Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 137

# Search results for: Triangulation

##### 137 Triangulations via Iterated Largest Angle Bisection

Authors: Yeonjune Kang

Abstract:

A triangulation of a planar region is a partition of that region into triangles. In the finite element method, triangulations are often used as the grid underlying a computation. In order to be suitable as a finite element mesh, a triangulation must have well-shaped triangles, according to criteria that depend on the details of the particular problem. For instance, most methods require that all triangles be small and as close to the equilateral shape as possible. Stated differently, one wants to avoid having either thin or flat triangles in the triangulation. There are many triangulation procedures, a particular one being the one known as the longest edge bisection algorithm described below. Starting with a given triangle, locate the midpoint of the longest edge and join it to the opposite vertex of the triangle. Two smaller triangles are formed; apply the same bisection procedure to each of these triangles. Continuing in this manner after n steps one obtains a triangulation of the initial triangle into 2n smaller triangles. The longest edge algorithm was first considered in the late 70’s. It was shown by various authors that this triangulation has the desirable properties for the finite element method: independently of the number of iterations the angles of these triangles cannot get too small; moreover, the size of the triangles decays exponentially. In the present paper we consider a related triangulation algorithm we refer to as the largest angle bisection procedure. As the name suggests, rather than bisecting the longest edge, at each step we bisect the largest angle. We study the properties of the resulting triangulation and prove that, while the general behavior resembles the one in the longest edge bisection algorithm, there are several notable differences as well. Downloads 314
##### 136 Applying Bowen’s Theory to Intern Supervision

Authors: Jeff A. Tysinger, Dawn P. Tysinger

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The aim of this paper is to theoretically apply Bowen’s understanding of triangulation and triads to school psychology intern supervision so that it can assist in the conceptualization of the dynamics of intern supervision and provide some key methods to address common issues. The school psychology internship is the capstone experience for the school psychologist in training. It involves three key participants whose relationships will determine the success of the internship.  To understand the potential effect, Bowen’s family systems theory can be applied to the supervision relationship. He describes a way to resolve stress between two people by triangulating or binging in a third person. He applies this to a nuclear family, but school psychology intern supervision requires the marriage of an intern, field supervisor, and university supervisor; thus, setting all up for possible triangulation. The consequences of triangulation can apply to standards and requirements, direct supervision, and intern evaluation. Strategies from family systems theory to decrease the negative impact of supervision triangulation. Downloads 50
##### 135 Hybrid Localization Schemes for Wireless Sensor Networks

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This article provides range based improvements over a well-known single-hop range free localization scheme, Approximate Point in Triangulation (APIT) by proposing an energy efficient Barycentric coordinate based Point-In-Triangulation (PIT) test along with PIT based trilateration. These improvements result in energy efficiency, reduced localization error and improved localization coverage compared to APIT and its variants. Moreover, we propose to embed Received signal strength indication (RSSI) based distance estimation in DV-Hop which is a multi-hop localization scheme. The proposed localization algorithm achieves energy efficiency and reduced localization error compared to DV-Hop and its available improvements. Furthermore, a hybrid multi-hop localization scheme is also proposed that utilize Barycentric coordinate based PIT test and both range based (Received signal strength indicator) and range free (hop count) techniques for distance estimation. Our experimental results provide evidence that proposed hybrid multi-hop localization scheme results in two to five times reduction in the localization error compare to DV-Hop and its variants, at reduced energy requirements. Downloads 375
##### 134 Impact Position Method Based on Distributed Structure Multi-Agent Coordination with JADE

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For the impact monitoring of distributed structures, the traditional positioning methods are based on the time difference, which includes the four-point arc positioning method and the triangulation positioning method. But in the actual operation, these two methods have errors. In this paper, the Multi-Agent Blackboard Coordination Principle is used to combine the two methods. Fusion steps: (1) The four-point arc locating agent calculates the initial point and records it to the Blackboard Module.(2) The triangulation agent gets its initial parameters by accessing the initial point.(3) The triangulation agent constantly accesses the blackboard module to update its initial parameters, and it also logs its calculated point into the blackboard.(4) When the subsequent calculation point and the initial calculation point are within the allowable error, the whole coordination fusion process is finished. This paper presents a Multi-Agent collaboration method whose agent framework is JADE. The JADE platform consists of several agent containers, with the agent running in each container. Because of the perfect management and debugging tools of the JADE, it is very convenient to deal with complex data in a large structure. Finally, based on the data in Jade, the results show that the impact location method based on Multi-Agent coordination fusion can reduce the error of the two methods. Downloads 20
##### 133 Post-Quantum Resistant Edge Authentication in Large Scale Industrial Internet of Things Environments Using Aggregated Local Knowledge and Consistent Triangulation

Authors: C. P. Autry, A. W. Roscoe, Mykhailo Magal

Abstract:

We discuss the theoretical model underlying 2BPA (two-band peer authentication), a practical alternative to conventional authentication of entities and data in IoT. In essence, this involves assembling a virtual map of authentication assets in the network, typically leading to many paths of confirmation between any pair of entities. This map is continuously updated, confirmed, and evaluated. The value of authentication along multiple disjoint paths becomes very clear, and we require analogues of triangulation to extend authentication along extended paths and deliver it along all possible paths. We discover that if an attacker wants to make an honest node falsely believe she has authenticated another, then the length of the authentication paths is of little importance. This is because optimal attack strategies correspond to minimal cuts in the authentication graph and do not contain multiple edges on the same path. The authentication provided by disjoint paths normally is additive (in entropy). Downloads 43
##### 132 Performance Evaluation of Parallel Surface Modeling and Generation on Actual and Virtual Multicore Systems

Authors: Nyeng P. Gyang

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Even though past, current and future trends suggest that multicore and cloud computing systems are increasingly prevalent/ubiquitous, this class of parallel systems is nonetheless underutilized, in general, and barely used for research on employing parallel Delaunay triangulation for parallel surface modeling and generation, in particular. The performances, of actual/physical and virtual/cloud multicore systems/machines, at executing various algorithms, which implement various parallelization strategies of the incremental insertion technique of the Delaunay triangulation algorithm, were evaluated. T-tests were run on the data collected, in order to determine whether various performance metrics differences (including execution time, speedup and efficiency) were statistically significant. Results show that the actual machine is approximately twice faster than the virtual machine at executing the same programs for the various parallelization strategies. Results, which furnish the scalability behaviors of the various parallelization strategies, also show that some of the differences between the performances of these systems, during different runs of the algorithms on the systems, were statistically significant. A few pseudo superlinear speedup results, which were computed from the raw data collected, are not true superlinear speedup values. These pseudo superlinear speedup values, which arise as a result of one way of computing speedups, disappear and give way to asymmetric speedups, which are the accurate kind of speedups that occur in the experiments performed. Downloads 124
##### 131 Automatic Detection of Traffic Stop Locations Using GPS Data

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Extracting information from new data sources has emerged as a crucial task in many traffic planning processes, such as identifying traffic patterns, route planning, traffic forecasting, and locating infrastructure improvements. Given the advanced technologies used to collect Global Positioning System (GPS) data from dedicated GPS devices, GPS equipped phones, and navigation tools, intelligent data analysis methodologies are necessary to mine this raw data. In this research, an automatic detection framework is proposed to help identify and classify the locations of stopped GPS waypoints into two main categories: signalized intersections or highway congestion. The Delaunay triangulation is used to perform this assessment in the clustering phase. While most of the existing clustering algorithms need assumptions about the data distribution, the effectiveness of the Delaunay triangulation relies on triangulating geographical data points without such assumptions. Our proposed method starts by cleaning noise from the data and normalizing it. Next, the framework will identify stoppage points by calculating the traveled distance. The last step is to use clustering to form groups of waypoints for signalized traffic and highway congestion. Next, a binary classifier was applied to find distinguish highway congestion from signalized stop points. The binary classifier uses the length of the cluster to find congestion. The proposed framework shows high accuracy for identifying the stop positions and congestion points in around 99.2% of trials. We show that it is possible, using limited GPS data, to distinguish with high accuracy. Downloads 47
##### 130 Optimization of Reliability and Communicability of a Random Two-Dimensional Point Patterns Using Delaunay Triangulation

Authors: Sopheak Sorn, Kwok Yip Szeto

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Reliability is one of the important measures of how well the system meets its design objective, and mathematically is the probability that a complex system will perform satisfactorily. When the system is described by a network of N components (nodes) and their L connection (links), the reliability of the system becomes a network design problem that is an NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem. In this paper, we address the network design problem for a random point set’s pattern in two dimensions. We make use of a Voronoi construction with each cell containing exactly one point in the point pattern and compute the reliability of the Voronoi’s dual, i.e. the Delaunay graph. We further investigate the communicability of the Delaunay network. We find that there is a positive correlation and a negative correlation between the homogeneity of a Delaunay's degree distribution with its reliability and its communicability respectively. Based on the correlations, we alter the communicability and the reliability by performing random edge flips, which preserve the number of links and nodes in the network but can increase the communicability in a Delaunay network at the cost of its reliability. This transformation is later used to optimize a Delaunay network with the optimum geometric mean between communicability and reliability. We also discuss the importance of the edge flips in the evolution of real soap froth in two dimensions. Downloads 327
##### 129 A Multidimensional Analysis of English as a Medium of Instruction in Algerian Higher Education: Policy, Practices and Attitudes

Authors: Imene Medfouni

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In the context of postcolonial Algeria, language policy, language planning as well as language attitudes have recently stirred up contested debates in higher education system. This linguistic and politically-oriented conflict have constantly created a complex environment for learning. In the light of this observation, English language situates itself at the core of this debate with respects to its international status and potential influences. This presentation is based on ongoing research that aims to gain a better understanding of the introduction of English as a medium of instruction (EMI) in a postcolonial context, marked by multilingualism and language conflict. This research offers interesting insights to critically explore EMI from different perspectives: policy, practices, and attitudes. By means of methodological triangulation, this research integrates a mixed approach, whereby the sources of data triangulation will be elicited from the following methods: classroom observations, document analysis, focus groups, questionnaires and interviews. Preliminary findings suggest that English language might not replace French status in Algerian universities because of the latter strong presence and diffusion within Algerian linguistic landscape. Downloads 153
##### 128 Space Debris Mitigation: Solutions from the Dark Skies of the Remote Australian Outback Using a Proposed Network of Mobile Astronomical Observatories

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There are tens of thousands of undetected and uncatalogued pieces of space debris in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO). They are not only difficult to be detected and tracked, their sheer number puts active satellites and humans in orbit around Earth into danger. With the entry of more governments and private companies into harnessing the Earth’s orbit for communication, research and military purposes, there is an ever-increasing need for not only the detection and cataloguing of these pieces of space debris, it is time to take measures to take them out and clean up the space around Earth. Current optical and radar-based Space Situational Awareness initiatives are useful mostly in detecting and cataloguing larger pieces of debris mainly for avoidance measures. Smaller than 10 cm pieces are in a relatively dark zone, yet these are deadly and capable of destroying satellites and human missions. A network of mobile observatories, connected to each other in real time and working in unison as a single instrument, may be able to detect small pieces of debris and achieve effective triangulation to help create a comprehensive database of their trajectories and parameters to the highest level of precision. This data may enable ground-based laser systems to help deorbit individual debris. Such a network of observatories can join current efforts in detection and removal of space debris in Earth’s orbit. Downloads 64
##### 127 A Fast Calculation Approach for Position Identification in a Distance Space

Authors: Dawei Cai, Yuya Tokuda

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The market of localization based service (LBS) is expanding. The acquisition of physical location is the fundamental basis for LBS. GPS, the de facto standard for outdoor localization, does not work well in indoor environment due to the blocking of signals by walls and ceiling. To acquire high accurate localization in an indoor environment, many techniques have been developed. Triangulation approach is often used for identifying the location, but a heavy and complex computation is necessary to calculate the location of the distances between the object and several source points. This computation is also time and power consumption, and not favorable to a mobile device that needs a long action life with battery. To provide a low power consumption approach for a mobile device, this paper presents a fast calculation approach to identify the location of the object without online solving solutions to simultaneous quadratic equations. In our approach, we divide the location identification into two parts, one is offline, and other is online. In offline mode, we make a mapping process that maps the location area to distance space and find a simple formula that can be used to identify the location of the object online with very light computation. The characteristic of the approach is a good tradeoff between the accuracy and computational amount. Therefore, this approach can be used in smartphone and other mobile devices that need a long work time. To show the performance, some simulation experimental results are provided also in the paper. Downloads 100
##### 126 Flexible Programmable Circuit Board Electromagnetic 1-D Scanning Micro-Mirror Laser Rangefinder by Active Triangulation

Authors: Vixen Joshua Tan, Siyuan He

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Scanners have been implemented within single point laser rangefinders, to determine the ranges within an environment by sweeping the laser spot across the surface of interest. The research motivation is to exploit a smaller and cheaper alternative scanning component for the emitting portion within current designs of laser rangefinders. This research implements an FPCB (Flexible Programmable Circuit Board) Electromagnetic 1-Dimensional scanning micro-mirror as a scanning component for laser rangefinding by means of triangulation. The prototype uses a laser module, micro-mirror, and receiver. The laser module is infrared (850 nm) with a power output of 4.5 mW. The receiver consists of a 50 mm convex lens and a 45mm 1-dimensional PSD (Position Sensitive Detector) placed at the focal length of the lens at 50 mm. The scanning component is an elliptical Micro-Mirror attached onto an FPCB Structure. The FPCB structure has two miniature magnets placed symmetrically underneath it on either side, which are then electromagnetically actuated by small solenoids, causing the FPCB to mechanically rotate about its torsion beams. The laser module projects a laser spot onto the micro-mirror surface, hence producing a scanning motion of the laser spot during the rotational actuation of the FPCB. The receiver is placed at a fixed distance from the micro-mirror scanner and is oriented to capture the scanning motion of the laser spot during operation. The elliptical aperture dimensions of the micro-mirror are 8mm by 5.5 mm. The micro-mirror is supported by an FPCB with two torsion beams with dimensions of 4mm by 0.5mm. The overall length of the FPCB is 23 mm. The voltage supplied to the solenoids is sinusoidal with an amplitude of 3.5 volts and 4.5 volts to achieve optical scanning angles of +/- 10 and +/- 17 degrees respectively. The operating scanning frequency during experiments was 5 Hz. For an optical angle of +/- 10 degrees, the prototype is capable of detecting objects within the ranges from 0.3-1.2 meters with an error of less than 15%. As for an optical angle of +/- 17 degrees the measuring range was from 0.3-0.7 meters with an error of 16% or less. Discrepancy between the experimental and actual data is possibly caused by misalignment of the components during experiments. Furthermore, the power of the laser spot collected by the receiver gradually decreased as the object was placed further from the sensor. A higher powered laser will be tested to potentially measure further distances more accurately. Moreover, a wide-angled lens will be used in future experiments when higher scanning angles are used. Modulation within the current and future higher powered lasers will be implemented to enable the operation of the laser rangefinder prototype without the use of safety goggles. Downloads 64
##### 125 Quality of Life among Female Sex Workers of Selected Organization of Pokhara: A Methodological Triangulation

Authors: Sharmila Dahal Paudel

Abstract:

Background: There are around twenty-four thousand to twenty-eight thousand Female Sex Workers in Nepal. FSWs are the vulnerable groups for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections which directly and indirectly ease to reduce the quality of life of such groups. Due to their highly marginalized status, FSWs in Nepal have limited access to information about reproductive health and safe sex practices. The objectives of the study are to assess the quality of life of female sex workers and the factors affecting them. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study with methodological triangulation was conducted among 108 FSWs on the basis of service record of selected organization of Pokhara valley. The complete enumerative sampling was used to select FSWs. Structured interview schedule, WHOQOL-BREF and in-depth questionnaire were used to collect the data. The descriptive and inferential statistics were used to interpret the result. Results: The mean age of participants were 23.44 years and the mean quality of life score was 174.06 ranging from 56.54 to 370.78. Among the domain scores, the mean score is highest in social domain (55.89) followed by physical (45.42), psychological (39.27) and the environmental (34.23). Regarding the association of QOL with socio-demographic, occupation and health-related variables, the multi-linear regression suggests that the satisfaction with occupation was highly significant with the total QOL score (B=-50.50, SE=10.46; p= <0.001) and there is negative relation between QOL and feeling of exploitation and facing STI problems. This means those who feels exploited have significantly less QOL comparing with those who did not feel the same. In correlation analysis, all the domains are positively co-related with each domain which is found to be significant at 1% level of significance. Conclusion: The highest mean score was in social domain, and the lowest is in environmental domain which suggests that the items included in environmental domains could not be utilized or hindrance were there.

Keywords: FSWs, HIV, QOL, WHOQOL-BREF

##### 124 The Study of Using Mon Dance in Pathum Thani Province’s Tradition

Authors: Dusittorn Ngamying

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##### 122 Genre Analysis and Interview: Body Paragraphs of Student English Academic Essays

Authors: Chek Kim Loi

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This study reports on a study examining the body paragraphs of English academic essays written by some ESL (English as a Second Language) undergraduate students. These students took English for Academic Purposes course for one semester at a public university in Malaysia. In addition to analyzing the communicative purposes employed in the sample, for triangulation of data, student participants were interviewed on their academic writing experience in their English for Academic Purposes (EAP) classroom. The present study has pedagogical implications in an EAP classroom. Downloads 166
##### 121 Instruction Program for Human Factors in Maintenance, Addressed to the People Working in Colombian Air Force Aeronautical Maintenance Area to Strengthen Operational Safety

Authors: Rafael Andres Rincon Barrera

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Safety in global aviation plays a preponderant role in organizations that seek to avoid accidents in an attempt to preserve their most precious assets (the people and the machines). Human factors-based programs have shown to be effective in managing human-generated risks. The importance of training on human factors in maintenance has not been indifferent to the Colombian Air Force (COLAF). This research, which has a mixed quantitative, qualitative and descriptive approach, deals with its absence of structuring an instruction program in Human Factors in Aeronautical Maintenance, which serves as a tool to improve Operational Safety in the military air units of the COLAF. Research shows the trends and evolution of human factors programs in aeronautical maintenance through the analysis of a data matrix with 33 sources taken from different databases that are about the incorporation of these types of programs in the aeronautical industry in the last 20 years; as well as the improvements in the operational safety process that are presented after the implementation of these ones. Likewise, it compiles different normative guides in force from world aeronautical authorities for training in these programs, establishing a matrix of methodologies that may be applicable to develop a training program in human factors in maintenance. Subsequently, it illustrates the design, validation, and development of a human factors knowledge measurement instrument for maintenance at the COLAF that includes topics on Human Factors (HF), Safety Management System (SMS), and aeronautical maintenance regulations at the COLAF. With the information obtained, it performs the statistical analysis showing the aspects of knowledge and strengthening the staff for the preparation of the instruction program. Performing data triangulation based on the applicable methods and the weakest aspects found in the maintenance people shows a variable crossing from color coding, thus indicating the contents according to a training program for human factors in aeronautical maintenance, which are adjusted according to the competencies that are expected to be developed with the staff in a curricular format established by the COLAF. Among the most important findings are the determination that different authors are dealing with human factors in maintenance agrees that there is no standard model for its instruction and implementation, but that it must be adapted to the needs of the organization, that the Safety Culture in the Companies which incorporated programs on human factors in maintenance increased, that from the data obtained with the instrument for knowledge measurement of human factors in maintenance, the level of knowledge is MEDIUM-LOW with a score of 61.79%. And finally that there is an opportunity to improve Operational Safety for the COLAF through the implementation of the training program of human factors in maintenance for the technicians working in this area. Downloads 54
##### 120 Survey on Energy Efficient Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

Authors: Swapnil Singh, Sanjoy Das

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Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) is infrastructure less networks dynamically formed by autonomous system of mobile nodes that are connected via wireless links. Mobile nodes communicate with each other on the fly. In this network each node also acts as a router. The battery power and the bandwidth are very scarce resources in this network. The network lifetime and connectivity of nodes depends on battery power. Therefore, energy is a valuable constraint which should be efficiently used. In this paper, we survey various energy efficient routing protocol. The energy efficient routing protocols are classified on the basis of approaches they use to minimize the energy consumption. The purpose of this paper is to facilitate the research work and combine the existing solution and to develop a more energy efficient routing mechanism. Downloads 290
##### 119 Ads on Social Issues: A Tool for Improving Critical Thinking Skills in a Foreign Language Classroom

Authors: Fonseca Jully, Chia Maribel, Rodríguez Ilba

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This paper is a qualitative research report. A group of students form a public university in a small town in Colombia participated in this study which aimed at describing to what extend the use of social ads, published on the internet, helped to develop their critical thinking skills. Students’ productions, field notes, video recordings and direct observation were the instruments and techniques used by the researches in order to gather the data which was analyzed under the principles of grounded theory and triangulation. The implementation of social ads into the classroom evidenced a noticeable improvement in students’ ability to interpret and argue social issues, as well as, their self-improvement in oral and written production in English, as a foreign language. Downloads 259
##### 118 The Culture of Extrajudicial Executions: An Investigative Study of the Philippines’ Fifth Republic

Authors: Nathalie Quinto, Danielle Solancho

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In 1986, after Marcos’ Martial Law of 1972, the Philippines revised its constitution for the fifth time, under the Aquino Administration. Extrajudicial violence was expected to be lessened, if not completely eradicated after this was passed. However, state-sponsored executions continued to persist even in the present time. There are currently identified policy gaps when it comes to extrajudicial cases, as there is no generally accepted definition of the term in the Philippines. In this paper, a triangulation method of historically published papers, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions of academics, scholars, and people who are involved in various cases found, was utilized for the methodology. This paper explores the establishment of a normalized system of state-sponsored executions in the country and why the state resorts to this kind of action. It found that due to a weak political, and social institution, a culture of extrajudicial executions was established. Downloads 171
##### 117 An Investigation of Direct and Indirect Geo-Referencing Techniques on the Accuracy of Points in Photogrammetry

Authors: F. Yildiz, S. Y. Oturanc

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Advances technology in the field of photogrammetry replaces analog cameras with reflection on aircraft GPS/IMU system with a digital aerial camera. In this system, when determining the position of the camera with the GPS, camera rotations are also determined by the IMU systems. All around the world, digital aerial cameras have been used for the photogrammetry applications in the last ten years. In this way, in terms of the work done in photogrammetry it is possible to use time effectively, costs to be reduced to a minimum level, the opportunity to make fast and accurate. Geo-referencing techniques that are the cornerstone of the GPS / INS systems, photogrammetric triangulation of images required for balancing (interior and exterior orientation) brings flexibility to the process. Also geo-referencing process; needed in the application of photogrammetry targets to help to reduce the number of ground control points. In this study, the use of direct and indirect geo-referencing techniques on the accuracy of the points was investigated in the production of photogrammetric mapping. Downloads 329
##### 116 Prevention of Student Radicalism in School through Civic Education

Authors: Triyanto

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Radicalism poses a real threat to Indonesia's future. The target of radicalism is the youth of Indonesia. This is proven by the majority of terrorists are young people. Radicalization is not only a repressive act but also requires educational action. One of the educational efforts is civic education. This study discusses the prevention of radicalism for students through civic education and its constraints. This is qualitative research. Data were collected through literature studies, observations and in-depth interviews. Data were validated by triangulation. The sample of this research is 30 high school students in Surakarta. Data were analyzed by the interactive model of analysis from Miles & Huberman. The results show that (1) civic education can be a way of preventing student radicalism in schools in the form of cultivating the values of education through learning in the classroom and outside the classroom; (2) The obstacles encountered include the lack of learning facilities, the limited ability of teachers and the low attention of students to the civic education. Downloads 137
##### 115 Exploring Academic English Language Needs of Iranian Students of Geology: A Triangulated Approach

Authors: Rose Shayeghi, Pejman Hosseinioun

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During the academic year of 2014-2015, a needs analysis was conducted in four major universities of Iran to assess the present and target situation academic language needs of undergraduate students of geology. Participants included undergraduate students (N = 102), graduate students (N = 47), subject-specific teachers (N = 12), and ESAP teachers (N = 20). Instrumentation included four needs analysis questionnaires, self-assessment and semi-structured interviews. The results indicated that, despite some inconsistencies in participants’ perceptions, ‘reading subject specific texts’, ‘knowledge of general vocabulary’, ‘using bilingual technical dictionaries’, and ‘writing e-mails to teachers and field experts’ were perceived as either ‘important’ or ‘very important’ to students’ success by all the participants. Moreover, the findings revealed that undergraduate students’ General English Proficiency (GEP) level was generally lower than what is required in the EAP courses. The findings of the study can have implications for improving and renewing EAP courses under study.

Keywords: ESP, EAP, needs analysis, triangulation, geology

##### 114 Contribution of Culture on Divorce Prevention in Indonesia on "New Normal" Era: Study at Batak, Malay and Minangkabau Tribes

Authors: Ikhwanuddin Harahap

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This paper investigates the contribution of culture to divorce prevention in Indonesia in the "new normal" era, especially in Batak, Malay and Minangkabau tribes. This research is qualitative with an anthropological approach. Data were collected by interview and observation techniques. Checking the validity of the data is done by triangulation technique, and the data is analyzed by content analysis. The results of the research showed that culture has a strategic role in preventing divorce. In Batak, Malay and Minangkabau-as, major ethnic groups in Indonesian cultures, have a set of norms and dogmas conveyed at the wedding party, namely “marriage must be eternal and if divorced by death.” In addition, cultural figures actively become arbiters in resolving family conflicts, such as Harajaon in Batak, Datuk in Malay and Mamak in Minangkabau. Cultural dogmas and cultural figures play a very important role in preventing divorce.

Keywords: culture, divorce, prevention, contribution, new normal, era

##### 113 Patients Reactions to Medical Errors in Hospitals: The Need for Social Workers in Nigeria

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Medical error is on the increase in many nations and like many developing nations, Nigeria is not excluded and more importantly, Lafia, Nasarawa state, where the study was carried. The study was undertaken to explore Patients' knowledge and their reactions to medical errors in hospitals in Lafia Local Government Area; therefore, five objectives were formulated to guide the study. The survey research design was employed and triangulation of quantitative and qualitative instruments was used to collect data. The total population for the study was 330,712 and the sample size was 400; however, only 343 patients and three doctors responded to the quantitative and qualitative study, respectively. Frequency distribution, simple percentage, and r test were used to analyze the data obtained from respondents. The findings revealed that medical errors are prevalent in hospitals in Lafia and the patients are neither aware nor willing to report such occurrence. The study recommends that social workers, hospital management, and governments should take up their roles in reducing the occurrence of medical errors.

Keywords: health, hospital, medical errors, social work

##### 112 Digital Individual Benefit Statement: The Use of a Triangulation Methodology to Design a Digital Platform for Switzerland

Authors: Catherine Equey Balzli

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Old age retirement pensions are an important concern among the Swiss but estimating one’s income after retirement is difficult due to the Swiss insurance system’s complexity. This project’s aim is to prepare for developing a digital platform that will allow individuals to plan for retirement in a simplified manner. The main objective of the platform will be to give individuals the tools to check that their savings and retirement benefits will allow them to continue the lifestyle to which they are accustomed once they are retired. The research results from qualitative (focus group) and quantitative (survey) methodologies, recommend the scope and functionalities for a digital platform to be developed. A main outcome is the need to limit the platform’s scope to old-age pension only (excluding survivors’ or disability pensions, for instance). Furthermore, an outcome regarding the functionalities is the proposition of scenarios such as early retirement, changes to income, or modifications to personal status. The development of the digital platform will be a subsequent project. Downloads 41
##### 111 Science of Social Work: Recognizing Its Existence as a Scientific Discipline by a Method Triangulation

Authors: Sandra Mendes

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Social Work has encountered over time with multivariate requests in the field of its action, provisioning frameworks of knowledge and praxis. Over the years, we have observed a transformation of society and, consequently, of the public who deals with the social work practitioners. Both, training and profession have had need to adapt and readapt the ways of doing, bailing up theories to action, while action unfolds emancipation of new theories. The theoretical questioning of this subject lies on classical authors from social sciences, and contemporary authors of Social Work. In fact, both enhance, in the design of social work, an integration and social cohesion function, creating a culture of action and theory, attributing to its method a relevant function, which shall be promoter of social changes in various dimensions of both individual and collective life, as well as scientific knowledge. On the other hand, it is assumed that Social Work, through its professionalism and through the academy, is now closer to distinguish itself from other Social Sciences as an autonomous scientific field, being, however, in the center of power struggles. This paper seeks to fill the gap in social work literature about the study of the scientific field of this area of knowledge.

Keywords: field theory, knowledge, science, social work

##### 110 Understanding the 3R's Element in the Creation of Ecological Form That Leads to Ecodesign

Authors: Mohd Hasni Chumiran

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The rapid growth of global industrialism over the past few decades has led to various environmental issues and ecological instability, all due to human activity. In order to solve this global issue, the manufacturers alike have begun to embrace the use of ecodesign products. However, when considering a specific field, multiple questions have been raised and industrial designers (the practising designer's R&D group) have been unable to define the ecological cycle methodology. In this paper, we investigate the validation of problematic in the creation of ecodesign products with the 'reduce, reuse and recycle' (3R’s) method, which is an untested product design theory. The aim of this research is to address the 3R’s method can be extracted in order to transmit an ecological form of ecodesign, specifically among Malaysian furniture manufacturers. By operating the Descriptive Study I (DS-I) phase: Design Research Methodology (DRM), the research has applied two research approaches by the methodological triangulation tradition. To achieve the result, this validation of descriptive structure (design theory) shall be matched with the research hypothesis along the use of research questions. Downloads 157
##### 109 Language Anxiety and Motivation as Predictors of English as a Foreign Language Achievement

Authors: Fakieh Alrabai

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The present study examines the predictive power of foreign language anxiety and motivation, as two significant affective variables, in English as a foreign language (EFL) achievement. It also explores the causal relationship between these two factors (i.e. which variable causes the other); and which one of them best predicts other affective factors including learner attitude, self-esteem, and autonomy. The study utilized experimental treatments among 210 Saudi EFL learners divided into four groups. Group 1 was exposed to anxiety-controlling moments, group 2 was exposed to motivational moments, group 3 was exposed to anxiety-controlling and motivational moments together, and group 4 was exposed to no specific anxiety or motivation strategies. The influence of the treatment on the study variables was evaluated using a triangulation of measurements including questionnaires, classroom observations, and achievement tests. Descriptive analysis, ANOVA, ANCOVA, and regression analyses have been deployed to figure out the study findings. While both motivation and anxiety significantly predicted learners EFL achievement, motivation has been found to be the best predictor of learners’ achievement; and therefore, operates as the mediator of EFL achievement.

Keywords: motivation, anxiety, achievement, autonomy