Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4535

Search results for: embedded software

4535 Supporting Embedded Medical Software Development with MDevSPICE® and Agile Practices

Authors: Surafel Demissie, Frank Keenan, Fergal McCaffery


Emerging medical devices are highly relying on embedded software that runs on the specific platform in real time. The development of embedded software is different from ordinary software development due to the hardware-software dependency. MDevSPICE® has been developed to provide guidance to support such development. To increase the flexibility of this framework agile practices have been introduced. This paper outlines the challenges for embedded medical device software development and the structure of MDevSPICE® and suggests a suitable combination of agile practices that will help to add flexibility and address corresponding challenges of embedded medical device software development.

Keywords: agile practices, challenges, embedded software, MDevSPICE®, medical device

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
4534 Development of AUTOSAR Software Components of MDPS System

Authors: Jae-Woo Kim, Kyung-Joong Lee, Hyun-Sik Ahn


This paper describes the development of a Motor-Driven Power Steering (MDPS) system using Automotive Open System Architecture (AUTOSAR) methodology. The MDPS system is a new power steering technology for vehicles and it can enhance driver’s convenience and fuel efficiency. AUTOSAR defines common standards for the implementation of embedded automotive software. Some aspects of safety and timing requirements are analyzed. Through the AUTOSAR methodology, the embedded software becomes more flexible, reusable and maintainable than ever. Hence, we first design software components (SW-C) for MDPS control based on AUTOSAR and implement SW-Cs for MDPS control using authoring tool following AUTOSAR standards.

Keywords: AUTOSAR, MDPS, simulink, software component

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
4533 Experiences of Timing Analysis of Parallel Embedded Software

Authors: Muhammad Waqar Aziz, Syed Abdul Baqi Shah


The execution time analysis is fundamental to the successful design and execution of real-time embedded software. In such analysis, the Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET) of a program is a key measure, on the basis of which system tasks are scheduled. The WCET analysis of embedded software is also needed for system understanding and to guarantee its behavior. WCET analysis can be performed statically (without executing the program) or dynamically (through measurement). Traditionally, research on the WCET analysis assumes sequential code running on single-core platforms. However, as computation is steadily moving towards using a combination of parallel programs and multi-core hardware, new challenges in WCET analysis need to be addressed. In this article, we report our experiences of performing the WCET analysis of Parallel Embedded Software (PES) running on multi-core platform. The primary purpose was to investigate how WCET estimates of PES can be computed statically, and how they can be derived dynamically. Our experiences, as reported in this article, include the challenges we faced, possible suggestions to these challenges and the workarounds that were developed. This article also provides observations on the benefits and drawbacks of deriving the WCET estimates using the said methods and provides useful recommendations for further research in this area.

Keywords: embedded software, worst-case execution-time analysis, static flow analysis, measurement-based analysis, parallel computing

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
4532 Simplifying the Migration of Architectures in Embedded Applications Introducing a Pattern Language to Support the Workforce

Authors: Farha Lakhani, Michael J. Pont


There are two main architectures used to develop software for modern embedded systems: these can be labelled as “event-triggered” (ET) and “time-triggered” (TT). The research presented in this paper is concerned with the issues involved in migration between these two architectures. Although TT architectures are widely used in safety-critical applications they are less familiar to developers of mainstream embedded systems. The research presented in this paper began from the premise that–for a broad class of systems that have been implemented using an ET architecture–migration to a TT architecture would improve reliability. It may be tempting to assume that conversion between ET and TT designs will simply involve converting all event-handling software routines into periodic activities. However, the required changes to the software architecture are, in many cases rather more profound. The main contribution of the work presented in this paper is to identify ways in which the significant effort involved in migrating between existing ET architectures and “equivalent” (and effective) TT architectures could be reduced. The research described in this paper has taken an innovative step in this regard by introducing the use of ‘Design patterns’ for this purpose for the first time.

Keywords: embedded applications, software architectures, reliability, pattern

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
4531 Restructuring of Embedded System Design Course: Making It Industry Compliant

Authors: Geetishree Mishra, S. Akhila


Embedded System Design, the most challenging course of electronics engineering has always been appreciated and well acclaimed by the students of electronics and its related branches of engineering. Embedded system, being a product of multiple application domains, necessitates skilled man power to be well designed and tested in every important aspect of both hardware and software. In the current industrial scenario, the requirements are even more rigorous and highly demanding and needs to be to be on par with the advanced technologies. Fresh engineers are expected to be thoroughly groomed by the academic system and the teaching community. Graduates with the ability to understand both complex technological processes and technical skills are increasingly sought after in today's embedded industry. So, the need of the day is to restructure the under-graduate course- both theory and lab practice along with the teaching methodologies to meet the industrial requirements. This paper focuses on the importance of such a need in the present education system.

Keywords: embedded system design, industry requirement, syllabus restructuring, project-based learning, teaching methodology

Procedia PDF Downloads 568
4530 Embedded Hardware and Software Design of Omnidirectional Autonomous Robotic Platform Suitable for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems Testing with Focus on Modularity and Safety

Authors: Ondrej Lufinka, Jan Kaderabek, Juraj Prstek, Jiri Skala, Kamil Kosturik


This paper deals with the problem of using Autonomous Robotic Platforms (ARP) for the ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems) testing in automotive. There are different possibilities of the testing already in development, and lately, the autonomous robotic platforms are beginning to be used more and more widely. Autonomous Robotic Platform discussed in this paper explores the hardware and software design possibilities related to the field of embedded systems. The paper focuses on its chapters on the introduction of the problem in general; then, it describes the proposed prototype concept and its principles from the embedded HW and SW point of view. It talks about the key features that can be used for the innovation of these platforms (e.g., modularity, omnidirectional movement, common and non-traditional sensors used for localization, synchronization of more platforms and cars together, or safety mechanisms). In the end, the future possible development of the project is discussed as well.

Keywords: advanced driver assistance systems, ADAS, autonomous robotic platform, embedded systems, hardware, localization, modularity, multiple robots synchronization, omnidirectional movement, safety mechanisms, software

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4529 Design and Implementation of Embedded FM Transmission Control SW for Low Power Battery System

Authors: Young-Su Ryu, Kyung-Won Park, Jae-Hoon Song, Ki-Won Kwon


In this paper, an embedded frequency modulation (FM) transmission control software (SW) for a low power battery system is designed and implemented. The simultaneous translation systems for various languages are needed as so many international conferences and festivals are held in world wide. Especially in portable transmitting and receiving systems, the ability of long operation life is used for a measure of value. This paper proposes an embedded FM transmission control SW for low power battery system and shows the results of the SW implemented on a portable FM transmission system.

Keywords: FM transmission, simultaneous translation system, portable transmitting and receiving systems, low power embedded control SW

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
4528 Embedded Test Framework: A Solution Accelerator for Embedded Hardware Testing

Authors: Arjun Kumar Rath, Titus Dhanasingh


Embedded product development requires software to test hardware functionality during development and finding issues during manufacturing in larger quantities. As the components are getting integrated, the devices are tested for their full functionality using advanced software tools. Benchmarking tools are used to measure and compare the performance of product features. At present, these tests are based on a variety of methods involving varying hardware and software platforms. Typically, these tests are custom built for every product and remain unusable for other variants. A majority of the tests goes undocumented, not updated, unusable when the product is released. To bridge this gap, a solution accelerator in the form of a framework can address these issues for running all these tests from one place, using an off-the-shelf tests library in a continuous integration environment. There are many open-source test frameworks or tools (fuego. LAVA, AutoTest, KernelCI, etc.) designed for testing embedded system devices, with each one having several unique good features, but one single tool and framework may not satisfy all of the testing needs for embedded systems, thus an extensible framework with the multitude of tools. Embedded product testing includes board bring-up testing, test during manufacturing, firmware testing, application testing, and assembly testing. Traditional test methods include developing test libraries and support components for every new hardware platform that belongs to the same domain with identical hardware architecture. This approach will have drawbacks like non-reusability where platform-specific libraries cannot be reused, need to maintain source infrastructure for individual hardware platforms, and most importantly, time is taken to re-develop test cases for new hardware platforms. These limitations create challenges like environment set up for testing, scalability, and maintenance. A desirable strategy is certainly one that is focused on maximizing reusability, continuous integration, and leveraging artifacts across the complete development cycle during phases of testing and across family of products. To get over the stated challenges with the conventional method and offers benefits of embedded testing, an embedded test framework (ETF), a solution accelerator, is designed, which can be deployed in embedded system-related products with minimal customizations and maintenance to accelerate the hardware testing. Embedded test framework supports testing different hardwares including microprocessor and microcontroller. It offers benefits such as (1) Time-to-Market: Accelerates board brings up time with prepacked test suites supporting all necessary peripherals which can speed up the design and development stage(board bring up, manufacturing and device driver) (2) Reusability-framework components isolated from the platform-specific HW initialization and configuration makes the adaptability of test cases across various platform quick and simple (3) Effective build and test infrastructure with multiple test interface options and preintegrated with FUEGO framework (4) Continuos integration - pre-integrated with Jenkins which enabled continuous testing and automated software update feature. Applying the embedded test framework accelerator throughout the design and development phase enables to development of the well-tested systems before functional verification and improves time to market to a large extent.

Keywords: board diagnostics software, embedded system, hardware testing, test frameworks

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4527 Evaluation of Model-Based Code Generation for Embedded Systems–Mature Approach for Development in Evolution

Authors: Nikolay P. Brayanov, Anna V. Stoynova


Model-based development approach is gaining more support and acceptance. Its higher abstraction level brings simplification of systems’ description that allows domain experts to do their best without particular knowledge in programming. The different levels of simulation support the rapid prototyping, verifying and validating the product even before it exists physically. Nowadays model-based approach is beneficial for modelling of complex embedded systems as well as a generation of code for many different hardware platforms. Moreover, it is possible to be applied in safety-relevant industries like automotive, which brings extra automation of the expensive device certification process and especially in the software qualification. Using it, some companies report about cost savings and quality improvements, but there are others claiming no major changes or even about cost increases. This publication demonstrates the level of maturity and autonomy of model-based approach for code generation. It is based on a real live automotive seat heater (ASH) module, developed using The Mathworks, Inc. tools. The model, created with Simulink, Stateflow and Matlab is used for automatic generation of C code with Embedded Coder. To prove the maturity of the process, Code generation advisor is used for automatic configuration. All additional configuration parameters are set to auto, when applicable, leaving the generation process to function autonomously. As a result of the investigation, the publication compares the quality of generated embedded code and a manually developed one. The measurements show that generally, the code generated by automatic approach is not worse than the manual one. A deeper analysis of the technical parameters enumerates the disadvantages, part of them identified as topics for our future work.

Keywords: embedded code generation, embedded C code quality, embedded systems, model-based development

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
4526 Software Cloning and Agile Environment

Authors: Ravi Kumar, Dhrubajit Barman, Nomi Baruah


Software Cloning has grown an active area in software engineering research community yielding numerous techniques, various tools and other methods for clone detection and removal. The copying, modifying a block of code is identified as cloning as it is the most basic means of software reuse. Agile Software Development is an approach which is currently being used in various software projects, so that it helps to respond the unpredictability of building software through incremental, iterative, work cadences. Software Cloning has been introduced to Agile Environment and many Agile Software Development approaches are using the concept of Software Cloning. This paper discusses the various Agile Software Development approaches. It also discusses the degree to which the Software Cloning concept is being introduced in the Agile Software Development approaches.

Keywords: agile environment, refactoring, reuse, software cloning

Procedia PDF Downloads 419
4525 Discussing Embedded versus Central Machine Learning in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Anne-Lena Kampen, Øivind Kure


Machine learning (ML) can be implemented in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) as a central solution or distributed solution where the ML is embedded in the nodes. Embedding improves privacy and may reduce prediction delay. In addition, the number of transmissions is reduced. However, quality factors such as prediction accuracy, fault detection efficiency and coordinated control of the overall system suffer. Here, we discuss and highlight the trade-offs that should be considered when choosing between embedding and centralized ML, especially for multihop networks. In addition, we present estimations that demonstrate the energy trade-offs between embedded and centralized ML. Although the total network energy consumption is lower with central prediction, it makes the network more prone for partitioning due to the high forwarding load on the one-hop nodes. Moreover, the continuous improvements in the number of operations per joule for embedded devices will move the energy balance toward embedded prediction.

Keywords: central machine learning, embedded machine learning, energy consumption, local machine learning, wireless sensor networks, WSN

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4524 A Study on Design for Parallel Test Based on Embedded System

Authors: Zheng Sun, Weiwei Cui, Xiaodong Ma, Hongxin Jin, Dongpao Hong, Jinsong Yang, Jingyi Sun


With the improvement of the performance and complexity of modern equipment, automatic test system (ATS) becomes widely used for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis. However, the conventional ATS mainly works in a serial mode, and lacks the ability of testing several equipments at the same time. That leads to low test efficiency and ATS redundancy. Especially for a large majority of equipment under test, the conventional ATS cannot meet the requirement of efficient testing. To reduce the support resource and increase test efficiency, we propose a method of design for the parallel test based on the embedded system in this paper. Firstly, we put forward the general framework of the parallel test system, and the system contains a central management system (CMS) and several distributed test subsystems (DTS). Then we give a detailed design of the system. For the hardware of the system, we use embedded architecture to design DTS. For the software of the system, we use test program set to improve the test adaption. By deploying the parallel test system, the time to test five devices is now equal to the time to test one device in the past. Compared with the conventional test system, the proposed test system reduces the size and improves testing efficiency. This is of great significance for equipment to be put into operation swiftly. Finally, we take an industrial control system as an example to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The result shows that the method is reasonable, and the efficiency is improved up to 500%.

Keywords: parallel test, embedded system, automatic test system, automatic test system (ATS), central management system, central management system (CMS), distributed test subsystems, distributed test subsystems (DTS)

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
4523 Software Engineering Revolution Driven by Complexity Science

Authors: Jay Xiong, Li Lin


This paper introduces a new software engineering paradigm based on complexity science, called NSE (Nonlinear Software Engineering paradigm). The purpose of establishing NSE is to help software development organizations double their productivity, half their cost, and increase the quality of their products in several orders of magnitude simultaneously. NSE complies with the essential principles of complexity science. NSE brings revolutionary changes to almost all aspects in software engineering. NSE has been fully implemented with its support platform Panorama++.

Keywords: complexity science, software development, software engineering, software maintenance

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
4522 Software Architectural Design Ontology

Authors: Muhammad Irfan Marwat, Sadaqat Jan, Syed Zafar Ali Shah


Software architecture plays a key role in software development but absence of formal description of software architecture causes different impede in software development. To cope with these difficulties, ontology has been used as artifact. This paper proposes ontology for software architectural design based on IEEE model for architecture description and Kruchten 4+1 model for viewpoints classification. For categorization of style and views, ISO/IEC 42010 has been used. Corpus method has been used to evaluate ontology. The main aim of the proposed ontology is to classify and locate software architectural design information.

Keywords: semantic-based software architecture, software architecture, ontology, software engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 426
4521 Influence of Security Attributes in Component-Based Software Development

Authors: Somayeh Zeinali


A component is generally defined as a piece of executable software with a published interface. Component-based software engineering (CBSE) has become recognized as a new sub-discipline of software engineering. In the component-based software development, components cannot be completely secure and thus easily become vulnerable. Some researchers have investigated this issue and proposed approaches to detect component intrusions or protect distributed components. Software security also refers to the process of creating software that is considered secure.The terms “dependability”, “trustworthiness”, and “survivability” are used interchangeably to describe the properties of software security.

Keywords: component-based software development, component-based software engineering , software security attributes, dependability, component

Procedia PDF Downloads 448
4520 Model-Based Automotive Partitioning and Mapping for Embedded Multicore Systems

Authors: Robert Höttger, Lukas Krawczyk, Burkhard Igel


This paper introduces novel approaches to partitioning and mapping in terms of model-based embedded multicore system engineering and further discusses benefits, industrial relevance and features in common with existing approaches. In order to assess and evaluate results, both approaches have been applied to a real industrial application as well as to various prototypical demonstrative applications, that have been developed and implemented for different purposes. Evaluations show, that such applications improve significantly according to performance, energy efficiency, meeting timing constraints and covering maintaining issues by using the AMALTHEA platform and the implemented approaches. Further- more, the model-based design provides an open, expandable, platform independent and scalable exchange format between OEMs, suppliers and developers on different levels. Our proposed mechanisms provide meaningful multicore system utilization since load balancing by means of partitioning and mapping is effectively performed with regard to the modeled systems including hardware, software, operating system, scheduling, constraints, configuration and more data.

Keywords: partitioning, mapping, distributed systems, scheduling, embedded multicore systems, model-based, system analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 522
4519 Functional Decomposition Based Effort Estimation Model for Software-Intensive Systems

Authors: Nermin Sökmen


An effort estimation model is needed for software-intensive projects that consist of hardware, embedded software or some combination of the two, as well as high level software solutions. This paper first focuses on functional decomposition techniques to measure functional complexity of a computer system and investigates its impact on system development effort. Later, it examines effects of technical difficulty and design team capability factors in order to construct the best effort estimation model. With using traditional regression analysis technique, the study develops a system development effort estimation model which takes functional complexity, technical difficulty and design team capability factors as input parameters. Finally, the assumptions of the model are tested.

Keywords: functional complexity, functional decomposition, development effort, technical difficulty, design team capability, regression analysis

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4518 Recognition of Cursive Arabic Handwritten Text Using Embedded Training Based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs)

Authors: Rabi Mouhcine, Amrouch Mustapha, Mahani Zouhir, Mammass Driss


In this paper, we present a system for offline recognition cursive Arabic handwritten text based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). The system is analytical without explicit segmentation used embedded training to perform and enhance the character models. Extraction features preceded by baseline estimation are statistical and geometric to integrate both the peculiarities of the text and the pixel distribution characteristics in the word image. These features are modelled using hidden Markov models and trained by embedded training. The experiments on images of the benchmark IFN/ENIT database show that the proposed system improves recognition.

Keywords: recognition, handwriting, Arabic text, HMMs, embedded training

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
4517 Virtualization and Visualization Based Driver Configuration in Operating System

Authors: Pavan Shah


In an Embedded system, Virtualization and visualization technology can provide us an effective response and measurable work in a software development environment. In addition to work of virtualization and virtualization can be easily deserved to provide the best resource sharing between real-time hardware applications and a healthy environment. However, the virtualization is noticeable work to minimize the I/O work and utilize virtualization & virtualization technology for either a software development environment (SDE) or a runtime environment of real-time embedded systems (RTMES) or real-time operating system (RTOS) eras. In this Paper, we particularly focus on virtualization and visualization overheads data of network which generates the I/O and implementation of standardized I/O (i.e., Virto), which can work as front-end network driver in a real-time operating system (RTOS) hardware module. Even there have been several work studies are available based on the virtualization operating system environment, but for the Virto on a general-purpose OS, my implementation is on the open-source Virto for a real-time operating system (RTOS). In this paper, the measurement results show that implementation which can improve the bandwidth and latency of memory management of the real-time operating system environment (RTMES) for getting more accuracy of the trained model.

Keywords: virtualization, visualization, network driver, operating system

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
4516 A 'Four Method Framework' for Fighting Software Architecture Erosion

Authors: Sundus Ayyaz, Saad Rehman, Usman Qamar


Software Architecture is the basic structure of software that states the development and advancement of a software system. Software architecture is also considered as a significant tool for the construction of high quality software systems. A clean design leads to the control, value and beauty of software resulting in its longer life while a bad design is the cause of architectural erosion where a software evolution completely fails. This paper discusses the occurrence of software architecture erosion and presents a set of methods for the detection, declaration and prevention of architecture erosion. The causes and symptoms of architecture erosion are observed with the examples of prescriptive and descriptive architectures and the practices used to stop this erosion are also discussed by considering different types of software erosion and their affects. Consequently finding and devising the most suitable approach for fighting software architecture erosion and in some way reducing its affect is evaluated and tested on different scenarios.

Keywords: software architecture, architecture erosion, prescriptive architecture, descriptive architecture

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
4515 Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Vibration Control of an ERF Embedded Smart Structure

Authors: Chih-Jer Lin, Chun-Ying Lee, Ying Liu, Chiang-Ho Cheng


The main objective of this article is to present the semi-active vibration control using an electro-rheological fluid embedded sandwich structure for a cantilever beam. ER fluid is a smart material, which cause the suspended particles polarize and connect each other to form chain. The stiffness and damping coefficients of the ER fluid can be changed in 10 micro seconds; therefore, ERF is suitable to become the material embedded in the tunable vibration absorber to become a smart absorber. For the ERF smart material embedded structure, the fuzzy control law depends on the experimental expert database and the proposed self-tuning strategy. The electric field is controlled by a CRIO embedded system to implement the real application. This study investigates the different performances using the Type-1 fuzzy and interval Type-2 fuzzy controllers. The Interval type-2 fuzzy control is used to improve the modeling uncertainties for this ERF embedded shock absorber. The self-tuning vibration controllers using Type-1 and Interval Type-2 fuzzy law are implemented to the shock absorber system. Based on the resulting performance, Internal Type-2 fuzzy is better than the traditional Type-1 fuzzy control for this vibration control system.

Keywords: electro-rheological fluid, semi-active vibration control, shock absorber, type 2 fuzzy control

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
4514 Flicker Detection with Motion Tolerance for Embedded Camera

Authors: Jianrong Wu, Xuan Fu, Akihiro Higashi, Zhiming Tan


CMOS image sensors with a rolling shutter are used broadly in the digital cameras embedded in mobile devices. The rolling shutter suffers the flicker artifacts from the fluorescent lamp, and it could be observed easily. In this paper, the characteristics of illumination flicker in motion case were analyzed, and two efficient detection methods based on matching fragment selection were proposed. According to the experimental results, our methods could achieve as high as 100% accuracy in static scene, and at least 97% in motion scene.

Keywords: illumination flicker, embedded camera, rolling shutter, detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
4513 Applying Failure Modes and Effect Analysis Concept in a Global Software Development Process

Authors: Camilo Souza, Lidia Melo, Fernanda Terra, Francisco Caio, Marcelo Reis


SIDIA is a research and development (R&D) institute that belongs to Samsung’s global software development process. The SIDIA’s Model Team (MT) is a part of Samsung’s Mobile Division Area, which is responsible for the development of Android releases embedded in Samsung mobile devices. Basically, in this software development process, the kickoff occurs in some strategic countries (e.g., South Korea) where some software requirements are applied and the initial software tests are performed. When the software achieves a more mature level, a new branch is derived, and the development continues in subsidiaries from other strategic countries (e.g., SIDIA-Brazil). However, even in the newly created branches, there are several interactions between developers from different nationalities in order to fix bugs reported during test activities, apply some specific requirements from partners and develop new features as well. Despite the GSD strategy contributes to improving software development, some challenges are also introduced as well. In this paper, we share the initial results about the application of the failure modes and effect analysis (FMEA) concept in the software development process followed by the SIDIA’s model team. The main goal was to identify and mitigate the process potential failures through the application of recommended actions. The initial results show that the application of the FMEA concept allows us to identify the potential failures in our GSD process as well as to propose corrective actions to mitigate them. Finally, FMEA encouraged members of different teams to take actions that contribute to improving our GSD process.

Keywords: global software development, potential failures, FMEA, recommended actions

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
4512 Flow Field Analysis of a Liquid Ejector Pump Using Embedded Large Eddy Simulation Methodology

Authors: Qasim Zaheer, Jehanzeb Masud


The understanding of entrainment and mixing phenomenon in the ejector pump is of pivotal importance for designing and performance estimation. In this paper, the existence of turbulent vortical structures due to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability at the free surface between the motive and the entrained fluids streams are simulated using Embedded LES methodology. The efficacy of Embedded LES for simulation of complex flow field of ejector pump is evaluated using ANSYS Fluent®. The enhanced mixing and entrainment process due to breaking down of larger eddies into smaller ones as a consequence of Vortex Stretching phenomenon is captured in this study. Moreover, the flow field characteristics of ejector pump like pressure velocity fields and mass flow rates are analyzed and validated against the experimental results.

Keywords: Kelvin Helmholtz instability, embedded LES, complex flow field, ejector pump

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4511 Manual to Automated Testing: An Effort-Based Approach for Determining the Priority of Software Test Automation

Authors: Peter Sabev, Katalina Grigorova


Test automation allows performing difficult and time consuming manual software testing tasks efficiently, quickly and repeatedly. However, development and maintenance of automated tests is expensive, so it needs a proper prioritization what to automate first. This paper describes a simple yet efficient approach for such prioritization of test cases based on the effort needed for both manual execution and software test automation. The suggested approach is very flexible because it allows working with a variety of assessment methods, and adding or removing new candidates at any time. The theoretical ideas presented in this article have been successfully applied in real world situations in several software companies by the authors and their colleagues including testing of real estate websites, cryptographic and authentication solutions, OSGi-based middleware framework that has been applied in various systems for smart homes, connected cars, production plants, sensors, home appliances, car head units and engine control units (ECU), vending machines, medical devices, industry equipment and other devices that either contain or are connected to an embedded service gateway.

Keywords: automated testing, manual testing, test automation, software testing, test prioritization

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4510 Embedded Electrochemistry with Miniaturized, Drone-Based, Potentiostat System for Remote Detection Chemical Warfare Agents

Authors: Amer Dawoud, Jesy Motchaalangaram, Arati Biswakarma, Wujan Mio, Karl Wallace


The development of an embedded miniaturized drone-based system for remote detection of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWA) is proposed. The paper focuses on the software/hardware system design of the electrochemical Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) signal processing for future deployment on drones. The paper summarizes the progress made towards hardware and electrochemical signal processing for signature detection of CWA. Also, the miniature potentiostat signal is validated by comparing it with the high-end lab potentiostat signal.

Keywords: drone-based, remote detection chemical warfare agents, miniaturized, potentiostat

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4509 Towards a Framework for Embedded Weight Comparison Algorithm with Business Intelligence in the Plantation Domain

Authors: M. Pushparani, A. Sagaya


Embedded systems have emerged as important elements in various domains with extensive applications in automotive, commercial, consumer, healthcare and transportation markets, as there is emphasis on intelligent devices. On the other hand, Business Intelligence (BI) has also been extensively used in a range of applications, especially in the agriculture domain which is the area of this research. The aim of this research is to create a framework for Embedded Weight Comparison Algorithm with Business Intelligence (EWCA-BI). The weight comparison algorithm will be embedded within the plantation management system and the weighbridge system. This algorithm will be used to estimate the weight at the site and will be compared with the actual weight at the plantation. The algorithm will be used to build the necessary alerts when there is a discrepancy in the weight, thus enabling better decision making. In the current practice, data are collected from various locations in various forms. It is a challenge to consolidate data to obtain timely and accurate information for effective decision making. Adding to this, the unstable network connection leads to difficulty in getting timely accurate information. To overcome the challenges embedding is done on a portable device that will have the embedded weight comparison algorithm to also assist in data capture and synchronize data at various locations overcoming the network short comings at collection points. The EWCA-BI will provide real-time information at any given point of time, thus enabling non-latent BI reports that will provide crucial information to enable efficient operational decision making. This research has a high potential in bringing embedded system into the agriculture industry. EWCA-BI will provide BI reports with accurate information with uncompromised data using an embedded system and provide alerts, therefore, enabling effective operation management decision-making at the site.

Keywords: embedded business intelligence, weight comparison algorithm, oil palm plantation, embedded systems

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4508 Scheduling Tasks in Embedded Systems Based on NoC Architecture

Authors: D. Dorota


This paper presents a method to generate and schedule task in the architecture of embedded systems based on the simulated annealing. This method takes into account the attribute of divisibility of tasks. A proposal represents the process in the form of trees. Despite the fact that the architecture of Network-on-Chip (NoC) is an interesting alternative to a bus architecture based on multi-processors systems, it requires a lot of work that ensures the optimization of communication. This paper proposes an effective approach to generate dedicated NoC topology solving communication problems. Network NoC is generated taking into account the energy consumption and resource issues. Ultimately generated is minimal, dedicated NoC topology. The proposed solution is assumed to be a simple router design and the minimum number of lines.

Keywords: Network-on-Chip, NoC-based embedded systems, scheduling task in embedded systems, simulated annealing

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4507 Multishape Task Scheduling Algorithms for Real Time Micro-Controller Based Application

Authors: Ankur Jain, W. Wilfred Godfrey


Embedded systems are usually microcontroller-based systems that represent a class of reliable and dependable dedicated computer systems designed for specific purposes. Micro-controllers are used in most electronic devices in an endless variety of ways. Some micro-controller-based embedded systems are required to respond to external events in the shortest possible time and such systems are known as real-time embedded systems. So in multitasking system there is a need of task Scheduling,there are various scheduling algorithms like Fixed priority Scheduling(FPS),Earliest deadline first(EDF), Rate Monotonic(RM), Deadline Monotonic(DM),etc have been researched. In this Report various conventional algorithms have been reviewed and analyzed, these algorithms consists of single shape task, A new Multishape scheduling algorithms has been proposed and implemented and analyzed.

Keywords: dm, edf, embedded systems, fixed priority, microcontroller, rtos, rm, scheduling algorithms

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4506 Development of 3D Laser Scanner for Robot Navigation

Authors: Ali Emre Öztürk, Ergun Ercelebi


Autonomous robotic systems needs an equipment like a human eye for their movement. Robotic camera systems, distance sensors and 3D laser scanners have been used in the literature. In this study a 3D laser scanner has been produced for those autonomous robotic systems. In general 3D laser scanners are using 2 dimension laser range finders that are moving on one-axis (1D) to generate the model. In this study, the model has been obtained by a one-dimensional laser range finder that is moving in two –axis (2D) and because of this the laser scanner has been produced cheaper. Furthermore for the laser scanner a motor driver, an embedded system control board has been used and at the same time a user interface card has been used to make the communication between those cards and computer. Due to this laser scanner, the density of the objects, the distance between the objects and the necessary path ways for the robot can be calculated. The data collected by the laser scanner system is converted in to cartesian coordinates to be modeled in AutoCAD program. This study shows also the synchronization between the computer user interface, AutoCAD and the embedded systems. As a result it makes the solution cheaper for such systems. The scanning results are enough for an autonomous robot but the scan cycle time should be developed. This study makes also contribution for further studies between the hardware and software needs since it has a powerful performance and a low cost.

Keywords: 3D laser scanner, embedded system, 1D laser range finder, 3D model

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