Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 252

Search results for: functionally graded interphase

252 Development of an Elastic Functionally Graded Interphase Model for the Micromechanics Response of Composites

Authors: Trevor Sabiston, Mohsen Mohammadi, Mohammed Cherkaoui, Kaan Inal


A new micromechanics framework is developed for long fibre reinforced composites using a single fibre surrounded by a functionally graded interphase and matrix as a representative unit cell. The unit cell is formulated to represent any number of aligned fibres by a single fibre. Using this model the elastic response of long fibre composites is predicted in all directions. The model is calibrated to experimental results and shows very good agreement in the elastic regime. The differences between the proposed model and existing models are discussed.

Keywords: computational mechanics, functionally graded interphase, long fibre composites, micromechanics

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251 Micromechanical Determination of the Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composites with a Functionally Graded Interphase

Authors: Vahidullah Tac, Ercan Gurses


There have been numerous attempts at modelling carbon nanotube – polymer composites micromechanically in recent years, albeit to limited success. One of the major setbacks of the models used in the scientific community is the lack of regard to the different phases present in a nanocomposite. We employ a multi-phase micromechanical model that allows functionally grading certain phases to determine the mechanical properties of nanocomposites. The model has four distinct phases; the nanotube, the interface between the nanotube and polymer, the interphase, and the bulk matrix. Among the four phases, the interphase is functionally graded such that its moduli gradually decrease from some predetermined values to those of the bulk polymer. We find that the interface plays little role in stiffening/softening of the polymer per se , but instead, it is responsible for load transfer between the polymer and the carbon nanotube. Our results indicate that the carbon nanotube, as well as the interphase, have significant roles in stiffening the composite. The results are then compared to experimental findings and the interphase is tuned accordingly.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, composite, interphase, micromechanical modeling

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250 Unsteady Temperature Distribution in a Finite Functionally Graded Cylinder

Authors: A. Amiri Delouei


In the current study, two-dimensional unsteady heat conduction in a functionally graded cylinder is studied analytically. The temperature distribution is in radial and longitudinal directions. Heat conduction coefficients are considered a power function of radius both in radial and longitudinal directions. The proposed solution can exactly satisfy the boundary conditions. Analytical unsteady temperature distribution for different parameters of functionally graded cylinder is investigated. The achieved exact solution is useful for thermal stress analysis of functionally graded cylinders. Regarding the analytical approach, this solution can be used to understand the concepts of heat conduction in functionally graded materials.

Keywords: functionally graded materials, unsteady heat conduction, cylinder, temperature distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
249 Vibration Characteristics of Functionally Graded Thick Hollow Cylinders Using Galerkin Method

Authors: Pejman Daryabor, Kamal Mohammadi


In the present work, the study of vibration characteristics of a functionally graded thick hollow cylinder is investigated. The cylinder natural frequencies are obtained using Galerkin finite element method. The functionally graded cylinder is assumed to be made from many subcylinders. Each subcylinder is considered as an isotropic layer. Material’s properties in each layer are constant and functionally graded properties result by exponential function of layer radius in multilayer cylinder. To validate the FE results code, plane strain model of functionally graded cylinder are also modeled in ABAQUS. Analytical results are validated for both models. Also, a good agreement is found between the present results and those reported in the literature.

Keywords: natural frequency, functionally graded material, finite element method, thick cylinder

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248 Steady State Creep Behavior of Functionally Graded Thick Cylinder

Authors: Tejeet Singh, Harmanjit Singh


Creep behavior of thick-walled functionally graded cylinder consisting of AlSiC and subjected to internal pressure and high temperature has been analyzed. The functional relationship between strain rate with stress can be described by the well-known threshold stress based creep law with a stress exponent of five. The effect of imposing non-linear particle gradient on the distribution of creep stresses in the thick-walled functionally graded composite cylinder has been investigated. The study revealed that for the assumed non-linear particle distribution, the radial stress decreases throughout the cylinder, whereas the tangential, axial and effective stresses have averaging effect. The strain rates in the functionally graded composite cylinder could be reduced to significant extent by employing non-linear gradient in the distribution of reinforcement.

Keywords: functionally graded material, pressure, steady state creep, thick-cylinder

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
247 Free Vibration of Functionally Graded Smart Beams Based on the First Order Shear Deformation Theory

Authors: A. R. Nezamabadi, M. Veiskarami


This paper studies free vibration of simply supported functionally graded beams with piezoelectric layers based on the first order shear deformation theory. The Young's modulus of beam is assumed to be graded continuously across the beam thickness. The governing equation is established. Resulting equation is solved using the Euler's equation. The effects of the constituent volume fractions, the influences of applied voltage on the vibration frequency are presented. To investigate the accuracy of the present analysis, a compression study is carried out with a known data.

Keywords: mechanical buckling, functionally graded beam, first order shear deformation theory, free vibration

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
246 Thermal Buckling Analysis of Functionally Graded Beams with Various Boundary Conditions

Authors: Gholamreza Koochaki


This paper presents the buckling analysis of functionally graded beams with various boundary conditions. The first order shear deformation beam theory (Timoshenko beam theory) and the classical theory (Euler-Bernoulli beam theory) of Reddy have been applied to the functionally graded beams buckling analysis The material property gradient is assumed to be in thickness direction. The equilibrium and stability equations are derived using the total potential energy equations, classical theory and first order shear deformation theory assumption. The temperature difference and applied voltage are assumed to be constant. The critical buckling temperature of FG beams are upper than the isotropic ones. Also, the critical temperature is different for various boundary conditions.

Keywords: buckling, functionally graded beams, Hamilton's principle, Euler-Bernoulli beam

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
245 [Keynote Talk]: Three Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Functionally Graded Radiation Shielding Nanoengineered Sandwich Composites

Authors: Nasim Abuali Galehdari, Thomas J. Ryan, Ajit D. Kelkar


In recent years, nanotechnology has played an important role in the design of an efficient radiation shielding polymeric composites. It is well known that, high loading of nanomaterials with radiation absorption properties can enhance the radiation attenuation efficiency of shielding structures. However, due to difficulties in dispersion of nanomaterials into polymer matrices, there has been a limitation in higher loading percentages of nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. Therefore, the objective of the present work is to provide a methodology to fabricate and then to characterize the functionally graded radiation shielding structures, which can provide an efficient radiation absorption property along with good structural integrity. Sandwich structures composed of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) fabric as face sheets and functionally graded epoxy nanocomposite as core material were fabricated. A method to fabricate a functionally graded core panel with controllable gradient dispersion of nanoparticles is discussed. In order to optimize the design of functionally graded sandwich composites and to analyze the stress distribution throughout the sandwich composite thickness, a finite element method was used. The sandwich panels were discretized using 3-Dimensional 8 nodded brick elements. Classical laminate analysis in conjunction with simplified micromechanics equations were used to obtain the properties of the face sheets. The presented finite element model would provide insight into deformation and damage mechanics of the functionally graded sandwich composites from the structural point of view.

Keywords: nanotechnology, functionally graded material, radiation shielding, sandwich composites, finite element method

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244 Buckling Behavior of FGM Plates Using a Simplified Shear Deformation Theory

Authors: Mokhtar Bouazza


In this paper, the simplified theory will be used to predict the thermoelastic buckling behavior of rectangular functionally graded plates. The material properties of the functionally graded plates are assumed to vary continuously through the thickness, according to a simple power law distribution of the volume fraction of the constituents. The simplified theory is used to obtain the buckling of the plate under different types of thermal loads. The thermal loads are assumed to be uniform, linear, and non-linear distribution through the thickness. Additional numerical results are presented for FGM plates that show the effects of various parameters on thermal buckling response.

Keywords: buckling, functionally graded, plate, simplified higher-order deformation theory, thermal loading

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
243 Thermal Postbuckling of First Order Shear Deformable Functionally Graded Plates

Authors: Merbouha Barka, K. H. Benrahou, A. Fakrar, A. Tounsi, E. A. Adda Bedia


This paper presents an analytical investigation on the buckling and postbuckling behaviors of thick functionally graded plates subjected to thermal load .Material properties are assumed to be temperature dependent, and graded in the thickness direction according to a simple power law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of constituents. The formulations are based on first order shear deformation plate theory taking into account Von Karman nonlinearity and initial geometrical imperfection. By applying Galerkin method, closed-form relations of postbuckling equilibrium paths for simply supported plates are determined. Analysis is carried out to show the effects of material and geometrical properties, in-plane boundary restraint, and imperfection on the buckling and postbuckling loading capacity of the plates.

Keywords: functionally graded materials, postbuckling, first order shear deformation theory, imperfection

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
242 Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Engesser-Timoshenko Beams Subjected to Axial Load Located on a Continuous Elastic Foundation

Authors: M. Karami Khorramabadi, A. R. Nezamabadi


This paper studies free vibration of functionally graded beams Subjected to Axial Load that is simply supported at both ends lies on a continuous elastic foundation. The displacement field of beam is assumed based on Engesser-Timoshenko beam theory. The Young's modulus of beam is assumed to be graded continuously across the beam thickness. Applying the Hamilton's principle, the governing equation is established. Resulting equation is solved using the Euler's Equation. The effects of the constituent volume fractions and foundation coefficient on the vibration frequency are presented. To investigate the accuracy of the present analysis, a compression study is carried out with a known data.

Keywords: functionally graded beam, free vibration, elastic foundation, Engesser-Timoshenko beam theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
241 Functionally Graded MEMS Piezoelectric Energy Harvester with Magnetic Tip Mass

Authors: M. Derayatifar, M. Packirisamy, R.B. Bhat


Role of piezoelectric energy harvesters has gained interest in supplying power for micro devices such as health monitoring sensors. In this study, in order to enhance the piezoelectric energy harvesting in capturing energy from broader range of excitation and to improve the mechanical and electrical responses, bimorph piezoelectric energy harvester beam with magnetic mass attached at the end is presented. In view of overcoming the brittleness of piezo-ceramics, functionally graded piezoelectric layers comprising of both piezo-ceramic and piezo-polymer is employed. The nonlinear equations of motions are derived using energy method and then solved analytically using perturbation scheme. The frequency responses of the forced vibration case are obtained for the near resonance case. The nonlinear dynamic responses of the MEMS scaled functionally graded piezoelectric energy harvester in this paper may be utilized in different design scenarios to increase the efficiency of the harvester.

Keywords: energy harvesting, functionally graded piezoelectric material, magnetic force, MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) piezoelectric, perturbation method

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240 Optimizing Volume Fraction Variation Profile of Bidirectional Functionally Graded Circular Plate under Mechanical Loading to Minimize Its Stresses

Authors: Javad Jamali Khouei, Mohammadreza Khoshravan


Considering that application of functionally graded material is increasing in most industries, it seems necessary to present a methodology for designing optimal profile of structures such as plate under mechanical loading which is highly consumed in industries. Therefore, volume fraction variation profile of functionally graded circular plate which has been considered two-directional is optimized so that stress of structure is minimized. For this purpose, equilibrium equations of two-directional functionally graded circular plate are solved by applying semi analytical-numerical method under mechanical loading and support conditions. By solving equilibrium equations, deflections and stresses are obtained in terms of control variables of volume fraction variation profile. As a result, the problem formula can be defined as an optimization problem by aiming at minimization of critical von-mises stress under constraints of deflections, stress and a physical constraint relating to structure of material. Then, the related problem can be solved with help of one of the metaheuristic algorithms such as genetic algorithm. Results of optimization for the applied model under constraints and loadings and boundary conditions show that functionally graded plate should be graded only in radial direction and there is no need for volume fraction variation of the constituent particles in thickness direction. For validating results, optimal values of the obtained design variables are graphically evaluated.

Keywords: two-directional functionally graded material, single objective optimization, semi analytical-numerical solution, genetic algorithm, graphical solution with contour

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239 Natural Frequency Analysis of a Porous Functionally Graded Shaft System

Authors: Natural Frequency Analysis of a Porous Functionally Graded Shaft System


The vibration characteristics of a functionally graded (FG) rotor model having porosities and micro-voids is investigated using three-dimensional finite element analysis. The FG shaft is mounted with a steel disc located at the midspan. The shaft ends are supported on isotropic bearings. The FG material is composed of a metallic (stainless-steel) and ceramic phase (zirconium oxide) as its constituent phases. The layer wise material property variation is governed by power law. Material property equations are developed for the porosity modelling. Python code is developed to assign the material properties to each layer including the effect of porosities. ANSYS commercial software is used to extract the natural frequencies and whirl frequencies for the FG shaft system. The obtained results show the influence of porosity volume fraction and power-law index, on the vibration characteristics of the ceramic-based FG shaft system.

Keywords: Finite element method, Functionally graded material, Porosity volume fraction, Power law

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238 Geometrically Non-Linear Axisymmetric Free Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Annular Plates

Authors: Boutahar Lhoucine, El Bikri Khalid, Benamar Rhali


In this paper, the non-linear free axisymmetric vibration of a thin annular plate made of functionally graded material (FGM) has been studied by using the energy method and a multimode approach. FGM properties vary continuously as well as non-homogeneity through the thickness direction of the plate. The theoretical model is based on the classical plate theory and the Von Kármán geometrical non-linearity assumptions. An approximation has been adopted in the present work consisting of neglecting the in-plane deformation in the formulation. Hamilton’s principle is used to derive the governing equation of motion. The problem is solved by a numerical iterative procedure in order to obtain more accurate results for vibration amplitudes up to 1.5 times the plate thickness. The numerical results are given for the first axisymmetric non-linear mode shape for a wide range of vibration amplitudes and they are presented either in tabular form or in graphical form to show the effect that the vibration amplitude and the variation in material properties have significant effects on the frequencies and the bending stresses in large amplitude vibration of the functionally graded annular plate.

Keywords: non-linear vibrations, annular plates, large amplitudes, functionally graded material

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237 Numerical Modelling of Laminated Shells Made of Functionally Graded Elastic and Piezoelectric Materials

Authors: Gennady M. Kulikov, Svetlana V. Plotnikova


This paper focuses on implementation of the sampling surfaces (SaS) method for the three-dimensional (3D) stress analysis of functionally graded (FG) laminated elastic and piezoelectric shells. The SaS formulation is based on choosing inside the nth layer In not equally spaced SaS parallel to the middle surface of the shell in order to introduce the electric potentials and displacements of these surfaces as basic shell variables. Such choice of unknowns permits the presentation of the proposed FG piezoelectric shell formulation in a very compact form. The SaS are located inside each layer at Chebyshev polynomial nodes that improves the convergence of the SaS method significantly. As a result, the SaS formulation can be applied efficiently to 3D solutions for FG piezoelectric laminated shells, which asymptotically approach the exact solutions of piezoelectricity as the number of SaS In goes to infinity.

Keywords: electroelasticity, functionally graded material, laminated piezoelectric shell, sampling surfaces method

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236 Mechanical and Thermal Stresses in A Functionally Graded Cylinders

Authors: Ali Kurşun, Emre Kara, Erhan Çetin, Şafak Aksoy, Ahmet Kesimli


In this study, thermal elastic stress distribution occurred on long hollow cylinders made of functionally graded material (FGM) was analytically defined under thermal, mechanical and thermo mechanical loads. In closed form solutions for elastic stresses and displacements are obtained analytically by using the infinitesimal deformation theory of elasticity. It was assumed that elasticity modulus, thermal expansion coefficient and density of cylinder materials could change in terms of an exponential function as for that Poisson’s ratio was constant. A gradient parameter n is chosen between - 1 and 1. When n equals to zero, the disc becomes isotropic. Circumferential, radial and longitudinal stresses in the FGMs cylinders are depicted in the figures. As a result, the gradient parameters have great effects on the stress systems of FGMs cylinders.

Keywords: functionally graded materials, thermoelasticity, thermomechanical load, hollow cylinder.

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235 Free Vibration of Axially Functionally Graded Simply Supported Beams Using Differential Transformation Method

Authors: A. Selmi


Free vibration analysis of homogenous and axially functionally graded simply supported beams within the context of Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is presented in this paper. The material properties of the beams are assumed to obey the linear law distribution. The effective elastic modulus of the composite was predicted by using the rule of mixture. Here, the complexities which appear in solving differential equation of transverse vibration of composite beams which limit the analytical solution to some special cases are overcome using a relatively new approach called the Differential Transformation Method. This technique is applied for solving differential equation of transverse vibration of axially functionally graded beams. Natural frequencies and corresponding normalized mode shapes are calculated for different Young’s modulus ratios. MATLAB code is designed to solve the transformed differential equation of the beam. Comparison of the present results with the exact solutions proves the effectiveness, the accuracy, the simplicity, and computational stability of the differential transformation method. The effect of the Young’s modulus ratio on the normalized natural frequencies and mode shapes is found to be very important.

Keywords: differential transformation method, functionally graded material, mode shape, natural frequency

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234 Thermal Buckling of Functionally Graded Panel Based on Mori-Tanaka Scheme

Authors: Seok-In Bae, Young-Hoon Lee, Ji-Hwan Kim


Due to the asymmetry of the material properties of the Functionally Graded Materials(FGMs) in the thickness direction, neutral surface of the model is not the same as the mid-plane of the symmetric structure. In order to investigate the thermal bucking behavior of FGMs, neutral surface is chosen as a reference plane. In the model, material properties are assumed to be temperature dependent, and varied continuously in the thickness direction of the plate. Further, the effective material properties such as Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio are homogenized using Mori-Tanaka scheme which considers the interaction among adjacent inclusions. In this work, the finite element methods are used, and the first-order shear deformation theory of plate are accounted. The thermal loads are assumed to be uniform, linear and non-linear distribution through the thickness directions, respectively. Also, the effects of various parameters for thermal buckling behavior of FGM panel are discussed in detail.

Keywords: functionally graded plate, thermal buckling analysis, neutral surface

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233 On Radially Symmetric Vibrations of Bi-Directional Functionally Graded Circular Plates on the Basis of Mindlin’s Theory and Neutral Axis

Authors: Rahul Saini, Roshan Lal


The present paper deals with the free axisymmetric vibrations of bi-directional functionally graded circular plates using Mindlin’s plate theory and physical neutral surface. The temperature-dependent, as well as temperature-independent mechanical properties of the plate material, varies in radial and transverse directions. Also, temperature profile for one- and two-dimensional temperature variations has been obtained from the heat conduction equation. A simple computational formulation for the governing differential equation of motion for such a plate model has been derived using Hamilton's principle for the clamped and simply supported plates at the periphery. Employing the generalized differential quadrature method, the corresponding frequency equations have been obtained and solved numerically to retain their lowest three roots as the natural frequencies for the first three modes. The effect of various other parameters such as temperature profile, functionally graded indices, and boundary conditions on the vibration characteristics has been presented. In order to validate the accuracy and efficiency of the method, the results have been compared with those available in the literature.

Keywords: bi-directionally FG, GDQM, Mindlin’s circular plate, neutral axis, vibrations

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232 Shear Surface and Localized Waves in Functionally Graded Piezoactive Electro-Magneto-Elastic Media

Authors: Karen B. Ghazaryan


Recently, the propagation of coupled electromagnetic and elastic waves in magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) structures attracted much attention due to the wide range of application of these materials in smart structures. MEE materials are a class of new artificial composites that consist of simultaneous piezoelectric and piezomagnetic phases. Magneto-electro-elastic composites are built up by combining piezoelectric and piezomagnetic phases to obtain a smart composite that presents not only the electromechanical and magneto-mechanical coupling but also a strong magnetoelectric coupling, which makes such materials highly valuable in technological usage. In the framework of quasi-static approach shear surface and localized waves are considered in magneto-electro-elastic piezo-active structure consisting of functionally graded 6mm hexagonal symmetry group crystals. Assuming that in a functionally graded material the elastic and electromagnetic properties vary in the same proportion in direction perpendicular to the MEE polling direction, special classes of inhomogeneity functions were found, admitting exact solutions for coupled electromagnetic and elastic wave fields. Based on these exact solutions, defining the coupled shear wave field in magneto-electro-elastic composites several modal problems are considered: shear surface waves propagation along surface of a MEE half-space, interfacial wave propagation in a MEE oppositely polarized bi-layer, Love type waves in a functionally graded MEE layer overlying a homogeneous elastic half-space. For the problems under consideration corresponding dispersion equations are deduced analytically in an explicit form and for the BaTiO₃–CoFe₂O₄ crystal numerical results estimating effects of inhomogeneity and piezo effect are carried out.

Keywords: surface shear waves, magneto-electro-elastic composites, piezoactive crystals, functionally graded elastic materials

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231 Stress Variation around a Circular Hole in Functionally Graded Plate under Bending

Authors: Parveen K. Saini, Mayank Kushwaha


The influence of material property variation on stress concentration factor (SCF) due to the presence of a circular hole in a functionally graded material (FGM) plate is studied in this paper. A numerical method based on complex variable theory of elasticity is used to investigate the problem. To achieve the material property, variation plate is decomposed into a number of rings. In this research work, Young's modulus is assumed to be varying exponentially and it is found that stress concentration factor can be reduced by increasing Young’s modulus progressively away from the hole.

Keywords: stress concentration, circular hole, FGM plate, bending

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230 Out-of-Plane Free Vibration of Functionally Graded Circular Curved Beams with Temperature Dependent Material Properties in Thermal Environment

Authors: M. M. Atashi, P. Malekzadeh


A first known formulation for the out-of-plane free vibration analysis of functionally graded (FG) circular curved beams in thermal environment and with temperature dependent material properties is presented. The formulation is based on the first order shear deformation theory (FSDT), which includes the effects of shear deformation and rotary inertia due to both torsional and flexural vibrations. The material properties are assumed to be temperature dependent and graded in the direction normal to the plane of the beam curvature. The equations of motion and the related boundary conditions, which include the effects of initial thermal stresses, are derived using the Hamilton’s principle. Differential quadrature method (DQM), as an efficient and accurate numerical method, is adopted to solve the thermoelastic equilibrium equations and the equations of motion. The fast rate of convergence of the method is investigated and the formulations are validated by comparing the results in the limit cases with the available solutions in the literature for isotropic circular curved beams. In addition, for FG circular curved beams with soft simply supported edges, the results are compared with the obtained exact solutions. Then, the effects of temperature rise, boundary conditions, material and geometrical parameters on the natural frequencies are investigated.

Keywords: out of plane, free vibration, curved beams, functionally graded, thermal environment

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229 Electro-Thermo-Mechanical Behaviour of Functionally Graded Material Usage in Lead Acid Storage Batteries and the Benefits

Authors: Sandeep Das


Terminal post is one of the most important features of a Battery. The design and manufacturing of post are very much critical especially when threaded inserts (Bolt-on type) are used since all the collected energy is delivered from the lead part to the threaded insert (Cu or Cu alloy). Any imperfection at the interface may cause Voltage drop, high resistance, high heat generation, etc. This may be because of sudden change of material properties from lead to Cu alloys. To avoid this problem, a scheme of material gradation is proposed for achieving continuous variation of material properties for the Post used in commercially available lead acid battery. The Functionally graded (FG) material for the post is considered to be composed of different layers of homogeneous material. The volume fraction of the materials used corresponding to each layer is calculated by considering its variation along the direction of current flow (z) according to a power law. Accordingly, the effective properties of the homogeneous layers are estimated and the Post composed of this FG material is modeled using the commercially available ANSYS software. The solid 186 layered structural solid element has been used for discretization of the model of the FG Post. A thermal electric analysis is performed on the layered FG model. The model developed has been validated by comparing the results of the existing Post model& experimental analysis

Keywords: ANSYS, functionally graded material, lead-acid battery, terminal post

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228 Dynamic Analysis of Functionally Graded Nano Composite Pipe with PZT Layers Subjected to Moving Load

Authors: Morteza Raminnia


In this study, dynamic analysis of functionally graded nano-composite pipe reinforced by single-walled carbon nano-tubes (SWCNTs) with simply supported boundary condition subjected to moving mechanical loads is investigated. The material properties of functionally graded carbon nano tube-reinforced composites (FG-CNTRCs) are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction and are estimated through a micro-mechanical model. In this paper polymeric matrix considered as isotropic material and for the CNTRC, uniform distribution (UD) and three types of FG distribution patterns of SWCNT reinforcements are considered. The system equation of motion is derived by using Hamilton's principle under the assumptions of first order shear deformation theory (FSDT).The thin piezoelectric layers embedded on inner and outer surfaces of FG-CNTRC layer are acted as distributed sensor and actuator to control dynamic characteristics of the FG-CNTRC laminated pipe. The modal analysis technique and Newmark's integration method are used to calculate the displacement and dynamic stress of the pipe subjected to moving loads. The effects of various material distribution and velocity of moving loads on dynamic behavior of the pipe is presented. This present approach is validated by comparing the numerical results with the published numerical results in literature. The results show that the above-mentioned effects play very important role on dynamic behavior of the pipe .This present work shows that some meaningful results that which are interest to scientific and engineering community in the field of FGM nano-structures.

Keywords: nano-composite, functionally garded material, moving load, active control, PZT layers

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227 Parametric Analysis and Optimal Design of Functionally Graded Plates Using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm and a Hybrid Meshless Method

Authors: Foad Nazari, Seyed Mahmood Hosseini, Mohammad Hossein Abolbashari, Mohammad Hassan Abolbashari


The present study is concerned with the optimal design of functionally graded plates using particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. In this study, meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) method is employed to obtain the functionally graded (FG) plate’s natural frequencies. Effects of two parameters including thickness to height ratio and volume fraction index on the natural frequencies and total mass of plate are studied by using the MLPG results. Then the first natural frequency of the plate, for different conditions where MLPG data are not available, is predicted by an artificial neural network (ANN) approach which is trained by back-error propagation (BEP) technique. The ANN results show that the predicted data are in good agreement with the actual one. To maximize the first natural frequency and minimize the mass of FG plate simultaneously, the weighted sum optimization approach and PSO algorithm are used. However, the proposed optimization process of this study can provide the designers of FG plates with useful data.

Keywords: optimal design, natural frequency, FG plate, hybrid meshless method, MLPG method, ANN approach, particle swarm optimization

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226 Optimization of FGM Sandwich Beams Using Imperialist Competitive Algorithm

Authors: Saeed Kamarian, Mahmoud Shakeri


Sandwich structures are used in a variety of engineering applications including aircraft, construction and transportation where strong, stiff and light structures are required. In this paper, frequency maximization of Functionally Graded Sandwich (FGS) beams resting on Pasternak foundations is investigated. A generalized power-law distribution with four parameters is considered for material distribution through the thicknesses of face layers. Since the search space is large, the optimization processes becomes so complicated and too much time consuming. Thus a novel meta–heuristic called Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA) which is a socio-politically motivated global search strategy is implemented to improve the speed of optimization process. Results show the success of applying ICA for engineering problems especially for design optimization of FGM sandwich beams.

Keywords: sandwich beam, functionally graded materials, optimization, imperialist competitive algorithm

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225 Non-Local Behavior of a Mixed-Mode Crack in a Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Medium

Authors: Nidhal Jamia, Sami El-Borgi


In this paper, the problem of a mixed-Mode crack embedded in an infinite medium made of a functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) with crack surfaces subjected to electro-mechanical loadings is investigated. Eringen’s non-local theory of elasticity is adopted to formulate the governing electro-elastic equations. The properties of the piezoelectric material are assumed to vary exponentially along a perpendicular plane to the crack. Using Fourier transform, three integral equations are obtained in which the unknown variables are the jumps of mechanical displacements and electric potentials across the crack surfaces. To solve the integral equations, the unknowns are directly expanded as a series of Jacobi polynomials, and the resulting equations solved using the Schmidt method. In contrast to the classical solutions based on the local theory, it is found that no mechanical stress and electric displacement singularities are present at the crack tips when nonlocal theory is employed to investigate the problem. A direct benefit is the ability to use the calculated maximum stress as a fracture criterion. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the effects of crack length, material gradient parameter describing FGPMs, and lattice parameter on the mechanical stress and electric displacement field near crack tips.

Keywords: functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM), mixed-mode crack, non-local theory, Schmidt method

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224 Fracture Behaviour of Functionally Graded Materials Using Graded Finite Elements

Authors: Mohamad Molavi Nojumi, Xiaodong Wang


In this research fracture behaviour of linear elastic isotropic functionally graded materials (FGMs) are investigated using modified finite element method (FEM). FGMs are advantageous because they enhance the bonding strength of two incompatible materials, and reduce the residual stress and thermal stress. Ceramic/metals are a main type of FGMs. Ceramic materials are brittle. So, there is high possibility of crack existence during fabrication or in-service loading. In addition, damage analysis is necessary for a safe and efficient design. FEM is a strong numerical tool for analyzing complicated problems. Thus, FEM is used to investigate the fracture behaviour of FGMs. Here an accurate 9-node biquadratic quadrilateral graded element is proposed in which the influence of the variation of material properties is considered at the element level. The stiffness matrix of graded elements is obtained using the principle of minimum potential energy. The implementation of graded elements prevents the forced sudden jump of material properties in traditional finite elements for modelling FGMs. Numerical results are verified with existing solutions. Different numerical simulations are carried out to model stationary crack problems in nonhomogeneous plates. In these simulations, material variation is supposed to happen in directions perpendicular and parallel to the crack line. Two special linear and exponential functions have been utilized to model the material gradient as they are mostly discussed in literature. Also, various sizes of the crack length are considered. A major difference in the fracture behaviour of FGMs and homogeneous materials is related to the break of material symmetry. For example, when the material gradation direction is normal to the crack line, even under applying the mode I loading there exists coupled modes I and II of fracture which originates from the induced shear in the model. Therefore, the necessity of the proper modelling of the material variation should be considered in capturing the fracture behaviour of FGMs specially, when the material gradient index is high. Fracture properties such as mode I and mode II stress intensity factors (SIFs), energy release rates, and field variables near the crack tip are investigated and compared with results obtained using conventional homogeneous elements. It is revealed that graded elements provide higher accuracy with less effort in comparison with conventional homogeneous elements.

Keywords: finite element, fracture mechanics, functionally graded materials, graded element

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223 Vibration Control of a Functionally Graded Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Composites Beam Resting on Elastic Foundation

Authors: Gholamhosein Khosravi, Mohammad Azadi, Hamidreza Ghezavati


In this paper, vibration of a nonlinear composite beam is analyzed and then an active controller is used to control the vibrations of the system. The beam is resting on a Winkler-Pasternak elastic foundation. The composite beam is reinforced by single walled carbon nanotubes. Using the rule of mixture, the material properties of functionally graded carbon nanotube-reinforced composites (FG-CNTRCs) are determined. The beam is cantilever and the free end of the beam is under follower force. Piezoelectric layers are attached to the both sides of the beam to control vibrations as sensors and actuators. The governing equations of the FG-CNTRC beam are derived based on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory Lagrange- Rayleigh-Ritz method. The simulation results are presented and the effects of some parameters on stability of the beam are analyzed.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, vibration control, piezoelectric layers, elastic foundation

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