Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: Shubhangi R. Deshmukh

21 Performance of Osmotic Microbial Fuel Cell in Wastewater Treatment and Electricity Generation: A Critical Review

Authors: Shubhangi R. Deshmukh, Anupam B. Soni

Abstract:

Clean water and electricity are vital services needed in all communities. Bio-degradation of wastewater contaminants and desalination technologies are the best possible alternatives for the global shortage of fresh water supply. Osmotic microbial fuel cell (OMFC) is a versatile technology that uses microorganism (used for biodegradation of organic waste) and membrane technology (used for water purification) for wastewater treatment and energy generation simultaneously. This technology is the combination of microbial fuel cell (MFC) and forward osmosis (FO) processes. OMFC can give more electricity and clean water than the MFC which has a regular proton exchange membrane. FO gives many improvements such as high contamination removal, lower operating energy, raising high proton flux than other pressure-driven membrane technology. Lower concentration polarization lowers the membrane fouling by giving osmotic water recovery without extra cost. In this review paper, we have discussed the principle, mechanism, limitation, and application of OMFC technology reported to date. Also, we have interpreted the experimental data from various literature on the water recovery and electricity generation assessed by a different component of OMFC. The area of producing electricity using OMFC has further scope for research and seems like a promising route to wastewater treatment.

Keywords: forward osmosis, microbial fuel cell, osmotic microbial fuel cell, wastewater treatment

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20 Implementation of Traffic Engineering Using MPLS Technology

Authors: Vishal H. Shukla, Sanjay B. Deshmukh

Abstract:

Traffic engineering, at its center, is the ability of moving traffic approximately so that traffic from a congested link is moved onto the unused capacity on another link. Traffic Engineering ensures the best possible use of the resources. Now to support traffic engineering in the today’s network, Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is being used which is very helpful for reliable packets delivery in an ongoing internet services. Here a topology is been implemented on GNS3 to focus on the analysis of the communication take place from one site to other through the ISP. The comparison is made between the IP network & MPLS network based on Bandwidth & Jitter which are one of the performance parameters using JPERF simulator.

Keywords: GNS3, JPERF, MPLS, traffic engineering, VMware

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19 Financial Feasibility of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Projects in India

Authors: Renuka H. Deshmukh, Snehal Nifadkar, Anil P. Dongre

Abstract:

The research study aims to analyze the financial performance of the companies associated with CDM projects implemented in India from 2001 to 2014 by calculating net profit with and without CDM revenue. Further the study also highlights the Year-wise and sector-wise lending to CDM projects in India as well as in the state of Maharashtra. The study further aims to examine the year-wise trend of Certified Emission Reductions (CER) issued by the CDM projects implemented in Maharashtra from 2001-2014. The study as well analyses the responses of selected corporate with respect to the challenges in implementing and obtaining finance from commercial banks.

Keywords: adaptation costs, internal rate of return, mitigation, vulnerability, CER

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18 Managing the Effects of Wet Coal on Generation in Thermal Power Station: A Case Study

Authors: Ravindra Gohane, S. V. Deshmukh

Abstract:

The coal acts as a fuel on a very large scale. Coal forms the basis of any thermal power plant. Different types of coal are available for utilization. The moisture content, volatile nature and ash content determines the type of the coal. Out of these moisture plays a very important part as it is present naturally within the coal and is added while handling the coal and is termed as wet coal. The problems of wet coal are many and more particularly during rainy season such as generation loss, jamming of crusher, reduction in calorific value, transportation of coal etc. Efforts are made to resolve the problems arising out of wet coal worldwide. This paper highlights the issue of resolving the problem due to wet coal with the help of a case study involving installation of V-type wiper on the conveyer belt.

Keywords: coal handling plant, wet coal, v-type, generation

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17 Ultrasonic Degradation of Acephate in Aqueous Solution: Effects of Operating Parameters

Authors: Naina S. Deshmukh, Manik P. Deosarkar

Abstract:

With the wide production, consumption, and disposal of pesticides in the world, the concerns over their human and environmental health impacts are rapidly growing. Among developing treatment technologies, ultrasonication, as an emerging and promising technology for the removal of pesticides in the aqueous environment, has attracted the attention of many researchers in recent years. The degradation of acephate in aqueous solutions was investigated under the influence of ultrasound irradiation (20 kHz) in the presence of heterogeneous catalysts titanium dioxide (TiO2) and Zinc oxide (ZnO). The influence of various factors such as amount of catalyst (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25 g/l), initial acephate concentration (100, 200, 300, 400 mg/l), and pH (3, 5, 7, 9, 11) were studied. The optimum catalyst dose was found to be 1 g/l of TiO2 and 1.25 g/l of ZnO for acephate at 100 mg/l, respectively. The maximum percentage degradation of acephate was observed at pH 11 for catalyst TiO2 and ZnO, respectively.

Keywords: ultrasonic degradation, acephate, TiO2, ZnO, heterogeneous catalyst

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16 Study of Land Use Land Cover Change of Bhimbetka with Temporal Satellite Data and Information Systems

Authors: Pranita Shivankar, Devashree Hardas, Prabodhachandra Deshmukh, Arun Suryavanshi

Abstract:

Bhimbetka Rock Shelters is the UNESCO World Heritage Site located about 45 kilometers south of Bhopal in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. Rapid changes in land use land cover (LULC) adversely affect the environment. In recent past, significant changes are found in the cultural landscape over a period of time. The objective of the paper was to study the changes in land use land cover (LULC) of Bhimbetka and its peripheral region. For this purpose, the supervised classification was carried out by using satellite images of Landsat and IRS LISS III for the year 2000 and 2013. Use of remote sensing in combination with geographic information system is one of the effective information technology tools to generate land use land cover (LULC) change information.

Keywords: IRS LISS III, Landsat, LULC, UNESCO, World Heritage Site

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15 Integrating Ergonomics at Design Stage in Development of Continuous Passive Motion Machine

Authors: Mahesh S. Harne, Sunil V. Deshmukh

Abstract:

A continuous passive motion machine improves and helps the patient to restore range of motion in various physiotherapy activities. The paper presents a concept for portable CPM. The device is used for various joint for upper and lower body extremities. The device is designed so that the active and passive motion is incorporated. During development, the physiotherapist and patient need is integrated with designer aspects. Various tools such as Analytical Higher Hierarchy process (AHP) and Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is used to integrate the need at the design stage. With market survey of various commercial CPM the gaps are identified, and efforts are made to fill the gaps with ergonomic need. Indian anthropomorphic dimension is referred. The device is modular to best suit for all the anthropomorphic need of different human. Experimentation is carried under the observation of physiotherapist and doctor on volunteer patient. We reported better results are compare to conventional CPM with comfort and less pain. We concluded that the concept will be helpful to reduces therapy cost and wide utility of device for various joint and physiotherapy exercise.

Keywords: continuous passive motion machine, ergonomics, physiotherapy, quality function deployment

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14 An Experiential Learning of Ontology-Based Multi-document Summarization by Removal Summarization Techniques

Authors: Pranjali Avinash Yadav-Deshmukh

Abstract:

Remarkable development of the Internet along with the new technological innovation, such as high-speed systems and affordable large storage space have led to a tremendous increase in the amount and accessibility to digital records. For any person, studying of all these data is tremendously time intensive, so there is a great need to access effective multi-document summarization (MDS) systems, which can successfully reduce details found in several records into a short, understandable summary or conclusion. For semantic representation of textual details in ontology area, as a theoretical design, our system provides a significant structure. The stability of using the ontology in fixing multi-document summarization problems in the sector of catastrophe control is finding its recommended design. Saliency ranking is usually allocated to each phrase and phrases are rated according to the ranking, then the top rated phrases are chosen as the conclusion. With regards to the conclusion quality, wide tests on a selection of media announcements are appropriate for “Jammu Kashmir Overflow in 2014” records. Ontology centered multi-document summarization methods using “NLP centered extraction” outshine other baselines. Our participation in recommended component is to implement the details removal methods (NLP) to enhance the results.

Keywords: disaster management, extraction technique, k-means, multi-document summarization, NLP, ontology, sentence extraction

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13 Rational Memory Therapy: The Counselling Technique to Control Psychological and Psychosomatic Illnesses

Authors: Sachin Deshmukh

Abstract:

Mind and body synchronization occurs through memory and sensation production. Sensations are the guiding language of subconscious mind for conscious mind to take a proper action. Mind-mechanism is based upon memories collected so far since intrauterine life. There are three universal triggers for memory creation; they are persons, situations and objects. Memory is created as sensations experienced by special senses. Based upon experiencing comfort or discomfort, the triggers are categorized as safe or unsafe triggers. A memory comprises of ‘safe or unsafe feeling for triggers, and actions taken for that feeling’. Memories for triggers are created slowly, thoughtfully and consciously by the conscious mind, and archived in the subconscious mind for future references. Later on, similar triggers can come in contact with the individual. Subconscious mind uses these stored feelings to decide whether these triggers are safe or unsafe. It produces comfort or discomfort sensations as emotions accordingly and reacts in the same way as has been recorded in memory. Speed of sensing and processing the triggers, and reacting by subconscious mind is that of the speed of bioelectricity. Hence, formula for human emotions has been designed in this paper as follows: Emotion (Stress or Peace) = Trigger (Person or Situation or object) x Mass of feelings (stressful or peaceful) associated with the Trigger x Speed of Light². We also establish modern medical scientific facts about relationship between reflex activity and memory. This research further develops the ‘Rational Memory Therapy’ focusing on therapeutic feelings conversion techniques, for stress prevention and management.

Keywords: memory, sensations, feelings, emotions, rational memory therapy

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12 Screening for Antibacterial Activity of Fungi from Indian Marine Environments: A Possible Alternative for New Antibiotics for the Treatment of Skin Microbial Infections

Authors: Shivankar Agrawal, Sunil Kumar Deshmukh, Colin Barrow, Alok Adholeya

Abstract:

Millions of people worldwide are affected by infectious diseases caused by bacteria and fungi. Skin and skin structure infections (SSSI) represent a significant category of infectious disease. Unexpectedly, many pathogens have developed resistance towards current antibiotics and over the time this problem has become more and more serious. All these new problems necessitate the continuous search for novel and alternative antibiotics and antifungals. The aim of our research is the screening of extracts of marine fungi for their antibacterial activity against bacteria causing skin and wound infection in humans. A total of 40 marine samples were collected from west coast and Andaman Island of India and 35 morphologically different marine fungi were isolated using natural sea water medium. Among 35 marine fungi, eight isolates exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against human pathogens. In the course of systematic screening program for bioactive marine fungi, strain 'D5' was found to be most potent strain with MIC value of 1 mg/mL, which was morphologically identified as Simplicillium lamellicola. The effects of the most active crude extracts against their susceptible test microorganisms were also investigated by SEM analysis. Purification and characterization of crude extracts for identification of active lead molecule is under process. The results of diversity and antimicrobial activity have increased the scope of finding industrially important marine fungi from Indian marine environments and these organisms could be vital sources for the discovery of pharmaceutically useful molecules.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, antibiotic, marine fungi, skin infections

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11 Anti-Tyrosinase and Antibacterial Activities of Marine Fungal Extracts

Authors: Shivankar Agrawal, Sunil Kumar Deshmukh, Colin Barrow, Alok Adholeya

Abstract:

A variety of genetic and environmental factors cause various cosmetics and dermatological problems. There are already claimed drugs available in market for treating these problems. However, the challenge remains in finding more potent, environmental friendly, causing minimal side effects and economical cosmeceuticals. This leads to an increased demand for natural cosmeceutical products in the last few decades. Plant derived ingredients are limited because plants either contain toxic metabolites, grow too slow or seasonal harvesting is a problem. The research work carried out in this project aims at isolation, characterization of marine fungal secondary metabolite and evaluating their potential use in future cosmetic skin care products. We have isolated and purified 35 morphologically different fungal isolates from various marine habitats of the India. These isolates have been functionally characterized for anti-tyrosinase, antioxidant and anti-acne activities. For molecular characterization, the Internal Transcribed spacer (ITS) region of 15 functionally active marine fungal isolates was amplified using universal primers, ITS1 and ITS4 and sequenced. Out of 15 marine fungal isolates crude extract of strains D4 (Aspergillus terreus) and P2 (Talaromyces stipitatus) showed 70% and 57% tyrosinase inhibition at 1mg/mL respectively. Strain D5 (Simplicillium lamellicola) has showed significant inhibition against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. In addition, all these strains also displayed DPPH- radical scavenging activity and may be utilized as skin cosmeceutical applications. Purification and characterization of crude extracts for identification of active lead molecule is under process.

Keywords: anti-acne, anti-tyrosinase, cosmeceutical, marine fungi

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10 Optimal Power Distribution and Power Trading Control among Loads in a Smart Grid Operated Industry

Authors: Vivek Upadhayay, Siddharth Deshmukh

Abstract:

In recent years utilization of renewable energy sources has increased majorly because of the increase in global warming concerns. Organization these days are generally operated by Micro grid or smart grid on a small level. Power optimization and optimal load tripping is possible in a smart grid based industry. In any plant or industry loads can be divided into different categories based on their importance to the plant and power requirement pattern in the working days. Coming up with an idea to divide loads in different such categories and providing different power management algorithm to each category of load can reduce the power cost and can come handy in balancing stability and reliability of power. An objective function is defined which is subjected to a variable that we are supposed to minimize. Constraint equations are formed taking difference between the power usages pattern of present day and same day of previous week. By considering the objectives of minimal load tripping and optimal power distribution the proposed problem formulation is a multi-object optimization problem. Through normalization of each objective function, the multi-objective optimization is transformed to single-objective optimization. As a result we are getting the optimized values of power required to each load for present day by use of the past values of the required power for the same day of last week. It is quite a demand response scheduling of power. These minimized values then will be distributed to each load through an algorithm used to optimize the power distribution at a greater depth. In case of power storage exceeding the power requirement, profit can be made by selling exceeding power to the main grid.

Keywords: power flow optimization, power trading enhancement, smart grid, multi-object optimization

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9 Open Reading Frame Marker-Based Capacitive DNA Sensor for Ultrasensitive Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Potable Water

Authors: Rehan Deshmukh, Sunil Bhand, Utpal Roy

Abstract:

We report the label-free electrochemical detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43895) in potable water using a DNA probe as a sensing molecule targeting the open reading frame marker. Indium tin oxide (ITO) surface was modified with organosilane and, glutaraldehyde was applied as a linker to fabricate the DNA sensor chip. Non-Faradic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) behavior was investigated at each step of sensor fabrication using cyclic voltammetry, impedance, phase, relative permittivity, capacitance, and admittance. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed significant changes in surface topographies of DNA sensor chip fabrication. The decrease in the percentage of pinholes from 2.05 (Bare ITO) to 1.46 (after DNA hybridization) suggested the capacitive behavior of the DNA sensor chip. The results of non-Faradic EIS studies of DNA sensor chip showed a systematic declining trend of the capacitance as well as the relative permittivity upon DNA hybridization. DNA sensor chip exhibited linearity in 0.5 to 25 pg/10mL for E. coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43895). The limit of detection (LOD) at 95% confidence estimated by logistic regression was 0.1 pg DNA/10mL of E. coli O157:H7 (equivalent to 13.67 CFU/10mL) with a p-value of 0.0237. Moreover, the fabricated DNA sensor chip used for detection of E. coli O157:H7 showed no significant cross-reactivity with closely and distantly related bacteria such as Escherichia coli MTCC 3221, Escherichia coli O78:H11 MTCC 723 and Bacillus subtilis MTCC 736. Consequently, the results obtained in our study demonstrated the possible application of developed DNA sensor chips for E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43895 in real water samples as well.

Keywords: capacitance, DNA sensor, Escherichia coli O157:H7, open reading frame marker

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8 A Time and Frequency Dependent Study of Low Intensity Microwave Radiation Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Alteration of Autophagy in Rat Brain

Authors: Ranjeet Kumar, Pravin Suryakantrao Deshmukh, Sonal Sharma, Basudev Banerjee

Abstract:

With the tremendous increase in exposure to radiofrequency microwaves emitted by mobile phones, globally public awareness has grown with regard to the potential health hazards of microwaves on the nervous system in the brain. India alone has more than one billion mobile users out of 4.3 billion globally. Our studies have suggested that radio frequency able to affect neuronal alterations in the brain, and hence, affecting cognitive behaviour. However, adverse effect of low-intensity microwave exposure with endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy has not been evaluated yet. In this study, we explore whether low-intensity microwave induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy with varying frequency and time duration in Wistar rat. Ninety-six male Wistar rat were divided into 12 groups of 8 rats each. We studied at 900 MHz, 1800 MHz, and 2450 MHz frequency with reference to sham-exposed group. At the end of the exposure, the rats were sacrificed to collect brain tissue and expression of CHOP, ATF-4, XBP-1, Bcl-2, Bax, LC3 and Atg-4 gene was analysed by real-time PCR. Significant fold change (p < 0.05) of gene expression was found in all groups of 1800 MHz and 2450 MHz exposure group in comparison to sham exposure group. In conclusion, the microwave exposure able to induce ER stress and modulate autophagy. ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress and autophagy vary with increasing frequency as well as the duration of exposure. Our results suggested that microwave exposure is harmful to neuronal health as it induces ER stress and hampers autophagy in neuron cells and thereby increasing the neuron degeneration which impairs cognitive behaviour of experimental animals.

Keywords: autophagy, ER stress, microwave, nervous system, rat

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7 Study of Land Use Changes around an Archaeological Site Using Satellite Imagery Analysis: A Case Study of Hathnora, Madhya Pradesh, India

Authors: Pranita Shivankar, Arun Suryawanshi, Prabodhachandra Deshmukh, S. V. C. Kameswara Rao

Abstract:

Many undesirable significant changes in landscapes and the regions in the vicinity of historically important structures occur as impacts due to anthropogenic activities over a period of time. A better understanding of such influences using recently developed satellite remote sensing techniques helps in planning the strategies for minimizing the negative impacts on the existing environment. In 1982, a fossilized hominid skull cap was discovered at a site located along the northern bank of the east-west flowing river Narmada in the village Hathnora. Close to the same site, the presence of Late Acheulian and Middle Palaeolithic tools have been discovered in the immediately overlying pebbly gravel, suggesting that the ‘Narmada skull’ may be from the Middle Pleistocene age. The reviews of recently carried out research studies relevant to hominid remains all over the world from Late Acheulian and Middle Palaeolithic sites suggest succession and contemporaneity of cultures there, enhancing the importance of Hathnora as a rare precious site. In this context, the maximum likelihood classification using digital interpretation techniques was carried out for this study area using the satellite imagery from Landsat ETM+ for the year 2006 and Landsat TM (OLI and TIRS) for the year 2016. The overall accuracy of Land Use Land Cover (LULC) classification of 2016 imagery was around 77.27% based on ground truth data. The significant reduction in the main river course and agricultural activities and increase in the built-up area observed in remote sensing data analysis are undoubtedly the outcome of human encroachments in the vicinity of the eminent heritage site.

Keywords: cultural succession, digital interpretation, Hathnora, Homo Sapiens, Late Acheulian, Middle Palaeolithic

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6 Development of an Experimental Model of Diabetes Co-Existing with Metabolic Syndrome in Rats

Authors: Rajesh Kumar Suman, Ipseeta Ray Mohanty, Manjusha K. Borde, Ujjawala maheswari, Y. A. Deshmukh

Abstract:

Background: Metabolic syndrome encompasses cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease which includes abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia. The incidence of metabolic syndrome is on the rise globally. Objective: The present study was designed to develop a unique animal model that will mimic the pathological features seen in a large pool of individuals with diabetes and metabolic syndrome; suitable for pharmacological screening of drugs beneficial in this condition. Material and Methods: A combination of high fat diet (HFD) and low dose of streptozotocin (STZ) at 30, 35 and 40 mg/kg was used to induce metabolic syndrome co-existing with diabetes mellitus in Wistar rats. Results: The 40 mg/kg STZ produced sustained hyperglycemia and the dose was thus selected for our study to induce diabetes mellitus. Rat fed HFD (HF-DC) group showed significant (p < 0.001) increase in body weight on 4th and 7th week as compared with NC (Normal Control) group rats. However, the increase in body weight of HF-DC group rats was not sustained at the end of 10th weeks. Various components of metabolic syndrome such as dyslipidemia {(Increased Triglyceride, total Cholesterol, LDL Cholesterol and decreased HDL Cholesterol)}, diabetes mellitus (Blood Glucose, HbA1c, Serum Insulin, C-peptide), hypertension {Systolic Blood pressure (p < 0.001)} were mimicked in the developed model of metabolic syndrome co existing with diabetes mellitus. In addition significant cardiac injury as indicated by CPK-MB levels, artherogenic index, hs-CRP. The decline in hepatic function {(p < 0.01) increase in the level of SGPT (U/L)} and renal function {(increase in creatinine levels (p < 0.01)} when compared to NC group rats. The histopathological assessment confirmed presence of edema, necrosis and inflammation in Heart, Pancreas, Liver and Kidney of HFD-DC group as compared to NC. Conclusion: The present study has developed a unique rodent model of metabolic syndrome; with diabetes as an essential component.

Keywords: diabetes, metabolic syndrome, high fat diet, streptozotocin, rats

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5 Isolation, Identification and Screening of Marine Fungi for Potential Tyrosinase Inhibitor, Antibacterial and Antioxidant for Future Cosmeceuticals

Authors: Shivankar Agrawal, Sunil Kumar Deshmukh, Colin Barrow, Alok Adholeya

Abstract:

A variety of genetic and environmental factors cause various cosmetics and dermatological problems. There are already claimed drugs available in market for treating these problems. However, the challenge remains in finding more potent, environmental friendly, causing minimal side effects and economical cosmeceuticals. This leads to an increased demand for natural cosmeceutical products in the last few decades. Plant derived ingredients are limited because plants either contain toxic metabolites, grow too slow or seasonal harvesting is a problem. To identify new bioactive cosmetics ingredients of marine microbial bioresource, we screened 35 marine fungi isolated from marine samples collected from Andaman Island and west coast of India. Fungal crude extracts were investigated for their antityrosinase, antioxidant and antibacterial activities for the purpose of identifying anti-aging, skin-whitening and anti-acne biomolecule with the potential in cosmetics. In the tyrosinase inhibition and 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assays, two fungal extracts, including “P2”, Talaromyces stipitatus and “D4”, Aspergillus terreus showed high inhibitory activity at 1mg/mL for tyrosinase inhibition and 0.5mg/mL for DPPH scavenging. The in vitro antimicrobial activity was investigated by the agar well diffusion method. In the tyrosinase inhibition assay, 8 extracts showed significant antibacterial activity against bacteria causing skin and wound infection in humans. In the course of systematic screening program for bioactive marine fungi, strain “D5” was found to be most potent strain with MIC value of 1mg/mL, which was morphologically identified as Simplicillium lamellicola. The effects of the most active crude extracts against their susceptible test microorganisms were also investigated by SEM analysis. Further investigations will focus on purification and characterization major active components responsible for these activities.

Keywords: antioxidant, antimicrobial activity, tyrosinase, cosmeceuticals, marine fungi

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4 Impact of Informal Institutions on Development: Analyzing the Socio-Legal Equilibrium of Relational Contracts in India

Authors: Shubhangi Roy

Abstract:

Relational Contracts (informal understandings not enforceable by law) are a common feature of most economies. However, their dominance is higher in developing countries. Such informality of economic sectors is often co-related to lower economic growth. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether informal arrangements i.e. relational contracts are a cause or symptom of lower levels of economic and/or institutional development. The methodology followed involves an initial survey of 150 test subjects in Northern India. The subjects are all members of occupations where they frequently transact ensuring uniformity in transaction volume. However, the subjects are from varied socio-economic backgrounds to ensure sufficient variance in transaction values allowing us to understand the relationship between the amount of money involved to the method of transaction used, if any. Questions asked are quantitative and qualitative with an aim to observe both the behavior and motivation behind such behavior. An overarching similarity observed during the survey across all subjects’ responses is that in an economy like India with pervasive corruption and delayed litigation, economy participants have created alternative social sanctions to deal with non-performers. In a society that functions predominantly on caste, class and gender classifications, these sanctions could, in fact, be more cumbersome for a potential rule-breaker than the legal ramifications. It, therefore, is a symptom of weak formal regulatory enforcement and dispute settlement mechanism. Additionally, the study bifurcates such informal arrangements into two separate systems - a) when it exists in addition to and augments a legal framework creating an efficient socio-legal equilibrium or; b) in conflict with the legal system in place. This categorization is an important step in regulating informal arrangements. Instead of considering the entire gamut of such arrangements as counter-development, it helps decision-makers understand when to dismantle (latter) and when to pivot around existing informal systems (former). The paper hypothesizes that those social arrangements that support the formal legal frameworks allow for cheaper enforcement of regulations with lower enforcement costs burden on the state mechanism. On the other hand, norms which contradict legal rules will undermine the formal framework. Law infringement, in presence of these norms, will have no impact on the reputation of the business or individual outside of the punishment imposed under the law. It is especially exacerbated in the Indian legal system where enforcement of penalties for non-performance of contracts is low. In such a situation, the social norm will be adhered to more strictly by the individuals rather than the legal norms. This greatly undermines the role of regulations. The paper concludes with recommendations that allow policy-makers and legal systems to encourage the former category of informal arrangements while discouraging norms that undermine legitimate policy objectives. Through this investigation, we will be able to expand our understanding of tools of market development beyond regulations. This will allow academics and policymakers to harness social norms for less disruptive and more lasting growth.

Keywords: distribution of income, emerging economies, relational contracts, sample survey, social norms

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3 Current Concepts of Male Aesthetics: Facial Areas to Be Focused and Prioritized with Botulinum Toxin and Hyaluronic Acid Dermal Fillers Combination Therapies, Recommendations on Asian Patients

Authors: Sadhana Deshmukh

Abstract:

Objective: Men represent only a fraction of the medical aesthetic practice. They are increasingly becoming more cosmetically-inclined. The primary objective is to harmonize facial proportion by prioritizing and focusing on forehead nose, cheek and chin complex. Introduction: Despite tremendous variability, diverse population of the Indian subcontinent, the male skull is unique in its overall larger size, and shape. Men tend to have a large forehead with prominent supraorbital ridges, wide glabella, square orbit, and a prominent protruding mandible. Men have increased skeletal muscle mass, with less facial subcutaneous fat. Facial aesthetics is evolving rapidly. Commonly published canons of facial proportions usually represent feminine standards and are not applicable to males. Strict adherence to these norms is therefore not necessary to obtain satisfying results in male patients. Materials and Methods: Male patients age group 30-60 years have been enrolled. Botulinum toxin and hyaluronic acid fillers were used to update consensus recommendations for facial rejuvenation using these two types of products alone and in combination. Results: There are specific recommendations by facial area, focusing on relaxing musculature, restoring volume, recontouring using toxin and dermal fillers alone and in combination. For upper face, though botulinum toxin remains the cornerstone of treatment, temples and forehead fillers are recommended for optimal results. In Mid face, these fillers are placed more laterally to maintain the masculine look. Botulinum toxin and fillers in combination can improve outcomes in the lower face. Chin augmentation remains the center point for lower face. Conclusions: Males are more likely to have shorter doctor visits, less likely to ask questions, have a lower attention to bodily changes. The physician must patiently gauge male patients’ aging and cosmetic goals. Clinicians can also benefit from ongoing guidance on products, tailoring treatments, treating multiple facial areas, and using combinations of products. An appreciation that rejuvenation is 3-dimensional process involving muscle control, volume restoration and recontouring helps.

Keywords: male aesthetics, botulinum toxin, hyaluronic acid dermal fillers, Asian patients

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2 Emotion-Convolutional Neural Network for Perceiving Stress from Audio Signals: A Brain Chemistry Approach

Authors: Anup Anand Deshmukh, Catherine Soladie, Renaud Seguier

Abstract:

Emotion plays a key role in many applications like healthcare, to gather patients’ emotional behavior. Unlike typical ASR (Automated Speech Recognition) problems which focus on 'what was said', it is equally important to understand 'how it was said.' There are certain emotions which are given more importance due to their effectiveness in understanding human feelings. In this paper, we propose an approach that models human stress from audio signals. The research challenge in speech emotion detection is finding the appropriate set of acoustic features corresponding to an emotion. Another difficulty lies in defining the very meaning of emotion and being able to categorize it in a precise manner. Supervised Machine Learning models, including state of the art Deep Learning classification methods, rely on the availability of clean and labelled data. One of the problems in affective computation is the limited amount of annotated data. The existing labelled emotions datasets are highly subjective to the perception of the annotator. We address the first issue of feature selection by exploiting the use of traditional MFCC (Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients) features in Convolutional Neural Network. Our proposed Emo-CNN (Emotion-CNN) architecture treats speech representations in a manner similar to how CNN’s treat images in a vision problem. Our experiments show that Emo-CNN consistently and significantly outperforms the popular existing methods over multiple datasets. It achieves 90.2% categorical accuracy on the Emo-DB dataset. We claim that Emo-CNN is robust to speaker variations and environmental distortions. The proposed approach achieves 85.5% speaker-dependant categorical accuracy for SAVEE (Surrey Audio-Visual Expressed Emotion) dataset, beating the existing CNN based approach by 10.2%. To tackle the second problem of subjectivity in stress labels, we use Lovheim’s cube, which is a 3-dimensional projection of emotions. Monoamine neurotransmitters are a type of chemical messengers in the brain that transmits signals on perceiving emotions. The cube aims at explaining the relationship between these neurotransmitters and the positions of emotions in 3D space. The learnt emotion representations from the Emo-CNN are mapped to the cube using three component PCA (Principal Component Analysis) which is then used to model human stress. This proposed approach not only circumvents the need for labelled stress data but also complies with the psychological theory of emotions given by Lovheim’s cube. We believe that this work is the first step towards creating a connection between Artificial Intelligence and the chemistry of human emotions.

Keywords: deep learning, brain chemistry, emotion perception, Lovheim's cube

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1 Genetic Screening of Sahiwal Bulls for Higher Fertility

Authors: Atul C. Mahajan, A. K. Chakravarty, V. Jamuna, C. S. Patil, Neeraj Kashyap, Bharti Deshmukh, Vijay Kumar

Abstract:

The selection of Sahiwal bulls on the basis of dams best lactation milk yield under breeding programme in herd of the country neglecting fertility traits leads to deterioration in their performances and economy. The goal of this study was to explore polymorphism of CRISP2 gene and their association with semen traits (Post Thaw Motility, Hypo-osmotic Swelling Test, Acrosome Integrity, DNA Fragmentation and capacitation status), scrotal circumference, expected predicted difference (EPD) for milk yield and fertility. Sahiwal bulls included in present study were 60 bulls used in breeding programme as well as 50 young bulls yet to be included in breeding programme. All the Sahiwal bulls were found to be polymorphic for CRISP2 gene (AA, AG and GG) present within exon 7 to the position 589 of CRISP2 mRNA by using PCR-SSCP and Sequencing. Semen analysis were done on 60 breeding bulls frozen semen doses pertaining to four season (winter, summer, rainy and autumn). The scrotal circumference was measured from existing Sahiwal breeding bulls in the herd (n=47). The effect of non-genetic factors on reproduction traits were studied by least-squares technique and the significant difference of means between subclasses of season, period, parity and age group were tested. The data were adjusted for the significant non-genetic factors to remove the differential environmental effects. The adjusted data were used to generate traits like Waiting Period (WP), Pregnancy Rate (PR), Expected Predicted Difference (EPD) of fertility, respectively. Genetic and phenotypic parameters of reproduction traits were estimated. The overall least-squares means of Age at First Calving (AFC), Service Period (SP) and WP were estimated as 36.69 ± 0.18 months, 120.47 ± 8.98 days and 79.78 ± 3.09 days respectively. Season and period of birth had significant effect (p < 0.01) on AFC. AFC was highest during autumn season of birth followed by summer, winter and rainy. Season and period of calving had significant effect (p < 0.01) on SP and WP of sahiwal cows. The WP for Sahiwal cows was standardized based on four developed predicted model for pregnancy rate 42, 63, 84 and 105 days using all lactation records. The WP for Sahiwal cows were standardized as 42 days. A selection criterion was developed for Sahiwal breeding bulls and young Sahiwal bulls on the basis of EPD of fertility. The genotype has significant effect on expected predicted difference of fertility and some semen parameters like post thaw motility and HOST. AA Genotype of CRISP2 gene revealed better EPD for fertility than EPD of milk yield. AA genotype of CRISP2 gene has higher scrotal circumference than other genotype. For young Sahiwal bulls only AA genotypes were present with similar patterns. So on the basis of association of genotype with seminal traits, EPD of milk yield and EPD for fertility status, AA and AG genotype of CRISP2 gene was better for higher fertility in Sahiwal bulls.

Keywords: expected predicted difference, fertility, sahiwal, waiting period

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