Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: Cafer Görkem Pınar

19 Numerical Investigation of Aerodynamic Analysis on Passenger Vehicle

Authors: Cafer Görkem Pınar, İlker Coşar, Serkan Uzun, Atahan Çelebi, Mehmet Ali Ersoy, Ali Pınarbaşı

Abstract:

In this study, it was numerically investigated that a 1:1 scale model of the Renault Clio MK4 SW brand vehicle aerodynamic analysis was performed in the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package program of ANSYS CFX 2021 R1 under steady, subsonic, and 3-D conditions. The model of vehicle used for the analysis was made independent of the number of mesh elements, and the k-epsilon turbulence model was applied during the analysis. Results were interpreted as streamlines, pressure gradient, and turbulent kinetic energy contours around the vehicle at 50 km/h and 100 km/h speeds. In addition, the validity of the analysis was decided by comparing the drag coefficient of the vehicle with the values in the literature. As a result, the pressure gradient contours of the taillight of the Renault Clio MK4 SW vehicle were examined, and the behavior of the total force at speeds of 50 km/h and 100 km/h was interpreted.

Keywords: CFD, k-epsilon, aerodynamics, drag coefficient, taillight

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18 Trade Policy and Economic Growth of Turkey in Global Economy: New Empirical Evidence

Authors: Pınar Yardımcı

Abstract:

This paper tries to answer to the questions whether or not trade openness cause economic growth and trade policy changes is good for Turkey as a developing country in global economy before and after 1980. We employ Johansen cointegration and Granger causality tests with error correction modelling based on vector autoregressive. Using WDI data from the pre-1980 and the post-1980, we find that trade openness and economic growth are cointegrated in the second term only. Also the results suggest a lack of long-run causality between our two variables. These findings may imply that trade policy of Turkey should concentrate more on extra complementary economic reforms.

Keywords: globalization, trade policy, economic growth, openness, cointegration, Turkey

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17 Avifaunal Diversity in the Mallathahalli Lake of Bangalore Urban District, Karnataka, India

Authors: Vidya Padmakumar, N. C. Tharavathy

Abstract:

The study was conducted from July 2015 to July 2017 to determine and understand the occurrence, frequency and diversity of avifauna in the Mallathahalli Lake of Bangalore Urban district. During the study period, 46 species of both terrestrial, as well as, aquatic birds belonging to 30 families were identified out of which 9 families were aquatic birds and 21 families were terrestrial birds. There were 4 species of migratory birds out of 46, showing diurnal migration. There was a significant reduce in the number of bird species both terrestrial and aquatic during the summer season and also varied greatly during winters and monsoon. Of the total 24 species of aquatic birds, Fulica atra and Tachybaptus ruficolis were the most common with 100% frequency and the least frequent species with 3.02% frequency was identified as Threskiornis melanocephalus. Among the 22 species of terrestrial birds, Acridotheres tristis had a frequency of 89% and the least frequent was Pycnonotus cafer (4.45%). The most commonly encountered bird species were from the families- Anatidae, Podicipedidae, Ardeidae, Phalacrocoracidae, Rallidae, Accipitridae, Scolopacidae, Charadridae, Laridae, Meropidae, Hirudinidae. All the birds surviving around the area are dependent on the wetland and crop vegetation surrounding the lake, which are deteriorating due to anthropogenic interventions and urbanization which are rising to its peak gradually causing the decline in the avifaunal diversity.

Keywords: Avifaunal diversity, Mallathahalli lake, seasonal migration, urbanization

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16 Comparison of Various Control Methods for an Industrial Multiproduct Fractionator

Authors: Merve Aygün Esastürk, Deren Ataç Yılmaz, Görkem Oğur, Emre Özgen Kuzu, Sadık Ödemiş

Abstract:

Hydrocracker plants are one of the most complicated and most profitable units in the refinery process. It takes long chain paraffinic hydrocarbons as feed and turns them into smaller and more valuable products, mainly kerosene and diesel under high pressure with the excess amount of hydrogen. Controlling the product qualities well directly contributes to the unit profit. Control of a plant is mainly based on PID and MPC controllers. Controlling the reaction section is important in terms of reaction severity. However, controlling the fractionation section is more crucial since the end products are separated in fractionation section. In this paper, the importance of well-configured base layer control mechanism, composed of PID controllers, is highlighted. For this purpose, two different base layer control scheme is applied in a hydrocracker fractionator column performances of schemes, which is a direct contribution to better product quality, are compared.

Keywords: controller, distillation, configuration selection, hydrocracker, model predictive controller, proportional-integral-derivative controller

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15 Analysis of Marketing: Frozen Fruit and Vegetables Sector in Turkey

Authors: Pınar Aydın, Şule Turhan

Abstract:

Today, with the change of people's consumption habits, the importance of frozen fruit and vegetable sector has been increased. In Turkey, sector is based on export. It is growing very fast and external demand is constantly increasing. About 80% of frozen fruits and vegetables produced in Turkey are being exported. More than 90% of the exports go to European Union countries. About 49% of frozen fruits and vegetables in Turkey is being exported to Germany, England and France. In the sector which the abroad demand is continuously increasing, although it has been estimated that around 25% of the average annual growth rate, the domestic consumption is very low. Although the frozen food consumption per person in Turkey is about %2 of United States, the growing rate of the sector is higher than the United States and Europe. This situation reflects that it is such a sector that has a growing demand in both domestic and foreign markets.

Keywords: frozen food, fruit and vegetable sector, exports, Turkey

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14 Learning from Small Amount of Medical Data with Noisy Labels: A Meta-Learning Approach

Authors: Gorkem Algan, Ilkay Ulusoy, Saban Gonul, Banu Turgut, Berker Bakbak

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Computer vision systems recently made a big leap thanks to deep neural networks. However, these systems require correctly labeled large datasets in order to be trained properly, which is very difficult to obtain for medical applications. Two main reasons for label noise in medical applications are the high complexity of the data and conflicting opinions of experts. Moreover, medical imaging datasets are commonly tiny, which makes each data very important in learning. As a result, if not handled properly, label noise significantly degrades the performance. Therefore, a label-noise-robust learning algorithm that makes use of the meta-learning paradigm is proposed in this article. The proposed solution is tested on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) dataset with a very high label noise of 68%. Results show that the proposed algorithm significantly improves the classification algorithm's performance in the presence of noisy labels.

Keywords: deep learning, label noise, robust learning, meta-learning, retinopathy of prematurity

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13 Heterophase Polymerization of Pyrrole and Thienyl End Capped Ethoxylated Nonyl Phenol by Iron (III) Chloride

Authors: Görkem Ülkü, Nesrin Köken, Esin A. Güvel, Nilgün Kızılcan

Abstract:

Ethoxylated nonyl phenols (ENP) and ceric ammonium nitrate redox systems have been used for the polymerization of vinyl and acrylic monomers. In that case, ENP acted as an organic reducing agent in the presence of Ce (IV) salt and a radical was formed. The polymers obtained with that redox system contained ENP chain ends because the radicals are formed on the reducing molecules. Similar copolymer synthesis has been reported using poly(ethylene oxide) instead of its nonyl phenol terminated derivative, ENP. However, copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) and conducting polymers synthesized by ferric ions were produced in two steps. Firstly, heteroatoms (pyrrole, thiophene etc.) were attached to the poly(ethylene oxide) chains then copolymerization with heterocyclic monomers was carried out. In this work, ethoxylated nonylphenol (ENP) was reacted with 2-thiophenecarbonyl chloride in order to synthesize a macromonomer containing thienyl end-group (ENP-ThC). Then, copolymers of ENP-ThC and pyrrole were synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization using iron (III) chloride as an oxidant.

Keywords: end capped polymer, ethoxylated nonylphenol, heterophase polymerization, polypyrrole

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12 Effects of Different Sowing Dates on Oil Yield of Castor (Ricinus communis L.)

Authors: Özden Öztürk, Gözde Pınar Gerem, Ayça Yenici, Burcu Haspolat

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Castor (Ricinus communis L.) is one of the important non-edible oilseed crops having immense industrial and medicinal value. Oil yield per unit area is the ultimate target in growing oilseed plants and sowing date is one of the important factors which have a clear role in the production of active substances particularly in oilseeds. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of sowing date on the seed and oil yield of castor in Central Anatolia in Turkey in 2011. The field experiment was set up in a completely randomized block design with three replication. Black Diamond-2 castor cultivar was used as plant material. The treatment was four sowing dates of May 10, May 25, June 10, June 25. In this research; seed yield, oil content and oil yield were investigated. Results showed that the effect of different sowing dates was significant on all of the characteristics. In general; delayed sowing dates, resulted in decreased seed yield, oil content and oil yield. The highest value of seed yield, oil content and oil yield (respectively, 2523.7 kg ha-1, 51.18% and 1292.2 kg ha-1) were obtained from the first sowing date (May 10) while the lowest seed yield, oil content and oil yield (respectively, 1550 kg ha-1, 43.67%, 677.3 kg ha-1) were recorded from the latest sowing date (June 25). Therefore, it can be concluded that early May could be recommended as an appropriate sowing date in the studied location and similar climates for achieved high oil yield of castor.

Keywords: castor bean, Ricinus communis L., sowing date, seed yield, oil content

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11 Natural Ventilation for the Sustainable Tall Office Buildings of the Future

Authors: Ayşin Sev, Görkem Aslan

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Sustainable tall buildings that provide comfortable, healthy and efficient indoor environments are clearly desirable as the densification of living and working space for the world’s increasing population proceeds. For environmental concerns, these buildings must also be energy efficient. One component of these tasks is the provision of indoor air quality and thermal comfort, which can be enhanced with natural ventilation by the supply of fresh air. Working spaces can only be naturally ventilated with connections to the outdoors utilizing operable windows, double facades, ventilation stacks, balconies, patios, terraces and skygardens. Large amounts of fresh air can be provided to the indoor spaces without mechanical air-conditioning systems, which are widely employed in contemporary tall buildings. This paper tends to present the concept of natural ventilation for sustainable tall office buildings in order to achieve healthy and comfortable working spaces, as well as energy efficient environments. Initially the historical evolution of ventilation strategies for tall buildings is presented, beginning with natural ventilation and continuing with the introduction of mechanical air-conditioning systems. Then the emergence of natural ventilation due to the health and environmental concerns in tall buildings is handled, and the strategies for implementing this strategy are revealed. In the next section, a number of case studies that utilize this strategy are investigated. Finally, how tall office buildings can benefit from this strategy is discussed.

Keywords: tall office building, energy efficiency, double-skin façade, stack ventilation, air conditioning

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10 Carvacrol Attenuates Lung Injury in Rats with Severe Acute Pancreatitis

Authors: Salim Cerig, Fatime Geyikoglu, Pınar Akpulat, Suat Colak, Hasan Turkez, Murat Bakir, Mirkhalil Hosseinigouzdagani, Kubra Koc

Abstract:

This study was designed to evaluate whether carvacrol (CAR) could provide protection against lung injury by acute pancreatitis development. The rats were randomized into groups to receive (I) no therapy; (II) 50 μg/kg cerulein at 1h intervals by four intraperitoneal injections (i.p.); (III) 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg CAR by one i.p.; and (IV) cerulein+CAR after 2h of cerulein injection. 12h later, serum samples were obtained to assess pancreatic function the lipase and amylase values. The animals were euthanized and lung samples were excised. The specimens were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E), periodic acid–Schif (PAS), Mallory's trichrome and amyloid. Additionally, oxidative DNA damage was determined by measuring as increases in 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) adducts. The results showed that the serum activity of lipase and amylase in AP rats were significantly reduced after the therapy (p<0.05). We also found that the 100 mg/kg dose of CAR significantly decreased 8-OH-dG levels. Moreover, the severe pathological findings in the lung such as necrosis, inflammation, congestion, fibrosis, and thickened alveolar septum were attenuated in the AP+CAR groups when compared with AP group. Finally, the magnitude of the protective effect on lung is certain, and CAR is an effective therapy for lung injury caused by AP.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, acute pancreatitis, carvacrol, experimental, lung injury, oxidative DNA damage

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9 Hagios Spyridon Church in Selymbria and Its Particular Standing in Middle Byzantine Architecture

Authors: Görkem Günay, Bilge Ar

Abstract:

Selymbria is an ancient maritime city, approximately 60 km west to Constantinople. Although it was a particularly important settlement during the Byzantine period, our knowledge about its Byzantine layer is rather sketchy. On the other hand, one of the Byzantine churches of Selymbria, namely Hagios Spyridon which had been survived until the beginning of 20th century, deserves special attention. The church is mainly known via textual and visual data from the end of 19th and the beginning of 20th century. These documents, together with some architectural pieces which most probably were belonging to the church, indicate that Hagios Spyridon Church was built in ‘simple domed octagon’ plan-scheme. Nothing from the building is preserved in-situ today. However, this small church helps to fill a very important gap in the history of Middle Byzantine architecture and occupies a notable place in the on-going discussion of the origins of ‘domed octagon’ churches of Helladic paradigm and their link with the capital. This study aims to reexamine the now lost church of Hagios Spyridon in the context of architectural developments of Middle Byzantine period. In the presentation, the exact location and the architecture of the church will be tried to be clarified using the existing documents and the publications of previous scholars. Some new architectural pieces which possibly belonged to the church, will be introduced and interpretations on existing restitution drawings will be made. The church will be architecturally compared with the oldest known example of the plan-scheme, Nea Moni on Chios and its later local copies. The study of Hagios Spyridon Church of Selymbria, hopefully, will contribute to the discussion of the possible influence of the capital on the plan-scheme and will help us to ask further questions about the close relations between Constantinopolitan and provincial architecture.

Keywords: Hagios Spyridon church, insular domed octagon, middle Byzantine architecture, silymarin

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8 Numerical Investigation of Embankments for Protecting Rock Fall

Authors: Gökhan Altay, Cafer Kayadelen

Abstract:

Rock fall is a movement of huge rock blocks from dip slopes due to physical effects. It generally occurs where loose tuffs lying under basalt flow or stringcourse is being constituted by limestone layers which stand on clay. By corrosion of some parts, big cracks occur on layers and these cracks continue to grow with the effect of freezing-thawing. In this way, the breaking rocks fall down from these dip slopes. Earthquakes which can induce lots of rock movements is another reason for rock fall events. In Turkey, we have a large number of regions prone to the earthquake as in the World so this increases the possibility of rock fall events. A great number of rock fall events take place in Turkey as in the World every year. The rock fall events occurring in urban areas cause serious damages in houses, roads and workplaces. Sometimes it also hinders transportation and furthermore it maybe kills people. In Turkey, rock fall events happen mostly in Spring and Winter because of freezing- thawing of water in rock cracks frequently. In mountain and inclined areas, rock fall is risky for engineering construction and environment. Some countries can invest significant money for these risky areas. For instance, in Switzerland, approximately 6.7 million dollars is spent annually for a distance of 4 km, to the systems to prevent rock fall events. In Turkey, we have lots of urban areas and engineering structure that have the rock fall risk. The embankments are preferable for rock fall events because of its low maintenance and repair costs. Also, embankments are able to absorb much more energy according to other protection systems. The current design method of embankments is only depended on field tests results so there are inadequate studies about this design method. In this paper, the field test modeled in three dimensions and analysis are carried out with the help of ANSYS programme. By the help of field test from literature the numerical model validated. After the validity of numerical models additional parametric studies performed. Changes in deformation of embankments are investigated by the changes in, geometry, velocity and impact height of falling rocks.

Keywords: ANSYS, embankment, impact height, numerical analysis, rock fall

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7 Microwave and Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Pectin from Mandarin and Lemon Peel: Comparisons between Sources and Methods

Authors: Pınar Karbuz, A. Seyhun Kıpcak, Mehmet B. Piskin, Emek Derun, Nurcan Tugrul

Abstract:

Pectin is a complex colloidal polysaccharide, found on the cell walls of all young plants such as fruit and vegetables. It acts as a thickening, stabilizing and gelling agent in foods. Pectin was extracted from mandarin and lemon peels using ultrasound and microwave assisted extraction methods to compare with these two different sources and methods of pectin production. In this work, the effect of microwave power (360, 600 W) and irradiation time (1, 2, 3 min) on the yield of extracted pectin from mandarin and lemon peels for microwave assisted extraction (MAE) were investigated. For ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE), parameters were determined as temperature (60, 75 °C) and sonication time (15, 30, 45 min) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) was used as an extracting agent for both extraction methods. The highest yields of extracted pectin from lemon peels were found to be 8.16 % (w/w) for 75 °C, 45 min by UAE and 8.58 % (w/w) for 360 W, 1 min by MAE. Additionally, the highest yields of extracted pectin from mandarin peels were found to be 11.29 % (w/w) for 75 °C, 45 min by UAE and 16.44 % (w/w) for 600 W, 1 min by MAE. The results showed that the use of microwave assisted extraction promoted a better yield when compared to the two extraction methods. On the other hand, according to the results of experiments, mandarin peels contain more pectin than lemon peels when the compared to the pectin product values of two sources. Therefore, these results suggested that MAE could be used as an efficient and rapid method for extraction of pectin and mandarin peels should be preferred as sources of pectin production compared to lemon peels.

Keywords: mandarin peel, lemon peel, pectin, ultrasound, microwave, extraction

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6 Implementing 3D Printed Structures as the Newest Textile Form

Authors: Banu Hatice Gürcüm, Pınar Arslan, Mahmut Yalçın

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From the oldest production methods with yarns used to weave, knit, braid and knot to the newest production methods with fibres used to stitch, bond or structures of innovative technologies, laminates, nanoparticles, composites or 3D printing systems, textile industry advanced through materials, processes and context mostly within the last five decades. The creative momentum of fabric like 3D printed structures have come to the point of transforming as for the newest form of textile applications. Moreover, pioneering studies on the applications of 3D Printing Technology and Additive Manufacturing have been focusing on fashion and apparel sector from the last two decades beginning with fashion designers. After the advent of chain-mail like structures and flexible micro or meso structures created by SLS rapid manufacturing a more textile-like behavior is achieved. Thus, the primary aim of this paper is to discuss the most important properties of traditional fabrics that are to be expected of future fabrics. For this reason, this study deals primarily with the physical properties like softness, hand, flexibility, drapability and wearability of 3D Printed structures necessary to identify the possible ways in which it can be used instead of contemporary textile structures, namely knitted and woven fabrics. The aim of this study is to compare the physical properties of 3D printed fabrics regarding different rapid manufacturing methods (FDM and SLS). The implemented method was Material Driven Design (MDD), which comprise the use of innovative materials according to the production techniques such as 3D printing system. As a result, advanced textile processes and materials enable to the creation of new types of fabric structures and rapid solutions in the field of textiles and 3D fabrics on the other hand, are to be used in this regard.

Keywords: 3D printing technology, FDM, SLS, textile structure

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5 Significance of Occupational Safety for Healthcare Professionals

Authors: Nilgün Katrancı, Pınar Göv

Abstract:

The privatization of public services has intensified and extended the delivery of healthcare services at hospitals, which leads to an increase in health and safety risks for healthcare professionals. More efficient and effective delivery of healthcare services can be realized through the provision of occupational safety of healthcare professionals. However, healthcare professionals are exposed to more dangers, accidents, and diseases because of such reasons as present working conditions, hospital infections, lack of ergonomic design, medication, wastes, excessive work load, negligent attitudes of workers, violence, psychological risks, etc. Unsafe working conditions cause fear, injury and wearing impacts in healthcare professionals in many countries. Thus, it is emphasized that the protection of the health of healthcare professionals is important to have educated, healthy workers and adequate workforce. Occupational health and safety measures applied in health facilities are aimed at protecting workers and providing the safety of services and facilities. All activities to be undertaken at hospitals with regard to occupational safety in accordance with these goals will help to reduce costs and provide continuous services. At the same time, a safe working environment will increase worker satisfaction and motivation, sense of institutional belonging and indirectly patient safety and satisfaction. In addition, the control and correction of occupational safety activities are also as important as the implementation. Occupational health and safety practices in the facilities will also lead to positive developments for national economy and society. This study emphasizes that approaching occupational safety practices for healthcare professionals in a sensitive manner is important for enabling healthcare professionals to do more productive works in terms of physical, social and psychological aspects, maintaining the continuity of healthcare services and social and economic contributions.

Keywords: health facilities, healthcare professional, occupational health, occupational safety

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4 Relation of Mean Platelet Volume with Serum Paraoxonase-1 Activity and Brachial Artery Diameter and Intima Media Thickness in Diabetic Patients with Respect to Obesity and Diabetic Complications

Authors: Pınar Karakaya, Meral Mert, Yildiz Okuturlar, Didem Acarer, Asuman Gedikbasi, Filiz Islim, Teslime Ayaz, Ozlem Soyluk, Ozlem Harmankaya, Abdulbaki Kumbasar

Abstract:

Objective: To evaluate the relation of mean platelet volume (MPV) levels with serum paraoxonase-1 activity and brachial artery diameter and intima media thickness in diabetic patients with respect to obesity and diabetic complications. Methods: A total of 201 diabetic patients grouped with respect to obesity [obese (n=89) and non-obese (n=112) and diabetic complications [with (n=50) or without (n=150) microvascular complications and with (n=91) or without (n=108) macrovascular complications] groups were included. Data on demographic and lifestyle characteristics of patients, anthropometric measurements, diabetes related microvascular and macrovascular complications, serum levels for MPV, bBrachial artery diameter and intima media thickness (IMT) and serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were recorded. Correlation of MPV values to paraoxonase and arylesterase activities as well as to brachial artery diameter and IMT was evaluated in study groups. Results: Mean(SD) paraoxonase and arylesterase values were 119.8(37.5) U/L and 149.0(39.9) U/L, respectively in the overall population with no significant difference with respect to obesity and macrovascular diabetic complications, whereas significantly lower values for paraoxonase (107.5(30.7) vs. 123.9(38.8) U/L, p=0.007) and arylesterase (132.1(30.2) vs. 154.7(41.2) U/L, p=0.001) were noted in patients with than without diabetic microvascular complications. Mean(SD) MPV values were 9.10 (0.87) fL in the overall population with no significant difference with respect to obesity and diabetic complications. No significant correlation of MPV values to paraoxonase, arylesterase activities, to brachial artery diameter and IMT was noted in the overall study population as well as in study groups. Conclusion: In conclusion, our findings revealed a significant decrease I PON-1 activity in diabetic patients with microvascular rather than macrovascular complications, whereas regardless of obesity and diabetic complications, no increase in thrombogenic activity and no relation of thrombogenic activity with PON-1 activity and brachial artery diameter and IMK.

Keywords: atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, microvascular complications, macrovascular complications, obesity, paraoxonase

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3 Assessment of Intern Students' Attitudes towards Medical Errors

Authors: Nilgün Katrancı, Pınar Göv

Abstract:

With the acceleration and assessment of quality and patient safety works in healthcare services in the 21st century, activities to reduce errors have gained importance. The prevention and reduction of unintended consequences related to healthcare services and errors made during the delivery of healthcare services can be achieved by understanding the causes of the errors. Communication is the basic reason most frequently seen in such cases. Nurses who communicate with patients more closely and for longer time play a more critical role in ensuring patient safety compared to other healthcare professionals. To reduce the risk of medical errors and increase the quality of care, it is important to raise the awareness of nurses about patient safety in training period. This descriptive study was conducted between February 2017 and May 2017 to assess intern students' attitudes towards and knowledge of patient safety and medical errors. The target population of the study consists of intern students at the Faculty of Nursing in Gaziantep University (N=180). The study did not apply any sample selection method, and the research group consisted of 90 female and 37 male senior students who were available and accepted to take part in the study (N=127). The study used personal information form and medical error attitude scale to collect data. The medical error attitude scale consists of 16 items and 3 sub-dimensions. The most frequently seen medical error in the clinics the interns worked at was found as ‘Failure to comply with asepsis rules’ with a rate of 67,7%. The most frequent case among reasons for not disclosing an error is ‘noticing and correcting the error before affecting the patient’ with the rate of 70,9%. The most frequently expressed implications of disclosing a serious error for the intern students participating in the study are ‘harming patient trust (78%)’ and ‘possibility of overreaction by patient (62,2%)’. According to the results of the study, the awareness of the students about the importance of medical errors and error reporting was found high (3,48 ± 0,49). Consequently, it is important to assess and positively improve the attitudes of nurses and other healthcare professionals towards medical errors for the determination of causes of medical errors and their prevention.

Keywords: healthcare service, intern student, medical error, patient safety

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2 Defining the Customers' Color Preference for the Apparel Industry in Terms of Chromaticity Coordinates

Authors: Banu Hatice Gürcüm, Pınar Arslan, Mahmut Yalçın

Abstract:

Fashion designers create lots of dresses, suits, shoes, and other clothing and accessories, which are purchased every year by consumers. Fashion trends, sketches of designs, accessories affect the apparel goods, but colors make the finishing touches to an outfit. In all fields of apparel men's, women's, and children's wear, including casual wear, suits, sportswear, formal wear, outerwear, maternity, and intimate apparel, color sells. Thus, specialization in color in apparel is a basic concern each season. The perception of color is the key to sales for every sector in textile business. Mechanism of color perception, cognition in brain and color emotion are unique subjects, which scientists have been investigating for many years. The parameters of color may not be corresponding to visual scales since human emotions induced by color are completely subjective. However, with a very few exception each manufacturer concern their top selling colors for each season through seasonal sales reports of apparel companies. This paper examines sensory and instrumental methods for quantifying color of fabrics and investigates the relationship between fabric color and sale numbers. 5 top selling colors for each season from 10 leading apparel companies in the same segment are taken. The compilation is based according to the sales of the companies for 5 to 10 years. The research’s main concern is the corelation with the magnitude of seasonal color selling figures and the CIE chromaticity coordinates. The colors are chosen from the globally accepted Pantone Textile Color System and the three-dimentional measurement system CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) is used, L* representing the degree of lightness of color, a* the degree of color ranging from magenta to green, and b* the degree of color ranging from blue to yellow. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of relating color perceptance to a laboratory instrument yielding measurements in the CIELAB system. Our approach is to obtain a total of a hundred reference fabrics to be measured on a laboratory spectrophotometer calibrated to the CIELAB color system. Relationships between the CIE tristimulus (X, Y, Z) and CIELAB (L*, a*, b*) are examined and are reported herein.

Keywords: CIELAB, CIE tristimulus, color preference, fashion

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1 Poly(propylene fumarate) Copolymers with Phosphonic Acid-based Monomers Designed as Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

Authors: Görkem Cemali̇, Avram Aruh, Gamze Torun Köse, Erde Can ŞAfak

Abstract:

In order to heal bone disorders, the conventional methods which involve the use of autologous and allogenous bone grafts or permanent implants have certain disadvantages such as limited supply, disease transmission, or adverse immune response. A biodegradable material that acts as structural support to the damaged bone area and serves as a scaffold that enhances bone regeneration and guides bone formation is one desirable solution. Poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) which is an unsaturated polyester that can be copolymerized with appropriate vinyl monomers to give biodegradable network structures, is a promising candidate polymer to prepare bone tissue engineering scaffolds. In this study, hydroxyl-terminated PPF was synthesized and thermally cured with vinyl phosphonic acid (VPA) and diethyl vinyl phosphonate (VPES) in the presence of radical initiator benzoyl peroxide (BP), with changing co-monomer weight ratios (10-40wt%). In addition, the synthesized PPF was cured with VPES comonomer at body temperature (37oC) in the presence of BP initiator, N, N-Dimethyl para-toluidine catalyst and varying amounts of Beta-tricalcium phosphate (0-20 wt% ß-TCP) as filler via radical polymerization to prepare composite materials that can be used in injectable forms. Thermomechanical properties, compressive properties, hydrophilicity and biodegradability of the PPF/VPA and PPF/VPES copolymers were determined and analyzed with respect to the copolymer composition. Biocompatibility of the resulting polymers and their composites was determined by the MTS assay and osteoblast activity was explored with von kossa, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin activity analysis and the effects of VPA and VPES comonomer composition on these properties were investigated. Thermally cured PPF/VPA and PPF/VPES copolymers with different compositions exhibited compressive modulus and strength values in the wide range of 10–836 MPa and 14–119 MPa, respectively. MTS assay studies showed that the majority of the tested compositions were biocompatible and the overall results indicated that PPF/VPA and PPF/VPES network polymers show significant potential for applications as bone tissue engineering scaffolds where varying PPF and co-monomer ratio provides adjustable and controllable properties of the end product. The body temperature cured PPF/VPES/ß-TCP composites exhibited significantly lower compressive modulus and strength values than the thermal cured PPF/VPES copolymers and were therefore found to be useful as scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: biodegradable, bone tissue, copolymer, poly(propylene fumarate), scaffold

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