Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 907

Search results for: WiFi-Bluetooth sensing

907 Capacity Optimization in Cooperative Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Mahdi Pirmoradian, Olayinka Adigun, Christos Politis

Abstract:

Cooperative spectrum sensing is a crucial challenge in cognitive radio networks. Cooperative sensing can increase the reliability of spectrum hole detection, optimize sensing time and reduce delay in cooperative networks. In this paper, an efficient central capacity optimization algorithm is proposed to minimize cooperative sensing time in a homogenous sensor network using OR decision rule subject to the detection and false alarm probabilities constraints. The evaluation results reveal significant improvement in the sensing time and normalized capacity of the cognitive sensors.

Keywords: cooperative networks, normalized capacity, sensing time

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906 Effect of Using a Mixture of Al2O3 Nanoparticles and 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane as the Sensing Membrane for Polysilicon Wire on pH Sensing

Authors: You-Lin Wu, Zong-Xian Wu, Jing-Jenn Lin, Shih-Hung Lin

Abstract:

In this work, a polysilicon wire (PSW) coated with a mixture of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (r-APTES) and Al2O3 nanoparticles as the sensing membrane prepared with various Al2O3/r-APTES and dispersing agent/r-APTES ratios for pH sensing is studied. The r-APTES and dispersed Al2O3 nanoparticles mixture was directly transferred to PSW surface by solution phase deposition (SPD). It is found that using a mixture of Al2O3 nanoparticles and r-APTES as the sensing membrane help in improving the pH sensing of the PSW sensor and a 5 min SPD deposition time is the best. Dispersing agent is found to be necessary for better pH sensing when preparing the mixture of Al2O3 nanoparticles and r-APTES. The optimum condition for preparing the mixture is found to be Al2O3/r-APTES ratio of 2% and dispersing agent/r-APTES ratio of 0.3%.

Keywords: al2o3 nanoparticles, ph sensing, polysilicon wire sensor, r-aptes

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905 Reliability Factors Based Fuzzy Logic Scheme for Spectrum Sensing

Authors: Tallataf Rasheed, Adnan Rashdi, Ahmad Naeem Akhtar

Abstract:

The accurate spectrum sensing is a fundamental requirement of dynamic spectrum access for deployment of Cognitive Radio Network (CRN). To acheive this requirement a Reliability factors based Fuzzy Logic (RFL) Scheme for Spectrum Sensing has been proposed in this paper. Cognitive Radio User (CRU) predicts the presence or absence of Primary User (PU) using energy detector and calculates the Reliability factors which are SNR of sensing node, threshold of energy detector and decision difference of each node with other nodes in a cooperative spectrum sensing environment. Then the decision of energy detector is combined with Reliability factors of sensing node using Fuzzy Logic. These Reliability Factors used in RFL Scheme describes the reliability of decision made by a CRU to improve the local spectrum sensing. This Fuzzy combining scheme provides the accuracy of decision made by sensornode. The simulation results have shown that the proposed technique provide better PU detection probability than existing Spectrum Sensing Techniques.

Keywords: cognitive radio, spectrum sensing, energy detector, reliability factors, fuzzy logic

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
904 Performance of Nakagami Fading Channel over Energy Detection Based Spectrum Sensing

Authors: M. Ranjeeth, S. Anuradha

Abstract:

Spectrum sensing is the main feature of cognitive radio technology. Spectrum sensing gives an idea of detecting the presence of the primary users in a licensed spectrum. In this paper we compare the theoretical results of detection probability of different fading environments like Rayleigh, Rician, Nakagami-m fading channels with the simulation results using energy detection based spectrum sensing. The numerical results are plotted as P_f Vs P_d for different SNR values, fading parameters. It is observed that Nakagami fading channel performance is better than other fading channels by using energy detection in spectrum sensing. A MATLAB simulation test bench has been implemented to know the performance of energy detection in different fading channel environment.

Keywords: spectrum sensing, energy detection, fading channels, probability of detection, probability of false alarm

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903 Radio-Frequency Technologies for Sensing and Imaging

Authors: Cam Nguyen

Abstract:

Rapid, accurate, and safe sensing and imaging of physical quantities or structures finds many applications and is of significant interest to society. Sensing and imaging using radio-frequency (RF) techniques, particularly, has gone through significant development and subsequently established itself as a unique territory in the sensing world. RF sensing and imaging has played a critical role in providing us many sensing and imaging abilities beyond our human capabilities, benefiting both civilian and military applications - for example, from sensing abnormal conditions underneath some structures’ surfaces to detection and classification of concealed items, hidden activities, and buried objects. We present the developments of several sensing and imaging systems implementing RF technologies like ultra-wide band (UWB), synthetic-pulse, and interferometry. These systems are fabricated completely using RF integrated circuits. The UWB impulse system operates over multiple pulse durations from 450 to 1170 ps with 5.5-GHz RF bandwidth. It performs well through tests of various samples, demonstrating its usefulness for subsurface sensing. The synthetic-pulse system operating from 0.6 to 5.6 GHz can assess accurately subsurface structures. The synthetic-pulse system operating from 29.72-37.7 GHz demonstrates abilities for various surface and near-surface sensing such as profile mapping, liquid-level monitoring, and anti-personnel mine locating. The interferometric system operating at 35.6 GHz demonstrates its multi-functional capability for measurement of displacements and slow velocities. These RF sensors are attractive and useful for various surface and subsurface sensing applications. This paper was made possible by NPRP grant # 6-241-2-102 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of Qatar Foundation). The statements made herein are solely the responsibility of the authors.

Keywords: RF sensors, radars, surface sensing, subsurface sensing

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902 Highly Sensitive and Selective H2 Gas Sensor Based on Pd-Pt Decorated Nanostructured Silicon Carbide Thin Films for Extreme Environment Application

Authors: Satyendra Mourya, Jyoti Jaiswal, Gaurav Malik, Brijesh Kumar, Ramesh Chandra

Abstract:

Present work describes the fabrication and sensing characteristics of the Pd-Pt decorated nanostructured silicon carbide (SiC) thin films on anodized porous silicon (PSi) substrate by RF magnetron sputtering. The gas sensing performance of Pd-Pt/SiC/PSi sensing electrode towards H2 gas under low (10–400 ppm) detection limit and high operating temperature regime (25–600 °C) were studied in detail. The chemiresistive sensor exhibited high selectivity, good sensing response, fast response/recovery time with excellent stability towards H2 at high temperature. The selectivity measurement of the sensing electrode was done towards different oxidizing and reducing gases and proposed sensing mechanism discussed in detail. Therefore, the investigated Pd-Pt/SiC/PSi structure may be a highly sensitive and selective hydrogen gas sensing electrode for deployment in extreme environment applications.

Keywords: RF Sputtering, silicon carbide, porous silicon, hydrogen gas sensor

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901 Multifunctional Composite Structural Elements for Sensing and Energy Harvesting

Authors: Amir H. Alavi, Kaveh Barri, Qianyun Zhang

Abstract:

This study presents a new generation of lightweight and mechanically tunable structural composites with sensing and energy harvesting functionalities. This goal is achieved by integrating metamaterial and triboelectric energy harvesting concepts. Proof-of-concept polymeric beam prototypes are fabricated using 3D printing methods based on the proposed concept. Experiments and theoretical analyses are conducted to quantitatively investigate the mechanical and electrical properties of the designed multifunctional beams. The results show that these integrated structural elements can serve as nanogenerators and distributed sensing mediums without a need to incorporating any external sensing modules and electronics. The feasibility of design self-sensing and self-powering structural elements at multiscale for next generation infrastructure systems is further discussed.

Keywords: multifunctional structures, composites, metamaterial, triboelectric nanogenerator, sensors, structural health monitoring, energy harvesting

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
900 Condition Monitoring of Railway Earthworks using Distributed Rayleigh Sensing

Authors: Andrew Hall, Paul Clarkson

Abstract:

Climate change is predicted to increase the number of extreme weather events intensifying the strain on Railway Earthworks. This paper describes the use of Distributed Rayleigh Sensing to monitor low frequency activity on a vulnerable earthworks sectionprone to landslides alongside a railway line in Northern Spain. The vulnerable slope is instrumented with conventional slope stability sensors allowing an assessment to be conducted of the application of Distributed Rayleigh Sensing as an earthwork condition monitoring tool to enhance the resilience of railway networks.

Keywords: condition monitoring, railway earthworks, distributed rayleigh sensing, climate change

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
899 Optimal Sensing Technique for Estimating Stress Distribution of 2-D Steel Frame Structure Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Jun Su Park, Byung Kwan Oh, Jin Woo Hwang, Yousok Kim, Hyo Seon Park

Abstract:

For the structural safety, the maximum stress calculated from the stress distribution of a structure is widely used. The stress distribution can be estimated by deformed shape of the structure obtained from measurement. Although the estimation of stress is strongly affected by the location and number of sensing points, most studies have conducted the stress estimation without reasonable basis on sensing plan such as the location and number of sensors. In this paper, an optimal sensing technique for estimating the stress distribution is proposed. This technique proposes the optimal location and number of sensing points for a 2-D frame structure while minimizing the error of stress distribution between analytical model and estimation by cubic smoothing splines using genetic algorithm. To verify the proposed method, the optimal sensor measurement technique is applied to simulation tests on 2-D steel frame structure. The simulation tests are performed under various loading scenarios. Through those tests, the optimal sensing plan for the structure is suggested and verified.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, optimal sensing, optimizing sensor placements, steel frame structure

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898 PSRR Enhanced LDO Regulator Using Noise Sensing Circuit

Authors: Min-ju Kwon, Chae-won Kim, Jeong-yun Seo, Hee-guk Chae, Yong-seo Koo

Abstract:

In this paper, we presented the LDO (low-dropout) regulator which enhanced the PSRR by applying the constant current source generation technique through the BGR (Band Gap Reference) to form the noise sensing circuit. The current source through the BGR has a constant current value even if the applied voltage varies. Then, the noise sensing circuit, which is composed of the current source through the BGR, operated between the error amplifier and the pass transistor gate of the LDO regulator. As a result, the LDO regulator has a PSRR of -68.2 dB at 1k Hz, -45.85 dB at 1 MHz and -45 dB at 10 MHz. the other performance of the proposed LDO was maintained at the same level of the conventional LDO regulator.

Keywords: LDO regulator, noise sensing circuit, current reference, pass transistor

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897 Integration of GIS with Remote Sensing and GPS for Disaster Mitigation

Authors: Sikander Nawaz Khan

Abstract:

Natural disasters like flood, earthquake, cyclone, volcanic eruption and others are causing immense losses to the property and lives every year. Current status and actual loss information of natural hazards can be determined and also prediction for next probable disasters can be made using different remote sensing and mapping technologies. Global Positioning System (GPS) calculates the exact position of damage. It can also communicate with wireless sensor nodes embedded in potentially dangerous places. GPS provide precise and accurate locations and other related information like speed, track, direction and distance of target object to emergency responders. Remote Sensing facilitates to map damages without having physical contact with target area. Now with the addition of more remote sensing satellites and other advancements, early warning system is used very efficiently. Remote sensing is being used both at local and global scale. High Resolution Satellite Imagery (HRSI), airborne remote sensing and space-borne remote sensing is playing vital role in disaster management. Early on Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to collect, arrange, and map the spatial information but now it has capability to analyze spatial data. This analytical ability of GIS is the main cause of its adaption by different emergency services providers like police and ambulance service. Full potential of these so called 3S technologies cannot be used in alone. Integration of GPS and other remote sensing techniques with GIS has pointed new horizons in modeling of earth science activities. Many remote sensing cases including Asian Ocean Tsunami in 2004, Mount Mangart landslides and Pakistan-India earthquake in 2005 are described in this paper.

Keywords: disaster mitigation, GIS, GPS, remote sensing

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896 Fe-Doped Graphene Nanoparticles for Gas Sensing Applications

Authors: Shivani A. Singh, Pravin S. More

Abstract:

In the present inspection, we indicate the falsification of Fe-doped graphene nanoparticles by modified Hummers method. Structural and physiochemical properties of the resulting pallets were explored with the help of ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) for graphene sample exhibits absorption peaks ~248nm. Pure graphene shows PL peak at 348 nm. After doping of Fe with graphene the PL peak shifted from 348 nm to 332 nm. The oxidation degree, i.e. the relative amount of oxygen functional groups was estimated from the relative intensities of the oxygen related bands (ORB) in the FTIR measurements. These analyses show that this modified material can be useful for gas sensing applications and to be used in diverse areas.

Keywords: chemical doping, graphene, gas sensing, sensing

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895 Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Using Hybrid IWO/PSO Algorithm in Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Deepa Das, Susmita Das

Abstract:

Cognitive Radio (CR) is an emerging technology to combat the spectrum scarcity issues. This is achieved by consistently sensing the spectrum, and detecting the under-utilized frequency bands without causing undue interference to the primary user (PU). In soft decision fusion (SDF) based cooperative spectrum sensing, various evolutionary algorithms have been discussed, which optimize the weight coefficient vector for maximizing the detection performance. In this paper, we propose the hybrid invasive weed optimization and particle swarm optimization (IWO/PSO) algorithm as a fast and global optimization method, which improves the detection probability with a lesser sensing time. Then, the efficiency of this algorithm is compared with the standard invasive weed optimization (IWO), particle swarm optimization (PSO), genetic algorithm (GA) and other conventional SDF based methods on the basis of convergence and detection probability.

Keywords: cognitive radio, spectrum sensing, soft decision fusion, GA, PSO, IWO, hybrid IWO/PSO

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894 Uniform Porous Multilayer-Junction Thin Film for Enhanced Gas-Sensing Performance

Authors: Ping-Ping Zhang, Hui-Zhang, Xu-Hui Sun

Abstract:

Highly-uniform In2O3/CuO bilayer and multilayer porous thin films were successfully fabricated using self-assembled soft template and simple sputtering deposition technique. The sensor based on the In2O3/CuO bilayer porous thin film shows obviously improved sensing performance to ethanol at the lower working temperature, compared to single layer counterpart sensors. The response of In2O3/CuO bilayer sensors exhibits nearly 3 and 5 times higher than those of the single layer In2O3 and CuO porous film sensors over the same ethanol concentration, respectively. The sensing mechanism based on p-n hetero-junction, which contributed to the enhanced sensing performance was also experimentally confirmed by a control experiment which the SiO2 insulation layer was inserted between the In2O3 and CuO layers to break the p-n junction. In addition, the sensing performance can be further enhanced by increasing the number of In2O3/CuO junction layers. The facile process can be easily extended to the fabrication of other semiconductor oxide gas sensors for practical sensing applications.

Keywords: gas sensor, multilayer porous thin films, In2O3/CuO, p-n junction

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893 A Comparative Study on Automatic Feature Classification Methods of Remote Sensing Images

Authors: Lee Jeong Min, Lee Mi Hee, Eo Yang Dam

Abstract:

Geospatial feature extraction is a very important issue in the remote sensing research. In the meantime, the image classification based on statistical techniques, but, in recent years, data mining and machine learning techniques for automated image processing technology is being applied to remote sensing it has focused on improved results generated possibility. In this study, artificial neural network and decision tree technique is applied to classify the high-resolution satellite images, as compared to the MLC processing result is a statistical technique and an analysis of the pros and cons between each of the techniques.

Keywords: remote sensing, artificial neural network, decision tree, maximum likelihood classification

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892 Distributed Optical Fiber Vibration Sensing Using Phase Generated Carrier Demodulation Algorithm

Authors: Zhihua Yu, Qi Zhang, Mingyu Zhang, Haolong Dai

Abstract:

Distributed fiber-optic vibration sensors are gaining extensive attention, for the advantages of high sensitivity, accurate location, light weight, large-scale monitoring, good concealment, and etc. In this paper, a novel optical fiber distributed vibration sensing system is proposed, which is based on self-interference of Rayleigh backscattering with phase generated carrier (PGC) demodulation algorithm. Pulsed lights are sent into the sensing fiber and the Rayleigh backscattering light from a certain position along the sensing fiber would interfere through an unbalanced Michelson Interferometry (MI) to generate the interference light. An improved PGC demodulation algorithm is carried out to recover the phase information of the interference signal, which carries the sensing information. Three vibration events were applied simultaneously to different positions over 2000m sensing fiber and demodulated correctly. Experiments show that the spatial resolution of is 10 m, and the noise level of the Φ-OTDR system is about 10-3 rad/√Hz, and the signal to noise ratio (SNR) is about 30.34dB. This vibration measurement scheme can be applied at surface, seabed or downhole for vibration measurements or distributed acoustic sensing (DAS).

Keywords: fiber optics sensors, Michelson interferometry, MI, phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry, Φ-OTDR, phase generated carrier, PGC

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891 Linear Frequency Modulation-Frequency Shift Keying Radar with Compressive Sensing

Authors: Ho Jeong Jin, Chang Won Seo, Choon Sik Cho, Bong Yong Choi, Kwang Kyun Na, Sang Rok Lee

Abstract:

In this paper, a radar signal processing technique using the LFM-FSK (Linear Frequency Modulation-Frequency Shift Keying) is proposed for reducing the false alarm rate based on the compressive sensing. The LFM-FSK method combines FMCW (Frequency Modulation Continuous Wave) signal with FSK (Frequency Shift Keying). This shows an advantage which can suppress the ghost phenomenon without the complicated CFAR (Constant False Alarm Rate) algorithm. Moreover, the parametric sparse algorithm applying the compressive sensing that restores signals efficiently with respect to the incomplete data samples is also integrated, leading to reducing the burden of ADC in the receiver of radars. 24 GHz FMCW signal is applied and tested in the real environment with FSK modulated data for verifying the proposed algorithm along with the compressive sensing.

Keywords: compressive sensing, LFM-FSK radar, radar signal processing, sparse algorithm

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890 Modern Spectrum Sensing Techniques for Cognitive Radio Networks: Practical Implementation and Performance Evaluation

Authors: Antoni Ivanov, Nikolay Dandanov, Nicole Christoff, Vladimir Poulkov

Abstract:

Spectrum underutilization has made cognitive radio a promising technology both for current and future telecommunications. This is due to the ability to exploit the unused spectrum in the bands dedicated to other wireless communication systems, and thus, increase their occupancy. The essential function, which allows the cognitive radio device to perceive the occupancy of the spectrum, is spectrum sensing. In this paper, the performance of modern adaptations of the four most widely used spectrum sensing techniques namely, energy detection (ED), cyclostationary feature detection (CSFD), matched filter (MF) and eigenvalues-based detection (EBD) is compared. The implementation has been accomplished through the PlutoSDR hardware platform and the GNU Radio software package in very low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) conditions. The optimal detection performance of the examined methods in a realistic implementation-oriented model is found for the common relevant parameters (number of observed samples, sensing time and required probability of false alarm).

Keywords: cognitive radio, dynamic spectrum access, GNU Radio, spectrum sensing

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889 Membrane Spanning DNA Origami Nanopores for Protein Translocation

Authors: Genevieve Pugh, Johnathan Burns, Stefan Howorka

Abstract:

Single-molecule sensing via protein nanopores has achieved a step-change in portable and label-free DNA sequencing. However, protein pores of both natural or engineered origin are not able to produce the tunable diameters needed for effective protein sensing. Here, we describe a generic strategy to build synthetic DNA nanopores that are wide enough to accommodate folded protein. The pores are composed of interlinked DNA duplexes and carry lipid anchors to achieve the required membrane insertion. Our demonstrator pore has a contiguous cross-sectional channel area of 50 nm2 which is 6-times larger than the largest protein pore. Consequently, transport of folded protein across bilayers is possible. The modular design is amenable for different pore dimensions and can be adapted for protein sensing or to create molecular gates in synthetic biology.

Keywords: biosensing, DNA nanotechnology, DNA origami, nanopore sensing

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888 Classification Method for Turnover While Sleeping Using Multi-Point Unconstrained Sensing Devices

Authors: K. Shiba, T. Kobayashi, T. Kaburagi, Y. Kurihara

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Elderly population in the world is increasing, and consequently, their nursing burden is also increasing. In such situations, monitoring and evaluating their daily action facilitates efficient nursing care. Especially, we focus on an unconscious activity during sleep, i.e. turnover. Monitoring turnover during sleep is essential to evaluate various conditions related to sleep. Bedsores are considered as one of the monitoring conditions. Changing patient’s posture every two hours is required for caregivers to prevent bedsore. Herein, we attempt to develop an unconstrained nocturnal monitoring system using a sensing device based on piezoelectric ceramics that can detect the vibrations owing to human body movement on the bed. In the proposed method, in order to construct a multi-points sensing, we placed two sensing devices under the right and left legs at the head-side of an ordinary bed. Using this equipment, when a subject lies on the bed, feature is calculated from the output voltages of the sensing devices. In order to evaluate our proposed method, we conducted an experiment with six healthy male subjects. Consequently, the period during which turnover occurs can be correctly classified as the turnover period with 100% accuracy.

Keywords: turnover, piezoelectric ceramics, multi-points sensing, unconstrained monitoring system

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887 Flood Monitoring Using Active Microwave Remote Sensed Synthetic Aperture Radar Data

Authors: Bikramjit Goswami, Manoranjan Kalita

Abstract:

Active microwave remote sensing is useful in remote sensing applications in cloud-covered regions in the world. Because of high spatial resolution, the spatial variations of land cover can be monitored in greater detail using synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Inundation is studied using the SAR images obtained from Sentinel-1A in both VH and VV polarizations in the present experimental study. The temporal variation of the SAR scattering coefficient values for the area gives a good indication of flood and its boundary. The study area is the district of Morigaon in the state of Assam in India. The period of flood monitoring study is the monsoon season of the year 2017, during which high flood occurred in the state of Assam. The variation of microwave scattering value shows a distinctive indication of flood from the non-flooded period. Frequent monitoring of flood in a large area (10 km x 10 km) using passive microwave sensing and pin-pointing the actual flooded portions (5 m x 5 m) within the flooded area using active microwave sensing, can be a highly useful combination, as revealed by the present experimental results.

Keywords: active remote sensing, flood monitoring, microwave remote sensing, synthetic aperture radar

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886 Doped and Co-doped ZnO Based Nanoparticles and their Photocatalytic and Gas Sensing Property

Authors: Neha Verma, Manik Rakhra

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Nowadays, a tremendous increase in population and advanced industrialization augment the problems related to air and water pollutions. Growing industries promoting environmental danger, which is an alarming threat to the ecosystem. For safeguard, the environment, detection of perilous gases and release of colored wastewater is required for eutrophication pollution. Researchers around the globe are trying their best efforts to save the environment. For this remediation advanced oxidation process is used for potential applications. ZnO is an important semiconductor photocatalyst with high photocatalytic and gas sensing activities. For efficient photocatalytic and gas sensing properties, it is necessary to prepare a doped/co-doped ZnO compound to decrease the electron-hole recombination rates. However, lanthanide doped and co-doped metal oxide is seldom studied for photocatalytic and gas sensing applications. The purpose of this study is to describe the best photocatalyst for the photodegradation of dyes and gas sensing properties. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Economical framework has to be used for the synthesis of ZnO. In the depth literature survey, a simple combustion method is utilized for gas sensing and photocatalytic activities. Findings: Rare earth doped and co-doped ZnO nanoparticles were the best photocatalysts for photodegradation of organic dyes and different gas sensing applications by varying various factors such as pH, aging time, and different concentrations of doping and codoping metals in ZnO. Complete degradation of dye was observed only in min. Gas sensing nanodevice showed a better response and quick recovery time for doped/co-doped ZnO. Conclusion & Significance: In order to prevent air and water pollution, well crystalline ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by rapid and economic method, which is used as photocatalyst for photodegradation of organic dyes and gas sensing applications to sense the release of hazardous gases from the environment.

Keywords: ZnO, photocatalyst, photodegradation of dye, gas sensor

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885 Application of Compressed Sensing Method for Compression of Quantum Data

Authors: M. Kowalski, M. Życzkowski, M. Karol

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Current quantum key distribution systems (QKD) offer low bit rate of up to single MHz. Compared to conventional optical fiber links with multiple GHz bitrates, parameters of recent QKD systems are significantly lower. In the article we present the conception of application of the Compressed Sensing method for compression of quantum information. The compression methodology as well as the signal reconstruction method and initial results of improving the throughput of quantum information link are presented.

Keywords: quantum key distribution systems, fiber optic system, compressed sensing

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884 A Method to Estimate Wheat Yield Using Landsat Data

Authors: Zama Mahmood

Abstract:

The increasing demand of food management, monitoring of the crop growth and forecasting its yield well before harvest is very important. These days, yield assessment together with monitoring of crop development and its growth are being identified with the help of satellite and remote sensing images. Studies using remote sensing data along with field survey validation reported high correlation between vegetation indices and yield. With the development of remote sensing technique, the detection of crop and its mechanism using remote sensing data on regional or global scales have become popular topics in remote sensing applications. Punjab, specially the southern Punjab region is extremely favourable for wheat production. But measuring the exact amount of wheat production is a tedious job for the farmers and workers using traditional ground based measurements. However, remote sensing can provide the most real time information. In this study, using the Normalized Differentiate Vegetation Index (NDVI) indicator developed from Landsat satellite images, the yield of wheat has been estimated during the season of 2013-2014 for the agricultural area around Bahawalpur. The average yield of the wheat was found 35 kg/acre by analysing field survey data. The field survey data is in fair agreement with the NDVI values extracted from Landsat images. A correlation between wheat production (ton) and number of wheat pixels has also been calculated which is in proportional pattern with each other. Also a strong correlation between the NDVI and wheat area was found (R2=0.71) which represents the effectiveness of the remote sensing tools for crop monitoring and production estimation.

Keywords: landsat, NDVI, remote sensing, satellite images, yield

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883 Soil Salinity from Wastewater Irrigation in Urban Greenery

Authors: H. Nouri, S. Chavoshi Borujeni, S. Anderson, S. Beecham, P. Sutton

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The potential risk of salt leaching through wastewater irrigation is of concern for most local governments and city councils. Despite the necessity of salinity monitoring and management in urban greenery, most attention has been on agricultural fields. This study was defined to investigate the capability and feasibility of monitoring and predicting soil salinity using near sensing and remote sensing approaches using EM38 surveys, and high-resolution multispectral image of WorldView3. Veale Gardens within the Adelaide Parklands was selected as the experimental site. The results of the near sensing investigation were validated by testing soil salinity samples in the laboratory. Over 30 band combinations forming salinity indices were tested using image processing techniques. The outcomes of the remote sensing and near sensing approaches were compared to examine whether remotely sensed salinity indicators could map and predict the spatial variation of soil salinity through a potential statistical model. Statistical analysis was undertaken using the Stata 13 statistical package on over 52,000 points. Several regression models were fitted to the data, and the mixed effect modelling was selected the most appropriate one as it takes to account the systematic observation-specific unobserved heterogeneity. Results showed that SAVI (Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index) was the only salinity index that could be considered as a predictor for soil salinity but further investigation is needed. However, near sensing was found as a rapid, practical and realistically accurate approach for salinity mapping of heterogeneous urban vegetation.

Keywords: WorldView3, remote sensing, EM38, near sensing, urban green spaces, green smart cities

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882 Design of Strain Sensor Based on Cascaded Fiber Bragg Grating for Remote Sensing Monitoring Application

Authors: Arafat A. A. Shabaneh

Abstract:

Harsh environments demand a developed detection of an optical communication system to ensure a high level of security and safety. Fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) are emerging sensing instruments that respond to variations in strain and temperature via varying wavelengths. In this paper, cascaded uniform FBG as a strain sensor for 6 km length at 1550 nm wavelength with 30 oC is designed with analyzing of dynamic strain and wavelength shifts. FBG is placed in a small segment of optical fiber, which reflects light of a specific wavelength and passes the remaining wavelengths. This makes a periodic alteration in the refractive index within the fiber core. The alteration in the modal index of fiber produced due to strain consequences in a Bragg wavelength. When the developed sensor exposure to a strain of cascaded uniform FBG by 0.01, the wavelength is shifted to 0.0000144383 μm. The sensing accuracy of the developed sensor is 0.0012. Simulation results show reliable and effective strain monitoring sensors for remote sensing applications.

Keywords: Cascaded fiber Bragg gratings, Strain sensor, Remote sensing, Wavelength shift

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881 The Study of Dengue Fever Outbreak in Thailand Using Geospatial Techniques, Satellite Remote Sensing Data and Big Data

Authors: Tanapat Chongkamunkong

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to present a practical use of Geographic Information System (GIS) to the public health from spatial correlation between multiple factors and dengue fever outbreak. Meteorological factors, demographic factors and environmental factors are compiled using GIS techniques along with the Global Satellite Mapping Remote Sensing (RS) data. We use monthly dengue fever cases, population density, precipitation, Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data. The scope cover study area under climate change of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicated by sea surface temperature (SST) and study area in 12 provinces of Thailand as remote sensing (RS) data from January 2007 to December 2014.

Keywords: dengue fever, sea surface temperature, Geographic Information System (GIS), remote sensing

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880 Automatic Extraction of Water Bodies Using Whole-R Method

Authors: Nikhat Nawaz, S. Srinivasulu, P. Kesava Rao

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Feature extraction plays an important role in many remote sensing applications. Automatic extraction of water bodies is of great significance in many remote sensing applications like change detection, image retrieval etc. This paper presents a procedure for automatic extraction of water information from remote sensing images. The algorithm uses the relative location of R-colour component of the chromaticity diagram. This method is then integrated with the effectiveness of the spatial scale transformation of whole method. The whole method is based on water index fitted from spectral library. Experimental results demonstrate the improved accuracy and effectiveness of the integrated method for automatic extraction of water bodies.

Keywords: feature extraction, remote sensing, image retrieval, chromaticity, water index, spectral library, integrated method

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879 Planar Plasmonic Terahertz Waveguides for Sensor Applications

Authors: Maidul Islam, Dibakar Roy Chowdhury, Gagan Kumar

Abstract:

We investigate sensing capabilities of a planar plasmonic THz waveguide. The waveguide is comprised of one dimensional array of periodically arranged sub wavelength scale corrugations in the form of rectangular dimples in order to ensure the plasmonic response. The THz waveguide transmission is observed for polyimide (as thin film) substance filling the dimples. The refractive index of the polyimide film is varied to examine various sensing parameters such as frequency shift, sensitivity and Figure of Merit (FoM) of the fundamental plasmonic resonance supported by the waveguide. In efforts to improve sensing characteristics, we also examine sensing capabilities of a plasmonic waveguide having V shaped corrugations and compare results with that of rectangular dimples. The proposed study could be significant in developing new terahertz sensors with improved sensitivity utilizing the plasmonic waveguides.

Keywords: plasmonics, sensors, sub-wavelength structures, terahertz

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878 Rb-Modified Few-Layered Graphene for Gas Sensing Application

Authors: Vasant Reddy, Shivani A. Singh, Pravin S. More

Abstract:

In the present investigation, we demonstrated the fabrication of few-layers of graphene sheets with alkali metal i.e. Rb-G using chemical route method. The obtained materials were characterized by means of chemical, structural and electrical techniques, using the ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and 4 points probe, respectively. The XRD studies were carried out to understand the phase of the samples where we found a sharp peak of Rb-G at 26.470. UV-Spectroscopy of Graphene and Rb-modified graphene samples shows the absorption peaks at ~248 nm and ~318 nm respectively. These analyses show that this modified material can be useful for gas sensing applications and to be used in diverse areas.

Keywords: chemical route, graphene, gas sensing, UV-spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 159