Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: İlker Coşar

19 Numerical Investigation of Aerodynamic Analysis on Passenger Vehicle

Authors: Cafer Görkem Pınar, İlker Coşar, Serkan Uzun, Atahan Çelebi, Mehmet Ali Ersoy, Ali Pınarbaşı

Abstract:

In this study, it was numerically investigated that a 1:1 scale model of the Renault Clio MK4 SW brand vehicle aerodynamic analysis was performed in the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package program of ANSYS CFX 2021 R1 under steady, subsonic, and 3-D conditions. The model of vehicle used for the analysis was made independent of the number of mesh elements, and the k-epsilon turbulence model was applied during the analysis. Results were interpreted as streamlines, pressure gradient, and turbulent kinetic energy contours around the vehicle at 50 km/h and 100 km/h speeds. In addition, the validity of the analysis was decided by comparing the drag coefficient of the vehicle with the values in the literature. As a result, the pressure gradient contours of the taillight of the Renault Clio MK4 SW vehicle were examined, and the behavior of the total force at speeds of 50 km/h and 100 km/h was interpreted.

Keywords: CFD, k-epsilon, aerodynamics, drag coefficient, taillight

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18 The Design, Development, and Optimization of a Capacitive Pressure Sensor Utilizing an Existing 9DOF Platform

Authors: Andrew Randles, Ilker Ocak, Cheam Daw Don, Navab Singh, Alex Gu

Abstract:

Nine Degrees of Freedom (9 DOF) systems are already in development in many areas. In this paper, an integrated pressure sensor is proposed that will make use of an already existing monolithic 9 DOF inertial MEMS platform. Capacitive pressure sensors can suffer from limited sensitivity for a given size of membrane. This novel pressure sensor design increases the sensitivity by over 5 times compared to a traditional array of square diaphragms while still fitting within a 2 mm x 2 mm chip and maintaining a fixed static capacitance. The improved design uses one large diaphragm supported by pillars with fixed electrodes placed above the areas of maximum deflection. The design optimization increases the sensitivity from 0.22 fF/kPa to 1.16 fF/kPa. Temperature sensitivity was also examined through simulation.

Keywords: capacitive pressure sensor, 9 DOF, 10 DOF, sensor, capacitive, inertial measurement unit, IMU, inertial navigation system, INS

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17 Estimation of Chronic Kidney Disease Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Ilker Ali Ozkan

Abstract:

In this study, an artificial neural network model has been developed to estimate chronic kidney failure which is a common disease. The patients’ age, their blood and biochemical values, and 24 input data which consists of various chronic diseases are used for the estimation process. The input data have been subjected to preprocessing because they contain both missing values and nominal values. 147 patient data which was obtained from the preprocessing have been divided into as 70% training and 30% testing data. As a result of the study, artificial neural network model with 25 neurons in the hidden layer has been found as the model with the lowest error value. Chronic kidney failure disease has been able to be estimated accurately at the rate of 99.3% using this artificial neural network model. The developed artificial neural network has been found successful for the estimation of chronic kidney failure disease using clinical data.

Keywords: estimation, artificial neural network, chronic kidney failure disease, disease diagnosis

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16 Investigation of Genetic Diversity of Tilia tomentosa Moench. (Silver Lime) in Duzce-Turkey

Authors: Ibrahim Ilker Ozyigit, Ertugrul Filiz, Seda Birbilener, Semsettin Kulac, Zeki Severoglu

Abstract:

In this study, we have performed genetic diversity analysis of Tilia tomentosa genotypes by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers. A total of 28 genotypes, including 25 members from the urban ecosystem and 3 genotypes from forest ecosystem as outgroup were used. 8 RAPD primers produced a total of 53 bands, of which 48 (90.6 %) were polymorphic. Percentage of polymorphic loci (P), observed number of alleles (Na), effective number of alleles (Ne), Nei's (1973) gene diversity (h), and Shannon's information index (I) were found as 94.29 %, 1.94, 1.60, 0.34, and 0.50, respectively. The unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) cluster analysis revealed that two major groups were observed. The genotypes of urban and forest ecosystems showed a high genetic similarity between 28% and 92% and these genotypes did not separate from each other in UPGMA tree. Also, urban and forest genotypes clustered together in principal component analysis (PCA).

Keywords: Tilia tomentosa, genetic diversity, urban ecosystem, RAPD, UPGMA

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15 The Effects of Agricultural Waste Compost Applications on Soil Properties

Authors: Ilker Sönmez, Mustafa Kaplan

Abstract:

The wastes that come out as a result of agricultural productions are disposed randomly and always by burning. Agricultural wastes have a great volume and agricultural wastes cause environmental pollution. Spent mushroom compost and cut flower carnation wastes have a serious potential in Turkey and especially in Antalya. One of the best evaluation methods of agricultural wastes is composting methods and so agricultural wastes transformed for a new product. In this study, agricultural wastes were evaluated the effects of compost and organic material on soil pH, EC, soil organic matter, and macro-micro nutrient contents of soil that it growth carnation. The effects of compost applications on soils were found to be statistically significant. Organic material applications have caused an increase in all physical and chemical parameters except for pH that pH decreased with compost added in soils. The best results among the compost applications were determined R1 compost that R1 compost included %75 Carnation Wastes + %25 Spent Mushroom Compost. The structural properties of soils can be improved with reusing of agricultural wastes by composting so it can be provided that decreasing the harmful effects of organic wastes on the environment.

Keywords: agricultural wastes, carnation wastes, composting, organic material, spent mushroom compost

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14 Contribution of the SidePlate Beam-Column Connections to the Seismic Responses of Special Moment Frames

Authors: Gökhan Yüksel, Serdar Akça, İlker Kalkan

Abstract:

The present study is an attempt to demonstrate the significant levels of contribution of the moment-resisting beam-column connections with side plates to the earthquake behavior of special steel moment frames. To this end, the moment-curvature relationships of a regular beam-column connection and its SidePlate counterpart were determined with the help of finite element analyses. The connection stiffness and deformability values from these finite element analyses were used in the linear time-history analyses of an example structural steel frame under three different seismic excitations. The top-story lateral drift, base shear, and overturning moment values in two orthogonal directions were obtained from these time-history analyses and compared to each other. The results revealed the improvements in the system response with the use of SidePlate connections. The paper ends with crucial recommendations for the plan and design of further studies on this very topic.

Keywords: seismic detailing, special moment frame, steel structures, beam-column connection, earthquake-resistant design

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13 Prioritization of Customer Order Selection Factors by Utilizing Conjoint Analysis: A Case Study for a Structural Steel Firm

Authors: Burcu Akyildiz, Cigdem Kadaifci, Y. Ilker Topcu, Burc Ulengin

Abstract:

In today’s business environment, companies should make strategic decisions to gain sustainable competitive advantage. Order selection is a crucial issue among these decisions especially for steel production industry. When the companies allocate a high proportion of their design and production capacities to their ongoing projects, determining which customer order should be chosen among the potential orders without exceeding the remaining capacity is the major critical problem. In this study, it is aimed to identify and prioritize the evaluation factors for the customer order selection problem. Conjoint analysis is used to examine the importance level of each factor which is determined as the potential profit rate per unit of time, the compatibility of potential order with available capacity, the level of potential future order with higher profit, customer credit of future business opportunity, and the negotiability level of production schedule for the order.

Keywords: conjoint analysis, order prioritization, profit management, structural steel firm

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12 Extraction of Saponins and Cyclopeptides from Cow Cockle (Vaccaria hispanica (Mill.) Rauschert) Seeds Grown in Turkey

Authors: Ihsan Burak Cam, Ferhan Balci-Torun, Ayhan Topuz, Esin Ari, Ismail Gokhan Deniz, Ilker Genc

Abstract:

The seeds of Vaccaria hispanica have been used in food and pharmaceutical industry. It is an important product due to its superior starch granules, triterpenic saponins, and cyclopeptides suitable for drug delivery. V. hispanica naturally grows in different climatic regions and has genotypes that differ in terms of seed content and composition. Sixty-six V. hispanica seed specimens were collected based on the representation of the distribution in all regions of Turkey and the determination of possible genotypic differences between regions. The seeds, collected from each of the 66 locations, were grown in greenhouse conditions in Akdeniz University, Antalya. Saponin and cyclopeptide contents of the V. hispanica seeds were determined after harvest. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) was applied for the extraction of saponins and cyclopeptides. Cyclopeptide (segetalin A) and saponin content of V. hispanica seeds were found in the range of 0.165-0.654 g/100 g and 0.15-1.14 g/100 g, respectively. The results were found to be promising for the seeds from Turkey in terms of saponin content and quality. Acknowledgment: This study was supported by the Scientific and Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) (project no 112 O 136).

Keywords: Vaccaria hispanica, saponin, cyclopeptid, cow cockle seeds

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11 In silico Comparative Analysis of Chloroplast Genome (cpDNA) and Some Individual Genes (rbcL and trnH-psbA) in Pooideae Subfamily Members

Authors: Ibrahim Ilker Ozyigit, Ertugrul Filiz, Ilhan Dogan

Abstract:

An in silico analysis of Brachypodium distachyon, Triticum aestivum, Festuca arundinacea, Lolium perenne, Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare of the Pooideaea was performed based on complete chloroplast genomes including rbcL coding and trnH-psbA intergenic spacer regions alone to compare phylogenetic resolving power. Neighbor-joining, Minimum Evolution, and Unweighted Pair Group Method with arithmetic mean methods were used to reconstruct phylogenies with the highest bootstrap supported the obtained data from whole chloroplast genome sequence. The highest and lowest values from nucleotide diversity (π) analysis were found to be 0.315813 and 0.043495 in rbcL coding region in chloroplast genome and complete chloroplast genome, respectively. The highest transition/transversion bias (R) value was recorded as 1.384 in complete chloroplast genomes. F. arudinacea-L. perenne clade was uncovered in all phylogenies. Sequences of rbcL and trnH-psbA regions were not able to resolve the Pooideae phylogenies due to lack of genetic variation.

Keywords: chloroplast DNA, Pooideae, phylogenetic analysis, rbcL, trnH-psbA

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10 Torsional Rigidities of Reinforced Concrete Beams Subjected to Elastic Lateral Torsional Buckling

Authors: Ilker Kalkan, Saruhan Kartal

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete (RC) beams rarely undergo lateral-torsional buckling (LTB), since these beams possess large lateral bending and torsional rigidities owing to their stocky cross-sections, unlike steel beams. However, the problem of LTB is becoming more and more pronounced in the last decades as the span lengths of concrete beams increase and the cross-sections become more slender with the use of pre-stressed concrete. The buckling moment of a beam mainly depends on its lateral bending rigidity and torsional rigidity. The nonhomogeneous and elastic-inelastic nature of RC complicates estimation of the buckling moments of concrete beams. Furthermore, the lateral bending and torsional rigidities of RC beams and the buckling moments are affected from different forms of concrete cracking, including flexural, torsional and restrained shrinkage cracking. The present study pertains to the effects of concrete cracking on the torsional rigidities of RC beams prone to elastic LTB. A series of tests on rather slender RC beams indicated that torsional cracking does not initiate until buckling in elastic LTB, while flexural cracking associated with lateral bending takes place even at the initial stages of loading. Hence, the present study clearly indicated that the un-cracked torsional rigidity needs to be used for estimating the buckling moments of RC beams liable to elastic LTB.

Keywords: lateral stability, post-cracking torsional rigidity, uncracked torsional rigidity, critical moment

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9 Aquatic Intervention Research for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Authors: Mehmet Yanardag, Ilker Yilmaz

Abstract:

Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) enjoy and success the aquatic-based exercise and play skills in a pool instead of land-based exercise in a gym. Some authors also observed that many children with ASD experience more success in attaining movement skills in aquatic environment. Properties of the water and hydrodynamic principles cause buoyancy of the water and decrease effects of gravity and it leads to allow a child to practice important aquatic skills with limited motor skills. Also, some authors experience that parents liked the effects of the aquatic intervention program on children with ASD such as improving motor performance, movement capacity and learning basic swimming skills. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aquatic exercise training on water orientation and underwater working capacity were measured in the pool. This study included in four male children between 5 and 7 years old with ASD and 6.25±0.5 years old. Aquatic exercise skills were applied by using one of the error less teaching which is called the 'most to least prompt' procedure during 12-week, three times a week and 60 minutes a day. The findings of this study indicated that there were improvements test results both water orientation skill and underwater working capacity of children with ASD after 12-weeks exercise training. It was seen that the aquatic exercise intervention would be affected to improve working capacity and orientation skills with the special education approaches applying children with ASD in multidisciplinary team-works.

Keywords: aquatic, autism, orientation, ASD, children

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8 Investigation of Ascochyta Blight Resistance in Registered Turkish Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Varieties by Using Molecular Techniques

Authors: Ibrahim Ilker Ozyigit, Fatih Tabanli, Sezin Adinir

Abstract:

In this study, Ascochyta blight resistance was investigated in 34 registered chickpea varieties, which are widely planting in different regions of Turkey. For this aim, molecular marker techniques, such as STMS, RAPD and ISSR were used. Ta2, Ta146 and Ts54 primers were used for STMS, while UBC733 and UBC681 primers for RAPD, and UBC836 and UBC858 primers for ISSR. Ta2, Ts54 and Ta146 (STMS), and UBC733 (RAPD) primers demonstrated the distinctive feature for Ascochyta blight resistance. Ta2, Ts54 and Ta146 primers yielded the quite effective results in detection of resistant and sensitive varieties. Besides, UBC 733 primer distinguished all kinds of standard did not give any reliable results for other varieties since it demonstrated all as resistant. In addition, monomorphic bands were obtained from UBC681 (RAPD), and UBC836 and UBC858 (ISSR) primers, not demonstrating reliable results in detection of resistance against Ascochyta blight disease. Obtained results informed us about both disease resistance and genetic diversity in registered Turkish chickpea varieties. This project was funded through the Scientific Research Projects of Marmara University under Grant Number FEN-C-YLP-070617-0365 and The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) under Grant Number 113O070.

Keywords: plant genetics, ISSR, RAPD, STMS

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7 Sympathetic Skin Response and Reaction Times in Chronic Autoimmune Thyroiditis; An Overlooked Electrodiagnostic Study

Authors: Oya Umit Yemisci, Nur Saracgil Cosar, Tubanur Ozturk Sisman, Selin Ozen

Abstract:

Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) may result in a wide spectrum of reversible abnormalities in the neuromuscular function. Usually, proximal muscle-related symptoms and neuropathic findings such as mild axonal peripheral neuropathy have been reported. Sympathetic skin responses are useful in evaluating sudomotor activity of the unmyelinated sympathetic fibers of the autonomic nervous system. Neurocognitive impairment may also be a prominent feature of hypothyroidism, particularly in elderly patients. Electromyographic reaction times as a highly sensitive parameter provides. Objective data concerning cognitive and motor functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate peripheral nerve functions, sympathetic skin response and electroneuromyographic (ENMG) reaction times in euthyroid and subclinically hypothyroid patients with a diagnosis of AIT and compare to those of a control group. Thirty-five euthyroid, 19 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and 35 age and sex-matched healthy subjects were included in the study. Motor and sensory nerve conduction studies, sympathetic skin responses recorded from hand and foot by stimulating contralateral median nerve and simple reaction times by stimulating tibial nerve and recording from extensor indicis proprius muscle were performed to all patients and control group. Only median nerve sensory conduction velocities of the forearm were slower in patients with AIT compared to the control group (p=0.019). Otherwise, nerve conduction studies and sympathetic skin responses showed no significant difference between the patients and the control group. However, reaction times were shorter in the healthy subjects compared to AIT patients. Prolongation in the reaction times may be considered as a parameter reflecting the alterations in the cognitive functions related to the primary disease process in AIT. Combining sympathetic skin responses with more quantitative tests such as cardiovascular tests and sudomotor axon reflex testing may allow us to determine higher rates of involvement of the autonomic nervous system in AIT.

Keywords: sympathetic skin response, simple reaction time, chronic autoimmune thyroiditis

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6 Influence of Strengthening with Perforated Steel Plates on the Behavior of Infill Walls and RC Frame

Authors: Eray Ozbek, Ilker Kalkan, S. Oguzhan Akbas, Sabahattin Aykac

Abstract:

The contribution of the infill walls to the overall earthquake response of a structure is limited and this contribution is generally ignored in the analyses. Strengthening of the infill walls through different techniques has been and is being studied extensively in the literature to increase this limited contribution and the ductilities and energy absorption capacities of the infill walls to create non-structural components where the earthquake-induced energy can be absorbed without damaging the bearing components of the structural frame. The present paper summarizes an extensive research project dedicated to investigate the effects of strengthening the brick infill walls of a reinforced concrete (RC) frame on its lateral earthquake response. Perforated steel plates were used in strengthening due to several reasons, including the ductility and high deformation capacity of these plates, the fire resistant, recyclable and non-cancerogenic nature of mild steel, and the ease of installation and removal of the plates to the wall with the help of anchor bolts only. Furthermore, epoxy, which increases the cost and amount of labor of the strengthening process, is not needed in this technique. The individual behavior of the strengthened walls under monotonic diagonal and lateral reversed cyclic loading was investigated within the scope of the study. Upon achieving brilliant results, RC frames with strengthened infill walls were tested and are being tested to examine the influence of this strengthening technique on the overall behavior of the RC frames. Tests on the wall and frame specimens indicated that the perforated steel plates contribute to the lateral strength, rigidity, ductility and energy absorption capacity of the wall and the infilled frame to a major extent.

Keywords: infill wall, strengthening, external plate, earthquake behavior

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5 Ecofriendly Multi-Layer Polymer Treatment for Hydrophobic and Water Repellent Porous Cotton Fabrics

Authors: Muhammad Zahid, Ilker S. Bayer, Athanassia Athanassiou

Abstract:

Fluorinated polymers having C8 chemistry (chemicals with 8 fluorinated carbon atoms) are well renowned for their excellent low surface tension and water repelling properties. However, these polymers degrade into highly toxic heavy perfluoro acids in the environment. When the C8 chemistry is reduced to C6 chemistry, this environmental concern is eliminated at the expense of reduced liquid repellent performance. In order to circumvent this, in this study, we demonstrate pre-treatment of woven cotton fabrics with a fluorinated acrylic copolymer with C6 chemistry and subsequently with a silicone polymer to render them hydrophobic. A commercial fluorinated acrylic copolymer was blended with silica nanoparticles to form hydrophobic nano-roughness on cotton fibers and a second coating layer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was applied on the fabric. A static water contact angle (for 5µl) and rolling angle (for 12.5µl) of 147°±2° and 31° were observed, respectively. Hydrostatic head measurements were also performed to better understand the performance with 26±1 cm and 2.56kPa column height and static pressure respectively. Fabrication methods (with rod coater etc.) were kept simple, reproducible, and scalable and cost efficient. Moreover, the robustness of applied coatings was also evaluated by sonication cleaning and abrasion methods. Water contact angle (WCA), water shedding angle (WSA), hydrostatic head, droplet bouncing-rolling off and prolonged staining tests were used to characterize hydrophobicity of materials. For chemical and morphological analysis, various characterization methods were used such as attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Keywords: fluorinated polymer, hydrophobic, polydimethylsiloxane, water contact angle

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4 First Cracking Moments of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Polymer-Steel Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Saruhan Kartal, Ilker Kalkan

Abstract:

The present paper reports the cracking moment estimates of a set of steel-reinforced, Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP)-reinforced and hybrid steel-FRP reinforced concrete beams, calculated from different analytical formulations in the codes, together with the experimental cracking load values. A total of three steel-reinforced, four FRP-reinforced, 12 hybrid FRP-steel over-reinforced and five hybrid FRP-steel under-reinforced concrete beam tests were analyzed within the scope of the study. Glass FRP (GFRP) and Basalt FRP (BFRP) bars were used in the beams as FRP bars. In under-reinforced hybrid beams, rupture of the FRP bars preceded crushing of concrete, while concrete crushing preceded FRP rupture in over-reinforced beams. In both types, steel yielding took place long before the FRP rupture and concrete crushing. The cracking moment mainly depends on two quantities, namely the moment of inertia of the section at the initiation of cracking and the flexural tensile strength of concrete, i.e. the modulus of rupture. In the present study, two different definitions of uncracked moment of inertia, i.e. the gross and the uncracked transformed moments of inertia, were adopted. Two analytical equations for the modulus of rupture (ACI 318M and Eurocode 2) were utilized in the calculations as well as the experimental tensile strength of concrete from prismatic specimen tests. The ACI 318M modulus of rupture expression produced cracking moment estimates closer to the experimental cracking moments of FRP-reinforced and hybrid FRP-steel reinforced concrete beams when used in combination with the uncracked transformed moment of inertia, yet the Eurocode 2 modulus of rupture expression gave more accurate cracking moment estimates in steel-reinforced concrete beams. All of the analytical definitions produced analytical values considerably different from the experimental cracking load values of the solely FRP-reinforced concrete beam specimens.

Keywords: polymer reinforcement, four-point bending, hybrid use of reinforcement, cracking moment

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3 Investigation of Light Transmission Characteristics and CO2 Capture Potential of Microalgae Panel Bioreactors for Building Façade Applications

Authors: E. S. Umdu, Ilker Kahraman, Nurdan Yildirim, Levent Bilir

Abstract:

Algae-culture offers new applications in sustainable architecture with its continuous productive cycle, and a potential for high carbon dioxide capture. Microalgae itself has multiple functions such as carbon dioxide fixation, biomass production, oxygen generation and waste water treatment. Incorporating microalgae cultivation processes and systems to building design to utilize this potential is promising. Microalgae cultivation systems, especially closed photo bioreactors can be implemented as components in buildings. And these systems be accommodated in the façade of a building, or in other urban infrastructure in the future. Application microalgae bio-reactors of on building’s façade has the added benefit of acting as an effective insulation system, keeping out the heat of the summer and the chill of the winter. Furthermore, microalgae can give a dynamic appearance with a liquid façade that also works as an adaptive sunshade. Recently, potential of microalgae to use as a building component to reduce net energy demand in buildings becomes a popular topic and innovative design proposals and a handful of pilot applications appeared. Yet there is only a handful of examples in application and even less information on how these systems affect building energy behavior. Further studies on microalgae mostly focused on single application approach targeting either carbon dioxide utilization through biomass production or biofuel production. The main objective of this study is to investigate effects of design parameters of microalgae panel bio-reactors on light transmission characteristics and CO2 capture potential during growth of Nannochloropsis occulata sp. A maximum reduction of 18 ppm in CO2 levels of input air during the experiments with a % light transmission of 14.10, was achieved in 6 day growth cycles. Heat transfer behavior during these cycles was also inspected for possible façade applications.

Keywords: building façade, CO2 capture, light transmittance, microalgae

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2 Control Mechanisms for Sprayer Used in Turkey

Authors: Huseyin Duran, Yesim Benal Oztekin, Kazim Kubilay Vursavus, Ilker Huseyin Celen

Abstract:

There are two main approaches to manufacturing, market and usage of plant protection machinery in Turkey. The first approach is called as ‘Product Safety Approach’ and could be summarized as minimum health and safety requirements of consumer needs on plant protection equipment and machinery products. The second approach is the practices related to the Plant Protection Equipment and Machinery Directive. Product safety approach covers the plant protection machinery product groups within the framework of a new approach directive, Machinery Safety Directive (2006/42 / AT). The new directive is in practice in our country by 03.03.2009, parallel to the revision of the EU Regulation on the Directive (03.03.2009 dated and numbered 27158 published in the Official Gazette). ‘Pesticide Application for Machines’ paragraph is added to the 2006/42 / EC Machinery Safety Directive, which is, in particular, reveals the importance of primary health care and product safety issue, explaining the safety requirements for machines used in the application of plant protection products. The Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology is the authorized organizations in our country for the publication and implementation of this regulation. There is a special regulation, carried out by Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock General Directorate of Food and Control, on the manufacture and sale of plant protection machinery. This regulation, prepared based on 5996 Veterinary Services, Plant Health, Food and Feed Law, is ‘Regulation on Plant Protection Equipment and Machinery’ (published on 02.04.2011 whit number 27893 in the Official Gazette). The purposes of this regulation are practicing healthy and reliable crop production, the preparation, implementation and dissemination of the integrated pest management programs and projects for the development of human health and environmentally friendly pest control methods. This second regulation covers: approval, manufacturing, licensing of Plant Protection Equipment and Machinery; duties and responsibilities of the dealers; principles and procedures related to supply and control of the market. There are no inspection procedures for the application of currently used plant protection machinery in Turkey. In this study, content and application principles of all regulation approaches currently used in Turkey are summarized.

Keywords: plant protection equipment and machinery, product safety, market surveillance, inspection procedures

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1 Methodological Approach for Historical Building Retrofit Based on Energy and Cost Analysis in the Different Climatic Zones

Authors: Selin Guleroglu, Ilker Kahraman, E. Selahattin Umdu

Abstract:

In today’s world, the building sector has a significant impact on primary energy consumption and CO₂ emissions. While new buildings must have high energy performance as indicated by the Energy Performance Directive in Buildings (EPBD), published by the European Union (EU), the energy performance of the existing buildings must also be enhanced with cost-efficient methods. Turkey has a high historical building density similar to south European countries, and the high energy consumption is the main contributor in the energy consumptioın of Turkey, which is rather higher than European counterparts. Historic buildings spread around Turkey for four main climate zones covering very similar climate characteristics to both the north and south European countries. The case study building is determined as the most common building type in Turkey. This study aims to investigate energy retrofit measures covering but not limited to passive and active measures to improve the energy performance of the historical buildings located in different climatic zones within the limits of preservation of the historical value of the building as a crucial constraint. Passive measures include wall, window, and roof construction elements, and active measures HVAC systems in retrofit scenarios. The proposed methodology can help to reach up to 30% energy saving based on primary energy consumption. DesignBuilder, an energy simulation tool, is used to determine the energy performance of buildings with suggested retrofit measures, and the Net Present Value (NPV) method is used for cost analysis of them. Finally, the most efficient energy retrofit measures for all buildings are determined by analyzing primary energy consumption and the cost performance of them. Results show that heat insulation, glazing type, and HVAC system has an important role in energy saving. Also, it found that these parameters have a different positive or negative effect on building energy consumption in different climate zones. For instance, low e glazing has a positive impact on the energy performance of the building in the first zone, while it has a negative effect on the building in the forth zone. Another important result is applying heat insulation has minimum impact on building energy performance compared to other zones.

Keywords: energy performance, climatic zones, historic building, energy retrofit measures, NPV

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