honey samples showed a broad spectrum antibacterial and promising antifungal activity. Identification of six different phenolic acids showed that Pakistani honey samples are rich sources of phenolic compounds that could be the contributing factor of antimicrobial activity.

Keywords: Pakistani honey, antimicrobial activity, Phenolic acids eg.gallic, caffeic, ferulic, vanillic, benzoic and cinnamic acids

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2 Expression of miRNA 335 in Gall Bladder Cancer: A Correlative Study

Authors: Naseem Fatima, A. N. Srivastava, Tasleem Raza, Vijay Kumar

Abstract:

Introduction: Carcinoma gallbladder is third most common gastrointestinal lethal disease with the highest incidence and mortality rate among women in Northern India. Scientists have found several risk factors that make a person more likely to develop gallbladder cancer; among these risk factors, deregulation of miRNAs has been demonstrated to be one of the most crucial factors. The changes in the expression of specific miRNA genes result in the control of inflammation, cell cycle regulation, stress response, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and invasion thus mediate the process in tumorgenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of MiRNA-335 and may as a molecular marker in early detection of gallbladder cancer in suspected cases. Material and Methods: A total of 20 consecutive patients with gallbladder cancer aged between 30-75 years were registered for the study. Total RNA was extracted from tissue by using the mirVANA MiRNA isolation Kit according to the manufacturer’s protocol. The MiRNA- 335 and U6 snRNA-specific cDNA were reverse-transcribed from total RNA using Taqman microRNA reverse-transcription kit according to the manufacturer’s protocol. TaqMan MiRNA probes hsa-miR-335 and Taqman Master Mix without AmpEase UNG, Individual real-time PCR assays were performed in a 20 μL reaction volume on a Real-Time PCR system (Applied Biosystems StepOnePlus™) to detect MiRNA-335 expression in tissue. Relative quantification of target MiRNA expression was evaluated using the comparative cycle threshold (CT) method. The correlation was done in between cycle threshold (CT Value) of target MiRNA in gallbladder cancer with respect to non-cancerous Cholelithiasis gallbladder. Each sample was examined in triplicate. The Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison Test was used to determine the expression of miR-335. Results: MiRNA335 was found to be significantly downregulated in the gallbladder cancer tissue (P<0.001), when compared with non-cancerous Cholelithiasis gallbladder cases. Out of 20 cases, 75% showed reduced expression of MiRNA335, were at last stage of disease with low overall survival rate and remaining 25% were showed up-regulated expression of MiRNA335 with high survival rate. Conclusion: The present study showed that reduced expression of MiRNA335 is associated with the advancement of the disease, and its deregulation may provide important clues to understanding it as a prognostic marker and opportunities for future research.

Keywords: carcinoma gallbladder, downregulation, MiRNA-335, RT-PCR assay

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1 Rheological Study of Wheat-Chickpea Flour Blend Bread for People with Type-2 Diabetes

Authors: Tasleem Zafar, Jiwan Sidhu

Abstract:

Introduction: Chickpea flour is known to offer many benefits to diabetic persons, especially in maintaining their blood sugar levels in the acceptable range. Under this project we have studied the chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of white flour (WF), whole wheat flour (WWF) and chickpea flour (BF), in addition to the effect of replacement of WF and WWF with BF on the rheological characteristics of these flour blends, with the ultimate objective of producing acceptable quality flat as well as pan-bread for the diabetic consumers. Methods: WF and WWF were replaced with BF ranging from 0 to 40%, to investigate its effect on the rheological properties and functionality of blended flour dough using farinograph, viscoamylograph, mixograph and falling number apparatus as per the AACC standard methods. Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) was carried on the WF, WWF, and their blends with BF using Stable Micro System Texture Analyzer. Effect of certain additives, such as freeze-dried amla fruit powder (Phyllanthus emblica L.), guar gum, and xanthan gum on the dough rheological properties were also studied. Results: Freeze-dried amla fruit powder was found to be very rich in ascorbic acid and other phenolics having higher antioxidant activity. A decreased farinograph water absorption, increased dough development time, higher mixing tolerance index (i.e., weakening of dough), decreased resistance to extension, lower ratio numbers were obtained when the replacement with BF was increased from 0 to 40%. The BF gave lower peak viscosity, lower paste breakdown, and lower setback values when compared with WF. The falling number values were significantly lower in WWF (meaning higher α-amylase activity) than both the WF and BF. Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) carried on the WF, WWF, and their blends with BF showed significant variations in hardness and compressibility values, dough becoming less hard and less compressible when the replacement of WF and WWF with BF was increased from 0 to 40%. Conclusions: To overcome the deleterious effects of adding BF to WF and WWF on the rheological properties will be an interesting challenge when good quality pan bread and Arabic flatbread have to be commercially produced in a bakery. Use of freeze-dried amla fruit powder, guar gum, and xanthan gum did show some promise to improve the mixing characteristics of WF, WWF, and their blends with BF, and these additives are expected to be useful in producing an acceptable quality flat as well as pan-bread on a commercial scale.

Keywords: wheat flour, chickpea flour, amla fruit, rheology

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