Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 543

Search results for: insulin signaling

543 Homeostatic Analysis of the Integrated Insulin and Glucagon Signaling Network: Demonstration of Bistable Response in Catabolic and Anabolic States

Authors: Pramod Somvanshi, Manu Tomar, K. V. Venkatesh

Abstract:

Insulin and glucagon are responsible for homeostasis of key plasma metabolites like glucose, amino acids and fatty acids in the blood plasma. These hormones act antagonistically to each other during the secretion and signaling stages. In the present work, we analyze the effect of macronutrients on the response from integrated insulin and glucagon signaling pathways. The insulin and glucagon pathways are connected by DAG (a calcium signaling component which is part of the glucagon signaling module) which activates PKC and inhibits IRS (insulin signaling component) constituting a crosstalk. AKT (insulin signaling component) inhibits cAMP (glucagon signaling component) through PDE3 forming the other crosstalk between the two signaling pathways. Physiological level of anabolism and catabolism is captured through a metric quantified by the activity levels of AKT and PKA in their phosphorylated states, which represent the insulin and glucagon signaling endpoints, respectively. Under resting and starving conditions, the phosphorylation metric represents homeostasis indicating a balance between the anabolic and catabolic activities in the tissues. The steady state analysis of the integrated network demonstrates the presence of a bistable response in the phosphorylation metric with respect to input plasma glucose levels. This indicates that two steady state conditions (one in the homeostatic zone and other in the anabolic zone) are possible for a given glucose concentration depending on the ON or OFF path. When glucose levels rise above normal, during post-meal conditions, the bistability is observed in the anabolic space denoting the dominance of the glycogenesis in liver. For glucose concentrations lower than the physiological levels, while exercising, metabolic response lies in the catabolic space denoting the prevalence of glycogenolysis in liver. The non-linear positive feedback of AKT on IRS in insulin signaling module of the network is the main cause of the bistable response. The span of bistability in the phosphorylation metric increases as plasma fatty acid and amino acid levels rise and eventually the response turns monostable and catabolic representing diabetic conditions. In the case of high fat or protein diet, fatty acids and amino acids have an inhibitory effect on the insulin signaling pathway by increasing the serine phosphorylation of IRS protein via the activation of PKC and S6K, respectively. Similar analysis was also performed with respect to input amino acid and fatty acid levels. This emergent property of bistability in the integrated network helps us understand why it becomes extremely difficult to treat obesity and diabetes when blood glucose level rises beyond a certain value.

Keywords: bistability, diabetes, feedback and crosstalk, obesity

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
542 Fatty Acid Translocase (Cd36), Energy Substrate Utilization, and Insulin Signaling in Brown Adipose Tissue in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

Authors: Michal Pravenec, Miroslava Simakova, Jan Silhavy

Abstract:

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in lipid and glucose metabolism in rodents and possibly also in humans. Recently, using systems genetics approach in the BAT from BXH/HXB recombinant inbred strains, derived from the SHR (spontaneously hypertensive rat) and BN (Brown Norway) progenitors, we identified Cd36 (fatty acid translocase) as the hub gene of co-expression module associated with BAT relative weight and function. An important aspect of BAT biology is to better understand the mechanisms regulating the uptake and utilization of fatty acids and glucose. Accordingly, BAT function in the SHR that harbors mutant nonfunctional Cd36 variant (hereafter referred to as SHR-Cd36⁻/⁻) was compared with SHR transgenic line expressing wild type Cd36 under control of a universal promoter (hereafter referred to as SHR-Cd36⁺/⁺). BAT was incubated in media containing insulin and 14C-U-glucose alone or 14C-U-glucose together with palmitate. Incorporation of glucose into BAT lipids was significantly higher in SHR-Cd36⁺/⁺ versus SHR-Cd36⁻/⁻ rats when incubation media contained glucose alone (SHR-Cd36⁻/⁻ 591 ± 75 vs. SHR-Cd36⁺/⁺ 1036 ± 135 nmol/gl./2h; P < 0.005). Adding palmitate into incubation media had no effect in SHR-Cd36⁻/⁻ rats but significantly reduced glucose incorporation into BAT lipids in SHR-Cd36⁺/⁺ (SHR-Cd36⁻/⁻ 543 ± 55 vs. SHR-Cd36⁺/⁺ 766 ± 75 nmol/gl./2h; P < 0.05 denotes significant Cd36 x palmitate interaction determined by two-way ANOVA). This Cd36-dependent reduced glucose uptake in SHR-Cd36⁺/⁺ BAT was likely secondary to increased palmitate incorporation and utilization due to the presence of wild type Cd36 fatty acid translocase in transgenic rats. This possibility is supported by increased incorporation of 14C-U-palmitate into BAT lipids in the presence of both palmitate and glucose in incubation media (palmitate alone: SHR-Cd36⁻/⁻ 870 ± 21 vs. SHR-Cd36⁺/⁺ 899 ± 42; glucose+palmitate: SHR-Cd36⁻/⁻ 899 ± 47 vs. SHR-Cd36⁺/⁺ 1460 ± 111 nmol/palm./2h; P < 0.05 denotes significant Cd36 x glucose interaction determined by two-way ANOVA). It is possible that addition of glucose into the incubation media increased palmitate incorporation into BAT lipids in SHR-Cd36⁺/⁺ rats because of glucose availability for glycerol phosphate production and increased triglyceride synthesis. These changes in glucose and palmitate incorporation into BAT lipids were associated with significant differential expression of Irs1, Irs2, Slc2a4 and Foxo1 genes involved in insulin signaling and glucose metabolism only in SHR-Cd36⁺/⁺ rats which suggests Cd36-dependent effects on insulin action. In conclusion, these results provide compelling evidence that Cd36 plays an important role in BAT insulin signaling and energy substrate utilization.

Keywords: brown adipose tissue, Cd36, energy substrate utilization, insulin signaling, spontaneously hypertensive rat

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
541 Effects of Insulin on Osseointegration around Implant in Type 2 Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Rats

Authors: Xing Wang, Lin Feng, Lingling E., Hongchen Liu

Abstract:

In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) there is poorer quality osseointegration than in non-diabetic (n-DM) patients, and the success of dental implants is less. Recent studies have demonstrated that insulin could stimulate bone cells to produce and accelerate implant osseointegration in DM patients.This raised the question whether insulin could provide local bone anabolic effects in non-diabetic patients. In this study,48 SD rats were divided into four groups randomly: DM group, DM+insulin group, n-DM group, n-DM + insulin group. All rats were implanted the titanium implant near the epiphyseal end of tibia, then the DM + insulin and n-DM + insulin group received twice-daily subcutaneous injections of insulin (10U/day).Two,four and eight weeks after implantation, rats were killed in batches. Histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate bone formation and osseointegration. The amount of newly formed bone, Implant–bone contact and the expression of OCN,RUNX2 in the DM+insulin, n-DM and n-DM+insulin group were significantly more than in the DM group (p<0.05). Compared with the n-DM group,the Implant–bone contact and expression of OCN,RUNX2 were significantly increased in n-DM+insulin group (p< 0.05). Taken together,these observations provide evidence that insulin has the potential to increase bone formation and osseointegration around implant not only in diabetic subjects but also in non-diabetic subject.

Keywords: insulin, diabetes mellitus, osseointegration, dental implants

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
540 Differential Proteomics Expression in Purple Rice Supplemented Type 2 Diabetic Rats’ Skeletal Muscle

Authors: Ei Ei Hlaing, Narissara Lailerd, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Pichapat Piamrojanaphat

Abstract:

Type 2 diabetes is one of the most common metabolic diseases all over the world. The pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes is not the only dysfunction of pancreatic beta cells but also insulin resistance in muscle, liver and adipose tissue. High levels of circulating free fatty acids, an increased lipid content of muscle cells, impaired insulin-mediated glucose uptake and diminished mitochondrial functioning are pathophysiological hallmarks of diabetic skeletal muscles. Purple rice (Oryza sativa L. indica) has been shown to have antidiabetic effects. However, the underlying mechanism(s) of antidiabetic activity of purple rice is still unraveled. In this research, to explore in-depth cellular mechanism(s), proteomic profile of purple rice supplemented type 2 diabetic rats’ skeletal muscle were analyzed contract with non-supplemented rats. Diabetic rats were induced high-fat diet combined with streptozotocin injection. By using one- dimensional gel electrophoresis (1-DE) and LC-MS/MS quantitative proteomic method, we analyzed proteomic profiles in skeletal muscle of normal rats, normal rats with purple rice supplementation, type 2 diabetic rats, and type 2 diabetic rats with purple rice supplementation. Total 2676 polypeptide expressions were identified. Among them, 24 peptides were only expressed in type 2 diabetic rats, and 24 peptides were unique peptides in type 2 diabetic rats with purple rice supplementation. Acetyl CoA carboxylase 1 (ACACA) found as unique protein in type 2 diabetic rats which is the major enzyme in lipid synthesis and metabolism. Interestingly, DNA damage response protein, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K [Mus musculus] (Hnrnpk), was upregulated in type 2 diabetic rats’ skeletal muscle. Meanwhile, unique proteins of type 2 diabetic rats with purple rice supplementation (bone morphogenetic 7 protein preproprotein, BMP7; and forkhead box protein NX4, Foxn4) involved with muscle cells growth through the regulation of TGF-β/Smad signaling network. Moreover, BMP7 may effect on insulin signaling through the downstream signaling of protein kinase B (Akt) which acts in protein synthesis, glucose uptake, and glycogen synthesis. In conclusion, our study supports that type 2 diabetes impairs muscular lipid metabolism. In addition, purple rice might recover the muscle cells growth and insulin signaling.

Keywords: proteomics, purple rice bran, skeletal muscle, type 2 diabetic rats

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
539 Robotic Arm Allowing a Diabetic Quadriplegic Patient to Self-Administer Insulin

Authors: L. Parisi

Abstract:

A method which allows a diabetic quadriplegic patient that has had four limb amputations (above the knee and elbow) to self-administer injections of insulin has been designed. The aim of this research project is to improve a quadriplegic patient’s self-management, affected by diabetes, by designing a suitable device for self-administering insulin.The quadriplegic patient affected by diabetes has to be able to self-administer insulin safely and independently to guarantee stable healthy conditions. The device also should be designed to adapt to a number of different varying personal characteristics such as height and body weight.

Keywords: robotic arm, self-administration, insulin, diabetes, quadriplegia

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
538 IPO Price Performance and Signaling

Authors: Chih-Hsiang Chang, I-Fan Ho

Abstract:

This study examines the credibility of the signaling as explanation for IPO initial underpricing. Findings reveal the initial underpricing and the long-term underperformance of IPOs in Taiwan. However, we only find weak support for signaling as explanation of IPO underpricing.

Keywords: signaling, IPO initial underpricing, IPO long-term underperformance, Taiwan’s stock market

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
537 Septin 11, Cytoskeletal Protein Involved in the Regulation of Lipid Metabolism in Adipocytes

Authors: Natalia Moreno-Castellanos, Amaia Rodriguez, Gema Frühbeck

Abstract:

Introduction: In adipocytes, the cytoskeleton undergoes important expression and distribution in adipocytes rearrangements during adipogenesis and in obesity. Indeed, a role for these proteins in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation and response to insulin has been demonstrated. Recently, septins have been considered as new components of the cytoskeletal network that interact with other cytoskeletal elements (actin and tubulin) profoundly modifying their dynamics. However, these proteins have not been characterized as yet in adipose tissue. In this work, were examined the cellular, molecular and functional features of a member of this family, septin 11 (SEPT11), in adipocytes and evaluated the impact of obesity on the expression of this protein in human adipose tissue. Methods: Adipose gene and protein expression levels of SEPT11 were analysed in human samples. SEPT11 distribution was evaluated by immunocytochemistry, electronic microscopy, and subcellular fractionation techniques. GST-pull down, immunoprecipitation and a Yeast-Two Hybrid (Y2H) screening were used to identify the SEPT11 interactome. Gene silencing was employed to assess the role of SEPT11 in the regulation of insulin signaling and lipid metabolism in adipocytes. Results: SEPT11 is expressed in human adipocytes, and its levels increased in both omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue in obesity, with SEPT11 mRNA content positively correlating with parameters of insulin resistance in subcutaneous fat. In non-stimulated adipocytes, SEPT11 immunoreactivity showed a ring-like distribution at the cell surface and associated to caveolae. Biochemical analyses showed that SEPT11 interacted with the main component of caveolae, caveolin-1 (CAV1) as well as with the fatty acid-binding protein, FABP5. Notably, the three proteins redistributed and co-localized at the surface of lipid droplets upon exposure of adipocytes to oleate. In this line, SEPT11 silencing in 3T3-L1 adipocytes impaired insulin signaling and decreased insulin-induced lipogenesis. Conclusions: Those findings demonstrate that SEPT11 is a novel component of the adipocyte cytoskeleton that plays an important role in the regulation of lipid traffic, metabolism and can thus represent a potential biomarker of insulin resistance in obesity in adipocytes through its interaction with both CAV1 and FABP5.

Keywords: caveolae, lipid metabolism, obesity, septins

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
536 Causal Modeling of the Glucose-Insulin System in Type-I Diabetic Patients

Authors: J. Fernandez, N. Aguilar, R. Fernandez de Canete, J. C. Ramos-Diaz

Abstract:

In this paper, a simulation model of the glucose-insulin system for a patient undergoing diabetes Type 1 is developed by using a causal modeling approach under system dynamics. The OpenModelica simulation environment has been employed to build the so called causal model, while the glucose-insulin model parameters were adjusted to fit recorded mean data of a diabetic patient database. Model results under different conditions of a three-meal glucose and exogenous insulin ingestion patterns have been obtained. This simulation model can be useful to evaluate glucose-insulin performance in several circumstances, including insulin infusion algorithms in open-loop and decision support systems in closed-loop.

Keywords: causal modeling, diabetes, glucose-insulin system, diabetes, causal modeling, OpenModelica software

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
535 Insulin Resistance in Children and Adolescents in Relation to Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference and Body Fat Weight

Authors: E. Vlachopapadopoulou, E. Dikaiakou, E. Anagnostou, I. Panagiotopoulos, E. Kaloumenou, M. Kafetzi, A. Fotinou, S. Michalacos

Abstract:

Aim: To investigate the relation and impact of Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Circumference (WC) and Body Fat Weight (BFW) on insulin resistance (MATSUDA INDEX < 2.5) in children and adolescents. Methods: Data from 95 overweight and obese children (47 boys and 48 girls) with mean age 10.7 ± 2.2 years were analyzed. ROC analysis was used to investigate the predictive ability of BMI, WC and BFW for insulin resistance and find the optimal cut-offs. The overall performance of the ROC analysis was quantified by computing area under the curve (AUC). Results: ROC curve analysis indicated that the optimal-cut off of WC for the prediction of insulin resistance was 97 cm with sensitivity equal to 75% and specificity equal to 73.1%. AUC was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.63-0.92, p=0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of obesity for the discrimination of participants with insulin resistance from those without insulin resistance were equal to 58.3% and 75%, respectively (AUC=0.67). BFW had a borderline predictive ability for insulin resistance (AUC=0.58, 95% CI: 0.43-0.74, p=0.101). The predictive ability of WC was equivalent with the correspondence predictive ability of BMI (p=0.891). Obese subjects had 4.2 times greater odds for having insulin resistance (95% CI: 1.71-10.30, p < 0.001), while subjects with WC more than 97 had 8.1 times greater odds for having insulin resistance (95% CI: 2.14-30.86, p=0.002). Conclusion: BMI and WC are important clinical factors that have significant clinical relation with insulin resistance in children and adolescents. The cut off of 97 cm for WC can identify children with greater likelihood for insulin resistance.

Keywords: body fat weight, body mass index, insulin resistance, obese children, waist circumference

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
534 A Geometrical Perspective on the Insulin Evolution

Authors: Yuhei Kunihiro, Sorin V. Sabau, Kazuhiro Shibuya

Abstract:

We study the molecular evolution of insulin from the metric geometry point of view. In mathematics, and particularly in geometry, distances and metrics between objects are of fundamental importance. Using a weaker notion than the classical distance, namely the weighted quasi-metrics, one can study the geometry of biological sequences (DNA, mRNA, or proteins) space. We analyze from the geometrical point of view a family of 60 insulin homologous sequences ranging on a large variety of living organisms from human to the nematode C. elegans. We show that the distances between sequences provide important information about the evolution and function of insulin.

Keywords: metric geometry, evolution, insulin, C. elegans

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
533 Synergistic Effect of Curcumin and Insulin on GLUT4 Translocation in C2C12 Cell

Authors: Javad Mohiti-Ardekani, Shabodin Asadii, Ali Moradi

Abstract:

Introduction: Curcumin, the yellow pigment in turmeric, has been shown as an anti-diabetic agent for centuries but only in recent few years, its mechanism of action has been under investigation. Some studies showed that curcumin might exert its anti-diabetic effect via increasing glucose transporter isotype-4 (GLUT4) gene and glycoprotein contents in cells. To investigate this possibility, we investigate the effects of extract and commercial curcumin with and without insulin on GLUT4 translocation from intracellular compartments of nuclear or endoplasmic reticulum membranes (N/ER) into the cytoplasmic membrane (CM). Methods and Material: C2C12 myoblastic cell line were seeded in DMEM plus 20 % FBS and differentiated to myotubes using 2 % horse serum. After myotubes formation, 40 µmolar Extract and Commercial curcumin, with or without insulin as intervention, and as control 1 % DMSO were added for 3 h. Cells were washed and homogenized followed by ultracentrifuge fractionation, protein separation by SDS-PAGE and GLUT4 detection using semi-quantitative Western blotting. Data analysis was done by two independent samples t-test for comparison of mean ± SD of GLUT4 percent in categories. GLUT4 contents were higher in CM groups curcumin and curcumin with insulin in comparison to 1 % DMSO-treated myotubes control group. Results: As our results have shown extract and commercial curcumin induces GLUT4 translocation from intra-cell into cell surface. The results have also shown synergic effect of curcumin on translocation of GLUT4 from intra-cell into cell surface in the presence of 100 nm insulin. Discussion: We conclude that curcumin may be a choice of type-2 diabetes mellitus treatment because its extract and commercial enhances GLUT4 contents in CM where it facilitates glucose entrance into the cell. However, it is necessary to trace the signaling pathways which are activated by curcumin.

Keywords: Curcumin, insulin, Diabetes type-2, GLUT4

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
532 Cardiac Hypertrophy in Diabetes; The Role of Factor Forkhead Box Class O-Regulation by O-GlcNAcylation

Authors: Mohammadjavad Sotoudeheian, Navid Farahmandian

Abstract:

Cardiac hypertrophy arises in response to persistent increases in hemodynamic loads. In comparison, diabetic cardiomyopathy is defined by an abnormal myocardial changes without other cardiac-related risk factors. Pathological cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial remodeling are hallmarks of cardiovascular diseases and are risk factors for heart failure. The transcription factor forkhead box class O (FOXOs) can protect heart tissue by hostile oxidative stress and stimulating apoptosis and autophagy. FOXO proteins, as sensitive elements and mediators in response to environmental changes, have been revealed to prevent and inverse cardiac hypertrophy. FOXOs are inhibited by insulin and are critical mediators of insulin action. Insulin deficiency and uncontrolled diabetes lead to a catabolic state. FOXO1 acts downstream of the insulin-dependent pathways, which are dysregulated in diabetes. It regulates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy downstream of IGF1R/PI3K/Akt activation, which are critical regulators of cardiac hypertrophy. The complex network of signaling pathways comprising insulin/IGF-1 signaling, AMPK, JNK, and Sirtuins regulate the development of cardiovascular dysfunction by modulating the activity of FOXOs. Insulin receptors and IGF1R act via the PI3k/Akt and the MAPK/ERK pathways. Activation of Akt in response to insulin or IGF-1 induces phosphorylation of FOXOs. Increased protein synthesis induced by activation of the IGF-I/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway leads to hypertrophy. This pathway and the myostatin/Smad pathway are potent negative muscle development regulators. In cardiac muscle, insulin receptor substrates (IRS)-1 or IRS-2 activates the Akt signaling pathway and inactivate FOXO1. Under metabolic stress, p38 MAPK promotes degradation of IRS-1 and IRS-2 in cardiac myocytes and activates FOXO1, leading to cardiomyopathy. Sirt1 and FOXO1 interaction play an essential role in starvation-induced autophagy in cardiac metabolism. Inhibition of Angiotensin-II induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is associated with reduced FOXO1 acetylation and activation of Sirt1. The NF-κB, ERK, and FOXOs are de-acetylated by SIRT1. De-acetylation of FOXO1 induces the expression of genes involved in autophagy and stimulates autophagy flux. Therefore, under metabolic stress, FOXO1 can cause diabetic cardiomyopathy. The overexpression of FOXO1 leads to decreased cardiomyocyte size and suppresses cardiac hypertrophy through inhibition of the calcineurin–NFAT pathway. Diabetes mellitus is associated with elevation of O-GlcNAcylation. Some of its binding partners regulate the substrate selectivity of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT). O-GlcNAcylation of essential contractile proteins may inhibit protein-protein interactions, reduce calcium sensitivity, and modulate contractile function. Uridine diphosphate (UDP)-GlcNAc is the obligatory substrate of OGT, which catalyzes a reversible post-translational protein modification. The increase of O-GlcNAcylation is accompanied by impaired cardiac hypertrophy in diabetic hearts. Inhibition of O-GlcNAcylation blocks activation of ERK1/2 and hypertrophic growth. O-GlcNAc modification on NFAT is required for its translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus, where NFAT stimulates the transcription of various hypertrophic genes. Inhibition of O-GlcNAcylation dampens NFAT-induced cardiac hypertrophic growth. Transcriptional activity of FOXO1 is enriched by improved O-GlcNAcylation upon high glucose stimulation or OGT overexpression. In diabetic conditions, the modification of FOXO1 by O-GlcNAc is promoted in cardiac troponin I and myosin light chain 2. Therefore targeting O-GlcNAcylation represents a potential therapeutic option to prevent hypertrophy in the diabetic heart.

Keywords: diabetes, cardiac hypertrophy, O-GlcNAcylation, FOXO1, Akt, PI3K, AMPK, insulin

Procedia PDF Downloads 14
531 Improved Blood Glucose-Insulin Monitoring with Dual-Layer Predictive Control Design

Authors: Vahid Nademi

Abstract:

In response to widely used wearable medical devices equipped with a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) and insulin pump, the advanced control methods are still demanding to get the full benefit of these devices. Unlike costly clinical trials, implementing effective insulin-glucose control strategies can provide significant contributions to the patients suffering from chronic diseases such as diabetes. This study deals with a key role of two-layer insulin-glucose regulator based on model-predictive-control (MPC) scheme so that the patient’s predicted glucose profile is in compliance with the insulin level injected through insulin pump automatically. It is achieved by iterative optimization algorithm which is called an integrated perturbation analysis and sequential quadratic programming (IPA-SQP) solver for handling uncertainties due to unexpected variations in glucose-insulin values and body’s characteristics. The feasibility evaluation of the discussed control approach is also studied by means of numerical simulations of two case scenarios via measured data. The obtained results are presented to verify the superior and reliable performance of the proposed control scheme with no negative impact on patient safety.

Keywords: blood glucose monitoring, insulin pump, predictive control, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
530 Comparison of Serum Levels of Secreted Frizzler Protein 5 in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Treated and Not Treated with Metformin

Authors: Irma Gabriela Lopez-Moreno, Elva Perez-Luque, Herlinda Aguilar-Zavala

Abstract:

Introduction: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by combination of insulin resistance and deterioration of insulin secretion. Sfrp5 is a protein that antagonizes Wnt5a proteins by preventing it from reaching its receptor and activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, this pathway is one of the most important regulators of adipogenesis. Although metformin decreases glucose levels its mechanisms of action are not fully known but it has been implicated in the inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Objective: The objective was evaluating the effects of metformin on serum levels of Sfrp5 in patients with T2DM treated and not treated with metformin. Methods: Two groups of patients were selected: one group of T2DM patients treated with metformin (n = 35) and another group of subjects with recent diagnosis of T2DM untreated (n = 35) with a mean age of 48 ± 9 years. In these subjects anthropometric measures were taken as weight, height, waist and hip circumference, were calculated the percentage of body fat, visceral fat and muscle mass. In addition, were measured glucose levels, lipid profile, adiponectin and Sfrp5. Results: Sfrp5 were higher in metformin-treated patients compared to the untreated group (19.9 vs 13.6 ng/mL p < 0.001), a negative correlation was found between Sfrp5 levels and total cholesterol levels (r= -0.25, p = 0.03) and percentage of visceral fat (r = -0.26, p = 0.03) and a positive correlation with HDL cholesterol levels (r = 0.31, p = 0.01) and adiponectin (r=0.65, p = < 0.001). Conclusions: The findings show that metformin consumption increased levels of Sfrp5, which may lead to a decrease in the activation of the WNT/β-catenin pathway impacting on adipogenesis.

Keywords: adiponectin, diabetes, metformin, Sfrp5

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
529 Presentation of the Model of Reliability of the Signaling System with Emphasis on Determining Best Time Schedule for Repairments and Preventive Maintenance in the Iranian Railway

Authors: Maziar Yazdani, Ahmad Khodaee, Fatemeh Hajizadeh

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was analysis of the reliability of the signaling system in the railway and planning repair and maintenance of its subsystems. For this purpose, it will be endeavored to introduce practical strategies for activities control and appropriate planning for repair and preventive maintenance by statistical modeling of reliability. Therefore, modeling, evaluation, and promotion of reliability of the signaling system appear very critical. Among the key goals of the railway is provision of quality service for passengers and this purpose is gained by increasing reliability, availability, maintainability and safety of (RAMS). In this research, data were analyzed, and the reliability of the subsystems and entire system was calculated and with emphasis on preservation of performance of each of the subsystems with a reliability of 80%, a plan for repair and preventive maintenance of the subsystems of the signaling system was introduced.

Keywords: reliability, modeling reliability, plan for repair and preventive maintenance, signaling system

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
528 Levels of Selected Adipokines in Women with Gestational Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes, Their Relationship to Metabolic Parameters

Authors: David Karasek, Veronika Kubickova, Ondrej Krystynik, Dominika Goldmannova, Lubica Cibickova, Jan Schovanek

Abstract:

Introduction: Adiponectin, adipocyte-fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP), and Wnt1 inducible signaling pathway protein-1 (WISP-1) are adipokines particularly associated with insulin resistance. The aim of the study was to compare their levels in women with gestational diabetes (GDM), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and healthy controls and determine their relation with metabolic parameters. Methods: Fifty women with GDM, 50 women with T2DM, and 35 healthy women were included in the study. In addition to adipokines, anthropometric, lipid parameters, and markers, insulin resistance, and glucose control were assessed in all participants. Results: Compared to healthy controls only significantly lower levels of adiponectin were detected in women with GDM, whereas lower levels of adiponectin, higher levels of A-FABP and of WISP-1 were present in women with T2DM. Women with T2DM had also lower levels of adiponectin and higher levels of A-FABP compared to women with GDM. In women with GDM or T2DM adiponectin correlated negatively with body mass index (BMI), triglycerides (TG), C-peptide and positively with HDL-cholesterol; A-FABP positively correlated with BMI, TG, waist, and C-peptide. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between WISP-1 and C-peptide in women with T2DM. Conclusion: Adverse adipokines production detecting dysfunctional fat tissue is in women with GDM less presented than in women with T2DM, but more expressed compared to healthy women. Acknowledgment: Supported by AZV NV18-01-00139 and MH CZ DRO (FNOl, 00098892).

Keywords: adiponectin, adipocyte-fatty acid binding protein, wnt1 inducible signaling pathway protein-1, gestational diabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
527 Relationship Between Muscle Mass and Insulin Resistance in Cirrhotic Patients with Hepatitis B

Authors: Eyüp S. Akbas, Betul Ayaz, Beyza S. Haksever, Sema Basat

Abstract:

We aimed to evaluate the relationship between insulin resistance, muscle mass and muscle strength in patients with Hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis. In our study, there were 65 patients with hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis in Child A and B group and 65 healthy control individual. Control group was chosen between patients who admitted to the internal medicine clinic and had no pathological values in a routine examination. Muscle mass index was calculated with bioimpedance analysis for both groups to determine muscle strength and muscle mass. Handgrip strength, arm, and calf circumference were measured. In both groups, HOMA-IR was calculated to determine insulin resistance. Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) value was detected 3,47±3,80 in the study group and 1,83±1,20 in control group. There were significant differences between the two groups in arm circumference, fasting insulin, fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, High-density lipoprotein (HDL) and total cholesterol parameters. The correlation coefficient between muscle mass and insulin resistance was statistically insignificant, especially in the study group. In healthy individuals group and all the groups, there wasn’t a correlation between muscle mass and insulin resistance. The upper limit for HOMA-IR was determined as 3,2. In control group, %78,9 of individuals were in HOMA-IR ( < 3.2) group and %21,1 of them were in ( ≥ 3,2) group. In study group, %68,3 of individuals were in HOMA-IR ( < 3,2) group and %31.7 were in HOMA-IR ( ≥ 3,2) group. In our study, we did not find a relationship between muscle mass and insulin resistance in patients with liver cirrhosis. In the study group, we detected a positive relationship between muscle mass, handgrip strength, and calf circumference. We did not find a relationship between insulin resistance and handgrip strength in our study.

Keywords: cirrhosis, hepatitis B, Insulin resistance, muscle mass

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
526 Response of Insulin Resistance Indicators to Aerobic Exercise at Different Intensities in Obese College Students

Authors: Long-Shan Wu, Ming-Chen Ko, Chien-Chang Ho, Po-Fu Lee, Li-Yun Chen, Ching-Yu Tseng

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to determine whether progressive aerobic exercise intensity effects the changes in insulin resistance indicators among obese college students in Taiwan. Forty-eight obese subjects [body mass index (BMI) ≧ 27 kg/m2, aged 18-26 years old] were randomized into four equal groups (n = 12): light-intensity training group (LITG): 40-50% of their heart rate reserve (HRR); middle-intensity training group (MITG): 50-70% of their HRR; high-intensity training group (HITG): 70-80% of their HRR, and control group (CG). The aerobic exercise training program was performed 60 minutes per day on a treadmill three days/week in a training period of 12 weeks. All subjects’ anthropometric data, blood biochemical parameters, and health-related physical fitness components were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. At baseline, all insulin resistance indicators did not differ significantly among the four groups (p > 0.05). After 12-week exercise intervention, the HITG had significantly more changes in insulin level than the MITG, LITG, and CG. Our findings suggested that a short-term aerobic exercise program can play an important role in improving insulin resistance indicators; either middle-intensity training significantly increases the insulin level, but the high-intensity exercise training program effectively improves obese college students’ insulin resistance.

Keywords: aerobic training, exercise intensity, insulin resistance, obesity

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
525 Investigating Role of Novel Molecular Players in Forebrain Roof-Plate Midline Invagination

Authors: Mohd Ali Abbas Zaidi, Meenu Sachdeva, Jonaki Sen

Abstract:

In the vertebrate embryo, the forebrain anlagen develops from the anterior-most region of the neural tube which is the precursor of the central nervous system (CNS). The roof plate located at the dorsal midline region of the forebrain anlagen, acts as a source of several secreted molecules involved in patterning and morphogenesis of the forebrain. One such key morphogenetic event is the invagination of the forebrain roof plate which results in separation of the single forebrain vesicle into two cerebral hemispheres. Retinoic acid (RA) signaling plays a key role in this process. Blocking RA signaling at the dorsal forebrain midline inhibits dorsal invagination and results in the absence of certain key features of this region, such as thinning of the neuroepithelium and a lowering of cell proliferation. At present we are investigating the possibility of other signaling pathways acting in concert with RA signaling to regulate this process. We have focused on BMP signaling, which we found to be active in a mutually exclusive domain to that of RA signaling within the roof plate. We have also observed that there is a change in BMP signaling activity on modulation of RA signaling indicating an antagonistic relationship between the two. Moreover, constitutive activation of BMP signaling seems to completely inhibit thinning and partially affect invagination, leaving the lowering of cell proliferation in the midline unaffected. We are employing in-silico modeling as well as molecular manipulations to investigate the relative contribution if any, of regional differences in rates of cell proliferation and thinning of the neuroepithelium towards the process of invagination. We have found expression of certain cell adhesion molecules in forebrain roof-plate whose mRNA localization across the thickness of neuroepithelium is influenced by Bmp and RA signaling, giving regional rigidity to roof plate and assisting invagination. We also found expression of certain cytoskeleton modifiers in a localized small domains in invaginating forebrain roof plate suggesting that midline invagination is under control of many factors.

Keywords: bone morphogenetic signaling, cytoskeleton, cell adhesion molecules, forebrain roof plate, retinoic acid signaling

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
524 The Generation of Insulin Producing Cells from Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells by miR-375 and Anti-miR-9

Authors: Arefeh Jafarian, Mohammad Taghikani, Saied Abroun, Amir Allahverdi, Masoud Soleimani

Abstract:

Introduction: The miRNAs have key roles in control of pancreatic islet development and insulin secretion. In this regards, current study investigated the pancreatic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) by up-regulation of miR-375 and down-regulation of miR-9 by lentiviruses containing miR-375 and anti-miR-9. Findings: After 21 days of induction, islet-like clusters containing insulin producing cells (IPCs) were confirmed by dithizone (DTZ) staining. The IPCs and β cell specific related genes and proteins were detected using qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence on days 7, 14 and 21 of differentiation. Glucose challenge test was performed at different concentrations of glucose as well as extracellular and intracellular insulin and C-peptide were assayed using ELISA kit. In derived IPCs by miR-375 alone are capable to express insulin and other endocrine specific transcription factors, the cells lack the machinery to respond to glucose. The differentiated hMSCs by miR-375 and anti-miR-9 lentiviruses could secrete insulin and c-peptide in a glucose-regulated manner. Conclusion: It was found that over-expression of miR-375 led to a reduction in levels of Mtpn protein in derived IPCs, while treatment with anti-miR-9 following miR-375 over-expression had synergistic effects on MSCs differentiation and insulin secretion in a glucose-regulated manner. The researchers reported that silencing of miR-9 increased OC-2 protein in IPCs that may contribute to the observed glucose-regulated insulin secretion. These findings highlight miRNAs functions in stem cells differentiation and suggest that they could be used as therapeutic tools for gene-based therapy in diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: diabetes, differentiation, MSCs, insulin producing cells, miR-375, miR-9

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
523 Insulin Resistance in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection: Upper Egypt Experience

Authors: Ali Kassem

Abstract:

Background: In the last few years, factors such as insulin resistance (IR) and hepatic steatosis have been linked to progression of hepatic fibrosis.Patients with chronic liver disease, and cirrhosis in particular, are known to be prone to IR. However, chronic HCV (hepatitis C) infection may induce IR, regardless of the presence of liver cirrhosis. Our aims are to study insulin resistance (IR) assessed by HOMA-IR (Homeostatic Model Assessment Insulin Resistance) as a possible risk factor in disease progression in cirrhotic patients and to evaluate the role of IR in hepatic fibrosis progression. The correlations of HOMA-IR values to laboratory, virological and histopathological parameters of chronic HCV are also examined. Methods: The study included 50 people divided into 30 adult chronic hepatitis C patients diagnosed by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) within previous 6 months and 20 healthy controls. The functional and morphological status of the liver were evaluated by ultrasonography and laboratory investigations including liver function tests and by liver biopsy. Fasting blood glucose and fasting insulin levels were measured and body mass index and insulin resistance were calculated. Patients having HOMA-IR >2.5 were labeled as insulin resistant. Results: Chronic hepatitis C patients with IR showed significantly higher mean values of BMI (body mass index) and fasting insulin than those without IR (P < 0.000). Patients with IR were more likely to have steatosis (p = 0.006), higher necroinflammatory activity (p = 0.05). No significant differences were found between the two groups regarding hepatic fibrosis. Conclusion: HOMA-IR measurement could represent a novel marker to identify the cirrhotic patients at greater risk for the progression of liver disease. As IR is a potentially modifiable risk factor, these findings may have important prognostic and therapeutic implications. Assessment of IR by HOMA-IR and improving insulin sensitivity are recommended in patients with HCV and related chronic liver disease.

Keywords: hepatic fibrosis, hepatitis C virus infection, hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
522 Serum 25-Dihydroxy Vitamin D3 Level Estimation and Insulin Resistance in Women of 18-40 Years Age Group with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

Authors: Thakur Pushpawati, Singh Vinita, Agrawal Sarita, Mohapatra Eli

Abstract:

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a disease of endocrine and frequently encountered in women in their reproductive period, and it is characterized by clinical features of anovulation, clinical and biochemical features of hyperandrogenism, and PCOS morphology on ultrasonographic examination. In Indian scenario, only a few studies are available on the correlation of serum 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 level and insulin level. The present study is a prospective case-control study and aims to estimate the concentration of serum 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 and insulin resistance and determine the association of serum 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 with insulin resistance in PCOS women of 18-40 years age group. In this study, the primary objective is to estimate the concentration of 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3, insulin, glycaemic status, calcium and phosphorus levels in 18-40 year age women with polycystic ovary syndrome and to compare these parameters with age and BMI matched healthy control of same age group women. The secondary objective is to determine the association between 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 concentration and insulin resistance among PCOS cases in 18-40 years age group women. This study was carried on at outpatient Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Aiims Raipur. It took one year from the date of approval. In case, 32 women were diagnosed (Diagnosed PCOS cases as per Rotterdoms criteria among women of 18-40 years of age), as control group 32 women of 18-40 years of age were diagnosed As a result, serum insulin level was elevated among PCOS women along with 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 deficiency.Conclude up, PCOS is more common in the age group of 20-40 years. There is a strong correlation between vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance among PCOS patients.

Keywords: vitamin D, insulin resistance, PCOS, reproductive age group

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
521 Evaluation of Insulin Sensitizing Effects of Different Fractions from Total Alcoholic Extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. Bark in Dexamethasone-Induced Insulin Resistant Rats

Authors: Hasanpasha N. Sholapur, Basanagouda M.Patil

Abstract:

Alcoholic extract of the bark of Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO), (Moringaceae), has been evaluated experimentally in the past for its insulin sensitizing potentials. In order to explore the possibility of the class of phytochemical(s) responsible for this experimental claim, the alcoholic extract was fractionated into non-polar [petroleum ether (PEF)], moderately non-polar [ethyl acetate (EAF)] and polar [aqueous (AQF)] fractions. All the fractions and pioglitazone (PIO) as standard (10mg/kg were p.o., once daily for 11 d) were investigated for their chronic effect on fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, insulin, oral glucose tolerance and acute effect on oral glucose tolerance in dexamethasone-induced (1 mg/kg s.c., once daily for 11 d) chronic model and acute model (1 mg/kg i.p., for 4 h) respectively for insulin resistance (IR) in rats. Among all the fractions tested, chronic treatment with EAF (140 mg/kg) and PIO (10 mg/kg) prevented dexamethasone-induced IR, indicated by prevention of hypertriglyceridemia, hyperinsulinemia and oral glucose intolerance, whereas treatment with AQF (95 mg/kg) prevented hepatic IR but not peripheral IR. In acute study single dose treatment with EAF (140 mg/kg) and PIO (10 mg/kg) prevented dexamethasone-induced oral glucose intolerance, fraction PEF did not show any effect on these parameters in both the models. The present study indicates that the triterpenoidal and the phenolic class of phytochemicals detected in EAF of alcoholic extract of MO bark may be responsible for the prevention of dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance in rats.

Keywords: Moringa oleifera, insulin resistance, dexamethasone, serum triglyceride, insulin, oral glucose tolerance test

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
520 An Algorithm of Regulation of Glucose-Insulin Concentration in the Blood

Authors: B. Selma, S. Chouraqui

Abstract:

The pancreas is an elongated organ that extends across the abdomen, below the stomach. In addition, it secretes certain enzymes that aid in food digestion. The pancreas also manufactures hormones responsible for regulating blood glucose levels. In the present paper, we propose a mathematical model to study the homeostasis of glucose and insulin in healthy human, and a simulation of this model, which depicts the physiological events after a meal, will be represented in ordinary humans. The aim of this paper is to design an algorithm which regulates the level of glucose in the blood. The algorithm applied the concept of expert system for performing an algorithm control in the form of an "active" used to prescribe the rate of insulin infusion. By decomposing the system into subsystems, we have developed parametric models of each subsystem by using a forcing function strategy. The results showed a performance of the control system.

Keywords: modeling, algorithm, regulation, glucose-insulin, blood, control system

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
519 Oleuropein Ameliorates Palmitate-Induced Insulin Resistance by Increasing GLUT4 Translocation through Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Rat Soleus Muscles

Authors: Hakam Alkhateeb

Abstract:

Oleuropein, the main constituent of leaves and fruits of the olive tree, has been demonstrated to exert beneficial effects on parameters relevant to the normal homeostatic mechanisms of glucose regulation in rat skeletal muscle. However, the antidiabetic effect of oleuropein, to our knowledge, has not been examined. Therefore, in this study, we examined whether oleuropein ameliorated palmitate-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. To examine this question, insulin resistance was rapidly induced by incubating (12h) soleus muscle with a high concentration of palmitate(2mM). Subsequently, we attempted to restore insulin sensitivity by incubating (12h) muscles with oleuropien (1.5mM), while maintaining high concentrations of palmitate. Palmitate treatment for 12 h reduced insulin-stimulated glucose transport, GLUT4 translocationandAS160 phosphorylation. Oleuropein treatment (12 h) fully restoredinsulin-stimulated glucose transport, GLUT4translocationandAS160 phosphorylation. Inhibition of PI3K phosphorylation with wortmannin (1µM)did not affect the oleuropein-induced improvements in insulin-stimulated glucose transport, GLUT4 translocation, and AS160 phosphorylation. These results suggested that the improvements in these parameters cannot account for activating PI3K pathway. Taken altogether, it appears that oleuropein, through activation of another pathway like activated protein kinase (AMPK), may provide a possible strategy by which they ameliorate palmitate-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscles.

Keywords: AS160, diabetes, GLUT4, oleuropein

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
518 Antidiabetic Effects of Bitter Melon

Authors: Jinhyun Ryu, Chengliang Xie, Nal Ae Yoon, Dong Hoon Lee, Gu Seob Roh, Hyun Joon Kim, Gyeong Jae Cho, Wan Sung Choi, Sang Soo Kang

Abstract:

Type 2 diabetes is a heterogeneous group of metabolic disorders featured by a deficit in or loss of insulin activity to maintain normal glucose homeostasis. Mainly, it results from the compromised insulin secretion and/or reduced insulin activity. The frequency of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been increased rapidly in recent decades with the increase in the trend of obesity due to life style and food habit. Obesity is considered to be the primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance and thereby developing T2D. Traditionally naturally occurring fruits, vegetables etc. are being used to treat many pathogenic conditions. In this study, we tried to find out the effect of a popularly used vegetable in Bangladesh and several other Asian countries, ‘bitter melon’ on high fat diet induced T2D. To investigate the effect, we used 70% ethanol extract of bitter melon (BME) as dietary supplement with chow. BME was found to attenuate the high fat diet (HFD) induced body weight and total fat mass significantly. We also observed that BME reduced the insulin resistance induced by HFD effectively. Furthermore, dietary supplementation of BME was highly effective in increasing insulin sensitivity, and reducing the hepatic fat and obesity. These results indicate that BME could be effective to attenuate T2D and could be a preventive measure against T2D.

Keywords: bitter melon, obesity, type 2 diabetes, high fat diet

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
517 Evaluation of Gene Expression after in Vitro Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells to Insulin-Producing Cells

Authors: Mahmoud M. Zakaria, Omnia F. Elmoursi, Mahmoud M. Gabr, Camelia A. AbdelMalak, Mohamed A. Ghoneim

Abstract:

Many protocols were publicized for differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCS) into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) in order to excrete insulin hormone ingoing to treat diabetes disease. Our aim is to evaluate relative gene expression for each independent protocol. Human bone marrow cells were derived from three volunteers that suffer diabetes disease. After expansion of mesenchymal stem cells, differentiation of these cells was done by three different protocols (the one-step protocol was used conophylline protein, the two steps protocol was depending on trichostatin-A, and the three-step protocol was started by beta-mercaptoethanol). Evaluation of gene expression was carried out by real-time PCR: Pancreatic endocrine genes, transcription factors, glucose transporter, precursor markers, pancreatic enzymes, proteolytic cleavage, extracellular matrix and cell surface protein. Quantitation of insulin secretion was detected by immunofluorescence technique in 24-well plate. Most of the genes studied were up-regulated in the in vitro differentiated cells, and also insulin production was observed in the three independent protocols. There were some slight increases in expression of endocrine mRNA of two-step protocol and its insulin production. So, the two-step protocol was showed a more efficient in expressing of pancreatic endocrine genes and its insulin production than the other two protocols.

Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells, insulin producing cells, conophylline protein, trichostatin-A, beta-mercaptoethanol, gene expression, immunofluorescence technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
516 A Secreted Protein Can Attenuate High Fat Diet Induced Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Mice

Authors: Abdul Soofi, Katherine Wolf, Egon Ranghini, Gregory Dressler

Abstract:

Obesity and its associated complications, such as insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, are reaching epidemic proportions. In mice, the TGF-β superfamily is implicated in the regulation of white and brown adipose tissues differentiation. The Kielin/Chordin-like Protein (KCP) is a secreted regulator of the TGF-β superfamily pathways that can inhibit both TGF-β and Activin signals while enhancing the Bone Morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. However, the effects of KCP on metabolism and obesity have not been studied in animal models. Thus, we examined the effects of KCP loss or gain of function in mice that were maintained on either a regular or a high fat diet. Loss of KCP sensitized mice to obesity and associated complications such as hepatic steatosis and glucose intolerance. In contrast, transgenic mice that expressed KCP in the kidney, liver and adipose tissues were resistant to developing high fat diet induced obesity and had significantly reduced white adipose tissue. KCP over-expression was able to shift the pattern of Smad signaling in vivo, to increase the levels of P-Smad1 and decrease P-Smad3, resulting in resistance to high fat diet induced hepatic steatosis and glucose intolerance. In aging mice, loss of KCP promoted liver pathology even when mice were fed a normal diet. The data demonstrate that shifting the TGF-β superfamily signaling with a secreted inhibitor or enhancer can alter the physiology of adipose tissue to reduce obesity and can inhibit the initiation and progression of hepatic steatosis to significantly reduce the effects of high fat diet induced metabolic disease.

Keywords: adipose tissue, KCP, obesity, TGF-β, BMP, hepatic steatosis, metabolic syndrome

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
515 Effect of Concurrent Training and Detraining on Insulin Resistance in Obese Children

Authors: Kaveh Azadeh, Saeid Fazelifar

Abstract:

The main purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of 12 weeks (3 days/week) concurrent training followed by 4 weeks detraining on insulin resistance in obese boys without dietary intervention. Methods: 24 obese children boys (body mass index> 28, age= 11- 13year old) voluntarily participated in the study. Biochemical factors, body composition, and functional physical fitness were assessed in three stages [baseline, after 12 week’s combined endurance and resistance training and 4 week’s detraining in the experimental group (n=12); baseline and after 12 weeks in control group (n=12)]. Results: Indepented - Sample T test revealed that in experimental group after 12weeks trainings the insulin resistance, and body fat mass were significantly declined, whereas endurance and strength of abdominal muscles significantly increased compared to control group (p<0/05). One-way ANOVA for three different periods showed that insulin resistance, body fat mass, strength of abdominal muscles after 12week training was significantly improved in the experimental group compared with the baseline. Following 4weeks detraining insulin resistance again significantly increased (p<0/05). After detraining disturbances of physiological adaptation in obese children have more rapid course in comparison with those anthropological and functional indices. Conclusion: Results showed that participation in the regular concurrent trainings provides a decrease of insulin resistance in obese children. It may serve as a strategy in treatment of obesity and management on insulin resistance, as well as to increase endurance and strength muscles in obese children. Adaptations resulting from regular exercises following detraining are reversible.

Keywords: endurance and resistance trainings, detraining, insulin resistance, obese children

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
514 Circulating Oxidized LDL and Insulin Resistance among Obese School Students

Authors: Nayera E. Hassan, Sahar A. El-Masry, Mones M. Abu Shady, Rokia A. El Banna, Muhammad Al-Tohamy, Mehrevan M. Abd El-Moniem, Mona Anwar

Abstract:

Circulating oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) is associated with obesity, insulin resistance (HOMA), metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease in adults. Little is known about relations in children. Aim: To assess association of ox-LDL with fat distribution and insulin resistance in a group of obese Egyptian children. Methods: Study is cross-sectional consisting of 68 obese children, with a mean age of 9.96 ± 1.32. Each underwent a complete physical examination; blood pressure (SBP, DBP) and anthropometric measurements (weight, height, BMI; waist, hip circumferences, waist/hip ratio), biochemical tests of fasting blood glucose (FBS), insulin levels; lipid profile (TC, LDL,HDL, TG) and ox-LDL; calculated HOMA. Sample was classified according to waist/hip ratio into: group I with and group II without central obesity. Results: ox-LDL showed significant positive correlation with LDL and TC in all groups of obesity. After adjustment for age and sex, significant positive correlation was detected between ox-LDL with SBP, DBP, TC, LDL, insulin, and HOMA in group II and with TC and FBS in group I. Insignificant association was detected between ox-LDL and other anthropometric parameters including BMI in any group of obese children (p > 0.05). Conclusions: ox-LDL, as a marker of oxidative stress is not correlated with BMI among all studied obese children (aged 6-12 years). Increased oxidative stress has causal effects on insulin resistance in obese children without central obesity and on fasting blood sugar in those with central obesity. These findings emphasize the importance of obesity during childhood and suggest that the metabolic complications of obesity and body fat distribution are detectable early in life.

Keywords: ox-LDL, obesity, insulin resistance, children

Procedia PDF Downloads 273