Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1495

Search results for: brown adipose tissue

1495 Effects of Pterostilbene in Brown Adipose Tissue from Obese Rats

Authors: Leixuri Aguirre, Iñaki Milton-Laskibar, Elizabeth Hijona, Luis Bujanda, Agnes M. Rimando, Maria P. Portillo


Introduction: In recent years great attention has been paid by scientific community to phenolic compounds as active biomolecules naturally present in foodstuffs due to their beneficial effects on health. Pterostilbene is a resveratrol dimethylether derivative which shows higher biodisponibility. Objective. To analyze the effects of two doses of pterostilbene on several markers of thermogenic capacity in a model of genetic obesity, which shows reduced thermogenesis. Methods: The experiment was conducted with thirty Zucker (fa/fa) rats that were distributed in 3 experimental groups, the control group and two groups orally administered with pterostilbene at 15 and 30 mg/kg body weight/day for 6 weeks. Gene expression of Ucp1, Pgc-1α, Cpt1b, Pparα, Nfr1, Tfam and Cox-2 were assessed by RT-PCR, protein expression of UCP1 and GLUT4 by western blot and enzyme activity of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1b and citrate synthase by spectrophotometry in interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT). Statistical analysis was performed by using one way ANOVA and Newman-Keuls as post-hoc test. Results: Pterostilbene did not change gene expression of Pgc-1α. However, significant increases were found in the expression of Ucp1, Pparα, Nfr-1 and Cox-2. Protein expression of UCP1 and GLUT4 was increased in animals treated with pterostilbene, as well as the activities of CPT-1b and CS. These effects were observed with both doses of pterostilbene, without differences between them. Conclusions: These results show that pterostilbene increases thermogenic and oxidative capacity of brown adipose tissue in obese rats. Whether these effects effectively contribute to the anti-obesity properties of these compound needs further research. Acknowledgments: MINECO-FEDER (AGL2015-65719-R), Basque Government (IT-572-13), University of the Basque Country (ELDUNANOTEK UFI11/32), Institut of Health Carlos III (CIBERobn). Iñaki Milton is a fellowship from the Basque Government.

Keywords: brown adipose tissue, pterostilbene, thermogenesis, uncoupling protein 1

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1494 The Effect of 8 Weeks Endurance Training and L-NAME on Apelin in Adipose Tissue, Glucose and Insulin in Elderly Male's Rats

Authors: Asieh Abbassi Daloii, Fatemeh Fani, Ahmad Abdi


Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks endurance training and L-NAME on apelin in adipose tissue, glucose and insulin in elderly male’s rats. Methods: For this purpose, 24 vistar elderly rats with average 20 months old purchased from Razi Institute and transferred to Research Center were randomly divided into four groups: 1. control, 2. training, and L-NAME and 4. L-NAME. Training protocol performed for 8 weeks and 5 days a week with 75-80 VO2 max. All rats were killed 72 hours after the final training session and after 24 hours of fasting adipose tissue samples were collected and kept in -80. Also, Data was analyzed with One way ANOVA and Tucky in p < 0/05. Results: The results showed that the inhibition of nitric oxide on apelin in adipose tissue of adult male rats after eight weeks of endurance training increased significantly compared to the control group (p < 0.00). Also, the results showed no significant difference between the levels of insulin and glucose groups. Conclusion: It is likely that the increased apelin in adipose tissue in mice independent of insulin and glucose.

Keywords: endurance training, L-NAME, apelin in adipose tissue, elderly male rats

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1493 The Influence of Alginate Microspheres Modified with DAT on the Proliferation and Adipogenic Differentiation of ASCs

Authors: Shin-Yi Mao, Jiashing Yu


Decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) has received lots of attention as biological scaffolds recently. DAT that extracted from the extracellular matrix (ECM) of adipose tissues holds great promise as a xenogeneic biomaterial for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In our study, 2-D DATsol film was fabricated to enhance cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of ASCs in vitro. DAT was also used to modify alginate for improvement of cell adhesion. Alginate microspheres modified with DAT were prepared by Nisco. These microspheres could provide a highly supportive 3-D environment for ASCs. In our works, ASCs were immobilized in alginate microspheres modified with DAT to promoted cell adhesion and adipogenic differentiation. Accordingly, we hypothesize that tissue regeneration in vivo could be promoted with the aid of modified microspheres in future.

Keywords: adipose stem cells, decellularize adipose tissue, Alginate, microcarries

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1492 Vascularized Adipose Tissue Engineering by Using Adipose ECM/Fibroin Hydrogel

Authors: Alisan Kayabolen, Dilek Keskin, Ferit Avcu, Andac Aykan, Fatih Zor, Aysen Tezcaner


Adipose tissue engineering is a promising field for regeneration of soft tissue defects. However, only very thin implants can be used in vivo since vascularization is still a problem for thick implants. Another problem is finding a biocompatible scaffold with good mechanical properties. In this study, the aim is to develop a thick vascularized adipose tissue that will integrate with the host, and perform its in vitro and in vivo characterizations. For this purpose, a hydrogel of decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) and fibroin was produced, and both endothelial cells and adipocytes that were differentiated from adipose derived stem cells were encapsulated in this hydrogel. Mixing DAT with fibroin allowed rapid gel formation by vortexing. It also provided to adjust mechanical strength by changing fibroin to DAT ratio. Based on compression tests, gels of DAT/fibroin ratio with similar mechanical properties to adipose tissue was selected for cell culture experiments. In vitro characterizations showed that DAT is not cytotoxic; on the contrary, it has many natural ECM components which provide biocompatibility and bioactivity. Subcutaneous implantation of hydrogels resulted with no immunogenic reaction or infection. Moreover, localized empty hydrogels gelled successfully around host vessel with required shape. Implantations of cell encapsulated hydrogels and histological analyses are under study. It is expected that endothelial cells inside the hydrogel will form a capillary network and they will bind to the host vessel passing through hydrogel.

Keywords: adipose tissue engineering, decellularization, encapsulation, hydrogel, vascularization

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1491 A Secreted Protein Can Attenuate High Fat Diet Induced Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Mice

Authors: Abdul Soofi, Katherine Wolf, Egon Ranghini, Gregory Dressler


Obesity and its associated complications, such as insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, are reaching epidemic proportions. In mice, the TGF-β superfamily is implicated in the regulation of white and brown adipose tissues differentiation. The Kielin/Chordin-like Protein (KCP) is a secreted regulator of the TGF-β superfamily pathways that can inhibit both TGF-β and Activin signals while enhancing the Bone Morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. However, the effects of KCP on metabolism and obesity have not been studied in animal models. Thus, we examined the effects of KCP loss or gain of function in mice that were maintained on either a regular or a high fat diet. Loss of KCP sensitized mice to obesity and associated complications such as hepatic steatosis and glucose intolerance. In contrast, transgenic mice that expressed KCP in the kidney, liver and adipose tissues were resistant to developing high fat diet induced obesity and had significantly reduced white adipose tissue. KCP over-expression was able to shift the pattern of Smad signaling in vivo, to increase the levels of P-Smad1 and decrease P-Smad3, resulting in resistance to high fat diet induced hepatic steatosis and glucose intolerance. In aging mice, loss of KCP promoted liver pathology even when mice were fed a normal diet. The data demonstrate that shifting the TGF-β superfamily signaling with a secreted inhibitor or enhancer can alter the physiology of adipose tissue to reduce obesity and can inhibit the initiation and progression of hepatic steatosis to significantly reduce the effects of high fat diet induced metabolic disease.

Keywords: adipose tissue, KCP, obesity, TGF-β, BMP, hepatic steatosis, metabolic syndrome

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1490 Stroma-Providing Activity of Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Tissue-Related O2 Microenvironment

Authors: P. I. Bobyleva, E. R. Andreeva, I. V. Andrianova, E. V. Maslova, L. B. Buravkova


This work studied the ability of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to form stroma for expansion of cord blood hematopoietic cells. We showed that 72-hour interaction of MSCs with cord blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) in vitro at atmospheric (20%) and low (5%) O2 conditions increased the expression of ICAM-1, HCAM (at the beginning of interaction) on MSCs. Viability of MSCs and MNCs were maintained at high level. Adhesion of MNCs to MSCs was faster at 20% O2. MSCs promoted the proliferation of adhered MNCs to form the suspension containing great number of hematopoietic colony-forming units, and this effect was more pronounced at 5% O2. Thus, adipose-derived MSCs supplied sufficient stromal support to cord blood MNCs both at 20% and 5% О2, providing their adhesion with further expansion of new generation of different hematopoietic lineages.

Keywords: hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, mesenchymal stromal cells, tissue-related oxygen, adipose tissue

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1489 Epigenetics Regulation Play Role in the Pathogenesis of Adipose Tissue Disorder, Lipedema

Authors: Musarat Ishaq, Tara Karnezis, Ramin Shayan


Lipedema, a poorly understood chronic disease of adipose hyper-deposition, is often mistaken for obesity and causes significant impairment to mobility and quality-of-life. To identify molecular mechanisms underpinning lipedema, we employed comprehensive omics-based comparative analyses of whole tissue, adipocyte precursors (adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs)), and adipocytes from patients with or without lipedema. Transcriptional profiling revealed significant differences in lipedema tissue, adipocytes, and ADSCs, with altered levels of mRNAs involved inproliferation and cell adhesion. One highly up-regulated gene in lipedema adipose tissue, adipocytes and ADSCs, ZIC4, encodes Zinc Finger Protein ZIC 4, a class of transcription factor which may be involved in regulating metabolism and adipogenesis. ZIC4 inhibition impaired the adipogenesis of ADSCs into mature adipocytes. Epigenetic regulation study revealed overexpression of ZIC4 is involved in decreased promoter DNA methylation and subsequent decrease in adipogenesis. These epigenetic modifications can alter adipocytes microenvironment and adipocytes differentiation. Our study show that epigenetic events regulate the ability of ADSCs to commit and differentiate into mature adipocytes by modulating ZIC4.

Keywords: lipedema, adipose-derived stem cells, adipose tisue, adipocytes, zinc finger protein, epigenetic

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1488 Fatty Acid Translocase (Cd36), Energy Substrate Utilization, and Insulin Signaling in Brown Adipose Tissue in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

Authors: Michal Pravenec, Miroslava Simakova, Jan Silhavy


Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in lipid and glucose metabolism in rodents and possibly also in humans. Recently, using systems genetics approach in the BAT from BXH/HXB recombinant inbred strains, derived from the SHR (spontaneously hypertensive rat) and BN (Brown Norway) progenitors, we identified Cd36 (fatty acid translocase) as the hub gene of co-expression module associated with BAT relative weight and function. An important aspect of BAT biology is to better understand the mechanisms regulating the uptake and utilization of fatty acids and glucose. Accordingly, BAT function in the SHR that harbors mutant nonfunctional Cd36 variant (hereafter referred to as SHR-Cd36⁻/⁻) was compared with SHR transgenic line expressing wild type Cd36 under control of a universal promoter (hereafter referred to as SHR-Cd36⁺/⁺). BAT was incubated in media containing insulin and 14C-U-glucose alone or 14C-U-glucose together with palmitate. Incorporation of glucose into BAT lipids was significantly higher in SHR-Cd36⁺/⁺ versus SHR-Cd36⁻/⁻ rats when incubation media contained glucose alone (SHR-Cd36⁻/⁻ 591 ± 75 vs. SHR-Cd36⁺/⁺ 1036 ± 135 nmol/gl./2h; P < 0.005). Adding palmitate into incubation media had no effect in SHR-Cd36⁻/⁻ rats but significantly reduced glucose incorporation into BAT lipids in SHR-Cd36⁺/⁺ (SHR-Cd36⁻/⁻ 543 ± 55 vs. SHR-Cd36⁺/⁺ 766 ± 75 nmol/gl./2h; P < 0.05 denotes significant Cd36 x palmitate interaction determined by two-way ANOVA). This Cd36-dependent reduced glucose uptake in SHR-Cd36⁺/⁺ BAT was likely secondary to increased palmitate incorporation and utilization due to the presence of wild type Cd36 fatty acid translocase in transgenic rats. This possibility is supported by increased incorporation of 14C-U-palmitate into BAT lipids in the presence of both palmitate and glucose in incubation media (palmitate alone: SHR-Cd36⁻/⁻ 870 ± 21 vs. SHR-Cd36⁺/⁺ 899 ± 42; glucose+palmitate: SHR-Cd36⁻/⁻ 899 ± 47 vs. SHR-Cd36⁺/⁺ 1460 ± 111 nmol/palm./2h; P < 0.05 denotes significant Cd36 x glucose interaction determined by two-way ANOVA). It is possible that addition of glucose into the incubation media increased palmitate incorporation into BAT lipids in SHR-Cd36⁺/⁺ rats because of glucose availability for glycerol phosphate production and increased triglyceride synthesis. These changes in glucose and palmitate incorporation into BAT lipids were associated with significant differential expression of Irs1, Irs2, Slc2a4 and Foxo1 genes involved in insulin signaling and glucose metabolism only in SHR-Cd36⁺/⁺ rats which suggests Cd36-dependent effects on insulin action. In conclusion, these results provide compelling evidence that Cd36 plays an important role in BAT insulin signaling and energy substrate utilization.

Keywords: brown adipose tissue, Cd36, energy substrate utilization, insulin signaling, spontaneously hypertensive rat

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1487 Analysis of Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells under Atherosclerosis Microenvironment

Authors: Do Khanh Vy, Vuong Cat Khanh, Osamu Ohneda


During atherosclerosis (AS) progression, perivascular adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PVAT-MSCs) are exposed to the hypoxic environment due to the oxygenic deprivation which might influence the adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) function. Additionally, it has been reported that the angiogenic ability of subcutaneous AT-MSCs (SAT-MSCs) was impaired in the AS patients. However, up to now, the effects of AS on the characteristics and function of PVAT-MSCs have not been clarified yet. In the present study, we analyzed the AS microenvironment effects on the characteristics and function of AT-MSCs. We found that there was no significant difference in cellular morphology and differentiation ability between SAT-MSCs and PVAT-MSCs in AS patients. However, the proliferation of AS-derived PVAT-MSCs was less than those of AS-derived SAT-MSCs. Importantly, the migration of AS-derived PVAT-MSCs was faster than AS-derived SAT-MSCs. Of note, AS-derived PVAT-MSCs showed the upregulation of SDF1, which is related to the homing, and VEGF, which is related to the angiogenesis compared to those of AS-derived SAT-MSCs. Consistent with these results, AS-derived PVAT-MSCs showed the higher ability to recruit EPCs and ECs than AS-derived SAT-MSCs. In addition, EPCs and ECs which cultured in the presence of AS-derived PVAT-MSC conditioned medium showed the higher angiogenic function of the tube formation compared to those cultured in AS-derived SAT-MSC conditioned medium. This result suggests that the higher paracrine effects of AS-derived PVAT-MSCs support the angiogenic function of the target cells. Our data showed the different characteristics and functions of AT-MSCs derived from different sources of tissues. Under the AS microenvironment, it seems that the characteristics and functions of PVAT-MSCs might reflect the progression of AS. Further study will be necessary to clarify the mechanism in the future.

Keywords: atherosclerosis, mesenchymal stem cells, perivascular adipose tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue

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1486 Morphological Evaluation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Adipose Tissue of Dog Treated with Different Concentrations of Nano-Hydroxy Apatite

Authors: K. Barbaro, F. Di Egidio, A. Amaddeo, G. Lupoli, S. Eramo, G. Barraco, D. Amaddeo, C. Gallottini


In this study, we wanted to evaluate the effects of nano-hydroxy apatite (NHA) on mesenchymal stem cells extracted from subcutaneous adipose tissue of the dog. The stem cells were divided into 6 experimental groups at different concentrations of NHA. The comparison was made with a control group of stem cell grown in standard conditions without NHA. After 1 week, the cells were fixed with 10% buffered formalin for 1 hour at room temperature and stained with Giemsa, measured at the inverted optical microscope. The morphological evaluation of the control samples and those treated showed that stem cells adhere to the substrate and proliferate in the presence of nanohydroxy apatite at different concentrations showing no detectable toxic effects.

Keywords: nano-hydroxy apatite, adipose mesenchymal stem cells, dog, morphological evaluation

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1485 Controlling Melanocytic Hyperactivity Is No More A Dream With Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Authors: Afzaal Bashir, Sunaina Afzaal


Background: Facial contour deformities associated with pigmentary changes are of major concern for plastic surgeons, both being important and difficult in treating such issues. No definite ideal treatment option is available to address simultaneously both the contour defect as well as related pigmentation. Objectives: The aim of the current study is to compare the long term effects of conventional adipose tissue grafting, and ex-vivo expanded MSCs enriched adipose tissue grafting for the treatment of contour deformities with pigmentary changes on the face. Material and Methods: In this study, eighty (80) patients of contour deformities of face with hyperpigmentation were recruited after informed consent. Two techniques i.e., conventional fat grafting (C-FG) and fat grafts enriched with expanded adipose stem cells (FG-ASCs), were used to address the pigmentation. Both techniques were explained to patients and enrolled patients were divided into two groups i.e. C-FG and FG-ASCS, per patients’ choice and satisfaction. Patients of FG-ASCs group were treated with fat grafts enriched with expanded adipose stem cells, while patients of C-FGsgroup were treated with conventional fat grafting. Patients were followed for 12 months, and improvement in face pigmentation was assessed clinically as well as measured objectively. Patients’ satisfaction was also documented as highlysatisfied, satisfied, andunsatisfied. This clinical trial was registered at with ID: NTC03564808. Results: Mean age of patients was 24.42(±4.49), 66 patients were females. Forehead was involved in 61.20% cases, the cheek in 21.20% cases, chin in 11.20% cases and nose in 6.20% cases. In GF-ASCs group, the integrated color density (ICD) was decreased (1.08×106 ±4.64×10⁵) as compared to C-FG group (2.80×105±1.69×10⁵). Patients treated with fat grafts enriched with expanded adipose stem cells were significantly more satisfied as compared to patients treated with conventional fat grafting only. Conclusion: Mesenchymal stem cell enriched autologous fat grafting is preferred option for improving the contour deformities related increased pigmentation of face skin.

Keywords: hyperpigmentation, color density, enriched adipose tissue graft, fat grafting, contour deformities, image J.

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1484 Effects of Exercise Training in the Cold on Browning of White Fat in Obese Rats

Authors: Xiquan Weng, Chaoge Wang, Guoqin Xu, Wentao Lin


Objective: Cold exposure and exercise serve as two powerful physiological stimuli to launch the conversion of fat-accumulating white adipose tissue (WAT) into energy-dissipating brown adipose tissue (BAT). So far, it remains to be elucidated whether exercise plus cold exposure can produce an addictive effect on promoting WAT browning. Methods: 64 SD rats were subjected to high-fat and high-sugar diets for 9-week and successfully established an obesity model. They were randomly divided into 8 groups: normal control group (NC), normal exercise group (NE), continuous cold control group (CC), continuous cold exercise group (CE), intermittent cold control group (IC) and intermittent cold exercise group (IE). For continuous cold exposure, the rats stayed in a cold environment all day; For intermittent cold exposure, the rats were exposed to cold for only 4h per day. The protocol for treadmill exercises were as follows: 25m/min (speed), 0°C (slope), 30mins each time, an interval for 10 mins between two exercises, twice/two days, lasting for 5 weeks. Sampling were conducted on the 5th weekend. The body length and weight of the rats were measured, and the Lee's index was calculated. The visceral fat rate (VFR), subcutaneous fat rate (SFR), brown fat rate (BrFR) and body fat rate (BoFR) were measured by Micro-CT LCT200, and the expression of UCP1 protein in inguinal fat was examined by Western-blot. SPSS 22.0 was used for statistical analysis of the experimental results, and the ANOVA analysis was performed between groups (P < 0.05 was significant). Results: (1) Compared with the NC group, the weight of obese rats was significantly declined in the NE, CE and IE groups (P < 0.05), the Lee's index of obese rats significantly declined in the CE group (P < 0.05). Compared with the NE group, the weight of obese rats was significantly declined in the CE and IE groups (P < 0.05). (2)Compared with the NC group, the VFR and BoFR of the rats significantly declined in the NE, CE and IE groups (P < 0.05), the SFR of the rats significantly declined in the CE and IE groups (P < 0.05), and the BFR of the rats was significantly higher in the CC and IC groups (P < 0.05), respectively. Compared with the NE group, the VFR and BoFR of the rats significantly declined in the CE group (P < 0.05), the SFR of the rats was significantly higher in the CC and IS groups (P < 0.05), and the BrFR of the rats was significantly higher in the IC group (P < 0.05). (3)Compared with the NC group, the up-regulation of UCP1 protein expression in the inguinal fat of the rats was significant in the NE, CC, CE, IC and IE groups (P < 0.05). Compared with the NE group, the up-regulation of UCP1 protein expression in the inguinal fat of the rats was significant in the CC, CE and IE groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Exercise in the continuous and intermittent cold, especially in the former, can effectively decline the weight and body fat rate of obese rats. This is related to the effect of cold and exercise on the browning of white fat in rats.

Keywords: cold, browning of white fat, exercise, obesity

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1483 Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Therapy in Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars: A Systematic Review of Experimental Studies

Authors: Khaled Albakri, Abdulrhman Khaity, Nada M. Al-Dardery, Yaman A. S. Yousef, Jose A. Foppiani, Samuel J. Lin


Keloids are tough, unpredictable growth of scar tissue that usually develops after an injury or a surgical incision and while hypertrophic scars stay within the margins of an injury site, keloids can truly expand in a tumorous fashion. Their effect may range from causing mild cosmetic distress to many severe complaints for patients. Those effects prompted the development of several treatment methods such as laser and stem cell therapy. This study thus aimed to evaluate the capability of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in healing these scars. A search was conducted on PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science from inception until January 2022, and ultimately included 12 studies. The results extracted from those 12 studies demonstrated that ADSCs have a promising potential in reducing proliferation and migration rates of fibroblast, decreasing gene/protein expression of scar‐related molecules including levels of TGF‐β1, and lowering intracellular signal pathway-related molecules of hypertrophic and keloid scars in both in vivo and in vitro models. Ultimately, the current studies included in this systematic review support the use of ADSCs to alleviate hypertrophic and keloid scars.

Keywords: keloids, hypertrophic scars, gene expression, adipose stem cells

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1482 Flavonoid Content and Antioxidant Potential of White and Brown Sesame Seed Oils

Authors: Fatima Bello, Ibrahim Sani


Medicinal plants are the most important sources of life saving drugs for the majority of world’s population. People of all continents have used hundreds to thousands of indigenous plants in curing and management of many diseases. Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the most widely cultivated species for its nutritious and medicinal seeds and oil. This research was carried out to determine the flavonoid content and antioxidant potential of two varieties of sesame seeds oil. Oil extraction was done using Soxhlet apparatus. The percentage oil yield for white and brown seeds were 47.85% and 20.72%, respectively. Flavonoid was present in both seeds with concentration of 480 mg/g and 360 mg/g in white and brown sesame seeds, respectively. The antioxidant potential was determined at different oil volume; 1.00, 0.75, 0.50 and 0.25ml. The results for the white and brown sesame seed oils were 96.8 and 70.7, 91.0 and 65.2, 83.1 and 55.4, 77.9 and 50.2, respectively. The white seed oil has higher oil yield than the brown seed oil. Likewise, the white seed oil has more flavonoid content than the brown seed oil and also better reducing power than the brown seed oil.

Keywords: antioxidant potential, brown sesame seeds, flavonoid content, sesame seed oil, Sesamum indicum L., white sesame seeds

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1481 Septin 11, Cytoskeletal Protein Involved in the Regulation of Lipid Metabolism in Adipocytes

Authors: Natalia Moreno-Castellanos, Amaia Rodriguez, Gema Frühbeck


Introduction: In adipocytes, the cytoskeleton undergoes important expression and distribution in adipocytes rearrangements during adipogenesis and in obesity. Indeed, a role for these proteins in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation and response to insulin has been demonstrated. Recently, septins have been considered as new components of the cytoskeletal network that interact with other cytoskeletal elements (actin and tubulin) profoundly modifying their dynamics. However, these proteins have not been characterized as yet in adipose tissue. In this work, were examined the cellular, molecular and functional features of a member of this family, septin 11 (SEPT11), in adipocytes and evaluated the impact of obesity on the expression of this protein in human adipose tissue. Methods: Adipose gene and protein expression levels of SEPT11 were analysed in human samples. SEPT11 distribution was evaluated by immunocytochemistry, electronic microscopy, and subcellular fractionation techniques. GST-pull down, immunoprecipitation and a Yeast-Two Hybrid (Y2H) screening were used to identify the SEPT11 interactome. Gene silencing was employed to assess the role of SEPT11 in the regulation of insulin signaling and lipid metabolism in adipocytes. Results: SEPT11 is expressed in human adipocytes, and its levels increased in both omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue in obesity, with SEPT11 mRNA content positively correlating with parameters of insulin resistance in subcutaneous fat. In non-stimulated adipocytes, SEPT11 immunoreactivity showed a ring-like distribution at the cell surface and associated to caveolae. Biochemical analyses showed that SEPT11 interacted with the main component of caveolae, caveolin-1 (CAV1) as well as with the fatty acid-binding protein, FABP5. Notably, the three proteins redistributed and co-localized at the surface of lipid droplets upon exposure of adipocytes to oleate. In this line, SEPT11 silencing in 3T3-L1 adipocytes impaired insulin signaling and decreased insulin-induced lipogenesis. Conclusions: Those findings demonstrate that SEPT11 is a novel component of the adipocyte cytoskeleton that plays an important role in the regulation of lipid traffic, metabolism and can thus represent a potential biomarker of insulin resistance in obesity in adipocytes through its interaction with both CAV1 and FABP5.

Keywords: caveolae, lipid metabolism, obesity, septins

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1480 Effect of Spermatogenic Lineage Differentiated Human Adipose Tissue Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Treatment of Rat Testis after Cyclophosphamide Injection

Authors: Ranya M. Abdelgalil, Mona A. A. Arafa, Reem H. Shaker, Hala G. Metwally


This study is aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of differentiated adipose tissue- mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) on rat testis after the adverse effects induced by cyclophosphamide (CP), an anticancer drug. To achieve this target, twenty-seven adult male Wistar albino rats were assigned into three groups (n = 9 each). The 1st group received no treatment (control group), the 2nd group received an intra-peritoneal injection of 50 mg/kg/day cyclophosphamide for 15 consecutive days (CP group) and the 3rd group received the same dose of (CP group) then received 1 ml intra-testicular injection containing one million spermatogenic lineage differentiated human AT-MSCs suspended in phosphate-buffered saline and nutritive serum (AT-MSCs group). The body weight and testicular weight and volume were measured. The level of testosterone hormone and FSH as well as the sperm count and motility, and DNA concentration, were analyzed. Histological (H&E, Prussian blue) and immunohistochemical (PCNA, Bcl-2) staining of the testis were performed to reveal the changes of testicular structure, homing of AT-MSCs, proliferating cells, and apoptotic cells, respectively. The mean area percentage of positive immunostaining for PCNA and Bcl2 were measured. The CP group revealed a significant decrease in body weight, testicular weight and volume, sperm count and motility, T level and DNA concentration, while FSH level was significantly increased. The structure of the testis was markedly affected. The mean area % of positive staining of PCNA and Bcl-2 was decreased. All previously mentioned findings were almost retrieved in AT-MSCs treated group. These results conclusively provided experimental evidence of using AT-MSCs in the amelioration of testicular adverse effects induced by CP and may be useful for future regenerative medicine and clinical applications.

Keywords: mesenchymal stem cell, human adipose tissue, cyclophosphamide, adverse effects, testis, histology

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1479 Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Allium Hookeri Root and Processed Sulfur on the Growth Performance of Guinea Pigs

Authors: Nayeon, Lee, Won-Young, Cho, Hyun Joo, Jang, Chi-Ho, Lee


This study investigated the effects of the dietary supplementation of the Allium hookeri root, and processed sulfur, on the growth performance of guinea pigs. The guinea pigs were fed a control diet (CON), as well as the control diet including 1% freeze-dried Allium hookeri root (AH), or 0.1% processed sulfur (S), or including both the freeze-dried Allium hookeri root and the processed sulfur (AHS). The weight of perirenal adipose tissue (PAT) and the epididymal adipose tissue (EAT) in the AH were significantly lower than CON (p < 0.05). The serum cholesterols levels of the AH and the AHS were significantly lower than the S (p < 0.05). While the total saturated fatty acid content in the serum of the AH and AHS groups showed a tendency to decrease, the total monounsaturated fatty acid increased. The results of this study suggested that dietary consumption of Allium hookeri root may help to decrease fat accumulation, lower serum cholesterol levels, and control serum free fatty acid contents in the guinea pigs.

Keywords: Allium hookeri, dietary supplementation, growth performance, processed sulfur, Guinea pig

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1478 Molecular Pathogenesis of NASH through the Dysregulation of Metabolic Organ Network in the NASH-HCC Model Mouse Treated with Streptozotocin-High Fat Diet

Authors: Bui Phuong Linh, Yuki Sakakibara, Ryuto Tanaka, Elizabeth H. Pigney, Taishi Hashiguchi


NASH is an increasingly prevalent chronic liver disease that can progress to hepatocellular carcinoma and now is attracting interest worldwide. The STAM™ model is a clinically-correlated murine NASH model which shows the same pathological progression as NASH patients and has been widely used for pharmacological and basic research. The multiple parallel hits hypothesis suggests abnormalities in adipocytokines, intestinal microflora, and endotoxins are intertwined and could contribute to the development of NASH. In fact, NASH patients often exhibit gut dysbiosis and dysfunction in adipose tissue and metabolism. However, the analysis of the STAM™ model has only focused on the liver. To clarify whether the STAM™ model can also mimic multiple pathways of NASH progression, we analyzed the organ crosstalk interactions between the liver and the gut and the phenotype of adipose tissue in the STAM™ model. NASH was induced in male mice by a single subcutaneous injection of 200 µg streptozotocin 2 days after birth and feeding with high-fat diet after 4 weeks of age. The mice were sacrificed at NASH stage. Colon samples were snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80˚C for tight junction-related protein analysis. Adipose tissue was prepared into paraffin blocks for HE staining. Blood adiponectin was analyzed to confirm changes in the adipocytokine profile. Tight junction-related proteins in the intestine showed that expression of ZO-1 decreased with the progression of the disease. Increased expression of endotoxin in the blood and decreased expression of Adiponectin were also observed. HE staining revealed hypertrophy of adipocytes. Decreased expression of ZO-1 in the intestine of STAM™ mice suggests the occurrence of leaky gut, and abnormalities in adipocytokine secretion were also observed. Together with the liver, phenotypes in these organs are highly similar to human NASH patients and might be involved in the pathogenesis of NASH.

Keywords: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, fibrosis, organ crosstalk, leaky gut

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1477 Properties of Adipose Tissue Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Long-Term Cryopreservation

Authors: Jienny Lee, In-Soo Cho, Sang-Ho Cha


Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been investigated using preclinical approaches for tissue regeneration. Porcine MSCs (pMSCs) are capable of growing and attaching to plastic with a fibroblast-like morphology and then differentiating into bone, adipose, and cartilage tissues in vitro. This study was conducted to investigate the proliferating abilities, differentiation potentials, and multipotency of miniature pig adipose tissue-derived MSCs (mpAD-MSCs) with or without long-term cryopreservation, considering that cryostorage has the potential for use in clinical applications. After confirming the characteristics of the mpAD-MSCs, we examined the effect of long-term cryopreservation (> 2 years) on expression of cell surface markers (CD34, CD90 and CD105), proliferating abilities (cumulative population doubling level, doubling time, colony-forming unit, and MTT assay) and differentiation potentials into mesodermal cell lineages. As a result, the expression of cell surface markers is similar between thawed and fresh mpAD-MSCs. However, long-term cryopreservation significantly lowered the differentiation potentials (adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic) of mpAD-MSCs. When compared with fresh mpAD-MSCs, thawed mpAD-MSCs exhibited lower expression of mesodermal cell lineage-related genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-g2, lipoprotein lipase, collagen Type II alpha 1, osteonectin, and osteocalcin. Interestingly, long-term cryostoraged mpAD-MSCs exhibited significantly higher cell viability than the fresh mpAD-MSCs. Long-term cryopreservation induced a 30% increase in the cell viability of mpAD-MSCs when compared with the fresh mpAD-MSCs at 5 days after thawing. However, long-term cryopreservation significantly lowered expression of stemness markers such as Oct3/4, Sox2, and Nanog. Furthermore, long-term cryopreservation negatively affected expression of senescence-associated genes such as telomerase reverse transcriptase and heat shock protein 90 of mpAD-MSCs when compared with the fresh mpAD-MSCs. The results from this study might be important for the successful application of MSCs in clinical trials after long-term cryopreservation.

Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells, cryopreservation, stemness, senescence

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1476 Histological Changes in the Culex pipiens Mosquito Larvae Treated by the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana

Authors: Fatma Sahir- Halouane, Sonia Hamid, Farida Tihar-Benzina, Fatiha Bouhlali, Souad Lourchane


The Culicidae are biting insects, the most harmful to people, they are almost all bloodsuckers, and they are responsible of the spread of many important diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, and elephantiasis. Entomopathogenic microorganisms occupy an important place among the alternative methods of fighting against pests insect. The fungus Beauveria bassiana is an entomopathogenic agent naturally present in the ecosystems. It offers a very interesting potential for controlling populations of mosquitoes. This study aimed to show the histological changes that occured in Culex pipiens larvae infected with Beauveria bassiana. The 4th instar larvae were infected with B. bassiana in 10-7 spore/ml dilution, the histological section was studied showing that the fungi infected all the body parts specially Cuticle, Epiderms, fat bodies and midgut. After then the insect have a white appearance and covered with a thick coat of hyphea. The obtained results show that the application of Beauveria bassiana on cuticle of the fourth stage larvae of Culex pipiens was dependent of an apparent disturbance on the structure of the cuticle or there has been the degeneration of its different parts, infection of the fungus does not stop at the body walls. Therefore, it affects even the Adipose tissue, epidermal cells and intestine.

Keywords: Culex pipiens, Beauveria bassiana, histological changes, cuticle, intestine and adipose tissue

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1475 Serum Neurotrophins in Different Metabolic Types of Obesity

Authors: Irina M. Kolesnikova, Andrey M. Gaponov, Sergey A. Roumiantsev, Tatiana V. Grigoryeva, Alexander V. Laikov, Alexander V. Shestopalov


Background. Neuropathy is a common complication of obesity. In this regard, the content of neurotrophins in such patients is of particular interest. Neurotrophins are the proteins that regulate neuron survival and neuroplasticity and include brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF). However, the risk of complications depends on the metabolic type of obesity. Metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUHO) is associated with a high risk of complications, while this is not the case with metabolically healthy obesity (MHO). Therefore, the aim of our work was to study the effect of the obesity metabolic type on serum neurotrophins levels. Patients, materials, methods. The study included 134 healthy donors and 104 obese patients. Depending on the metabolic type of obesity, the obese patients were divided into subgroups with MHO (n=40) and MUHO (n=55). In the blood serum, the concentration of BDNF and NGF was determined. In addition, the content of adipokines (leptin, asprosin, resistin, adiponectin), myokines (irisin, myostatin, osteocrin), indicators of carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism were measured. Correlation analysis revealed the relationship between the studied parameters. Results. We found that serum BDNF concentration was not different between obese patients and healthy donors, regardless of obesity metabolic type. At the same time, in obese patients, there was a decrease in serum NGF level versus control. A similar trend was characteristic of both MHO and MUHO. However, MUHO patients had a higher NGF level than MHO patients. The literature indicates that obesity is associated with an increase in the plasma concentration of NGF. It can be assumed that in obesity, there is a violation of NGF storage in platelets, which accelerates neurotrophin degradation. We found that BDNF concentration correlated with irisin levels in MUHO patients. Healthy donors had a weak association between NGF and VEGF levels. No such association was found in obese patients, but there was an association between NGF and leptin concentrations. In MHO, the concentration of NHF correlated with the content of leptin, irisin, osteocrin, insulin, and the HOMA-IR index. But in MUHO patients, we found only the relationship between NGF and adipokines (leptin, asprosin). It can be assumed that in patients with MHO, the replenishment of serum NGF occurs under the influence of muscle and adipose tissue. In the MUHO patients only the effect of adipose tissue on NGF was observed. Conclusion. Obesity, regardless of metabolic type, is associated with a decrease in serum NGF concentration. We showed that muscle and adipose tissues make a significant contribution to the serum NGF pool in the MHO patients. In MUHO there is no effect of muscle on the NGF level, but the effect of adipose tissue remains.

Keywords: neurotrophins, nerve growth factor, NGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF, obesity, metabolically healthy obesity, metabolically unhealthy obesity

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1474 Expression of PGC-1 Alpha Isoforms in Response to Eccentric and Concentric Resistance Training in Healthy Subjects

Authors: Pejman Taghibeikzadehbadr


Background and Aim: PGC-1 alpha is a transcription factor that was first detected in brown adipose tissue. Since its discovery, PGC-1 alpha has been known to facilitate beneficial adaptations such as mitochondrial biogenesis and increased angiogenesis in skeletal muscle following aerobic exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of PGC-1 alpha isoforms in response to eccentric and concentric resistance training in healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: Ten healthy men were randomly divided into two groups (5 patients in eccentric group - 5 in eccentric group). Isokinetic contraction protocols included eccentric and concentric knee extension with maximum power and angular velocity of 60 degrees per second. The torques assigned to each subject were considered to match the workload in both protocols, with a rotational speed of 60 degrees per second. Contractions consisted of a maximum of 12 sets of 10 repetitions for the right leg, a rest time of 30 seconds between each set. At the beginning and end of the study, biopsy of the lateral broad muscle tissue was performed. Biopsies were performed in both distal and proximal directions of the lateral flank. To evaluate the expression of PGC1α-1 and PGC1α-4 genes, tissue analysis was performed in each group using Real-Time PCR technique. Data were analyzed using dependent t-test and covariance test. SPSS21 software and Exell 2013 software were used for data analysis. Results: The results showed that intra-group changes of PGC1α-1 after one session of activity were not significant in eccentric (p = 0.168) and concentric (p = 0.959) groups. Also, inter-group changes showed no difference between the two groups (p = 0.681). Also, intra-group changes of PGC1α-4 after one session of activity were significant in an eccentric group (p = 0.012) and concentric group (p = 0.02). Also, inter-group changes showed no difference between the two groups (p = 0.362). Conclusion: It seems that the lack of significant changes in the desired variables due to the lack of exercise pressure is sufficient to stimulate the increase of PGC1α-1 and PGC1α-4. And with regard to reviewing the answer, it seems that the compatibility debate has different results that need to be addressed.

Keywords: eccentric contraction, concentric contraction, PGC1α-1 و PGC1α-4, human subject

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1473 Development of the Analysis and Pretreatment of Brown HT in Foods

Authors: Hee-Jae Suh, Mi-Na Hong, Min-Ji Kim, Yeon-Seong Jeong, Ok-Hwan Lee, Jae-Wook Shin, Hyang-Sook Chun, Chan Lee


Brown HT is a bis-azo dye which is permitted in EU as a food colorant. So far, many studies have focused on HPLC using diode array detection (DAD) analysis for detection of this food colorant with different columns and mobile phases. Even though these methods make it possible to detect Brown HT, low recovery, reproducibility, and linearity are still the major limitations for the application in foods. The purpose of this study was to compare various methods for the analysis of Brown HT and to develop an improved analytical methods including pretreatment. Among tested analysis methods, best resolution of Brown HT was observed when the following solvent was applied as a eluent; solvent A of mobile phase was 0.575g NH4H2PO4, and 0.7g Na2HPO4 in 500mL water added with 500mL methanol. The pH was adjusted using phosphoric acid to pH 6.9 and solvent B was methanol. Major peak for Brown HT appeared at the end of separation, 13.4min after injection. This method exhibited relatively high recovery and reproducibility compared with other methods. LOD (0.284 ppm), LOQ (0.861 ppm), resolution (6.143), and selectivity (1.3) of this method were better than those of ammonium acetate solution method which was most frequently used. Precision and accuracy were verified through inter-day test and intra-day test. Various methods for sample pretreatments were developed for different foods and relatively high recovery over 80% was observed in all case. This method exhibited high resolution and reproducibility of Brown HT compared with other previously reported official methods from FSA and, EU regulation.

Keywords: analytic method, Brown HT, food colorants, pretreatment method

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1472 Relationship between Conjugated Linoleic Acid Intake, Biochemical Parameters and Body Fat among Adults and Elderly

Authors: Marcela Menah de Sousa Lima, Victor Ushijima Leone, Natasha Aparecida Grande de Franca, Barbara Santarosa Emo Peters, Ligia Araujo Martini


Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) intake has been constantly related to benefits to human health since having a positive effect on reducing body fat. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between CLA intake and biochemical measurements and body composition of adults and the elderly. Subjects/Methods: 287 adults and elderly participants in an epidemiological study in Sao Paulo Brazil, were included in the present study. Participants had their dietary data obtained by two non-consecutive 24HR, a body composition assessed by dual-energy absorptiometry exam (DXA), and a blood collection. Mean differences and a correlation test was performed. For all statistical tests, a significance of 5% was considered. Results: CLA intake showed a positive correlation with HDL-c levels (r = 0.149; p = 0.011) and negative with VLDL-c levels (r = -0.134; p = 0.023), triglycerides (r = -0.135; p = 0.023) and glycemia (r = -0.171; p = 0.004), as well as negative correlation with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) (r = -0.124, p = 0.036). Evaluating individuals in two groups according to VAT values, a significant difference in CLA intake was observed (p = 0.041), being the group with the highest VAT values, the one with the lowest fatty acid intake. Conclusions: This study suggests that CLA intake is associated with a better lipid profile and lower visceral adipose tissue volume, which contributes to the investigation of the effects of CLA on obesity parameters. However, it is necessary to investigate the effects of CLA from milk and dairy products in the control adiposity.

Keywords: adiposity, dairy products, diet, fatty acids

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1471 Human C-Cbl and Cbl-b Proteins Are More Highly Expressed in the Thymus Compared to the Testis

Authors: Mazo Kone, Rachida Salah, Harir Noria


Background and objectives: c-Cbl and Cbl-b are two members of the Cbl family proteins, with a crucial role of downregulation of tyrosine kinase receptors. They act as E3 ubiquitin ligases and are multivalent adaptor proteins, making them important in maintaining homeostasis in the body. This study investigated the expression level in thymus and testis in normal conditions. Methods: The expression level was assessed by immunochemistry of tissue microarrays of normal thymus and testis biopsies. Results: Cbl-b and c-Cbl proteins were found to be highly expressed in normal testis and thymus, indicated as yellowish brown granules in the cytomembrane and cytoplasm compared to controls. The c-Cbl appears to be more highly expressed than the Cbl-b in the thymus, while c-Cbl appears slightly stronger than Cbl-b in the testis. The thymus was found with a higher grade compared to the testis. Conclusion: In this work we concluded, that in normal condition, thymus tissue expresses more Cbl family proteins(c-Cbl and Cbl-b) than the testis tissue in humans.

Keywords: Human C-Cbl proteins, Human Cbl-b protein, Testis, Thymus

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1470 Measurement of Fatty Acid Changes in Post-Mortem Belowground Carcass (Sus-scrofa) Decomposition: A Semi-Quantitative Methodology for Determining the Post-Mortem Interval

Authors: Nada R. Abuknesha, John P. Morgan, Andrew J. Searle


Information regarding post-mortem interval (PMI) in criminal investigations is vital to establish a time frame when reconstructing events. PMI is defined as the time period that has elapsed between the occurrence of death and the discovery of the corpse. Adipocere, commonly referred to as ‘grave-wax’, is formed when post-mortem adipose tissue is converted into a solid material that is heavily comprised of fatty acids. Adipocere is of interest to forensic anthropologists, as its formation is able to slow down the decomposition process. Therefore, analysing the changes in the patterns of fatty acids during the early decomposition process may be able to estimate the period of burial, and hence the PMI. The current study concerned the investigation of the fatty acid composition and patterns in buried pig fat tissue. This was in an attempt to determine whether particular patterns of fatty acid composition can be shown to be associated with the duration of the burial, and hence may be used to estimate PMI. The use of adipose tissue from the abdominal region of domestic pigs (Sus-scrofa), was used to model the human decomposition process. 17 x 20cm piece of pork belly was buried in a shallow artificial grave, and weekly samples (n=3) from the buried pig fat tissue were collected over an 11-week period. Marker fatty acids: palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1n-9) and linoleic (C18:2n-6) acid were extracted from the buried pig fat tissue and analysed as fatty acid methyl esters using the gas chromatography system. Levels of the marker fatty acids were quantified from their respective standards. The concentrations of C16:0 (69.2 mg/mL) and C18:1n-9 (44.3 mg/mL) from time zero exhibited significant fluctuations during the burial period. Levels rose (116 and 60.2 mg/mL, respectively) and fell starting from the second week to reach 19.3 and 18.3 mg/mL, respectively at week 6. Levels showed another increase at week 9 (66.3 and 44.1 mg/mL, respectively) followed by gradual decrease at week 10 (20.4 and 18.5 mg/mL, respectively). A sharp increase was observed in the final week (131.2 and 61.1 mg/mL, respectively). Conversely, the levels of C18:2n-6 remained more or less constant throughout the study. In addition to fluctuations in the concentrations, several new fatty acids appeared in the latter weeks. Other fatty acids which were detectable in the time zero sample, were lost in the latter weeks. There are several probable opportunities to utilise fatty acid analysis as a basic technique for approximating PMI: the quantification of marker fatty acids and the detection of selected fatty acids that either disappear or appear during the burial period. This pilot study indicates that this may be a potential semi-quantitative methodology for determining the PMI. Ideally, the analysis of particular fatty acid patterns in the early stages of decomposition could be an additional tool to the already available techniques or methods in improving the overall processes in estimating PMI of a corpse.

Keywords: adipocere, fatty acids, gas chromatography, post-mortem interval

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1469 Hydroxyapatite Based Porous Scaffold for Tooth Tissue Engineering

Authors: Pakize Neslihan Taslı, Alev Cumbul, Gul Merve Yalcın, Fikrettin Sahin


A key experimental trial in the regeneration of large oral and craniofacial defects is the neogenesis of osseous and ligamentous interfacial structures. Currently, oral regenerative medicine strategies are unpredictable for repair of tooth supporting tissues destroyed as a consequence of trauma, chronic infection or surgical resection. A different approach combining the gel-casting method with Hydroxy Apatite HA-based scaffold and different cell lineages as a hybrid system leads to successively mimic the early stage of tooth development, in vitro. HA is widely accepted as a bioactive material for guided bone and tooth regeneration. In this study, it was reported that, HA porous scaffold preparation, characterization and evaluation of structural and chemical properties. HA is the main factor that exists in tooth and it is in harmony with structural, biological, and mechanical characteristics. Here, this study shows mimicking immature tooth at the late bell stage design and construction of HA scaffolds for cell transplantation of human Adipose Stem Cells (hASCs), human Bone Marrow Stem Cells (hBMSCs) and Gingival Epitelial cells for the formation of human tooth dentin-pulp-enamel complexes in vitro. Scaffold characterization was demonstrated by SEM, FTIR and pore size and density measurements. The biological contraction of dental tissues against each other was demonstrated by mRNA gene expressions, histopatologic observations and protein release profile by ELISA tecnique. The tooth shaped constructs with a pore size ranging from 150 to 300 µm arranged by gathering right amounts of materials provide interconnected macro-porous structure. The newly formed tissue like structures that grow and integrate within the HA designed constructs forming tooth cementum like tissue, pulp and bone structures. These findings are important as they emphasize the potential biological effect of the hybrid scaffold system. In conclusion, this in vitro study clearly demonstrates that designed 3D scaffolds shaped as a immature tooth at the late bell stage were essential to form enamel-dentin-pulp interfaces with an appropriate cell and biodegradable material combination. The biomimetic architecture achieved here is providing a promising platform for dental tissue engineering.

Keywords: tooth regeneration, tissue engineering, adipose stem cells, hydroxyapatite tooth engineering, porous scaffold

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1468 Stromal Vascular Fraction Regenerative Potential in a Muscle Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Mouse Model

Authors: Anita Conti, Riccardo Ossanna, Lindsey A. Quintero, Giamaica Conti, Andrea Sbarbati


Ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury induces muscle fiber atrophy and skeletal muscle fiber death with subsequently functionality loss. The heterogeneous pool of cells, especially mesenchymal stem cells, contained in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue could promote muscle fiber regeneration. To prevent SVF dispersion, it has been proposed the use of injectable biopolymers that work as cells carrier. A significant element of the extracellular matrix is hyaluronic acid (HA), which has been widely used in regenerative medicine as a cell scaffold given its biocompatibility, degradability, and the possibility of chemical functionalization. Connective tissue micro-fragments enriched with SVF obtained from mechanical disaggregation of adipose tissue were evaluated for IR muscle injury regeneration using low molecular weight HA as a scaffold. IR induction. Hindlimb ischemia was induced in 9 athymic nude mice through the clamping of the right quadriceps using a plastic band. Reperfusion was induced by cutting the plastic band after 3 hours of ischemic period. Contralateral (left) muscular tissue was used as healthy control. Treatment. Twenty-four hours after the IR induction, animals (n=3) were intramuscularly injected with 100 µl of SVF mixed with HA (SVF-HA). Animals treated with 100 µl of HA (n=3) and 100 µl saline solution (n=3) were used as control. Treatment monitoring. All animals were in vivo monitored by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 5, 7, 14 and 18 days post-injury (dpi). High-resolution morphological T2 weighed, quantitative T2 map and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced (DCE) images were acquired in order to assess the regenerative potential of SVF-HA treatment. Ex vivo evaluation. After 18 days from IR induction, animals were sacrificed, and the muscles were harvested for histological examination. At 5 dpi T2 high-resolution MR images clearly reveal the presence of an extensive edematous area due to IR damage for all groups identifiable as an increase of signal intensity (SI) of muscular and surrounding tissue. At 7 dpi, animals of the SVF-HA group showed a reduction of SI, and the T2relaxation time of muscle tissue of the HA-SVF group was 29±0.5ms, comparable with the T2relaxation time of contralateral muscular tissue (30±0.7ms). These suggest a reduction of edematous overflow and swelling. The T2relaxation time at 7dpi of HA and saline groups were 84±2ms and 90±5ms, respectively, which remained elevated during the rest of the study. The evaluation of vascular regeneration showed similar results. Indeed, DCE-MRI analysis revealed a complete recovery of muscular tissue perfusion after 14 dpi for the SVF-HA group, while for the saline and HA group, controls remained in a damaged state. Finally, the histological examination of SVF-HA treated animals exhibited well-defined and organized fibers morphology with a lateralized nucleus, similar to contralateral healthy muscular tissue. On the contrary, HA and saline-treated animals presented inflammatory infiltrates, with HA slightly improving the diameter of the fibers and less degenerated tissue. Our findings show that connective tissue micro-fragments enriched with SVF induce higher muscle homeostasis and perfusion restoration in contrast to control groups.

Keywords: ischemia/reperfusion injury, regenerative medicine, resonance imaging, stromal vascular fraction

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1467 Management and Evaluating Technologies of Tissue Engineering Various Fields of Bone

Authors: Arash Sepehri Bonab


Techniques to switch cells between development and differentiation, which tend to be commonly exclusive, are utilized in arrange to supply an expansive cell mass that can perform particular separated capacities required for the tissue to develop. Approaches to tissue engineering center on the have to give signals to cell populaces to advance cell multiplication and separation. Current tissue regenerative procedures depend primarily on tissue repair by transplantation of synthetic/natural inserts. In any case, restrictions on the existing procedures have expanded the request for tissue designing approaches. Tissue engineering innovation and stem cell investigation based on tissue building have made awesome advances in overcoming the issues of tissue and organ damage, useful loss, and surgical complications. Bone tissue has the capability to recover itself; in any case, surrenders of a basic estimate anticipate the bone from recovering and require extra support. The advancement of bone tissue building has been utilized to form useful options to recover the bone. This paper primarily portrays current advances in tissue engineering in different fields of bone and talks about the long-term trend of tissue designing innovation in the treatment of complex diseases.

Keywords: tissue engineering, bone, technologies, treatment

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1466 Immunolabeling of TGF-β during Muscle Regeneration

Authors: K. Nikovics, D. Riccobono, M. Oger, H. Morin, L. Barbier, T. Poyot, X. Holy, A. Bendahmane, M. Drouet, A. L. Favier


Muscle regeneration after injury (as irradiation) is of great importance. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms are still unclear. Cytokines are believed to play fundamental role in the different stages of muscle regeneration. They are secreted by many cell populations, but the predominant producers are macrophages and helper T cells. On the other hand, it has been shown that adipose tissue derived stromal/stem cell (ASC) injection could improve muscle regeneration. Stem cells probably induce the coordinated modulations of gene expression in different macrophage cells. Therefore, we investigated the patterns and timing of changes in gene expression of different cytokines occurring upon stem cells loading. Muscle regeneration was studied in an irradiated muscle of minipig animal model in presence or absence of ASC treatment (irradiated and treated with ASCs, IRR+ASC; irradiated not-treated with ASCs, IRR; and non-irradiated no-IRR). We characterized macrophage populations by immunolabeling in the different conditions. In our study, we found mostly M2 and a few M1 macrophages in the IRR+ASC samples. However, only few M2b macrophages were noticed in the IRR muscles. In addition, we found intensive fibrosis in the IRR samples. With in situ hybridization and immunolabeling, we analyzed the cytokine expression of the different macrophages and we showed that M2d macrophage are the most abundant in the IRR+ASC samples. By in situ hybridization, strong expression of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) was observed in the IRR+ASC but very week in the IRR samples. But when we analyzed TGF-β level with immunolabeling the expression was very different: many M2 macrophages showed week expression in IRR+ASC and few cells expressing stronger level in IRR muscles. Therefore, we investigated the MMP expressions in the different muscles. Our data showed that the M2 macrophages of the IRR+ASC muscle expressed MMP2 proteins. Our working hypothesis is that MMP2 expression of the M2 macrophages can decrease fibrosis in the IRR+ASC muscle by capturing TGF-β.

Keywords: adipose tissue derived stromal/stem cell, cytokine, macrophage, muscle regeneration

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