Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7906

Search results for: adaptation in Kabul metropolitan area

7906 A Case Study on Impact of Climate Change and Adaptation in Kabul Metropolitan Area

Authors: Mohammad Rahim Rahimi, Yuji Hoshino, Kota Masuyama, Naoya Nakajima

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to study the behavior or influence of climate adaptation and change in Kabul Metropolitan Area (KMA). The Kabul Metropolitan Area (KMA) in Afghanistan includes Kabul existing city and Kabul New City (KNC). Kabul Metropolitan Area has admitted the challenges due to climate change, which includes, natural climate change, social transformations, city landscape, economic and political issues, etc. KMA will withhold a large population within its boundaries. The main problems competed in KMA were the temperature changes over the years, especially in Hindukush and Central Highland of Afghanistan from 1950 up to 2010, 1°C and 1.71°C raised respectively and reduction of water table in existing Kabul city due to the use of more water from underground water resources. Moreover, the cause of temperature rise, the precipitation in spring season and melting of snow early or melting in compressed time as well as the water source is directly related to the capacity of the mountains snow and precipitation. In addition, the temperature increased, and precipitation declined in spring period. It is directly related to separation of dissertation, migration to the cities and other challenges that we will discuss in this paper.

Keywords: climate change, climate adaption, adaptation in Kabul metropolitan area, precipitation

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7905 Conventional Four Steps Travel Demand Modeling for Kabul New City

Authors: Ahmad Mansoor Stanikzai, Yoshitaka Kajita

Abstract:

This research is a very essential towards transportation planning of Kabul New City. In this research, the travel demand of Kabul metropolitan area (Existing and Kabul New City) are evaluated for three different target years (2015, current, 2025, mid-term, 2040, long-term). The outcome of this study indicates that, though currently the vehicle volume is less the capacity of existing road networks, Kabul city is suffering from daily traffic congestions. This is mainly due to lack of transportation management, the absence of proper policies, improper public transportation system and violation of traffic rules and regulations by inhabitants. On the other hand, the observed result indicates that the current vehicle to capacity ratio (VCR) which is the most used index to judge traffic status in the city is around 0.79. This indicates the inappropriate traffic condition of the city. Moreover, by the growth of population in mid-term (2025) and long-term (2040) and in the case of no development in the road network and transportation system, the VCR value will dramatically increase to 1.40 (2025) and 2.5 (2040). This can be a critical situation for an urban area from an urban transportation perspective. Thus, by introducing high-capacity public transportation system and the development of road network in Kabul New City and integrating these links with the existing city road network, significant improvements were observed in the value of VCR.

Keywords: Afghanistan, Kabul new city, planning, policy, urban transportation

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7904 Evaluation of Urban Land Development Direction in Kabul City, Afghanistan

Authors: Ahmad Sharif Ahmadi, Yoshitaka Kajita

Abstract:

Kabul, the capital and largest city in Afghanistan has been experiencing a massive population expansion and fast economic development in last decade, in which urban land has increasingly expanded and formed a high informal development territory in the city. This paper investigates the urban land development direction based on the integrated urbanization trends in Kabul city since the last and the fastest ever urban land growth period (1999-2008), which is parallel with the establishment of the new government in Afghanistan. Considering the existing challenges in terms of informal settlements, squatter settlements, the population expansion of the city, and fast economic development, as well as the huge influx of returning refugees from neighboring countries, and the sprawl direction of urbanization of the Kabul city urban fringes, this research focuses on the possible urban land development direction and trends for the city. The paper studies the feasible future land development direction of Kabul city in the northern part called Shamali basin, in which district 17 is the gateway for future development. The area has much developable area including eight districts of Kabul province, and the vast area of Parwan and Kapisa provinces. The northern area of the Kabul city generally has favorable conditions for further urbanization from the city. It is a large and relatively flat area of area in the northern part of Kabul city, with ample water resources available from the Panjshir basin as a base principle of land development direction in the area.

Keywords: Kabul city, land development trends, urban land development, urbanization

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7903 Forage Production Area Development in Bangkok Metropolitan Region

Authors: Thipayasothorn Pastraporn, Phonpakdee Rachadakorn, Ponpo Sopar

Abstract:

Forage production area development in Bangkok Metropolitan Region with an Agriculture in the city concept. Food chain of city man reduced distance of the food, so the food chain was a good attempt to connect the city’s product with the changes in each area of city. This paper purposed (I) to study the problems of using forage production area development in Bangkok Metropolitan Region, (II) to propose guidelines of forage production area development in Bangkok Metropolitan Region. We collected the data by questionnaire which we got from the agriculture, marketing and city plan sector in Bangkok Metropolitan Region. We analyzed the questionnaire in the way of relationship and guidelines of forage production area development in Bangkok Metropolitan Region. Results from the analyses are that the role of forage area productive plan in Bangkok Metropolitan Region is important to the cities for adapting in changing way of the food transmission. It also enhanced benefits using from cities fringe. Moreover, it managed watercourse and reduced energy consumption in order to sustainable distribute the food into the cities. .

Keywords: city plan, forage production area, urban development, Bangkok Metropolitan Region

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7902 Building Information Management Advantages, Adaptation, and Challenges of Implementation in Kabul Metropolitan Area

Authors: Mohammad Rahim Rahimi, Yuji Hoshino

Abstract:

Building Information Management (BIM) at recent years has widespread consideration on the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC). BIM has been bringing innovation in AEC industry and has the ability to improve the construction industry with high quality, reduction time and budget of project. Meanwhile, BIM support model and process in AEC industry, the process include the project time cycle, estimating, delivery and generally the way of management of project but not limited to those. This research carried the BIM advantages, adaptation and challenges of implementation in Kabul region. Capital Region Independence Development Authority (CRIDA) have responsibilities to implement the development projects in Kabul region. The method of study were considers on advantages and reasons of BIM performance in Afghanistan based on online survey and data. Besides that, five projects were studied, the reason of consideration were many times design revises and changes. Although, most of the projects had problems regard to designing and implementation stage, hence in canal project was discussed in detail with the main reason of problems. Which were many time changes and revises due to the lack of information, planning, and management. In addition, two projects based on BIM utilization in Japan were also discussed. The Shinsuizenji Station and Oita River dam projects. Those are implemented and implementing consequently according to the BIM requirements. The investigation focused on BIM usage, project implementation process. Eventually, the projects were the comparison with CRIDA and BIM utilization in Japan. The comparison will focus on the using of the model and the way of solving the problems based upon on the BIM. In conclusion, that BIM had the capacity to prevent many times design changes and revises. On behalf of achieving those objectives are required to focus on data management and sharing, BIM training and using new technology.

Keywords: construction information management, implementation and adaptation of BIM, project management, developing countries

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7901 Proposing of an Adaptable Land Readjustment Model for Developing of the Informal Settlements in Kabul City

Authors: Habibi Said Mustafa, Hiroko Ono

Abstract:

Since 2006, Afghanistan is dealing with one of the most dramatic trend of urban movement in its history, cities and towns are expanding in size and number. Kabul is the capital of Afghanistan and as well as the fast-growing city in the Asia. The influx of the returnees from neighbor countries and other provinces of Afghanistan caused high rate of artificial growth which slums increased. As an unwanted consequence of this growth, today informal settlements have covered a vast portion of the city. Land Readjustment (LR) has proved to be an important tool for developing informal settlements and reorganizing urban areas but its implementation always varies from country to country and region to region within the countries. Consequently, to successfully develop the informal settlements in Kabul, we need to define an Afghan model of LR specifically for Afghanistan which needs to incorporate all those factors related to the socio-economic condition of the country. For this purpose, a part of the old city of Kabul has selected as a study area which is located near the Central Business District (CBD). After the further analysis and incorporating all needed factors, the result shows a positive potential for the implementation of an adaptable Land Readjustment model for Kabul city which is more sustainable and socio-economically friendly. It will enhance quality of life and provide better urban services for the residents. Moreover, it will set a vision and criteria by which sustainable developments shall proceed in other similar informal settlements of Kabul.

Keywords: adaptation, informal settlements, Kabul, land readjustment, preservation

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7900 Evaluating Urban Land Expansion Using Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing in Kabul City, Afghanistan

Authors: Ahmad Sharif Ahmadi, Yoshitaka Kajita

Abstract:

With massive population expansion and fast economic development in last decade, urban land has increasingly expanded and formed high informal development territory in Kabul city. This paper investigates integrated urbanization trends in Kabul city since the formation of the basic structure of the present city using GIS and remote sensing. This study explores the spatial and temporal difference of urban land expansion and land use categories among different time intervals, 1964-1978 and 1978-2008 from 1964 to 2008 in Kabul city. Furthermore, the goal of this paper is to understand the extent of urban land expansion and the factors driving urban land expansion in Kabul city. Many factors like population expansion, the return of refugees from neighboring countries and significant economic growth of the city affected urban land expansion. Across all the study area urban land expansion rate, population expansion rate and economic growth rate have been compared to analyze the relationship of driving forces with urban land expansion. Based on urban land change data detected by interpreting land use maps, it was found that in the entire study area the urban territory has been expanded by 14 times between 1964 and 2008.

Keywords: GIS, Kabul city, land use, urban land expansion, urbanization

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7899 Public Transport Planning System by Dijkstra Algorithm: Case Study Bangkok Metropolitan Area

Authors: Pimploi Tirastittam, Phutthiwat Waiyawuththanapoom

Abstract:

Nowadays the promotion of the public transportation system in the Bangkok Metropolitan Area is increased such as the “Free Bus for Thai Citizen” Campaign and the prospect of the several MRT routes to increase the convenient and comfortable to the Bangkok Metropolitan area citizens. But citizens do not make full use of them it because the citizens are lack of the data and information and also the confident to the public transportation system of Thailand especially in the time and safety aspects. This research is the Public Transport Planning System by Dijkstra Algorithm: Case Study Bangkok Metropolitan Area by focusing on buses, BTS and MRT schedules/routes to give the most information to passengers. They can choose the way and the routes easily by using Dijkstra STAR Algorithm of Graph Theory which also shows the fare of the trip. This Application was evaluated by 30 normal users to find the mean and standard deviation of the developed system. Results of the evaluation showed that system is at a good level of satisfaction (4.20 and 0.40). From these results we can conclude that the system can be used properly and effectively according to the objective.

Keywords: Dijkstra algorithm, graph theory, public transport, Bangkok metropolitan area

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7898 Public Transport Analysis and Introducing of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) System in Kabul City

Authors: Ramin Mirzada

Abstract:

This research investigates the valuation of public transport importance in decreasing congestion and in introduction of bus rapid transit in Kabul city. The main concern and main problem of the Kabul city public transport is traffic congestion. When buses and trams are stuck in traffic jams, it is clear that they fall behind from the schedule and this cause lots of problem for Kabul residence. In this research, the main attention has been given to improve current public transport in Kabul city which Public transport has large share almost 50% share among all mode. The main purpose of this research is to improve public transport system, to examine the demand and the supply of public transport in Kabul city, and to improve public transport system by introducing Bus rapid transit (BRT) system in Kabul city. The data which is used in this research is gathered by Transport Ministry, Kabul Municipality and Japan Cooperation Agency in Afghanistan (JICA). Urban transportation modeling system (UTMS) which is also known as traditional four-step modeling is used as the methodology of this research. The outcome of this research shows that by improving public transport which is local bus system mostly congestion problem of Kabul city become solve, and for those lanes which has the high demand and has more congestion, it is needed to introduce bus rapid transit system.

Keywords: transportation, planning, public transport, bus rapid transit, Kabul, Afghanistan

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7897 Effectiveness of Multi-Business Core Development Policy in Tokyo Metropolitan Area

Authors: Takashi Nakamura

Abstract:

In the Tokyo metropolitan area, traffic congestion and long commute times are caused by overconcentration in the central area. To resolve these problems, a core business city development policy was adopted in 1988. The core business cities, which include Yokohama, Chiba, Saitama, Tachikawa, and others, have designated business facilities accumulation districts where assistance measures are applied. Focusing on Yokohama city, this study investigates the trends in the number of offices, employees, and commuters at 2001 and 2012 Economic Census, as well as the average commute time in the Tokyo metropolitan area from 2005 to 2015 Metropolitan Transportation Census. Surveys were administered in 2001 and 2012 Economic Census to participants who worked in Yokohama, according to their distribution in the city's 1,757 subregions. Four main findings emerged: (1) The number of offices increased in Yokohama when the number of offices decreased in the Tokyo metropolitan area overall. Additionally, the number of employees at Yokohama increased. (2) The number of commuters to Tokyo's central area increased from Saitama prefecture, Tokyo Tama area, and Tokyo central area. However, it decreased from other areas. (3) The average commute time in the Tokyo metropolitan area was 67.7 minutes in 2015, a slight decrease from 2005 and 2010. (4) The number of employees at business facilities accumulation districts in Yokohama city increased greatly.

Keywords: core business city development policy, commute time, number of employees, Yokohama city, distribution of employees

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7896 Public Transportation Demand and Policy in Kabul, Afghanistan

Authors: Ahmad Samim Ranjbar, Shoshi Mizokami

Abstract:

Kabul is the heart of political, commercial, cultural, educational and social life in Afghanistan and the Kabul fifth fastest growing city in the world, since 2001 with the establishment of new government Lack of adequate employment opportunities and basic utility services in remote provinces have prompted people to move to Kabul and other urban areas. From 2001 to the present, a rapid increase in population, and also less income of the people most of residence tend to use public transport, especially buses, however there is no proper bus system exist in Kabul city, because of wars, from 1992 to 2001 Kabul suffered damage and destruction of its transportation facilities including pavements, sidewalks, traffic circles, drainage systems, traffic signs and signals, trolleybuses and almost all of the public transit buses (e.g. Millie bus). This research is a primary and very important phase into Kabul city transportation and especially an initial and important step toward using large bus in Kabul city, which the main purpose of this research is to find the demand of Kabul city residence for public transport (Large Bus) and compare it with the actual supply from government. Finding of this research shows that the demand of Kabul city residence for the public transport (Large Bus) exceed the supply from the government, means that current public transportation (Large Bus) is not sufficient to serve people of Kabul city, it is mentionable that according to this research there is no need to build a new road or exclusive way for bus, this research propose to government for investment on the public transportation and exceed the number of large buses to can handle the current demand for public transport.

Keywords: transportation, planning, public transport, large bus, Kabul, Afghanistan

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7895 Impact Assessment of Climate Change on Water Resources in the Kabul River Basin

Authors: Tayib Bromand, Keisuke Sato

Abstract:

This paper presents the introduction to current water balance and climate change assessment in the Kabul river basin. The historical and future impacts of climate change on different components of water resources and hydrology in the Kabul river basin. The eastern part of Afghanistan, the Kabul river basin was chosen due to rapid population growth and land degradation to quantify the potential influence of Gobal Climate Change on its hydrodynamic characteristics. Luck of observed meteorological data was the main limitation of present research, few existed precipitation stations in the plain area of Kabul basin selected to compare with TRMM precipitation records, the result has been evaluated satisfactory based on regression and normal ratio methods. So the TRMM daily precipitation and NCEP temperature data set applied in the SWAT model to evaluate water balance for 2008 to 2012. Middle of the twenty – first century (2064) selected as the target period to assess impacts of climate change on hydrology aspects in the Kabul river basin. For this purpose three emission scenarios, A2, A1B and B1 and four GCMs, such as MIROC 3.2 (Med), CGCM 3.1 (T47), GFDL-CM2.0 and CNRM-CM3 have been selected, to estimate the future initial conditions of the proposed model. The outputs of the model compared and calibrated based on (R2) satisfactory. The assessed hydrodynamic characteristics and precipitation pattern. The results show that there will be significant impacts on precipitation patter such as decreasing of snowfall in the mountainous area of the basin in the Winter season due to increasing of 2.9°C mean annual temperature and land degradation due to deforestation.

Keywords: climate change, emission scenarios, hydrological components, Kabul river basin, SWAT model

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7894 Transformation of the Traditional Landscape of Kabul Old City: A Study for Its Conservation

Authors: Mohammad Umar Azizi, Tetsuya Ando

Abstract:

This study investigates the transformation of the traditional landscape of Kabul Old City through an examination of five case study areas. Based on physical observation, three types of houses are found: traditional, mixed and modern. Firstly, characteristics of the houses are described according to construction materials and the number of stories. Secondly, internal and external factors are considered in order to implement a conservation plan. Finally, an adaptive conservation plan is suggested to protect the traditional landscape of Kabul Old City.

Keywords: conservation, district 1, Kabul Old City, landscape, transformation, traditional houses

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7893 An Overview of Informal Settlement Upgrading Strategies in Kabul City and the Need for an Integrated Multi-Sector Upgrading Model

Authors: Bashir Ahmad Amiri, Nsenda Lukumwena

Abstract:

The developing economies are experiencing an unprecedented rate of urbanization, mainly the urbanization of poverty which is leading to sprawling of slums and informal settlement. Kabul, being the capital and primate city of Afghanistan is grossly encountered to the informal settlement where the majority of the people consider to be informal. Despite all efforts to upgrade and minimize the growth of these settlements, they are growing rapidly. Various interventions have been taken by the government and some international organizations from physical upgrading to urban renewal, but none of them have succeeded to solve the issue of informal settlement. The magnitude of the urbanization and the complexity of informal settlement in Kabul city, and the institutional and capital constraint of the government calls for integration and optimization of currently practiced strategies. This paper provides an overview of informal settlement formation and the conventional upgrading strategies in Kabul city to identify the dominant/successful practices and rationalize the conventional upgrading modes. For this purpose, Hothkhel has been selected as the case study, since it represents the same situation of major informal settlements of the city. Considering the existing potential and features of the Hothkhel and proposed land use by master plan this paper intends to find a suitable upgrading mode for the study area and finally to scale up the model for the city level upgrading. The result highlights that the informal settlements of Kabul city have high (re)development capacity for accepting the additional room without converting the available agricultural area to built-up. The result also indicates that the integrated multi-sector upgrading has the scale-up potential to increase the reach of beneficiaries and to ensure an inclusive and efficient urbanization.

Keywords: informal settlement, upgrading strategies, Kabul city, urban expansion, integrated multi-sector, scale-up

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7892 The Effects of T-Walls on Urban Landscape and Quality of Life and Anti-Terror Design Concept in Kabul, Afghanistan

Authors: Fakhrullah Sarwari, Hiroko Ono

Abstract:

Kabul city has suffered a lot in 40 years of conflict of civil war and “The war on terror”. After the invasion of Afghanistan by the United States of America and its allies in 2001, the Taliban was removed from operational power, but The Taliban and other terrorist groups remained in remote areas of the country, they started suicide attacks and bombings. Hence to protect from these attacks officials surrounded their office buildings and houses with concrete blast walls. It gives a bad landscape to the city and creates traffic congestions. Our research contains; questionnaire, reviewing Kabul Municipality documents and literature review. Questionnaires were distributed to Kabul citizens to find out how people feel by seeing the T-Walls on Kabul streets? And what problems they face with T-Walls. “The T-Walls pull down commission” of Kabul Municipality documents were reviewed to find out what caused the failure of this commission. A literature review has been done to compare Kabul with Washington D.C on how they designed the city against terrorism threat without turning the cities into lock down. Bogota city of Columbia urban happiness movement is reviewed and compared with Kabul. The finding of research revealed that citizens of Kabul want security but not at the expense of public realm and creating the architecture of fear. It also indicates that increasing the T-walls do not give secure feeling but instead; it increases terror, hatred and affect people’s optimism. At the end, a series of recommendation is suggested on the issue.

Keywords: anti-terror design, Kabul, T-Walls, urban happiness

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7891 The Research of Industrial Space Characteristics, Layout, and Strategy in Metropolitan Area in China: In Case of Wuhan

Authors: Min Zhou, Kaixuan Lin, Yaping Huang

Abstract:

In this paper, the industrial space of metropolitan area in Wuhan is taken as a sample. First of all, it puts forward that the structure of service economy, circle gradient relocation and high degree of regional collaboration are the rules of industrial spatial development in the modern world cities. Secondly, using the economic statistics and land use vector data (1993, 2004, 2010, and 2013) of Wuhan, it analyzes the present situation of industry development and the characteristics of industrial space layout from three aspects of the industrial economic structure, industrial layout, and industrial regional synergy. Then, based on the industrial development regularity of world cities, it puts forward to construct the industrial spatial level of ‘complex industrial concentration area + modular industry unit’ and the industrial spatial structure of ‘13525’. Finally, it comes up with the optimization tactics of the industrial space’s transformation in the future under the background of new economic era.

Keywords: big city of metropolitan area, industrial space, characteristics, layout, strategy

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7890 Identifying Factors for Evaluating Livability Potential within a Metropolis: A Case of Kolkata

Authors: Arpan Paul, Joy Sen

Abstract:

Livability is a holistic concept whose factors include many complex characteristics and levels of interrelationships among them. It has been considered as people’s need for public amenities and is recognized as a major element to create social welfare. The concept and principles of livability are essential for recognizing the significance of community well-being. The attributes and dimensions of livability are also important aspects to measure the overall quality of environment. Livability potential is mainly considered as the capacity to develop into the overall well-being of an urban area in future. The intent of the present study is to identify the prime factors to evaluate livability potential within a metropolis. For ground level case study, the paper has selected Kolkata Metropolitan Area (KMA) as it has wide physical, social, and economic variations within it. The initial part of the study deals with detailed literature review on livability and its significance of evaluating its potential within a metropolis. The next segment is dedicated for identifying the primary factors which would evaluate livability potential within a metropolis. In pursuit of identifying primary factors, which have a direct impact on urban livability, this study delineates the metropolitan area into various clusters, having their distinct livability potential. As a final outcome of the study, variations of livability potential of those selected clusters are highlighted to explain the complexity of the metropolitan development.

Keywords: Kolkata Metropolitan Area (KMA), livability potential, metropolis, wellbeing

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7889 The Development of Leisure and Endowment Characteristic Villages in the Perspective of Balancing the Dwellers and Aged Visitors:A Case Study of Villages in Hangzhou Metropolitan Area

Authors: Zijiao Chai, Wangming Li

Abstract:

Under the background of increasing aging population, the situation of city endowment resources shortage gradually revealed. And many villages in the metropolitan area with the good natural ecological environment and leisure tourism base, have become one of the main destinations of urban old people for the off-site pension. This paper is based on a survey of more than ten villages which are characterized by leisure and endowment in Hangzhou metropolitan area, China. The satisfaction degree of the two main groups in the villages, dwellers, and aged visitors, is researched using the method of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. The statistics are obtained from 535 questionnaires and qualitative interview. According to the satisfaction scores, it could be determined whether the dwellers and aged visitors have reached the equilibrium state. The equilibrium state is the development target of the villages, and it`s defined by environmentally friendly, proper for employment and pension, facilities sharing and harmonious life for each other. Furthermore, this paper comes up with some planning countermeasures in order to avoid "imbalance between dwellers and aged visitors" and obtain sustainable development while maintaining the economic benefit.

Keywords: aged visitors, balance between dwellers and aged visitors, dwellers, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, Hangzhou metropolitan area, leisure and endowment characteristic villages

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7888 A Preliminary Analysis of Sustainable Development in the Belgrade Metropolitan Area

Authors: Slavka Zeković, Miodrag Vujošević, Tamara Maričić

Abstract:

The paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the sustainable development in the Belgrade Metropolitan Region - BMA (level NUTS 2) preliminary evaluating the three chosen components: 1) economic growth and developmental changes; 2) competitiveness; and 3) territorial concentration and industrial specialization. First, we identified the main results of development changes and economic growth by applying Shift-share analysis on the metropolitan level. Second, the empirical evaluation of competitiveness in the BMA is based on the analysis of absolute and relative values of eight indicators by Spider method. Paper shows that the consideration of the national share, industrial mix and metropolitan/regional share in total Shift share of the BMA, as well as economic/functional specialization of the BMA indicate very strong process of deindustrialization. Allocative component of the BMA economic growth has positive value, reflecting the above-average sector productivity compared to the national average. Third, the important positive role of metropolitan/regional component in decomposition of the BMA economic growth is highlighted as one of the key results. Finally, comparative analysis of the industrial territorial concentration in the BMA in relation to Serbia is based on location quotient (LQ) or Balassa index as a valid measure. The results indicate absolute and relative differences in decrease of industry territorial concentration as well as inefficiency of utilizing territorial capital in the BMA. Results are important for the increase of regional competitiveness and territorial distribution in this area as well as for improvement of sustainable metropolitan and sector policies, planning and governance on this level.

Keywords: Belgrade Metropolitan Area (BMA), comprehensive analysis / evaluation, economic growth, competitiveness, sustainable development

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7887 A Study on Unplanned Settlement in Kabul City

Authors: Samir Ranjbar, Nasrullah Istanekzai

Abstract:

According to a report published in The Guardian, Kabul, the capital city of Afghanistan is the fifth fastest growing city in the world, whose population has increased fourfold since 2001 from 1.2 million to 4.8 million people. The main reason for this increment is identified as the return of Afghans migrated during the civil war. In addition to the return of immigrants, a steep economic growth due to foreign assistance in last decade creating lots of job opportunities in Kabul resulted in the attraction of individuals from the neighboring provinces as well. However, the development of urban facilities such as water supply system, housing transportation and waste management systems has yet to catch up with this rapid increase in population. Since Kabul city has developed traditionally and municipal governance had very limited capacity to implement municipal bylaws. As an unwanted consequence of this growth 70% of Kabul citizens contributed to developing informal settlement for which we can say that around three million people living in informally settled areas, lacking the very vital social and physical infrastructures of livelihood. This research focuses on a region with 30 ha area and 2100 people residents in the center of Kabul city. A comprehensive land readjustment concept plan has been formulated for this area. Through this concept plan, physical and social infrastructure has been demonstrated and analyzed. Findings of this paper propose a solution for the problems of this unplanned area in Kabul which is readjusting of unplanned area by a self-supporting process. This process does not need governmental budget and can be applied by government, private sectors and landowner associations. Furthermore, by implementing the Land Readjustment process, conceptual plans can be built for unplanned areas, maximum facilities can be brought to the residents’ urban life, improve the environment for the users’ benefit, promote the culture and sense of cooperation, participation and coexistence in the mind of people, improving the transport system, improvement in economic status (the value of land increases due to infrastructure availability and land legalization). In addition to all these benefits for the public, we can raise the revenue of government by collecting the taxes from landowners. This process is implemented in most of countries of the world, it was implemented for the first time in Germany and after that in most cities of Japan as well, and is known as one of the effective processes for infrastructural development. To sum up, the notable characteristic of the Land readjustment process is that it works on the concept of mutual interest in which both landowners and the government take advantage. However, in this process, the engagement of community is very important and without public cooperation, this process can face the failure.

Keywords: land readjustment, informal settlement, Kabul, Afghanistan

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7886 Sustainable Land Use Policy and Monitoring Urban Land Expansion in Kabul: A Case Study of Rapid Urbanization

Authors: Osama Hidayat, Yoshitaka Kajiat

Abstract:

Kabul is a city that is highly representative of Afghanistan’s rapid urbanization process. As the city rapidly expands, there are enormous challenges to the sustainable use of land resources. This paper evaluates land use change and urban spatial expansion, from 1950 to 2016, in Kabul the capital of Afghanistan, using satellite images, field observation, and socio-economic data. The discussion covers the reduction in rural-to-urban land conversion, the delineation of urban growth boundaries, arable land reclamation and the establishment of farmland protection areas, urban upgrading, and the investigation and prosecution of illegal construction. This paper considers the aspects of urbanization and land management systems in Afghanistan. Efficient frames are outlined in Kabul for the following elements: governmental self-restraint and policy modification. The paper concludes that Kabul’s sustainable land use practices can provide a reference for other cities in Afghanistan.

Keywords: urban land expansion, urbanization, land use policy, sustainable development

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7885 Traffic Congestion Problem and Possible Solution in Kabul City

Authors: Sayed Abdul Rahman Sadaat, Nsenda Lukumwena

Abstract:

Traffic congestion is a worldwide issue, especially in developing countries. This is also the case of Afghanistan, especially in Kabul-the capital city, whose rapid population growth makes it the fifth fastest growing city in the world. Traffic congestion affects not only the mobility of people and goods but also the air quality that leads to numerous deaths (3000 people) every year. There are many factors that contribute to traffic congestion. The insufficiency and inefficiency of public transportation system along with the increase of private vehicles can be considered among the most important contributing factors. This paper addresses the traffic congestion and attempts to suggest possible solutions that can help improve the current public transportation system in Kabul. To this end, the methodology used in this paper includes field work conducted in Kabul city and literature review. The outcome suggests that improving the public transportation system is likely to contribute to the reduction of traffic congestion and the improvement of air quality, thereby reducing the number of death related to air quality.

Keywords: air quality, Kabul, Afghanistan, public transportation system, improvements, traffic congestion

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7884 Bus Transit Demand Modeling and Fare Structure Analysis of Kabul City

Authors: Ramin Mirzada, Takuya Maruyama

Abstract:

Kabul is the heart of political, commercial, cultural, educational and social life in Afghanistan and the fifth fastest growing city in the world. Minimum income inclined most of Kabul residents to use public transport, especially buses, although there is no proper bus system, beside that there is no proper fare exist in Kabul city Due to wars. From 1992 to 2001 during civil wars, Kabul suffered damage and destruction of its transportation facilities including pavements, sidewalks, traffic circles, drainage systems, traffic signs and signals, trolleybuses and almost all of the public transport system (e.g. Millie bus). This research is mainly focused on Kabul city’s transportation system. In this research, the data used have been gathered by Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) in 2008 and this data will be used to find demand and fare structure, additionally a survey was done in 2016 to find satisfaction level of Kabul residents for fare structure. Aim of this research is to observe the demand for Large Buses, compare to the actual supply from the government, analyze the current fare structure and compare it with the proposed fare (distance based fare) structure which has already been analyzed. Outcome of this research shows that the demand of Kabul city residents for the public transport (Large Buses) exceeds from the current supply, so that current public transportation (Large Buses) is not sufficient to serve public transport in Kabul city, worth to be mentioned, that in order to overcome this problem, there is no need to build new roads or exclusive way for buses. This research proposes government to change the fare from fixed fare to distance based fare, invest on public transportation and increase the number of large buses so that the current demand for public transport is met.

Keywords: transportation, planning, public transport, large buses, Kabul, Afghanistan

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7883 Spatial Accessibility Analysis of Kabul City Public Transport

Authors: Mohammad Idrees Yusofzai, Hirobata Yasuhiro, Matsuo Kojiro

Abstract:

Kabul is the capital of Afghanistan. It is the focal point of educational, industrial, etc. of Afghanistan. Additionally, the population of Kabul has grown recently and will increase because of return of refugees and shifting of people from other province to Kabul city. However, this increase in population, the issues of urban congestion and other related problems of urban transportation in Kabul city arises. One of the problems is public transport (large buses) service and needs to be modified and enhanced especially large bus routes that are operating in each zone of the 22 zone of Kabul City. To achieve the above mentioned goal of improving public transport, Spatial Accessibility Analysis is one of the important attributes to assess the effectiveness of transportation system and urban transport policy of a city, because accessibility indicator as an alternative tool to support public policy that aims the reinforcement of sustainable urban space. The case study of this research compares the present model (present bus route) and the modified model of public transport. Furthermore, present model, the bus routes in most of the zones are active, however, with having low frequency and unpublished schedule, and accessibility result is analyzed in four cases, based on the variables of accessibility. Whereas in modified model all zones in Kabul is taken into consideration with having specified origin and high frequency. Indeed the number of frequencies is kept high; however, this number is based on the number of buses Millie Bus Enterprise Authority (MBEA) owns. The same approach of cases is applied in modified model to figure out the best accessibility for the modified model. Indeed, the modified model is having a positive impact in congestion level in Kabul city. Besides, analyses of person trip and trip distribution have been also analyzed because how people move in the study area by each mode of transportation. So, the general aims of this research are to assess the present movement of people, identify zones in need of public transport and assess equity level of accessibility in Kabul city. The framework of methodology used in this research is based on gravity analysis model of accessibility; besides, generalized cost (time) of travel and travel mode is calculated. The main data come from person trip survey, socio-economic characteristics, demographic data by Japan International Cooperation Agency, 2008, study of Kabul city and also from the previous researches on travel pattern and the remaining data regarding present bus line and routes have been from MBEA. In conclusion, this research explores zones where public transport accessibility level is high and where it is low. It was found that both models the downtown area or central zones of Kabul city is having high level accessibility. Besides, the present model is the most unfavorable compared with the modified model based on the accessibility analysis.

Keywords: accessibility, bus generalized cost, gravity model, public transportation network

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7882 Flood Prevention Strategy for Reserving Quality Ground Water Considering Future Population Growth in Kabul

Authors: Said Moqeem Sadat, Saito Takahiro, Inuzuka Norikazu, Sugiyama Ikuo

Abstract:

Kabul city is the capital of Afghanistan with a population of about 4.0 million in 2009 and 6.5 million in 2025. It is geographically located in a narrow plain valley along the Kabul River and is surrounded by high mountains. Due to its sharp geological condition, the city has been suffering from floods caused by storm water and snow melting water in the rainy season. Meanwhile, potable water resources are becoming a critical issue as the underground water table is decreasing falling rapidly due to domestic usage, industrial and agricultural activities usage especially in the dry season. This paper focuses on flood water management in Kabul including suburban agricultural area considering not only for flood protection but also: 1. To reserve the quality underground water for the future population growth. 2. To irrigate farming area in dry season using storm water ponds in rainy season. 3. To discharge city contaminated flood water to the downstream safely using existing channels/new pipes. Cost and benefit is considered in this study to find out a suitable flood protection method both in rural area and city center from a view point of 1 to 3 mentioned above. In this analysis, cost mainly consists of lost opportunity to develop lands due to flood ponds in addition to construction and maintenance one including connecting channels for water collecting/discharging. Benefit mainly consists of damage reduction of flood loss due to counter measures (this is corresponding cost) in addition to the contribution to agricultural crops. As far as reservation of the ground water for the future city growth is concerned, future demand and supply are compared in case that the pumping amount is limited by this irrigation system.

Keywords: cost-benefit, hydrological modeling, water management, water quality

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7881 Urban Land Expansion Impact Assessment on Agriculture Land in Kabul City, Afghanistan

Authors: Ahmad Sharif Ahmadi, Yoshitaka Kajita

Abstract:

Kabul city is experiencing urban land expansion in an unprecedented scale, especially since the last decade. With massive population expansion and fast economic development, urban land has increasingly expanded and encroached upon agriculture land during the urbanization history of the city. This paper evaluates the integrated urban land expansion impact on agriculture land in Kabul city since the formation of the basic structure of the city between 1962-1964. The paper studies the temporal and spatial characteristic of agriculture land and agriculture land loss in Kabul city using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing till 2008. Many temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imageries were interpreted to detect the temporal and spatial characteristics of agriculture land loss. Different interval study periods, however, had vast difference in the agriculture land loss which is due to the urban land expansion trends in the city. the high number of Agriculture land adjacent to the city center and urban fringe have been converted into urban land during the study period in the city, as the agriculture land is highly correlated with the urban land.

Keywords: agriculture land, agriculture land loss, Kabul city, urban land expansion, urbanization

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7880 Studying in Private Muslim Schools in Australia: Implications for Identity, Religiosity, and Adjustment

Authors: Hisham Motkal Abu-Rayya, Maram Hussein Abu-Rayya

Abstract:

Education in religious private schools raises questions regarding identity, belonging and adaptation in multicultural Australia. This research project aimed at examined cultural identification styles among Australian adolescent Muslims studying in Muslim schools, adolescents’ religiosity and the interconnections between cultural identification styles, religiosity, and adaptation. Two Muslim high school samples were recruited for the purposes of this study, one from Muslim schools in metropolitan Sydney and one from Muslim schools in metropolitan Melbourne. Participants filled in a survey measuring themes of the current study. Findings revealed that the majority of Australian adolescent Muslims showed a preference for the integration identification style (55.2%); separation was less prevailing (26.9%), followed by assimilation (9.7%) and marginalisation (8.3%). Supporting evidence suggests that the styles of identification were valid representation of the participants’ identification. A series of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that while adolescents’ preference for integration of their cultural and Australian identities was advantageous for a range of their psychological and socio-cultural adaptation measures, marginalisation was consistently the worst. Further hierarchical regression analyses showed that adolescent Muslims’ religiosity was better for a range of their adaptation measures compared to their preference for an integration acculturation style. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

Keywords: adaptation, identity, multiculturalism, religious school education

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7879 Role of Urban-Rural Partnership in the Generation of Socio-Economic Success in Polish Metropolitan Areas

Authors: Jerzy Bański

Abstract:

The purpose of the paper is to describe the role of urban-rural partnership in social and economic development. The concept of urban-rural collaboration is relatively new and assumes the need to link large metropolitan areas with surrounding rural areas in a number of ways. It is strongly related to the existing concept of polycentric spatial development. At the European Union level, the first document to address the need for urban-rural partnerships was the European Spatial Development Perspective from 1999. The paper focuses on factors that generate social and economic success on examples of several metropolitan territories in Poland (Warsaw, Poznan, Wroclaw, Krakow). A survey focused on rural communes made it possible to assess key success factors (location, social and economic, technological and organizational) that could be later used to determine the right course of action in the area of urban-rural cooperation, with the desired outcome being effective metropolitan area development. The main challenges to urban-rural partnership are issues associated with spatial planning, infrastructure and public services. These are areas of the greatest conflict of interest, too. Any analysis of urban-rural cooperation in metropolitan areas really needs to focus on the unique nature of this type of relationship. This includes issues such as commuting to work in the urban core and vice versa, complementarity of technical infrastructure, and joint strategic planning. Other forms of cooperation should focus on the tourist and recreational aspects of areas surrounding the urban core.

Keywords: partnership, rural areas, urbanization, metropolitan areas, Poland

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7878 Investigating a Deterrence Function for Work Trips for Perth Metropolitan Area

Authors: Ali Raouli, Amin Chegenizadeh, Hamid Nikraz

Abstract:

The Perth metropolitan area and its surrounding regions have been expanding rapidly in recent decades and it is expected that this growth will continue in the years to come. With this rapid growth and the resulting increase in population, consideration should be given to strategic planning and modelling for the future expansion of Perth. The accurate estimation of projected traffic volumes has always been a major concern for the transport modelers and planners. Development of a reliable strategic transport model depends significantly on the inputs data into the model and the calibrated parameters of the model to reflect the existing situation. Trip distribution is the second step in four-step modelling (FSM) which is complex due to its behavioral nature. Gravity model is the most common method for trip distribution. The spatial separation between the Origin and Destination (OD) zones will be reflected in gravity model by applying deterrence functions which provide an opportunity to include people’s behavior in choosing their destinations based on distance, time and cost of their journeys. Deterrence functions play an important role for distribution of the trips within a study area and would simulate the trip distances and therefore should be calibrated for any particular strategic transport model to correctly reflect the trip behavior within the modelling area. This paper aims to review the most common deterrence functions and propose a calibrated deterrence function for work trips within the Perth Metropolitan Area based on the information obtained from the latest available Household data and Perth and Region Travel Survey (PARTS) data. As part of this study, a four-step transport model using EMME software has been developed for Perth Metropolitan Area to assist with the analysis and findings.

Keywords: deterrence function, four-step modelling, origin destination, transport model

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7877 Analysis of the Fair Distribution of Urban Facilities in Kabul City by Population Modeling

Authors: Ansari Mohammad Reza, Hiroko Ono

Abstract:

In this study, we investigated how much of the urban facilities are fairly distributing in the city of Kabul based on the factor of population. To find the answer to this question we simulated a fair model for the distribution of investigated facilities in the city which is proposed based on the consideration of two factors; the number of users for each facility and the average distance of reach of each facility. Then the model was evaluated to make sure about its efficiency. And finally, the two—the existing pattern and the simulation model—were compared to find the degree of bias in the existing pattern of distribution of facilities in the city. The result of the study clearly clarified that the facilities are not fairly distributed in Kabul city based on the factor of population. Our analysis also revealed that the education services and the parks are the most and the worst fair distributed facilities in this regard.

Keywords: Afghanistan, ArcGIS Software, Kabul City, fair distribution, urban facilities

Procedia PDF Downloads 63