Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 598

Search results for: Chylla-Haase reactor

598 Pollutants Removal from Synthetic Wastewater by the Combined Electrochemical Sequencing Batch Reactor

Authors: Amin Mojiri, Akiyoshi Ohashi, Tomonori Kindaichi

Abstract:

Synthetic domestic wastewater was treated via combining treatment methods, including electrochemical oxidation, adsorption, and sequencing batch reactor (SBR). In the upper part of the reactor, an anode and a cathode (Ti/RuO2-IrO2) were organized in parallel for the electrochemical oxidation procedure. Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) with a concentration of 2.5 g/L was applied as the electrolyte. The voltage and current were fixed on 7.50 V and 0.40 A, respectively. Then, 15% working value of the reactor was filled by activated sludge, and 85% working value of the reactor was added with synthetic wastewater. Powdered cockleshell, 1.5 g/L, was added in the reactor to do ion-exchange. Response surface methodology was employed for statistical analysis. Reaction time (h) and pH were considered as independent factors. A total of 97.0% biochemical oxygen demand, 99.9% phosphorous and 88.6% cadmium were eliminated at the optimum reaction time (80.0 min) and pH (6.4).

Keywords: adsorption, electrochemical oxidation, metals, SBR

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
597 Hydraulic Studies on Core Components of PFBR

Authors: G. K. Pandey, D. Ramadasu, I. Banerjee, V. Vinod, G. Padmakumar, V. Prakash, K. K. Rajan

Abstract:

Detailed thermal hydraulic investigations are very essential for safe and reliable functioning of liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors. These investigations are further more important for components with complex profile, since there is no direct correlation available in literature to evaluate the hydraulic characteristics of such components directly. In those cases available correlations for similar profile or geometries may lead to significant uncertainty in the outcome. Hence experimental approach can be adopted to evaluate these hydraulic characteristics more precisely for better prediction in reactor core components. Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), a sodium cooled pool type reactor is under advanced stage of construction at Kalpakkam, India. Several components of this reactor core require hydraulic investigation before its usage in the reactor. These hydraulic investigations on full scale models, carried out by experimental approaches using water as simulant fluid are discussed in the paper.

Keywords: fast breeder reactor, cavitation, pressure drop, reactor components

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
596 Performance of an Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) during Start-Up Period

Authors: D. M. Bassuney, W. A. Ibrahim, Medhat A. E. Moustafa

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Appropriate start-up of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) is considered to be the most delicate and important issue in the anaerobic process, and depends on several factors such as wastewater composition, reactor configuration, inoculum and operating conditions. In this work, the start-up performance of an ABR with working volume of 30 liters, fed continuously with synthetic food industrial wastewater along with semi-batch study to measure the methangenic activity by specific methanogenic activity (SMA) test were carried out at various organic loading rates (OLRs) to determine the best OLR used to start up the reactor. The comparison was based on COD removal efficiencies, start-up time, pH stability and methane production. An OLR of 1.8 Kg COD/m3d (5400 gCOD/m3 and 3 days HRT) showed best overall performance with COD removal efficiency of 94.44% after four days from the feeding and methane production of 3802 ml/L with an overall SMA of 0.36 gCH4-COD/gVS.d

Keywords: anaerobic baffled reactor, anaerobic reactor start-up, food industrial wastewater, specific methanogenic activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
595 Validation of Codes Dragon4 and Donjon4 by Calculating Keff of a Slowpoke-2 Reactor

Authors: Otman Jai, Otman Elhajjaji, Jaouad Tajmouati

Abstract:

Several neutronic calculation codes must be used to solve the equation for different levels of discretization which all necessitate a specific modelisation. This chain of such models, known as a calculation scheme, leads to the knowledge of the neutron flux in a reactor from its own geometry, its isotopic compositions and a cross-section library. Being small in size, the 'Slowpoke-2' reactor is difficult to model due to the importance of the leaking neutrons. In the paper, the simulation model is presented (geometry, cross section library, assumption, etc.), and the results obtained by DRAGON4/DONJON4 codes were compared to the calculations performed with Monte Carlo code MCNP using detailed geometrical model of the reactor and the experimental data. Criticality calculations have been performed to verify and validate the model. Since created model properly describes the reactor core, it can be used for calculations of reactor core parameters and for optimization of research reactor application.

Keywords: transport equation, Dragon4, Donjon4, neutron flux, effective multiplication factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
594 Hydrodynamic Analysis with Heat Transfer in Solid Gas Fluidized Bed Reactor for Solar Thermal Applications

Authors: Sam Rasoulzadeh, Atefeh Mousavi

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Fluidized bed reactors are known as highly exothermic and endothermic according to uniformity in temperature as a safe and effective mean for catalytic reactors. In these reactors, a wide range of catalyst particles can be used and by using a continuous operation proceed to produce in succession. Providing optimal conditions for the operation of these types of reactors will prevent the exorbitant costs necessary to carry out laboratory work. In this regard, a hydrodynamic analysis was carried out with heat transfer in the solid-gas fluidized bed reactor for solar thermal applications. The results showed that in the fluid flow the input of the reactor has a lower temperature than the outlet, and when the fluid is passing from the reactor, the heat transfer happens between cylinder and solar panel and fluid. It increases the fluid temperature in the outlet pump and also the kinetic energy of the fluid has been raised in the outlet areas.

Keywords: heat transfer, solar reactor, fluidized bed reactor, CFD, computational fluid dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
593 Performance of an Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) Treating High-Strength Food Industrial Wastewater with Fluctuating pH

Authors: D. M. Bassuney, W. A. Ibrahim, Medhat A. E. Moustafa

Abstract:

As awareness of the variable nature of food industrial wastewater and its environmental impact grows, a more stable treatment reactor is needed to treat such wastewater. In this paper, a performance of 5-compartment lab-scale Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) treating high strength wastewater with high pH variation was studied under three organic loading rates (OLRs). The reactor showed high COD removal efficiencies: 92.67, 97.44, and 98.19% corresponding to OLRs of 2.0, 3.0, and 4.8 KgCOD/m3 d, respectively. The first compartment showed a good buffering capacity and a distinct phase separation occurred in the ABR.

Keywords: anaerobic baffled reactor, food industrial wastewater, high strength wastewater, organic loading, pH

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
592 Heat Transfer Analysis of a Multiphase Oxygen Reactor Heated by a Helical Tube in the Cu-Cl Cycle of a Hydrogen Production

Authors: Mohammed W. Abdulrahman

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In the thermochemical water splitting process by Cu-Cl cycle, oxygen gas is produced by an endothermic thermolysis process at a temperature of 530oC. Oxygen production reactor is a three-phase reactor involving cuprous chloride molten salt, copper oxychloride solid reactant and oxygen gas. To perform optimal performance, the oxygen reactor requires accurate control of heat transfer to the molten salt and decomposing solid particles within the thermolysis reactor. In this paper, the scale up analysis of the oxygen reactor that is heated by an internal helical tube is performed from the perspective of heat transfer. A heat balance of the oxygen reactor is investigated to analyze the size of the reactor that provides the required heat input for different rates of hydrogen production. It is found that the helical tube wall and the service side constitute the largest thermal resistances of the oxygen reactor system. In the analysis of this paper, the Cu-Cl cycle is assumed to be heated by two types of nuclear reactor, which are HTGR and CANDU SCWR. It is concluded that using CANDU SCWR requires more heat transfer rate by 3-4 times than that when using HTGR. The effect of the reactor aspect ratio is also studied and it is found that increasing the aspect ratio decreases the number of reactors and the rate of decrease in the number of reactors decreases by increasing the aspect ratio. Comparisons between the results of this study and pervious results of material balances in the oxygen reactor show that the size of the oxygen reactor is dominated by the heat balance rather than the material balance.

Keywords: heat transfer, Cu-Cl cycle, hydrogen production, oxygen, clean energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
591 Synthesis of Nano Iron Copper Core-Shell by Using K-M Reactor

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed AbdelKawy, A. H. El-Shazly

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In this study, Nano iron-copper core-shell was synthesized by using Kinetic energy micro reactor ( K-M reactor). The reaction between nano-pure iron with copper sulphate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O) beside NaCMC as a stabilizer at K-M reactor gives many advantages in comparison with the traditional chemical method for production of nano iron-Copper core-shell in batch reactor. Many factors were investigated for its effect on the process performance such as initial concentrations of nano iron and copper sulphate pentahydrate solution. Different techniques were used for investigation and characterization of the produced nano iron particles such as SEM, XRD, UV-Vis, XPS, TEM and PSD. The produced Nano iron-copper core-shell particle using micro mixer showed better characteristics than those produced using batch reactor in different aspects such as homogeneity of the produced particles, particle size distribution and size, as core diameter 10nm particle size were obtained. The results showed that 10 nm core diameter were obtained using Micro mixer as compared to 80 nm core diameter in one-fourth the time required by using traditional batch reactor and high thickness of copper shell and good stability.

Keywords: nano iron, core-shell, reduction reaction, K-M reactor

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
590 Simulation of Photocatalytic Degradation of Rhodamine B in Annular Photocatalytic Reactor

Authors: Jatinder Kumar, Ajay Bansal

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Simulation of a photocatalytic reactor helps in understanding the complex behavior of the photocatalytic degradation. Simulation also aids the designing and optimization of the photocatalytic reactor. Lack of simulation strategies is a huge hindrance in the commercialization of the photocatalytic technology. With the increased performance of computational resources, and development of simulation software, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is becoming an affordable engineering tool to simulate and optimize reactor designs. In the present paper, a CFD (Computational fluid dynamics) model for simulating the performance of an immobilized-titanium dioxide based annular photocatalytic reactor was developed. The computational model integrates hydrodynamics, species mass transport, and chemical reaction kinetics using a commercial CFD code Fluent 6.3.26. The CFD model was based on the intrinsic kinetic parameters determined experimentally in a perfectly mixed batch reactor. Rhodamine B, a complex organic compound, was selected as a test pollutant for photocatalytic degradation. It was observed that CFD could become a valuable tool to understand and improve the photocatalytic systems.

Keywords: simulation, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), annular photocatalytic reactor, titanium dioxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 440
589 Aspen Plus Simulation of Saponification of Ethyl Acetate in the Presence of Sodium Hydroxide in a Plug Flow Reactor

Authors: U. P. L. Wijayarathne, K. C. Wasalathilake

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This work presents the modelling and simulation of saponification of ethyl acetate in the presence of sodium hydroxide in a plug flow reactor using Aspen Plus simulation software. Plug flow reactors are widely used in the industry due to the non-mixing property. The use of plug flow reactors becomes significant when there is a need for continuous large scale reaction or fast reaction. Plug flow reactors have a high volumetric unit conversion as the occurrence for side reactions is minimum. In this research Aspen Plus V8.0 has been successfully used to simulate the plug flow reactor. In order to simulate the process as accurately as possible HYSYS Peng-Robinson EOS package was used as the property method. The results obtained from the simulation were verified by the experiment carried out in the EDIBON plug flow reactor module. The correlation coefficient (r2) was 0.98 and it proved that simulation results satisfactorily fit for the experimental model. The developed model can be used as a guide for understanding the reaction kinetics of a plug flow reactor.

Keywords: aspen plus, modelling, plug flow reactor, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
588 Comparative Study for Biodiesel Production Using a Batch and a Semi-Continuous Flow Reactor

Authors: S. S. L. Andrade, E. A. Souza, L. C. L. Santos, C. Moraes, A. K. C. L. Lobato

Abstract:

Biodiesel may be produced through transesterification reaction (or alcoholysis), that is the transformation of a long chain fatty acid in an alkyl ester. This reaction can occur in the presence of acid catalysts, alkali, or enzyme. Currently, for industrial processes, biodiesel is produced by alkaline route. The alkali most commonly used in these processes is hydroxides and methoxides of sodium and potassium. In this work, biodiesel production was conducted in two different systems. The first consisted of a batch reactor operating with a traditional washing system and the second consisted of a semi-continuous flow reactor operating with a membrane separation system. Potassium hydroxides was used as catalyst at a concentration of 1% by weight, the molar ratio oil/alcohol was 1/9 and temperature of 55 °C. Tests were performed using soybeans and palm oil and the ester conversion results were compared for both systems. It can be seen that the results for both oils are similar when using the batch reator or the semi-continuous flow reactor. The use of the semi-continuous flow reactor allows the removal of the formed products. Thus, in the case of a reversible reaction, with the removal of reaction products, the concentration of the reagents becomes higher and the equilibrium reaction is shifted towards the formation of more products. The higher conversion to ester with soybean and palm oil using the batch reactor was approximately 98%. In contrast, it was observed a conversion of 99% when using the same operating condition on a semi-continuous flow reactor.

Keywords: biodiesel, batch reactor, semi-continuous flow reactor, transesterification

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587 Depyritization of US Coal Using Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria: Batch Stirred Reactor Study

Authors: Ashish Pathak, Dong-Jin Kim, Haragobinda Srichandan, Byoung-Gon Kim

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Microbial depyritization of coal using chemoautotrophic bacteria is gaining acceptance as an efficient and eco-friendly technique. The process uses the metabolic activity of chemoautotrophic bacteria in removing sulfur and pyrite from the coal. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in removing the pyritic sulfur and iron from high iron and sulfur containing US coal. The experiment was undertaken in 8 L bench scale stirred tank reactor having 1% (w/v) pulp density of coal. The reactor was operated at 35ºC and aerobic conditions were maintained by sparging the air into the reactor. It was found that at the end of bio-depyritization process, about 90% of pyrite and 67% of pyritic sulfur was removed from the coal. The results indicate that the bio-depyritization process is an efficient process in treating the high pyrite and sulfur containing coal.

Keywords: At.ferrooxidans, batch reactor, coal desulfurization, pyrite

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
586 Contribution of Soluble Microbial Products on Dissolved Organic Nitrogen in Wastewater Effluent from Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor

Authors: Boonsiri Dandumrongsin, Halis Simsek, Chaiwat Rongsayamanont

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Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is known as one of the persistence nitrogenous pollutant being originated from secondary treated effluent of municipal sewage treatment plant. However, effect of key system operating condition on the fate and behavior of residual DON in the treated effluent is still not known. This study aims to investigate effect of organic loading rate (OLR) on the residual level of DON in the biofilm reactor effluent. Synthetic municipal wastewater was fed into moving bed biofilm reactors at OLR of 1.6x10-3 and 3.2x10-3 kg SCOD/m3-d. The results showed higher organic removal efficiency was found in the reactor operating at higher OLR. However, DON was observed at higher value in the effluent of the higher OLR reactor than that of the lower OLR reactor evidencing a clear influence of OLR on the residual DON level in the treated effluent of the biofilm reactors. It is possible that the lower DON being observed in the reactor at lower OLR is likely to be a result of providing the microbe with the additional period for utilizing the refractory DON molecules during operation at lower organic loading. All the experiments were repeated using raw wastewaters and similar trend was obtained.

Keywords: dissolved organic nitrogen, hydraulic retention time, moving bed biofilm reactor, soluble microbial products

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585 Up-Flow Sponge Submerged Biofilm Reactor for Municipal Sewage Treatment

Authors: Saber A. El-Shafai, Waleed M. Zahid

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An up-flow submerged biofilm reactor packed with sponge was investigated for sewage treatment. The reactor was operated two cycles as single aerobic (1-1 at 3.5 L/L.d HLR and 1-2 at 3.8 L/L.day HLR) and four cycles as single anaerobic/aerobic reactor; 2-1 and 2-2 at low HLR (3.7 and 3.5 L/L.day) and 2-3 and 2-4 at high HLR (5.1 and 5.4 L/L.day). During the aerobic cycles, 50% effluent recycling significantly reduces the system performance except for phosphorous. In case of the anaerobic/aerobic reactor, the effluent recycling, significantly improves system performance at low HLR while at high HLR only phosphorous removal was improved. Excess sludge production was limited to 0.133 g TSS/g COD with better sludge volume index (SVI) in case of anaerobic/aerobic cycles; (54.7 versus 58.5 ml/g).

Keywords: aerobic, anaerobic/aerobic, up-flow, submerged biofilm, sponge

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
584 Heavy Liquid Metal Coolant – the Key Safety Element in the Complex of New Nuclear Energy Technologies

Authors: A. Orlov, V. Rachkov

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The future of Nuclear Energetics is seen in fast reactors with inherent safety working in the closed nuclear fuel cycle. The concept of inherent safety, which lies in deterministic elimination of the most severe accidents due to inherent properties of the reactor rather than through building up engineered barriers, is a cornerstone of success in ensuring safety and economic efficiency of future Nuclear Energetics. The focus of this paper is one of the key elements of inherent safety - the lead coolant of a nuclear reactor. Advantages of lead coolant for reactor application, influence on safety are reviewed. BREST-OD-300 fast reactor, currently being developed in Russia withing the “Proryv” Project utilizes lead coolant and a special set of measures and devices, called technology of lead coolant that ensures safe operation in a wide range of temperatures. Here these technological elements are reviewed, and current progress in their development is discussed.

Keywords: BREST-OD-300. , fast reactor, inherent safety, lead coolant

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
583 Similitude for Thermal Scale-up of a Multiphase Thermolysis Reactor in the Cu-Cl Cycle of a Hydrogen Production

Authors: Mohammed W. Abdulrahman

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The thermochemical copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle is considered as a sustainable and efficient technology for a hydrogen production, when linked with clean-energy systems such as nuclear reactors or solar thermal plants. In the Cu-Cl cycle, water is decomposed thermally into hydrogen and oxygen through a series of intermediate reactions. This paper investigates the thermal scale up analysis of the three phase oxygen production reactor in the Cu-Cl cycle, where the reaction is endothermic and the temperature is about 530 oC. The paper focuses on examining the size and number of oxygen reactors required to provide enough heat input for different rates of hydrogen production. The type of the multiphase reactor used in this paper is the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) that is heated by a half pipe jacket. The thermal resistance of each section in the jacketed reactor system is studied to examine its effect on the heat balance of the reactor. It is found that the dominant contribution to the system thermal resistance is from the reactor wall. In the analysis, the Cu-Cl cycle is assumed to be driven by a nuclear reactor where two types of nuclear reactors are examined as the heat source to the oxygen reactor. These types are the CANDU Super Critical Water Reactor (CANDU-SCWR) and High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR). It is concluded that a better heat transfer rate has to be provided for CANDU-SCWR by 3-4 times than HTGR. The effect of the reactor aspect ratio is also examined in this paper and is found that increasing the aspect ratio decreases the number of reactors and the rate of decrease in the number of reactors decreases by increasing the aspect ratio. Finally, a comparison between the results of heat balance and existing results of mass balance is performed and is found that the size of the oxygen reactor is dominated by the heat balance rather than the material balance.

Keywords: sustainable energy, clean energy, Cu-Cl cycle, heat transfer, hydrogen, oxygen

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
582 Temperature Control Improvement of Membrane Reactor

Authors: Pornsiri Kaewpradit, Chalisa Pourneaw

Abstract:

Temperature control improvement of a membrane reactor with exothermic and reversible esterification reaction is studied in this work. It is well known that a batch membrane reactor requires different control strategies from a continuous one due to the fact that it is operated dynamically. Due to the effect of the operating temperature, the suitable control scheme has to be designed based reliable predictive model to achieve a desired objective. In the study, the optimization framework has been preliminary formulated in order to determine an optimal temperature trajectory for maximizing a desired product. In model predictive control scheme, a set of predictive models have been initially developed corresponding to the possible operating points of the system. The multiple predictive control moves have been further calculated on-line using the developed models corresponding to current operating point. It is obviously seen in the simulation results that the temperature control has been improved compared to the performance obtained by the conventional predictive controller. Further robustness tests have also been investigated in this study.

Keywords: model predictive control, batch reactor, temperature control, membrane reactor

Procedia PDF Downloads 368
581 Computational Fluid Dynamics and Experimental Evaluation of Two Batch Type Electrocoagulation Stirred Tank Reactors Used in the Removal of Cr (VI) from Waste Water

Authors: Phanindra Prasad Thummala, Umran Tezcan Un

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In this study, hydrodynamics analysis of two batch type electrocoagulation stirred tank reactors, used for the electrocoagulation treatment of Cr(VI) wastewater, was carried using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of mixing characteristics on overall performance of electrocoagulation reactor. The CFD simulations were performed using ANSYS FLUENT 14.4 software. The mixing performance of each reactor was evaluated by numerically modelling tracer dispersion in each reactor configuration. The uniformity in tracer dispersion was assumed when 90% of the ratio of the maximum to minimum concentration of the tracer was realized. In parallel, experimental evaluation of both the electrocoagulation reactors for removal of Cr(VI) from wastewater was also carried out. The results of CFD and experimental analysis clearly show that the reactor which can give higher uniformity in lesser time, will perform better as an electrocoagulation reactor for removal of Cr(VI) from wastewater.

Keywords: CFD, stirred tank reactors, electrocoagulation, Cr(VI) wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
580 The Main Steamline Break Transient Analysis for Advanced Boiling Water Reactor Using TRACE, PARCS, and SNAP Codes

Authors: H. C. Chang, J. R. Wang, A. L. Ho, S. W. Chen, J. H. Yang, C. Shih, L. C. Wang

Abstract:

To confirm the reactor and containment integrity of the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR), we perform the analysis of main steamline break (MSLB) transient by using the TRACE, PARCS, and SNAP codes. The process of the research has four steps. First, the ABWR nuclear power plant (NPP) model is developed by using the above codes. Second, the steady state analysis is performed by using this model. Third, the ABWR model is used to run the analysis of MSLB transient. Fourth, the predictions of TRACE and PARCS are compared with the data of FSAR. The results of TRACE/PARCS and FSAR are similar. According to the TRACE/PARCS results, the reactor and containment integrity of ABWR can be maintained in a safe condition for MSLB.

Keywords: advanced boiling water reactor, TRACE, PARCS, SNAP

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
579 RBF Modelling and Optimization Control for Semi-Batch Reactors

Authors: Magdi M. Nabi, Ding-Li Yu

Abstract:

This paper presents a neural network based model predictive control (MPC) strategy to control a strongly exothermic reaction with complicated nonlinear kinetics given by Chylla-Haase polymerization reactor that requires a very precise temperature control to maintain product uniformity. In the benchmark scenario, the operation of the reactor must be guaranteed under various disturbing influences, e.g., changing ambient temperatures or impurity of the monomer. Such a process usually controlled by conventional cascade control, it provides a robust operation, but often lacks accuracy concerning the required strict temperature tolerances. The predictive control strategy based on the RBF neural model is applied to solve this problem to achieve set-point tracking of the reactor temperature against disturbances. The result shows that the RBF based model predictive control gives reliable result in the presence of some disturbances and keeps the reactor temperature within a tight tolerance range around the desired reaction temperature.

Keywords: Chylla-Haase reactor, RBF neural network modelling, model predictive control, semi-batch reactors

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
578 Modeling and Characterization of the SiC Single Crystal Growth Process

Authors: T. Wejrzanowski, M. Grybczuk, E. Tymicki, K. J. Kurzydlowski

Abstract:

In the present study numerical simulations silicon carbide single crystal growth process in Physical Vapor Transport reactor are addressed. Silicon Carbide is a perspective material for many applications in modern electronics. One of the main challenges for wider applications of SiC is high price of high quality mono crystals. Improvement of silicon carbide manufacturing process has a significant influence on the product price. Better understanding of crystal growth allows for optimization of the process, and it can be achieved by numerical simulations. In this work Virtual Reactor software was used to simulate the process. Predicted geometrical properties of the final product and information about phenomena occurring inside process reactor were obtained. The latter is especially valuable because reactor chamber is inaccessible during the process due to high temperature inside the reactor (over 2000˚C). Obtained data was used for improvement of the process and reactor geometry. Resultant crystal quality was also predicted basing on crystallization front shape evolution and threading dislocation paths. Obtained results were confronted with experimental data and the results are in good agreement.

Keywords: Finite Volume Method, semiconductors, Physical Vapor Transport, silicon carbide

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
577 Nonlinear Adaptive PID Control for a Semi-Batch Reactor Based on an RBF Network

Authors: Magdi. M. Nabi, Ding-Li Yu

Abstract:

Control of a semi-batch polymerization reactor using an adaptive radial basis function (RBF) neural network method is investigated in this paper. A neural network inverse model is used to estimate the valve position of the reactor; this method can identify the controlled system with the RBF neural network identifier. The weights of the adaptive PID controller are timely adjusted based on the identification of the plant and self-learning capability of RBFNN. A PID controller is used in the feedback control to regulate the actual temperature by compensating the neural network inverse model output. Simulation results show that the proposed control has strong adaptability, robustness and satisfactory control performance and the nonlinear system is achieved.

Keywords: Chylla-Haase polymerization reactor, RBF neural networks, feed-forward, feedback control

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576 Structural Integrity Analysis of Baffle Former Assembly in Pressurized Water Reactors Considering Irradiation Aging

Authors: Jong-Sung Kim, Myung-Jo Jhung

Abstract:

BFA is one of the reactor internals components in PWR. The BFA has the intended functions to support fuel assembly, to keep structural integrity of upper/lower core support structures, and to secure reactor coolant flow path. Failure of the BFA may give rise to significant effect on reactor safety operation and stop. The BFA is subject to relatively high neutron irradiation dose due to location close to the core. Therefore, IASCC can occur on the BFA due to damage accumulation as operating year increases. In this study, IASCC susceptibility on the BFA was assessed via the FEA considering variations of mechanical material behaviors with neutron irradiation. As a result of the assessment, some points have susceptibility more than 0.2 to IASCC during design lifetime.

Keywords: baffle former assembly, finite element analysis, irradiation aging, nuclear power plant, pressurized water reactor

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
575 Study of the Anaerobic Degradation Potential of High Strength Molasses Wastewater

Authors: M. Mischopoulou, P. Naidis, S. Kalamaras, T. Kotsopoulos, P. Samaras

Abstract:

The treatment of high strength wastewater by an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor has several benefits, such as high organic removal efficiency, short hydraulic retention time along with low operating costs. In addition, high volumes of biogas are released in these reactors, which can be utilized in several industrial facilities for energy production. This study aims at the examination of the application potential of anaerobic treatment of wastewater, with high molasses content derived from yeast manufacturing, by a lab-scale UASB reactor. The molasses wastewater and the sludge used in the experiments were collected from the wastewater treatment plant of a baker’s yeast manufacturing company. The experimental set-up consisted of a 15 L thermostated UASB reactor at 37 ◦C. Before the reactor start-up, the reactor was filled with sludge and molasses wastewater at a ratio 1:1 v/v. Influent was fed to the reactor at a flowrate of 12 L/d, corresponding to a hydraulic residence time of about 30 h. Effluents were collected from the system outlet and were analyzed for the determination of the following parameters: COD, pH, total solids, volatile solids, ammonium, phosphates and total nitrogen according to the standard methods of analysis. In addition, volatile fatty acid (VFA) composition of the effluent was determined by a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID), as an indicator to evaluate the process efficiency. The volume of biogas generated in the reactor was daily measured by the water displacement method, while gas composition was analyzed by a gas chromatograph equipped with a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). The effluent quality was greatly enhanced due to the use of the UASB reactor and high rate of biogas production was observed. The anaerobic treatment of the molasses wastewater by the UASB reactor improved the biodegradation potential of the influent, resulting at high methane yields and an effluent with better quality than the raw wastewater.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas production, molasses wastewater, UASB reactor

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
574 Development of Rh/Ce-Zr-La/Al2O3 TWCs’ Wash Coat: Effect of Reactor on Catalytic and Thermal Stability

Authors: Su-Ning Wang, Yao-Qiang Chen

Abstract:

The CeO2-ZrO2-La2O3-Al2O3 composite oxides are synthesized using co-precipitation method by two different reactors (i.e. continuous stirred-tank reactor and batch reactor), and the corresponding Rh-only three-way catalysts are obtained by wet-impregnation approach. The textural, structural, morphology and redox properties of the support materials, as well as the catalytic performance of the Rh-only catalyst are investigated systematically. The results reveal that the materials (CZLA-C) synthesized by continuous stirred-tank reactor have a better physic-chemical properties than the counterpart material (CZLA-B) prepared by batch reactor. After aging treatment at 1000 ℃ for 5 h, the BET surface area and pore volume of S1 reach up to 76 m2 g-1 and 0.36 mL/g, respectively, which is higher than that of S2. The XRD and Raman results demonstrate that a high structural stability is obtained by S1 because of the negligible lattice variation and the slight grain growth after aging treatment. The SEM and TEM images display that the morphology of S1 is assembled by many homogeneous primary nanoparticles (about 6.12 nm) that are connected to form mesoporous structure The TPR measurement shows that S1 possesses a higher reduction ability than S2. Compared with the catalyst supported on the CZLA-B, the as-prepared CZLA-C demonstrates an improved three-way catalytic activity both before and after aging treatment.

Keywords: composite oxides, reactor, catalysis, catalytic performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
573 2D CFD-PBM Coupled Model of Particle Growth in an Industrial Gas Phase Fluidized Bed Polymerization Reactor

Authors: H. Kazemi Esfeh, V. Akbari, M. Ehdaei, T. N. G. Borhani, A. Shamiri, M. Najafi

Abstract:

In an industrial fluidized bed polymerization reactor, particle size distribution (PSD) plays a significant role in the reactor efficiency evaluation. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models coupled with population balance equation (CFD-PBM) have been extensively employed to investigate the flow behavior in the poly-disperse multiphase fluidized bed reactors (FBRs) utilizing ANSYS Fluent code. In this study, an existing CFD-PBM/ DQMOM coupled modeling framework has been used to highlight its potential to analyze the industrial-scale gas phase polymerization reactor. The predicted results reveal an acceptable agreement with the observed industrial data in terms of pressure drop and bed height. The simulated results also indicate that the higher particle growth rate can be achieved for bigger particles. Hence, the 2D CFD-PBM/DQMOM coupled model can be used as a reliable tool for analyzing and improving the design and operation of the gas phase polymerization FBRs.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, population balance equation, fluidized bed polymerization reactor, direct quadrature method of moments

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572 Analysis of Force Convection in Bandung Triga Reactor Core Plate Types Fueled Using Coolod-N2

Authors: K. A. Sudjatmi, Endiah Puji Hastuti, Surip Widodo, Reinaldy Nazar

Abstract:

Any pretensions to stop the production of TRIGA fuel elements by TRIGA reactor fuel elements manufacturer should be anticipated by the operating agency of TRIGA reactor to replace the cylinder type fuel element with plate type fuel element, that available on the market. This away was performed the calculation on U3Si2Al fuel with uranium enrichment of 19.75% and a load level of 2.96 gU/cm3. Maximum power that can be operated on free convection cooling mode at the BANDUNG TRIGA reactor fuel plate was 600 kW. This study has been conducted thermalhydraulic characteristic calculation model of the reactor core power 2MW. BANDUNG TRIGA reactor core fueled plate type is composed of 16 fuel elements, 4 control elements and one irradiation facility which is located right in the middle of the core. The reactor core is cooled using a pump which is already available with flow rate 900 gpm. Analysis on forced convection cooling mode with flow from the top down from 10%, 20%, 30% and so on up to a 100% rate of coolant flow. performed using the COOLOD-N2 code. The calculations result showed that the 2 MW power with inlet coolant temperature at 37 °C and cooling rate percentage of 50%, then the coolant temperature, maximum cladding and meat respectively 64.96 oC, 124.81 oC, and 125.08 oC, DNBR (departure from nucleate boiling ratio)=1.23 and OFIR (onset of flow instability ratio)=1:00. The results are expected to be used as a reference for determining the power and cooling rate level of the BANDUNG TRIGA reactor core plate types fueled.

Keywords: TRIGA, COOLOD-N2, plate type fuel element, force convection, thermal hydraulic characteristic

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571 Evaluation of the Operating Parameters for Biodiesel Production Using a Membrane Reactor

Authors: S. S. L. Andrade, E. A. Souza, L. C. L. Santos, C. Moraes, A. K. C. L. Lobato

Abstract:

Biodiesel production using membrane reactor has become increasingly studied, because this process minimizes some of the main problems encountered in the biodiesel purification. The membrane reactor tries to minimize post-treatment steps, resulting in cost savings and enabling the competitiveness of biodiesel produced by homogeneous alkaline catalysis. This is due to the reaction and product separation may occur simultaneously. In order to evaluate the production of biodiesel from soybean oils using a tubular membrane reactor, a factorial experimental design was conducted (2³) to evaluate the influence of following variables: temperature (45 to 60 °C), catalyst concentration (0.5 to 1% by weight) and molar ratio of oil/methanol (1/6 to 1/9). In addition, the parametric sensitivity was evaluated by the analysis of variance and model through the response surface. The results showed a tendency of influence of the variables in the reaction conversion. The significance effect was higher for the catalyst concentration followed by the molar ratio of oil/methanol and finally the temperature. The best result was obtained under the conditions of 1% catalyst (KOH), molar ratio oil/methanol of 1/9 and temperature of 60 °C, resulting in an ester content of 99.07%.

Keywords: biodiesel production, factorial design, membrane reactor, soybean oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
570 H2 Production and Treatment of Cake Wastewater Industry via Up-Flow Anaerobic Staged Reactor

Authors: Manal A. Mohsen, Ahmed Tawfik

Abstract:

Hydrogen production from cake wastewater by anaerobic dark fermentation via upflow anaerobic staged reactor (UASR) was investigated in this study. The reactor was continuously operated for four months at constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 21.57 hr, PH value of 6 ± 0.6, temperature of 21.1°C, and organic loading rate of 2.43 gCOD/l.d. The hydrogen production was 5.7 l H2/d and the hydrogen yield was 134.8 ml H2 /g CODremoved. The system showed an overall removal efficiency of TCOD, TBOD, TSS, TKN, and Carbohydrates of 40 ± 13%, 59 ± 18%, 84 ± 17%, 28 ± 27%, and 85 ± 15% respectively during the long term operation period. Based on the available results, the system is not sufficient for the effective treatment of cake wastewater, and the effluent quality of UASR is not complying for discharge into sewerage network, therefore a post treatment is needed (not covered in this study).

Keywords: cake wastewater industry, chemical oxygen demand (COD), hydrogen production, up-flow anaerobic staged reactor (UASR)

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
569 Numerical Simulation of Solar Reactor for Water Disinfection

Authors: A. Sebti Bouzid, S. Igoud, L. Aoudjit, H. Lebik

Abstract:

Mathematical modeling and numerical simulation have emerged over the past two decades as one of the key tools for design and optimize performances of physical and chemical processes intended to water disinfection. Water photolysis is an efficient and economical technique to reduce bacterial contamination. It exploits the germicidal effect of solar ultraviolet irradiation to inactivate pathogenic microorganisms. The design of photo-reactor operating in continuous disinfection system, required tacking in account the hydrodynamic behavior of water in the reactor. Since the kinetic of disinfection depends on irradiation intensity distribution, coupling the hydrodynamic and solar radiation distribution is of crucial importance. In this work we propose a numerical simulation study for hydrodynamic and solar irradiation distribution in a tubular photo-reactor. We have used the Computational Fluid Dynamic code Fluent under the assumption of three-dimensional incompressible flow in unsteady turbulent regimes. The results of simulation concerned radiation, temperature and velocity fields are discussed and the effect of inclination angle of reactor relative to the horizontal is investigated.

Keywords: solar water disinfection, hydrodynamic modeling, solar irradiation modeling, CFD Fluent

Procedia PDF Downloads 246