Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7747

Search results for: environmental variables

7747 Selection of Variogram Model for Environmental Variables

Authors: Sheikh Samsuzzhan Alam


The present study investigates the selection of variogram model in analyzing spatial variations of environmental variables with the trend. Sometimes, the autofitted theoretical variogram does not really capture the true nature of the empirical semivariogram. So proper exploration and analysis are needed to select the best variogram model. For this study, an open source data collected from California Soil Resource Lab1 is used to explain the problems when fitting a theoretical variogram. Five most commonly used variogram models: Linear, Gaussian, Exponential, Matern, and Spherical were fitted to the experimental semivariogram. Ordinary kriging methods were considered to evaluate the accuracy of the selected variograms through cross-validation. This study is beneficial for selecting an appropriate theoretical variogram model for environmental variables.

Keywords: anisotropy, cross-validation, environmental variables, kriging, variogram models

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7746 Environmental Variables as Determinants of Students Achievement in Biology Secondary Schools in South West Nigeria

Authors: Ayeni Margaret Foluso, K. A. Omotayo


This study investigated the impact of selected environmental variables as determinants of students’ achievements in biology in secondary schools. The selected environmental variables are class size and laboratory adequacy. The purpose was to find out whether these environmental variables can bring about improvement in the learning of biology by Senior Secondary School Students. The study design used was descriptive research of the survey type. Two instruments were used that is, Biology Achievement Test and School Environment Questionnaire .The population of the study consisted of all Biology students in both public and private Senior Secondary Schools class III (SSIII) in all the three selected states in South West Nigeria. A sample of 900 Biology students and 45 Biology Teachers from both public and private Senior Secondary Schools Class III were used. Two research hypotheses were generated for the study. The data collected were subjected to both descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation; and the inferential statistics of regression Analyses was employed to test the hypotheses formulated. From the results, it was revealed that the selected environmental variables had influence on the students’ achievement in biology.

Keywords: environmental variables, determinants, students’ achievement, school science

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7745 Childhood Obesity: Future Direction and Education Priorities

Authors: Zahra Ranjbar


Interpretive structural modeling (ISM) is a well-established methodology for identifying relationships among specific variables, which define a problem or an issue. In this study most important variables that have critical role in children obesity problem were introduce by ISM questionnaire technique and their relationships were determine. Our findings suggested that sedentary activities are top level variables and school teachers and administrators, public education and scientific collaborations are bottom level variables in children obesity problem. Control of dietary, Physical education program, parents, government and motivation strategies variables are depend to other variables. They are very sensitive to external variables. Also, physical education program, parents, government, motivation, school teachers and administrators, public education and collaboration variables have strong driving power. They are linkage factors; it means that they can be effective on children obesity problem directly.

Keywords: ISM, variable, obesity, physical education, children

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
7744 Sustainable Development Variables to Assess Transport Infrastructure in Remote Destinations

Authors: Dimitrios J. Dimitriou, Maria F. Sartzetaki


The assessment variables of the accessibility and the sustainability of access infrastructure for remote regions may vary significant by location and a wide range of factors may affect the decision process. In this paper, the environmental disturbance implications of transportation system to key demand and supply variables impact the economic system in remote destination are descripted. According to a systemic approach, the key sustainability variables deals with decision making process that have to be included in strategic plan for the critical transport infrastructure development and their relationship to regional socioeconomic system are presented. The application deals with the development of railway in remote destinations, where the traditional CBA not include the external cost generated by the environmental impacts that may have a range of diverse impacts on transport infrastructure and services. The analysis output provides key messages to decision and policy makers towards sustainable development of transport infrastructure, especially for remote destinations where accessibility is a key factor of regional economic development and social stability. The key conclusion could be essential useful for relevant applications in remote regions in the same latitude.

Keywords: sustainable development in remote regions, transport infrastructure, strategic planning, sustainability variables

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7743 Invasive Ranges of Gorse (Ulex europaeus) in South Australia and Sri Lanka Using Species Distribution Modelling

Authors: Champika S. Kariyawasam


The distribution of gorse (Ulex europaeus) plants in South Australia has been modelled using 126 presence-only location data as a function of seven climate parameters. The predicted range of U. europaeus is mainly along the Mount Lofty Ranges in the Adelaide Hills and on Kangaroo Island. Annual precipitation and yearly average aridity index appeared to be the highest contributing variables to the final model formulation. The Jackknife procedure was employed to identify the contribution of different variables to gorse model outputs and response curves were used to predict changes with changing environmental variables. Based on this analysis, it was revealed that the combined effect of one or more variables could make a completely different impact to the original variables on their own to the model prediction. This work also demonstrates the need for a careful approach when selecting environmental variables for projecting correlative models to climatically distinct area. Maxent acts as a robust model when projecting the fitted species distribution model to another area with changing climatic conditions, whereas the generalized linear model, bioclim, and domain models to be less robust in this regard. These findings are important not only for predicting and managing invasive alien gorse in South Australia and Sri Lanka but also in other countries of the invasive range.

Keywords: invasive species, Maxent, species distribution modelling, Ulex europaeus

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7742 Phytoplankton Community Composition in Laguna de Terminos, Mexico, and Its Relationship to Environmental Variables

Authors: Enrique Nunez L., Maria Cortes L., Sandra Laffon L., Ana M. Cupul V.


The phytoplankton community composition was studied in a tropical coastal lagoon of Mexico and relationships with environmental variables were evaluated. Six sites inside the tropical Terminos Lagoon were sampled in order to determine abundances and ecological indexes for phytoplankton from May to December 2017. Water samples were also collected to determine the values of pigments, nutrients, and water solids. Results showed that the composition and abundance of the phytoplankton community were influenced by physicochemical factors, nutrients, water solids, and climate seasons. Sixty-six species were identified as potential HAB producers (44.29% from total). However, abundances were not related to the occurrence of HAB during the study. Multidimensional ANOVA indicated no significant differences between sites while some months revealed significant differences. The canonical analysis suggested that environmental variables explained 49% of community variation of potential phytoplankton species producers of HAB.

Keywords: phytoplankton, environment, lagoon, biodiversity

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7741 Spectral Analysis Applied to Variables of Oil Wells Profiling

Authors: Suzana Leitão Russo, Mayara Laysa de Oliveira Silva, José Augusto Andrade Filho, Vitor Hugo Simon


Currently, seismic methods and prospecting methods are commonly applied in the oil industry and, according to the information reported every day; oil is a source of non-renewable energy. It is easier to understand why the ownership of areas of oil extraction is coveted by many nations. It is necessary to think about ways that will enable the maximization of oil production. The technique of spectral analysis can be used to analyze the behavior of the variables already defined in oil well the profile. The main objective is to verify the series dependence of variables, and to model the variables using the frequency domain to observe the model residuals.

Keywords: oil, well, spectral analysis, oil extraction

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7740 Automata-Based String Analysis for Detecting Malware in Android Programs

Authors: Assad Maalouf, Lunjin Lu, James Lynott


We design and implement a precise model of string operations using finite state machine transformers and state transformers to approximate the values string variables can take throughout the execution of the program.We use our model to analyze Android program string variables. Our experimental results show that our string analysis is very efficient at detecting the contextual effect of string operations on the string variables. Our model proved to be very useful when it came to verifying statements about the string variables of the program.

Keywords: abstract interpretation, android, static analysis, string analysis

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7739 A Study on Inference from Distance Variables in Hedonic Regression

Authors: Yan Wang, Yasushi Asami, Yukio Sadahiro


In urban area, several landmarks may affect housing price and rents, hedonic analysis should employ distance variables corresponding to each landmarks. Unfortunately, the effects of distances to landmarks on housing prices are generally not consistent with the true price. These distance variables may cause magnitude error in regression, pointing a problem of spatial multicollinearity. In this paper, we provided some approaches for getting the samples with less bias and method on locating the specific sampling area to avoid the multicollinerity problem in two specific landmarks case.

Keywords: landmarks, hedonic regression, distance variables, collinearity, multicollinerity

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7738 A Research on Inference from Multiple Distance Variables in Hedonic Regression Focus on Three Variables

Authors: Yan Wang, Yasushi Asami, Yukio Sadahiro


In urban context, urban nodes such as amenity or hazard will certainly affect house price, while classic hedonic analysis will employ distance variables measured from each urban nodes. However, effects from distances to facilities on house prices generally do not represent the true price of the property. Distance variables measured on the same surface are suffering a problem called multicollinearity, which is usually presented as magnitude variance and mean value in regression, errors caused by instability. In this paper, we provided a theoretical framework to identify and gather the data with less bias, and also provided specific sampling method on locating the sample region to avoid the spatial multicollinerity problem in three distance variable’s case.

Keywords: hedonic regression, urban node, distance variables, multicollinerity, collinearity

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7737 Sea Surface Temperature and Climatic Variables as Drivers of North Pacific Albacore Tuna Thunnus Alalunga Time Series

Authors: Ashneel Ajay Singh, Naoki Suzuki, Kazumi Sakuramoto, Swastika Roshni, Paras Nath, Alok Kalla


Albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) is one of the commercially important species of tuna in the North Pacific region. Despite the long history of albacore fisheries in the Pacific, its ecological characteristics are not sufficiently understood. The effects of changing climate on numerous commercially and ecologically important fish species including albacore tuna have been documented over the past decades. The objective of this study was to explore and elucidate the relationship of environmental variables with the stock parameters of albacore tuna. The relationship of the North Pacific albacore tuna recruitment (R), spawning stock biomass (SSB) and recruits per spawning biomass (RPS) from 1970 to 2012 with the environmental factors of sea surface temperature (SST), Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific warm pool index (PWI) was construed. SST and PDO were used as independent variables with SSB to construct stock reproduction models for R and RPS as they showed most significant relationship with the dependent variables. ENSO and PWI were excluded due to collinearity effects with SST and PDO. Model selections were based on R2 values, Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and significant parameter estimates at p<0.05. Models with single independent variables of SST, PDO, ENSO and PWI were also constructed to illuminate their individual effect on albacore R and RPS. From the results it can be said that SST and PDO resulted in the most significant models for reproducing North Pacific albacore tuna R and RPS time series. SST has the highest impact on albacore R and RPS when comparing models with single environmental variables. It is important for fishery managers and decision makers to incorporate the findings into their albacore tuna management plans for the North Pacific Oceanic region.

Keywords: Albacore tuna, El Niño southern oscillation, Pacific decadal oscillation, sea surface temperature

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7736 Externalizing Behavior Problems Influencing Social Behavior in Early Adolescence

Authors: Zhidong Zhang, Zhi-Chao Zhang


This study focuses on early adolescent externalizing behavioral problems which specifically concentrate on rule breaking behavior and aggressive behavior using the instrument of Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). The purpose was to analyze the relationships between the externalizing behavioral problems and relevant background variables such as sports activities, hobbies, chores and the number of close friends. The stratified sampling method was used to collect data from 1975 participants. The results indicated that several background variables as predictors could significantly predict rule breaking behavior and aggressive behavior. Further, a hierarchical modeling method was used to explore the causal relations among background variables, breaking behavior variables and aggressive behavior variables.

Keywords: aggressive behavior, breaking behavior, early adolescence, externalizing problem

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7735 Trade and Environmental Policy Strategies

Authors: Olakunle Felix Adekunle


In the recent years several non-tariff provisions have been regarded as means holding back transboundary environmental damages. Affected countries have then increasingly come up with trade policies to compensate for or to In recent years, several non‐tariff trade provisions have been regarded as means of holding back transboundary environmental damages. Affected countries have then increasingly come up with trade policies to compensate for or to enforce the adoption of environmental policies elsewhere. These non‐tariff trade constraints are claimed to threaten the freedom of trading across nations, as well as the harmonization sought towards the distribution of income and policy measures. Therefore the ‘greening’ of world trade issues essentially ranges over whether there ought or ought not to be a trade‐off between trade and environmental policies. The impacts of free trade and environmental policies on major economic variables (such as trade flows, balances of trade, resource allocation, output, consumption and welfare) are thus studied here, and so is the EKC hypothesis, when such variables are played against the resulting emission levels. The policy response is seen as a political game, played here by two representative parties named North and South. Whether their policy choices, simulated by four scenarios, are right or wrong depends on their policy goals, split into economic and environmental ones.

Keywords: environmental, policies, strategies, constraint

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7734 Establishing a Model of the Environmental Behavior of College Students: The Example of Global Climate Change

Authors: Tai-Yi Yu, Tai-Kue Yu


Using global climate change as its main theme, this study establishes a model for understanding the environmental behavior of college students. It examines their beliefs about the environment, sustainability, and social impact. Theories about values, beliefs, norms, and planned behaviors helped establish the path relations among various latent variables, which include the students’ values regarding sustainability, environmental concern, social impact, perceived risk, environmental attitude, and behavioral intention. Personality traits were used as moderator variables in order to analyze their role in influencing environmental behaviors. The components-based partial least square (PLS) method was adopted, and the measurements and structural models were analyzed using the SmartPLS software. The proposed model complies with various test standards, including individual item reliability, composite reliability, average variance extracted, goodness-of-fit, and cross-validated redundancy. When college students are taught the concept of environmental sustainability, sustainability becomes an environmental attitude for them, and they are more likely to uphold an ethic of sustainability. The more an individual perceives the risks of global climate change, the stronger her emotional connection to the issue becomes. This positively affects the environmental attitude of college student, pushes them to participate more proactively in improvement activities, and encourages them to display their behavioral intention to improve global climate change. When considering the interaction effect among four latent variables (values regarding sustainability, social impact, environmental concern, and perceived risk), this study found that personality traits have a moderate effect on environmental attitude.

Keywords: partial least square, personality traits, social impact, environmental concern, perceived risk

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7733 A Study of Islamic Stock Indices and Macroeconomic Variables

Authors: Mohammad Irfan


The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship among the key macroeconomic variables and Islamic stock market in India. This study is based on the time series data of financial years 2009-2015 to explore the consistency of relationship between macroeconomic variables and Shariah Indices. The ADF (Augmented Dickey–Fuller Test Statistic) and PP (Phillips–Perron Test Statistic) tests are employed to check stationarity of the data. The study depicts the long run relationship between Shariah indices and macroeconomic variables by using the Johansen Co-integration test. BSE Shariah and Nifty Shariah have uni-direct Granger causality. The outcome of VECM is significantly confirming the applicability of best fitted model. Thus, Islamic stock indices are proficiently working for the development of Indian economy. It suggests that by keeping eyes on Islamic stock market which will be more interactive in the future with other macroeconomic variables.

Keywords: Indian Shariah Indices, macroeconomic variables, co-integration, Granger causality, vector error correction model (VECM)

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7732 Effect of Correlation of Random Variables on Structural Reliability Index

Authors: Agnieszka Dudzik


The problem of correlation between random variables in the structural reliability analysis has been extensively discussed in literature on the subject. The cases taken under consideration were usually related to correlation between random variables from one side of ultimate limit state: correlation between particular loads applied on structure or correlation between resistance of particular members of a structure as a system. It has been proved that positive correlation between these random variables reduces the reliability of structure and increases the probability of failure. In the paper, the problem of correlation between random variables from both side of the limit state equation will be taken under consideration. The simplest case where these random variables are of the normal distributions will be concerned. The case when a degree of that correlation is described by the covariance or the coefficient of correlation will be used. Special attention will be paid on questions: how much that correlation changes the reliability level and can it be ignored. In reliability analysis will be used well-known methods for assessment of the failure probability: based on the Hasofer-Lind reliability index and Monte Carlo method adapted to the problem of correlation. The main purpose of this work will be a presentation how correlation of random variables influence on reliability index of steel bar structures. Structural design parameters will be defined as deterministic values and random variables. The latter will be correlated. The criterion of structural failure will be expressed by limit functions related to the ultimate and serviceability limit state. In the description of random variables will be used only for the normal distribution. Sensitivity of reliability index to the random variables will be defined. If the reliability index sensitivity due to the random variable X will be low when compared with other variables, it can be stated that the impact of this variable on failure probability is small. Therefore, in successive computations, it can be treated as a deterministic parameter. Sensitivity analysis leads to simplify the description of the mathematical model, determine the new limit functions and values of the Hasofer-Lind reliability index. In the examples, the NUMPRESS software will be used in the reliability analysis.

Keywords: correlation of random variables, reliability index, sensitivity of reliability index, steel structure

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7731 Evaluating the Baseline Chatacteristics of Static Balance in Young Adults

Authors: K. Abuzayan, H. Alabed


The objectives of this study (baseline study, n = 20) were to implement Matlab procedures for quantifying selected static balance variables, establish baseline data of selected variables which characterize static balance activities in a population of healthy young adult males, and to examine any trial effects on these variables. The results indicated that the implementation of Matlab procedures for quantifying selected static balance variables was practical and enabled baseline data to be established for selected variables. There was no significant trial effect. Recommendations were made for suitable tests to be used in later studies. Specifically it was found that one foot-tiptoes tests either in static balance is too challenging for most participants in normal circumstances. A one foot-flat eyes open test was considered to be representative and challenging for static balance.

Keywords: static balance, base of support, baseline data, young adults

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7730 Statistic Regression and Open Data Approach for Identifying Economic Indicators That Influence e-Commerce

Authors: Apollinaire Barme, Simon Tamayo, Arthur Gaudron


This paper presents a statistical approach to identify explanatory variables linearly related to e-commerce sales. The proposed methodology allows specifying a regression model in order to quantify the relevance between openly available data (economic and demographic) and national e-commerce sales. The proposed methodology consists in collecting data, preselecting input variables, performing regressions for choosing variables and models, testing and validating. The usefulness of the proposed approach is twofold: on the one hand, it allows identifying the variables that influence e- commerce sales with an accessible approach. And on the other hand, it can be used to model future sales from the input variables. Results show that e-commerce is linearly dependent on 11 economic and demographic indicators.

Keywords: e-commerce, statistical modeling, regression, empirical research

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7729 Perception of TQM Implementation and Perceived Cost of Poor Quality: A Case Study of Local Automotive Company’s Supplier

Authors: Fakhruddin Esa, Yusri Yusof


The confirmatory of Total Quality Management (TQM) implementation is most vital in quality management. This paper focuses on employees' perceptions towards TQM implementation in a local automotive company supplier. The objectives of this study are first and foremost to determine the perception of TQM implementation among the staff, and secondly to ascertain the correlation between the variables, and lastly to identify the relative influence of the 10 TQM variables on the cost of poor quality (COPQ). The TQM implementation is perceived to be moderate. All correlation is found to be significant and five variables having positively moderate to high correlation. Out of 10 variables, quality system improvement, reward and recognition and customer focus influence the perceived COPQ. This study extended a discussion on these three variables contribution to TQM in general and the human resource development in the organization. A significant recommendation to lowering costs of internal error, such as trouble shooting and scraps are also discussed. Certain components of further research that would add value to this study have also been suggested and perhaps could be implemented at policy-level initiatives.

Keywords: cost of poor quality (COPQ), correlation, total quality management (TQM), variables

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7728 Climatic and Environmental Variables Do Not Affect the Diversity of Possible Phytoplasmic Vector Insects Associated with Quercus humboltii Oak Trees in Bogota, Colombia

Authors: J. Lamilla-Monje, C. Solano-Puerto, L. Franco-Lara


Trees play an essential role in cities due to their ability to provide multiple ecosystem goods and services. Bogota trees are threatened by factors such as pests, pathogens, contamination, among others. Among the pathogens, phytoplasmas are a potential risk for urban trees, generating symptoms that affect the ecosystem services that these trees provide in Bogota, an example of this is the affectation of Q. humboldtii by phytoplasmas, these bacteria are transmitted for insects of the order Hemiptera, this is why the objective of this work was to know if the climatic variables (humidity, precipitation, and temperature) and environmental variables (PM10 and PM2.5) could be related to the distribution of the Oak Quercus entomofauna and specifically with the phytoplasma vector insects in Bogota. For this study, the sampling points were distributed in areas of the city with contrasting variables in two types of locations: parks and streets. A total of 68 trees were sampled in which the associated insects were collected using two methodologies: jameo and agitation traps. The results show that insects of the order Hemiptera were the most abundant, including a total of 1682 individuals represented by 29 morphotypes, within this order individuals from eight families were collected (Aphidae, Aradidae, Berytidae, Cicadellidae, Issidae, Membracidae, Miridae, and Psyllidae), finding as possible vectors the families Cicadellidae, Membracidae, and Psyllidae with 959, 8 and 14 individuals respectively. Within the Cicadellidae family, 21 morphotypes were found, being reported as vectors in the literature: Amplicephalus, Exitianus atratus, Haldorus sp., Xestocephalus desertorum, Idiocerinae sp., Scaphytopius sp., the Membracidae family was represented by two morphotypes and the Psyllidae by one. Results that suggest that there is no correlation between climatic and environmental variables with the diversity of insects associated with oak. Knowing the vector insects of phytoplasmas in oak trees will complete the pathosystem and generate effective vector control.

Keywords: vector insects, diversity, phytoplasmas, Cicadellidae

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7727 Human-Centric Sensor Networks for Comfort and Productivity in Offices: Integrating Environmental, Body Area Network, and Participatory Sensing

Authors: Chenlu Zhang, Wanni Zhang, Florian Schaule


Indoor environment in office buildings directly affects comfort, productivity, health, and well-being of building occupants. Wireless environmental sensor networks have been deployed in many modern offices to monitor and control the indoor environments. However, indoor environmental variables are not strong enough predictors of comfort and productivity levels of every occupant due to personal differences, both physiologically and psychologically. This study proposes human-centric sensor networks that integrate wireless environmental sensors, body area network sensors and participatory sensing technologies to collect data from both environment and human and support building operations. The sensor networks have been tested in one small-size and one medium-size office rooms with 22 participants for five months. Indoor environmental data (e.g., air temperature and relative humidity), physiological data (e.g., skin temperature and Galvani skin response), and physiological responses (e.g., comfort and self-reported productivity levels) were obtained from each participant and his/her workplace. The data results show that: (1) participants have different physiological and physiological responses in the same environmental conditions; (2) physiological variables are more effective predictors of comfort and productivity levels than environmental variables. These results indicate that the human-centric sensor networks can support human-centric building control and improve comfort and productivity in offices.

Keywords: body area network, comfort and productivity, human-centric sensors, internet of things, participatory sensing

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
7726 The Implications of Some Social Variables in Increasing the Unemployed in Egypt

Authors: Mohamed Elkhouli


This research sets out to identify some social factors or variables that may need to be controlled in order to decrease the volume of unemployed in Egypt. As well as, it comes to investigate the relationship between a set of social variables and unemployment issue in Egypt in the sake of determining the most important social variables influencing the rise of unemployed during the time series targeted (2002-2012). Highlighting the unemployment issue is becoming an increasingly important topic in all countries throughout the world resulting from expand their globalization efforts. In general, the study tries to determine what the most social priorities are likely to adopt seriously by the Egypt's government in order to solve the unemployed problem. The results showed that the low value for both of small projects and the total value of disbursed social security respectively have significant impact on increasing the No. of unemployed in Egypt, according to the target period by the current study.

Keywords: Egypt, social status, unemployment, unemployed

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7725 Coastal Vulnerability under Significant Sea Level Rise: Risk and Adaptation Measures for Mumbai

Authors: Malay Kumar Pramanik


Climate change induced sea level rise increases storm surge, erosion, and inundation, which are stirred by an intricate interplay of physical environmental components at the coastal region. The Mumbai coast is much vulnerable to accelerated regional sea level change due to its highly dense population, highly developed economy, and low topography. To determine the significant causes behind coastal vulnerability, this study analyzes four different iterations of CVI by incorporating the pixel-based differentially weighted rank values of the selected five geological (CVI5), three physical (CVI8 with including geological variables), and four socio-economic variables (CVI4). However, CVI5 and CVI8 results yielded broadly similar natures, but after including socio-economic variables (CVI4), the results CVI (CVI12) has been changed at Mumbai and Kurla coastal portion that indicates the study coastal areas are mostly sensible with socio-economic variables. Therefore, the results of CVI12 show that out of 274.1 km of coastline analyzed, 55.83 % of the coast is very low vulnerable, 60.91 % of the coast is moderately vulnerable while 50.75 % is very high vulnerable. Finding also admits that in the context of growing urban population and the increasing rate of economic activities, socio-economic variables are most important variable to use for validating and testing the CVI. Finally, some recommendations are presented for concerned decision makers and stakeholders to develop appropriate coastal management plans, nourishment projects and mitigation measures considering socio-economic variables.

Keywords: coastal vulnerability index, sea level change, Mumbai coast, geospatial approach, coastal management, climate change

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7724 The Role of Business Survey Measures in Forecasting Croatian Industrial Production

Authors: M. Cizmesija, N. Erjavec, V. Bahovec


While the European Union (EU) harmonized methodology is a benchmark of worldwide used business survey (BS) methodology, the choice of variables that are components of the confidence indicators, as the leading indicators, is not strictly determined and unique. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to investigate and to quantify the relationship between all business survey variables in manufacturing industry and industrial production as a reference macroeconomic series in Croatia. The assumption is that there are variables in the business survey, that are not components of Industrial Confidence Indicator (ICI) and which can accurately (and sometimes better then ICI) predict changes in Croatian industrial production. Empirical analyses are conducted using quarterly data of BS variables in manufacturing industry and Croatian industrial production over the period from the first quarter 2005 to the first quarter 2013. Research results confirmed the assumption: three BS variables which is not components of ICI (competitive position, demand and liquidity) are the best leading indicator then ICI, in forecasting changes in Croatian industrial production instantaneously, with one, two or three quarter ahead.

Keywords: balance, business survey, confidence indicators, industrial production, forecasting

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7723 On the Estimation of Crime Rate in the Southwest of Nigeria: Principal Component Analysis Approach

Authors: Kayode Balogun, Femi Ayoola


Crime is at alarming rate in this part of world and there are many factors that are contributing to this antisocietal behaviour both among the youths and old. In this work, principal component analysis (PCA) was used as a tool to reduce the dimensionality and to really know those variables that were crime prone in the study region. Data were collected on twenty-eight crime variables from National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) databank for a period of fifteen years, while retaining as much of the information as possible. We use PCA in this study to know the number of major variables and contributors to the crime in the Southwest Nigeria. The results of our analysis revealed that there were eight principal variables have been retained using the Scree plot and Loading plot which implies an eight-equation solution will be appropriate for the data. The eight components explained 93.81% of the total variation in the data set. We also found that the highest and commonly committed crimes in the Southwestern Nigeria were: Assault, Grievous Harm and Wounding, theft/stealing, burglary, house breaking, false pretence, unlawful arms possession and breach of public peace.

Keywords: crime rates, data, Southwest Nigeria, principal component analysis, variables

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7722 On Estimating the Low Income Proportion with Several Auxiliary Variables

Authors: Juan F. Muñoz-Rosas, Rosa M. García-Fernández, Encarnación Álvarez-Verdejo, Pablo J. Moya-Fernández


Poverty measurement is a very important topic in many studies in social sciences. One of the most important indicators when measuring poverty is the low income proportion. This indicator gives the proportion of people of a population classified as poor. This indicator is generally unknown, and for this reason, it is estimated by using survey data, which are obtained by official surveys carried out by many statistical agencies such as Eurostat. The main feature of the mentioned survey data is the fact that they contain several variables. The variable used to estimate the low income proportion is called as the variable of interest. The survey data may contain several additional variables, also named as the auxiliary variables, related to the variable of interest, and if this is the situation, they could be used to improve the estimation of the low income proportion. In this paper, we use Monte Carlo simulation studies to analyze numerically the performance of estimators based on several auxiliary variables. In this simulation study, we considered real data sets obtained from the 2011 European Union Survey on Income and Living Condition. Results derived from this study indicate that the estimators based on auxiliary variables are more accurate than the naive estimator.

Keywords: inclusion probability, poverty, poverty line, survey sampling

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7721 Group Consensus of Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic Variables for Decision-Making Problem

Authors: Chen T. Chen, Hui L. Cheng


Due to the different knowledge, experience and expertise of experts, they usually provide the different opinions in the group decision-making process. Therefore, it is an important issue to reach the group consensus of opinions of experts in group multiple-criteria decision-making (GMCDM) process. Because the subjective opinions of experts always are fuzziness and uncertainties, it is difficult to use crisp values to describe the real opinions of experts or decision-makers. It is reasonable for experts to use the linguistic variables to express their opinions. The hesitant fuzzy set are extended from the concept of fuzzy sets. Experts use the hesitant fuzzy sets can be flexible to describe their subjective opinions. In order to aggregate the hesitant fuzzy linguistic variables of all experts effectively, an adjustment method based on distance function will be presented in this paper. Based on the opinions adjustment method, this paper will present an effective approach to adjust the hesitant fuzzy linguistic variables of all experts to reach the group consensus. Then, a new hesitant linguistic GMCDM method will be presented based on the group consensus of hesitant fuzzy linguistic variables. Finally, an example will be implemented to illustrate the computational process to enhance the practical value of the proposed model.

Keywords: group multi-criteria decision-making, linguistic variables, hesitant fuzzy linguistic variables, distance function, group consensus

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7720 The Role of Self-Confidence, Adversity Quotient, and Self-Efficacy Critical Thinking: Path Model

Authors: Bayu Dwi Cahyo, Ekohariadi, Theodorus Wiyanto Wibowo, I. G. P. Asto Budithahjanto, Eppy Yundra


The objective of this study is to examine the effects of self-confidence, adversity quotient, and self-efficacy variables on critical thinking. This research's participants are 137 cadets of Aviation Polytechnics of Surabaya with the sampling technique that was purposive sampling. In this study, the data collection method used a questionnaire with Linkert-scale and distributed or given to respondents by the specified number of samples. The SPSS AMOS v23 was used to test a number of a priori multivariate growth curve models and examining relationships between the variables via path analysis. The result of path analysis was (χ² = 88.463, df= 71, χ² /df= 1.246, GFI= .914, CFI= .988, P= .079, AGFI= .873, TLI= .985, RMSEA= .043). According to the analysis, there is a positive and significant relationship between self-confidence, adversity quotient, and self-efficacy variables on critical thinking.

Keywords: self-confidence, adversity quotient, self-efficacy variables, critical thinking

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7719 The Causal Relationships between Educational Environments and Rule-Breaking Behavior Issues in Early Adolescence

Authors: Zhidong Zhang, Zhi-Chao Zhang


This study focused on early adolescent rule-breaking behavioral problems using the instrument of Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). The purpose was to analyze the relationships between the rule-breaking behavioral problems and relevant background variables such as sports activities, hobbies, chores and the number of close friends. The stratified sampling method was used to collect data from 2532 participants. The results indicated that several background variables as predictors could significantly predict rule breaking behavior and aggressive behavior. Further, a path analysis method was used to explore the correlational and causal relationships among background variables and breaking behavior variables.

Keywords: ASEBA, rule-breaking, path analysis, early adolescent

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7718 Factors Determining the Women Empowerment through Microfinance: An Empirical Study in Sri Lanka

Authors: Y. Rathiranee, D. M. Semasinghe


This study attempts to identify the factors influencing on women empowerment of rural area in Sri Lanka through micro finance services. Data were collected from one hundred (100) rural women involving self employment activities through a questionnaire using direct personal interviews. Judgment and Convenience Random sampling technique was used to select the sample size from three Divisional Secretariat divisions of Kandawalai, Poonakari and Karachchi in Kilinochchi District. The factor analysis was performed on fourteen (14) variables for screening and reducing the variables to identify the influencing factors on empowerment. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify the relationship between the three empowerment factors and the impact of micro-finance on overall empowerment of rural women. The result of this study summarized the variables into three factors namely decision making, freedom to mobility and family support and which are positively associated with empowerment. In addition to this the value of adjusted R2 is 0.248 indicates that all the variables extracted can be explained 24.8% of the variation in the women empowerment through microfinance. Independent variables of these three factors have a positive correlation with women empowerment as well as significant values at 5 percent level.

Keywords: influencing factors, micro finance, rural women, women empowerment

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