Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 209

Search results for: solver

209 Application of a SubIval Numerical Solver for Fractional Circuits

Authors: Marcin Sowa


The paper discusses the subinterval-based numerical method for fractional derivative computations. It is now referred to by its acronym – SubIval. The basis of the method is briefly recalled. The ability of the method to be applied in time stepping solvers is discussed. The possibility of implementing a time step size adaptive solver is also mentioned. The solver is tested on a transient circuit example. In order to display the accuracy of the solver – the results have been compared with those obtained by means of a semi-analytical method called gcdAlpha. The time step size adaptive solver applying SubIval has been proven to be very accurate as the results are very close to the referential solution. The solver is currently able to solve FDE (fractional differential equations) with various derivative orders for each equation and any type of source time functions.

Keywords: numerical method, SubIval, fractional calculus, numerical solver, circuit analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
208 A Block World Problem Based Sudoku Solver

Authors: Luciana Abednego, Cecilia Nugraheni


There are many approaches proposed for solving Sudoku puzzles. One of them is by modelling the puzzles as block world problems. There have been three model for Sudoku solvers based on this approach. Each model expresses Sudoku solver as a parameterized multi agent systems. In this work, we propose a new model which is an improvement over the existing models. This paper presents the development of a Sudoku solver that implements all the proposed models. Some experiments have been conducted to determine the performance of each model.

Keywords: Sudoku puzzle, Sudoku solver, block world problem, parameterized multi agent systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
207 An Entropy Stable Three Dimensional Ideal MHD Solver with Guaranteed Positive Pressure

Authors: Andrew R. Winters, Gregor J. Gassner


A high-order numerical magentohydrodynamics (MHD) solver built upon a non-linear entropy stable numerical flux function that supports eight traveling wave solutions will be described. The method is designed to treat the divergence-free constraint on the magnetic field in a similar fashion to a hyperbolic divergence cleaning technique. The solver is especially well-suited for flows involving strong discontinuities due to its strong stability without the need to enforce artificial low density or energy limits. Furthermore, a new formulation of the numerical algorithm to guarantee positivity of the pressure during the simulation is described and presented. By construction, the solver conserves mass, momentum, and energy and is entropy stable. High spatial order is obtained through the use of a third order limiting technique. High temporal order is achieved by utilizing the family of strong stability preserving (SSP) Runge-Kutta methods. Main attributes of the solver are presented as well as details on an implementation of the new solver into the multi-physics, multi-scale simulation code FLASH. The accuracy, robustness, and computational efficiency is demonstrated with a variety of numerical tests. Comparisons are also made between the new solver and existing methods already present in FLASH framework.

Keywords: entropy stability, finite volume scheme, magnetohydrodynamics, pressure positivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
206 Bi-Liquid Free Surface Flow Simulation of Liquid Atomization for Bi-Propellant Thrusters

Authors: Junya Kouwa, Shinsuke Matsuno, Chihiro Inoue, Takehiro Himeno, Toshinori Watanabe


Bi-propellant thrusters use impinging jet atomization to atomize liquid fuel and oxidizer. Atomized propellants are mixed and combusted due to auto-ignitions. Therefore, it is important for a prediction of thruster’s performance to simulate the primary atomization phenomenon; especially, the local mixture ratio can be used as indicator of thrust performance, so it is useful to evaluate it from numerical simulations. In this research, we propose a numerical method for considering bi-liquid and the mixture and install it to CIP-LSM which is a two-phase flow simulation solver with level-set and MARS method as an interfacial tracking method and can predict local mixture ratio distribution downstream from an impingement point. A new parameter, beta, which is defined as the volume fraction of one liquid in the mixed liquid within a cell is introduced and the solver calculates the advection of beta, inflow and outflow flux of beta to a cell. By validating this solver, we conducted a simple experiment and the same simulation by using the solver. From the result, the solver can predict the penetrating length of a liquid jet correctly and it is confirmed that the solver can simulate the mixing of liquids. Then we apply this solver to the numerical simulation of impinging jet atomization. From the result, the inclination angle of fan after the impingement in the bi-liquid condition reasonably agrees with the theoretical value. Also, it is seen that the mixture of liquids can be simulated in this result. Furthermore, simulation results clarify that the injecting condition affects the atomization process and local mixture ratio distribution downstream drastically.

Keywords: bi-propellant thrusters, CIP-LSM, free-surface flow simulation, impinging jet atomization

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
205 An Excel-Based Educational Platform for Design Analyses of Pump-Pipe Systems

Authors: Mohamed M. El-Awad


This paper describes an educational platform for design analyses of pump-pipe systems by using Microsoft Excel, its Solver add-in, and the associated VBA programming language. The paper demonstrates the capabilities of the Excel-based platform that suits the iterative nature of the design process better than the use of design charts and data tables. While VBA is used for the development of a user-defined function for determining the standard pipe diameter, Solver is used for optimising the pipe diameter of the pipeline and for determining the operating point of the selected pump.

Keywords: design analyses, pump-pipe systems, Excel, solver, VBA

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
204 Unconventional Calculus Spreadsheet Functions

Authors: Chahid K. Ghaddar


The spreadsheet engine is exploited via a non-conventional mechanism to enable novel worksheet solver functions for computational calculus. The solver functions bypass inherent restrictions on built-in math and user defined functions by taking variable formulas as a new type of argument while retaining purity and recursion properties. The enabling mechanism permits integration of numerical algorithms into worksheet functions for solving virtually any computational problem that can be modelled by formulas and variables. Several examples are presented for computing integrals, derivatives, and systems of deferential-algebraic equations. Incorporation of the worksheet solver functions with the ubiquitous spreadsheet extend the utility of the latter as a powerful tool for computational mathematics.

Keywords: calculus, differential algebraic equations, solvers, spreadsheet

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
203 Simulation of Elastic Bodies through Discrete Element Method, Coupled with a Nested Overlapping Grid Fluid Flow Solver

Authors: Paolo Sassi, Jorge Freiria, Gabriel Usera


In this work, a finite volume fluid flow solver is coupled with a discrete element method module for the simulation of the dynamics of free and elastic bodies in interaction with the fluid and between themselves. The open source fluid flow solver, caffa3d.MBRi, includes the capability to work with nested overlapping grids in order to easily refine the grid in the region where the bodies are moving. To do so, it is necessary to implement a recognition function able to identify the specific mesh block in which the device is moving in. The set of overlapping finer grids might be displaced along with the set of bodies being simulated. The interaction between the bodies and the fluid is computed through a two-way coupling. The velocity field of the fluid is first interpolated to determine the drag force on each object. After solving the objects displacements, subject to the elastic bonding among them, the force is applied back onto the fluid through a Gaussian smoothing considering the cells near the position of each object. The fishnet is represented as lumped masses connected by elastic lines. The internal forces are derived from the elasticity of these lines, and the external forces are due to drag, gravity, buoyancy and the load acting on each element of the system. When solving the ordinary differential equations system, that represents the motion of the elastic and flexible bodies, it was found that the Runge Kutta solver of fourth order is the best tool in terms of performance, but requires a finer grid than the fluid solver to make the system converge, which demands greater computing power. The coupled solver is demonstrated by simulating the interaction between the fluid, an elastic fishnet and a set of free bodies being captured by the net as they are dragged by the fluid. The deformation of the net, as well as the wake produced in the fluid stream are well captured by the method, without requiring the fluid solver mesh to adapt for the evolving geometry. Application of the same strategy to the simulation of elastic structures subject to the action of wind is also possible with the method presented, and one such application is currently under development.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, discrete element method, fishnets, nested overlapping grids

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
202 Aeroelastic Analysis of Engine Nacelle Strake Considering Geometric Nonlinear Behavior

Authors: N. Manoj


The aeroelastic behavior of engine nacelle strake when subjected to unsteady aerodynamic flows is investigated in this paper. Geometric nonlinear characteristics and modal parameters of nacelle strake are studied when it is under dynamic loading condition. Here, an N-S based Finite Volume solver is coupled with Finite Element (FE) based nonlinear structural solver to investigate the nonlinear characteristics of nacelle strake over a range of dynamic pressures at various phases of flight like takeoff, climb, and cruise conditions. The combination of high fidelity models for both aerodynamics and structural dynamics is used to predict the nonlinearities of strake (chine). The methodology adopted for present aeroelastic analysis is partitioned-based time domain coupled CFD and CSD solvers and it is validated by the consideration of experimental and numerical comparison of aeroelastic data for a cropped delta wing model which has a proven record. The present strake geometry is derived from theoretical formulation. The amplitude and frequency obtained from the coupled solver at various dynamic pressures is discussed, which gives a better understanding of its impact on aerodynamic design-sizing of strake.

Keywords: aeroelasticity, finite volume, geometric nonlinearity, limit cycle oscillations, strake

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
201 Using the SMT Solver to Minimize the Latency and to Optimize the Number of Cores in an NoC-DSP Architectures

Authors: Imen Amari, Kaouther Gasmi, Asma Rebaya, Salem Hasnaoui


The problem of scheduling and mapping data flow applications on multi-core architectures is notoriously difficult. This difficulty is related to the rapid evaluation of Telecommunication and multimedia systems accompanied by a rapid increase of user requirements in terms of latency, execution time, consumption, energy, etc. Having an optimal scheduling on multi-cores DSP (Digital signal Processors) platforms is a challenging task. In this context, we present a novel technic and algorithm in order to find a valid schedule that optimizes the key performance metrics particularly the Latency. Our contribution is based on Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT) solving technologies which is strongly driven by the industrial applications and needs. This paper, describe a scheduling module integrated in our proposed Workflow which is advised to be a successful approach for programming the applications based on NoC-DSP platforms. This workflow transform automatically a Simulink model to a synchronous dataflow (SDF) model. The automatic transformation followed by SMT solver scheduling aim to minimize the final latency and other software/hardware metrics in terms of an optimal schedule. Also, finding the optimal numbers of cores to be used. In fact, our proposed workflow taking as entry point a Simulink file (.mdl or .slx) derived from embedded Matlab functions. We use an approach which is based on the synchronous and hierarchical behavior of both Simulink and SDF. Whence, results of running the scheduler which exist in the Workflow mentioned above using our proposed SMT solver algorithm refinements produce the best possible scheduling in terms of latency and numbers of cores.

Keywords: multi-cores DSP, scheduling, SMT solver, workflow

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
200 Coupling Concept of Two Parallel Research Codes for Two and Three Dimensional Fluid Structure Interaction Analysis

Authors: Luciano Garelli, Marco Schauer, Jorge D’Elia, Mario A. Storti, Sabine C. Langer


This paper discuss a coupling strategy of two different software packages to provide fluid structure interaction (FSI) analysis. The basic idea is to combine the advantages of the two codes to create a powerful FSI solver for two and three dimensional analysis. The fluid part is computed by a program called PETSc-FEM, a software developed at Centro de Investigación de Métodos Computacionales (CIMEC). The structural part of the coupled process is computed by the research code elementary Parallel Solver (elPaSo) of the Technische Universität Braunschweig, Institut für Konstruktionstechnik (IK).

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics (CFD), fluid structure interaction (FSI), finite element method (FEM), software

Procedia PDF Downloads 449
199 Tower Crane Selection and Positioning on Construction Sites

Authors: Dirk Briskorn, Michael Dienstknecht


Cranes are a key element in construction projects as they are the primary lifting equipment and among the most expensive construction equipment. Thus, selecting cranes and locating them on-site is an important factor for a project's profitability. We focus on a site with supply and demand areas that have to be connected by tower cranes. There are several types of tower cranes differing in certain specifications such as costs or operating radius. The objective is to select cranes and determine their locations such that each demand area is connected to its supply area at minimum cost. We detail the problem setting and show how to obtain a discrete set of candidate locations for each crane type without losing optimality. This discretization allows us to reduce our problem to the classic set cover problem. Despite its NP-hardness, we achieve good results employing a standard solver and a greedy heuristic, respectively.

Keywords: positioning, selection, standard solver, tower cranes

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
198 A Robust Software for Advanced Analysis of Space Steel Frames

Authors: Viet-Hung Truong, Seung-Eock Kim


This paper presents a robust software package for practical advanced analysis of space steel framed structures. The pre- and post-processors of the presented software package are coded in the C++ programming language while the solver is written by using the FORTRAN programming language. A user-friendly graphical interface of the presented software is developed to facilitate the modeling process and result interpretation of the problem. The solver employs the stability functions for capturing the second-order effects to minimize modeling and computational time. Both the plastic-hinge and fiber-hinge beam-column elements are available in the presented software. The generalized displacement control method is adopted to solve the nonlinear equilibrium equations.

Keywords: advanced analysis, beam-column, fiber-hinge, plastic hinge, steel frame

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
197 Aerodynamic Coefficients Prediction from Minimum Computation Combinations Using OpenVSP Software

Authors: Marine Segui, Ruxandra Mihaela Botez


OpenVSP is an aerodynamic solver developed by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) that allows building a reliable model of an aircraft. This software performs an aerodynamic simulation according to the angle of attack of the aircraft makes between the incoming airstream, and its speed. A reliable aerodynamic model of the Cessna Citation X was designed but it required a lot of computation time. As a consequence, a prediction method was established that allowed predicting lift and drag coefficients for all Mach numbers and for all angles of attack, exclusively for stall conditions, from a computation of three angles of attack and only one Mach number. Aerodynamic coefficients given by the prediction method for a Cessna Citation X model were finally compared with aerodynamics coefficients obtained using a complete OpenVSP study.

Keywords: aerodynamic, coefficient, cruise, improving, longitudinal, openVSP, solver, time

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
196 Numerical Simulation of Two-Phase Flows Using a Pressure-Based Solver

Authors: Lei Zhang, Jean-Michel Ghidaglia, Anela Kumbaro


This work focuses on numerical simulation of two-phase flows based on the bi-fluid six-equation model widely used in many industrial areas, such as nuclear power plant safety analysis. A pressure-based numerical method is adopted in our studies due to the fact that in two-phase flows, it is common to have a large range of Mach numbers because of the mixture of liquid and gas, and density-based solvers experience stiffness problems as well as a loss of accuracy when approaching the low Mach number limit. This work extends the semi-implicit pressure solver in the nuclear component CUPID code, where the governing equations are solved on unstructured grids with co-located variables to accommodate complicated geometries. A conservative version of the solver is developed in order to capture exactly the shock in one-phase flows, and is extended to two-phase situations. An inter-facial pressure term is added to the bi-fluid model to make the system hyperbolic and to establish a well-posed mathematical problem that will allow us to obtain convergent solutions with refined meshes. The ability of the numerical method to treat phase appearance and disappearance as well as the behavior of the scheme at low Mach numbers will be demonstrated through several numerical results. Finally, inter-facial mass and heat transfer models are included to deal with situations when mass and energy transfer between phases is important, and associated industrial numerical benchmarks with tabulated EOS (equations of state) for fluids are performed.

Keywords: two-phase flows, numerical simulation, bi-fluid model, unstructured grids, phase appearance and disappearance

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
195 Modelling of Cavity Growth in Underground Coal Gasification

Authors: Preeti Aghalayam, Jay Shah


Underground coal gasification (UCG) is the in-situ gasification of unmineable coals to produce syngas. In UCG, gasifying agents are injected into the coal seam, and a reactive cavity is formed due to coal consumption. The cavity formed is typically hemispherical, and this report consists of the MATLAB model of the UCG cavity to predict the composition of the output gases. There are seven radial and two time-variant ODEs. A MATLAB solver (ode15s) is used to solve the radial ODEs from the above equations. Two for-loops are implemented in the model, i.e., one for time variations and another for radial variation. In the time loop, the radial odes are solved using the MATLAB solver. The radial loop is nested inside the time loop, and the density odes are numerically solved using the Euler method. The model is validated by comparing it with the literature results of laboratory-scale experiments. The model predicts the radial and time variation of the product gases inside the cavity.

Keywords: gasification agent, MATLAB model, syngas, underground coal gasification (UCG)

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
194 Network Connectivity Knowledge Graph Using Dwave Quantum Hybrid Solvers

Authors: Nivedha Rajaram


Hybrid Quantum solvers have been given prime focus in recent days by computation problem-solving domain industrial applications. D’Wave Quantum Computers are one such paragon of systems built using quantum annealing mechanism. Discrete Quadratic Models is a hybrid quantum computing model class supplied by D’Wave Ocean SDK - a real-time software platform for hybrid quantum solvers. These hybrid quantum computing modellers can be employed to solve classic problems. One such problem that we consider in this paper is finding a network connectivity knowledge hub in a huge network of systems. Using this quantum solver, we try to find out the prime system hub, which acts as a supreme connection point for the set of connected computers in a large network. This paper establishes an innovative problem approach to generate a connectivity system hub plot for a set of systems using DWave ocean SDK hybrid quantum solvers.

Keywords: quantum computing, hybrid quantum solver, DWave annealing, network knowledge graph

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
193 A Mathematical Model for a Two-Stage Assembly Flow-Shop Scheduling Problem with Batch Delivery System

Authors: Saeedeh Ahmadi Basir, Mohammad Mahdavi Mazdeh, Mohammad Namakshenas


Manufacturers often dispatch jobs in batches to reduce delivery costs. However, sending several jobs in batches can have a negative effect on other scheduling-related objective functions such as minimizing the number of tardy jobs which is often used to rate managers’ performance in many manufacturing environments. This paper aims to minimize the number of weighted tardy jobs and the sum of delivery costs of a two-stage assembly flow-shop problem in a batch delivery system. We present a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model to solve the problem. As this is an MILP model, the commercial solver (the CPLEX solver) is not guaranteed to find the optimal solution for large-size problems at a reasonable amount of time. We present several numerical examples to confirm the accuracy of the model.

Keywords: scheduling, two-stage assembly flow-shop, tardy jobs, batched delivery system

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
192 Modeling of Anisotropic Hardening Based on Crystal Plasticity Theory and Virtual Experiments

Authors: Bekim Berisha, Sebastian Hirsiger, Pavel Hora


Advanced material models involving several sets of model parameters require a big experimental effort. As models are getting more and more complex like e.g. the so called “Homogeneous Anisotropic Hardening - HAH” model for description of the yielding behavior in the 2D/3D stress space, the number and complexity of the required experiments are also increasing continuously. In the context of sheet metal forming, these requirements are even more pronounced, because of the anisotropic behavior or sheet materials. In addition, some of the experiments are very difficult to perform e.g. the plane stress biaxial compression test. Accordingly, tensile tests in at least three directions, biaxial tests and tension-compression or shear-reverse shear experiments are performed to determine the parameters of the macroscopic models. Therefore, determination of the macroscopic model parameters based on virtual experiments is a very promising strategy to overcome these difficulties. For this purpose, in the framework of multiscale material modeling, a dislocation density based crystal plasticity model in combination with a FFT-based spectral solver is applied to perform virtual experiments. Modeling of the plastic behavior of metals based on crystal plasticity theory is a well-established methodology. However, in general, the computation time is very high and therefore, the computations are restricted to simplified microstructures as well as simple polycrystal models. In this study, a dislocation density based crystal plasticity model – including an implementation of the backstress – is used in a spectral solver framework to generate virtual experiments for three deep drawing materials, DC05-steel, AA6111-T4 and AA4045 aluminum alloys. For this purpose, uniaxial as well as multiaxial loading cases, including various pre-strain histories, has been computed and validated with real experiments. These investigations showed that crystal plasticity modeling in the framework of Representative Volume Elements (RVEs) can be used to replace most of the expensive real experiments. Further, model parameters of advanced macroscopic models like the HAH model can be determined from virtual experiments, even for multiaxial deformation histories. It was also found that crystal plasticity modeling can be used to model anisotropic hardening more accurately by considering the backstress, similar to well-established macroscopic kinematic hardening models. It can be concluded that an efficient coupling of crystal plasticity models and the spectral solver leads to a significant reduction of the amount of real experiments needed to calibrate macroscopic models. This advantage leads also to a significant reduction of computational effort needed for the optimization of metal forming process. Further, due to the time efficient spectral solver used in the computation of the RVE models, detailed modeling of the microstructure are possible.

Keywords: anisotropic hardening, crystal plasticity, micro structure, spectral solver

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
191 A Predictive MOC Solver for Water Hammer Waves Distribution in Network

Authors: A. Bayle, F. Plouraboué


Water Distribution Network (WDN) still suffers from a lack of knowledge about fast pressure transient events prediction, although the latter may considerably impact their durability. Accidental or planned operating activities indeed give rise to complex pressure interactions and may drastically modified the local pressure value generating leaks and, in rare cases, pipe’s break. In this context, a numerical predictive analysis is conducted to prevent such event and optimize network management. A couple of Python/FORTRAN 90, home-made software, has been developed using Method Of Characteristic (MOC) solving for water-hammer equations. The solver is validated by direct comparison with theoretical and experimental measurement in simple configurations whilst afterward extended to network analysis. The algorithm's most costly steps are designed for parallel computation. A various set of boundary conditions and energetic losses models are considered for the network simulations. The results are analyzed in both real and frequencies domain and provide crucial information on the pressure distribution behavior within the network.

Keywords: energetic losses models, method of characteristic, numerical predictive analysis, water distribution network, water hammer

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
190 A Hybrid Algorithm for Collaborative Transportation Planning among Carriers

Authors: Elham Jelodari Mamaghani, Christian Prins, Haoxun Chen


In this paper, there is concentration on collaborative transportation planning (CTP) among multiple carriers with pickup and delivery requests and time windows. This problem is a vehicle routing problem with constraints from standard vehicle routing problems and new constraints from a real-world application. In the problem, each carrier has a finite number of vehicles, and each request is a pickup and delivery request with time window. Moreover, each carrier has reserved requests, which must be served by itself, whereas its exchangeable requests can be outsourced to and served by other carriers. This collaboration among carriers can help them to reduce total transportation costs. A mixed integer programming model is proposed to the problem. To solve the model, a hybrid algorithm that combines Genetic Algorithm and Simulated Annealing (GASA) is proposed. This algorithm takes advantages of GASA at the same time. After tuning the parameters of the algorithm with the Taguchi method, the experiments are conducted and experimental results are provided for the hybrid algorithm. The results are compared with those obtained by a commercial solver. The comparison indicates that the GASA significantly outperforms the commercial solver.

Keywords: centralized collaborative transportation, collaborative transportation with pickup and delivery, collaborative transportation with time windows, hybrid algorithm of GA and SA

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
189 Numerical Simulation of Fluid-Structure Interaction on Wedge Slamming Impact by Using Particle Method

Authors: Sung-Chul Hwang, Di Ren, Sang-Moon Yoon, Jong-Chun Park, Abbas Khayyer, Hitoshi Gotoh


The slamming impact problem has a very important engineering background. For seaplane landing, recycling for the satellite re-entry capsule, and the impact load of the bow in the adverse sea conditions, the slamming problem always plays the important role. Due to its strong nonlinear effect, however, it seems to be not easy to obtain the accurate simulation results. Combined with the strong interaction between the fluid field and the elastic structure, the difficulty for the simulation leads to a new level for challenging. This paper presents a fully Lagrangian coupled solver for simulations of fluid-structure interactions, which is based on the Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method to solve the governing equations corresponding to incompressible flows as well as elastic structures. The developed solver is verified by reproducing the high velocity impact loads of deformable thin wedges with two different materials such as aluminum and steel on water entry. The present simulation results are compared with analytical solution derived using the hydrodynamic Wagner model and linear theory by Wan.

Keywords: fluid-structure interaction, moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method, elastic structure, incompressible flow, wedge slamming impact

Procedia PDF Downloads 499
188 Development of an Implicit Coupled Partitioned Model for the Prediction of the Behavior of a Flexible Slender Shaped Membrane in Interaction with Free Surface Flow under the Influence of a Moving Flotsam

Authors: Mahtab Makaremi Masouleh, Günter Wozniak


This research is part of an interdisciplinary project, promoting the design of a light temporary installable textile defence system against flood. In case river water levels increase abruptly especially in winter time, one can expect massive extra load on a textile protective structure in term of impact as a result of floating debris and even tree trunks. Estimation of this impulsive force on such structures is of a great importance, as it can ensure the reliability of the design in critical cases. This fact provides the motivation for the numerical analysis of a fluid structure interaction application, comprising flexible slender shaped and free-surface water flow, where an accelerated heavy flotsam tends to approach the membrane. In this context, the analysis on both the behavior of the flexible membrane and its interaction with moving flotsam is conducted by finite elements based solvers of the explicit solver and implicit Abacus solver available as products of SIMULIA software. On the other hand, a study on how free surface water flow behaves in response to moving structures, has been investigated using the finite volume solver of Star CCM+ from Siemens PLM Software. An automatic communication tool (CSE, SIMULIA Co-Simulation Engine) and the implementation of an effective partitioned strategy in form of an implicit coupling algorithm makes it possible for partitioned domains to be interconnected powerfully. The applied procedure ensures stability and convergence in the solution of these complicated issues, albeit with high computational cost; however, the other complexity of this study stems from mesh criterion in the fluid domain, where the two structures approach each other. This contribution presents the approaches for the establishment of a convergent numerical solution and compares the results with experimental findings.

Keywords: co-simulation, flexible thin structure, fluid-structure interaction, implicit coupling algorithm, moving flotsam

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
187 Parallel Pipelined Conjugate Gradient Algorithm on Heterogeneous Platforms

Authors: Sergey Kopysov, Nikita Nedozhogin, Leonid Tonkov


The article presents a parallel iterative solver for large sparse linear systems which can be used on a heterogeneous platform. Traditionally, the problem of solving linear systems does not scale well on multi-CPU/multi-GPUs clusters. For example, most of the attempts to implement the classical conjugate gradient method were at best counted in the same amount of time as the problem was enlarged. The paper proposes the pipelined variant of the conjugate gradient method (PCG), a formulation that is potentially better suited for hybrid CPU/GPU computing since it requires only one synchronization point per one iteration instead of two for standard CG. The standard and pipelined CG methods need the vector entries generated by the current GPU and other GPUs for matrix-vector products. So the communication between GPUs becomes a major performance bottleneck on multi GPU cluster. The article presents an approach to minimize the communications between parallel parts of algorithms. Additionally, computation and communication can be overlapped to reduce the impact of data exchange. Using the pipelined version of the CG method with one synchronization point, the possibility of asynchronous calculations and communications, load balancing between the CPU and GPU for solving the large linear systems allows for scalability. The algorithm is implemented with the combined use of technologies: MPI, OpenMP, and CUDA. We show that almost optimum speed up on 8-CPU/2GPU may be reached (relatively to a one GPU execution). The parallelized solver achieves a speedup of up to 5.49 times on 16 NVIDIA Tesla GPUs, as compared to one GPU.

Keywords: conjugate gradient, GPU, parallel programming, pipelined algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
186 An Analytical Approach of Computational Complexity for the Method of Multifluid Modelling

Authors: A. K. Borah, A. K. Singh


In this paper we deal building blocks of the computer simulation of the multiphase flows. Whole simulation procedure can be viewed as two super procedures; The implementation of VOF method and the solution of Navier Stoke’s Equation. Moreover, a sequential code for a Navier Stoke’s solver has been studied.

Keywords: Bi-conjugate gradient stabilized (Bi-CGSTAB), ILUT function, krylov subspace, multifluid flows preconditioner, simple algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 410
185 Development of an Implicit Physical Influence Upwind Scheme for Cell-Centered Finite Volume Method

Authors: Shidvash Vakilipour, Masoud Mohammadi, Rouzbeh Riazi, Scott Ormiston, Kimia Amiri, Sahar Barati


An essential component of a finite volume method (FVM) is the advection scheme that estimates values on the cell faces based on the calculated values on the nodes or cell centers. The most widely used advection schemes are upwind schemes. These schemes have been developed in FVM on different kinds of structured and unstructured grids. In this research, the physical influence scheme (PIS) is developed for a cell-centered FVM that uses an implicit coupled solver. Results are compared with the exponential differencing scheme (EDS) and the skew upwind differencing scheme (SUDS). Accuracy of these schemes is evaluated for a lid-driven cavity flow at Re = 1000, 3200, and 5000 and a backward-facing step flow at Re = 800. Simulations show considerable differences between the results of EDS scheme with benchmarks, especially for the lid-driven cavity flow at high Reynolds numbers. These differences occur due to false diffusion. Comparing SUDS and PIS schemes shows relatively close results for the backward-facing step flow and different results in lid-driven cavity flow. The poor results of SUDS in the lid-driven cavity flow can be related to its lack of sensitivity to the pressure difference between cell face and upwind points, which is critical for the prediction of such vortex dominant flows.

Keywords: cell-centered finite volume method, coupled solver, exponential differencing scheme (EDS), physical influence scheme (PIS), pressure weighted interpolation method (PWIM), skew upwind differencing scheme (SUDS)

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
184 Numerical Investigation of the Needle Opening Process in a High Pressure Gas Injector

Authors: Matthias Banholzer, Hagen Müller, Michael Pfitzner


Gas internal combustion engines are widely used as propulsion systems or in power plants to generate heat and electricity. While there are different types of injection methods including the manifold port fuel injection and the direct injection, the latter has more potential to increase the specific power by avoiding air displacement in the intake and to reduce combustion anomalies such as backfire or pre-ignition. During the opening process of the injector, multiple flow regimes occur: subsonic, transonic and supersonic. To cover the wide range of Mach numbers a compressible pressure-based solver is used. While the standard Pressure Implicit with Splitting of Operators (PISO) method is used for the coupling between velocity and pressure, a high-resolution non-oscillatory central scheme established by Kurganov and Tadmor calculates the convective fluxes. A blending function based on the local Mach- and CFL-number switches between the compressible and incompressible regimes of the developed model. As the considered operating points are well above the critical state of the used fluids, the ideal gas assumption is not valid anymore. For the real gas thermodynamics, the models based on the Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state were implemented. The caloric properties are corrected using a departure formalism, for the viscosity and the thermal conductivity the empirical correlation of Chung is used. For the injector geometry, the dimensions of a diesel injector were adapted. Simulations were performed using different nozzle and needle geometries and opening curves. It can be clearly seen that there is a significant influence of all three parameters.

Keywords: high pressure gas injection, hybrid solver, hydrogen injection, needle opening process, real-gas thermodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
183 A Two-Phase Flow Interface Tracking Algorithm Using a Fully Coupled Pressure-Based Finite Volume Method

Authors: Shidvash Vakilipour, Scott Ormiston, Masoud Mohammadi, Rouzbeh Riazi, Kimia Amiri, Sahar Barati


Two-phase and multi-phase flows are common flow types in fluid mechanics engineering. Among the basic and applied problems of these flow types, two-phase parallel flow is the one that two immiscible fluids flow in the vicinity of each other. In this type of flow, fluid properties (e.g. density, viscosity, and temperature) are different at the two sides of the interface of the two fluids. The most challenging part of the numerical simulation of two-phase flow is to determine the location of interface accurately. In the present work, a coupled interface tracking algorithm is developed based on Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) approach using a cell-centered, pressure-based, coupled solver. To validate this algorithm, an analytical solution for fully developed two-phase flow in presence of gravity is derived, and then, the results of the numerical simulation of this flow are compared with analytical solution at various flow conditions. The results of the simulations show good accuracy of the algorithm despite using a nearly coarse and uniform grid. Temporal variations of interface profile toward the steady-state solution show that a greater difference between fluids properties (especially dynamic viscosity) will result in larger traveling waves. Gravity effect studies also show that favorable gravity will result in a reduction of heavier fluid thickness and adverse gravity leads to increasing it with respect to the zero gravity condition. However, the magnitude of variation in favorable gravity is much more than adverse gravity.

Keywords: coupled solver, gravitational force, interface tracking, Reynolds number to Froude number, two-phase flow

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182 Haemodynamics Study in Subject Specific Carotid Bifurcation Using FSI

Authors: S. M. Abdul Khader, Anurag Ayachit, Raghuvir Pai, K. A. Ahmed, V. R. K Rao, S. Ganesh Kamath


The numerical simulation has made tremendous advances in investigating the blood flow phenomenon through elastic arteries. Such study can be useful in demonstrating the disease progression and haemodynamics of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. In the present study, patient specific case diagnosed with partially stenosed complete right ICA and normal left carotid bifurcation without any atherosclerotic plaque formation is considered. 3D patient specific carotid bifurcation model is generated based on CT scan data using MIMICS-4.0 and numerical analysis is performed using FSI solver in ANSYS-14.5. The blood flow is assumed to be incompressible, homogenous and Newtonian, while the artery wall is assumed to be linearly elastic. The two-way sequentially-coupled transient FSI analysis is performed using FSI solver for three pulse cycles. The haemodynamic parameters such as flow pattern, Wall Shear Stress, pressure contours and arterial wall deformation are studied at the bifurcation and critical zones such as stenosis. The variation in flow behavior is studied throughout the pulse cycle. Also, the simulation results reveals that there is a considerable increase in the flow behavior in stenosed carotid in contrast to the normal carotid bifurcation system. The investigation also demonstrates the disturbed flow pattern especially at the bifurcation and stenosed zone elevating the haemodynamics, particularly during peak systole and later part of the pulse cycle. The results obtained agree well with the clinical observation and demonstrates the potential of patient specific numerical studies in prognosis of disease progression and plaque rupture.

Keywords: fluid-structure interaction, arterial stenosis, wall shear stress, carotid artery bifurcation

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181 Aerodynamic Optimum Nose Shape Change of High-Speed Train by Design Variable Variation

Authors: Minho Kwak, Suhwan Yun, Choonsoo Park


Nose shape optimizations of high-speed train are performed for the improvement of aerodynamic characteristics. Based on the commercial train, KTX-Sancheon, multi-objective optimizations are conducted for the improvement of the side wind stability and the micro-pressure wave following the optimization for the reduction of aerodynamic drag. 3D nose shapes are modelled by the Vehicle Modeling Function. Aerodynamic drag and side wind stability are calculated by three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes solver, and micro pressure wave is done by axi-symmetric compressible Navier-Stokes solver. The Maxi-min Latin Hypercube Sampling method is used to extract sampling points to construct the approximation model. The kriging model is constructed for the approximation model and the NSGA-II algorithm was used as the multi-objective optimization algorithm. Nose length, nose tip height, and lower surface curvature are design variables. Because nose length is a dominant variable for aerodynamic characteristics of train nose, two optimization processes are progressed respectively with and without the design variable, nose length. Each pareto set was obtained and each optimized nose shape is selected respectively considering Honam high-speed rail line infrastructure in South Korea. Through the optimization process with the nose length, when compared to KTX Sancheon, aerodynamic drag was reduced by 9.0%, side wind stability was improved by 4.5%, micro-pressure wave was reduced by 5.4% whereas aerodynamic drag by 7.3%, side wind stability by 3.9%, micro-pressure wave by 3.9%, without the nose length. As a result of comparison between two optimized shapes, similar shapes are extracted other than the effect of nose length.

Keywords: aerodynamic characteristics, design variable, multi-objective optimization, train nose shape

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180 The Hidden Characteristics That Tutors Hope Dundee Mmed Graduates Might Have after Graduation

Authors: Afnan Khoja, Ittisak Subrungruang, Kritchaya Ritruechai, Linda Jones, David Wall


Background: Some characteristics might be stated as an objective of the curriculum and some might be hidden. The hidden curriculum is the unwritten and unintended lessons and perspectives that students absorb in school. Though, the hidden characteristics are expected that tutors hope students might have in order to become medical educators. We suspected our faculty hoped we would develop skills, know and develop beyond the written outcomes. Our research question aimed to explore the hidden curriculum; as part of our learning; we had to design and report findings. Summary of Work: We undertook semi-structured interviews with a sample of the centre for medical education faculty at Dundee. Participants answered the question , of what are the hidden characteristics that they hope Dundee MMed graduates might have after graduation. Thematic analysis was carried out on the interview scripts. Summary of Results: A thematic analysis was carried out on the interview transcripts. Three main themes were identified from all respondents' comments. These were lifelong learners, being flexible and problem solvers. In addition individual respondents also described sense of humour, collaboration, humility, role model, inquisitiveness, optimism, and ability to express oneself clearly. Discussion: Tutors put great value on three behaviours lifelong learner, flexible, and problem solver, which are part of professional characteristics in leadership. Therefore, leadership characteristics is incorporated as the outcomes of hidden characteristics that tutors would like to see. Conclusion: Tutors in the Master's program of medical education at the University of Dundee hope that medical education students should present the three main hidden characteristics, which are lifelong learner, flexible, and problem solver after graduation. Take-home Messages: These hidden characteristics are considered as informal unless a change has been made to the formal curriculum. Therefore, to reach the tutors’ expectations, further studies might be held to make this personal characteristics transformation more accessible.

Keywords: characteristics, hidden curriculum, transformation, informal

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