Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 137

Search results for: colors

137 A Case Study of Zhang Yimou, Using Color Evidence From “Hero and the Shadow” and How the Color Is Symbolized in Contemporary Society?

Authors: Rakiba Sultana

Abstract:

This paper investigates how different colors are used and bring symbolic meaning comparatively in Zhang Yimou's movies Hero and Shadow. The study also explores how those colors are symbolized in contemporary society. The researcher analyzes the movies Hero and the Shadow to investigate them using colors and how they are used in contemporary society. Hero exposes the colorful colors to expose the Chinese traditions, whereas Shadow explores the gray, black, and white with the ink paints. Also, in contemporary society, sometimes, the author gets a similar symbolic meaning of the colors. Sometimes, the contemporary's meaning is different from the one used in these two movies.

Keywords: Chinese movie, visuals, colors, traditional painting, contemporary society, and Western countries

Procedia PDF Downloads 13
136 A Way of Converting Color Images to Gray Scale Ones for the Color-Blind: Applying to the part of the Tokyo Subway Map

Authors: Katsuhiro Narikiyo, Shota Hashikawa

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This paper proposes a way of removing noises and reducing the number of colors contained in a JPEG image. Main purpose of this project is to convert color images to monochrome images for the color-blind. We treat the crispy color images like the Tokyo subway map. Each color in the image has an important information. But for the color blinds, similar colors cannot be distinguished. If we can convert those colors to different gray values, they can distinguish them. Therefore we try to convert color images to monochrome images.

Keywords: color-blind, JPEG, monochrome image, denoise

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
135 History of Textiles and Fashion: Gender Symbolism in the Context of Colour

Authors: Damayanthie Eluwawalage

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Historically, the color-coded attire demarcated differences, for example, differences in social position and differences in gender, etc. Distinctive colors are worn by different classes in medieval England. By the twentieth-century Western society, certain colors were firmly associated with the specific gender; as pink for girls, and blue for boys. The color-coded gender phenomenon was a novelty at the turn of the twentieth-century and became widely practiced after World War II. Prior to that era, there were no distinctions or differences in the dress of younger children, in relation to their gender. In the nineteenth century, pink suits were highly acceptable for gentlemen’s attire. Frenchmen in the eighteenth-century wore colors with an infinite range of hues like pink, plum, white, cream, blue, yellow, puce and sea green. Nineteenth-century European male austerity, primarily caused by the usage of sombre colors such as black, white and grey, has been described as an element for dignity, control and morality. In the nineteenth century, there were many color-associated distinctions, as certain colors were reserved for the unmarried, the single or the aged. Two luminous colors in one dress was ‘vulgar’ and yellow was generally regarded as unladylike. Yellow was the color utilised for most correctional attire. Orange was prohibited for the unmarried. Fashionable dressing in the nineteenth century was more gender-differentiated than in previous centuries. Masculine austerity, emphasized a shift in class relations. As a result of that shift, male attire became more uniform, homogeneous and integrated (amongst the classes), than its traditional hierarchal approach.

Keywords: textiles, fashion, gender symbolism, color

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
134 Color-Based Emotion Regulation Model: An Affective E-Learning Environment

Authors: Sabahat Nadeem, Farman Ali Khan

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Emotions are considered as a vital factor affecting the process of information handling, level of attention, memory capacity and decision making. Latest e-Learning systems are therefore taking into consideration the effective state of learners to make the learning process more effective and enjoyable. One such use of user’s affective information is in the systems that tend to regulate users’ emotions to a state optimally desirable for learning. So for, this objective has been tried to be achieved with the help of teaching strategies, background music, guided imagery, video clips and odors. Nevertheless, we know that colors can affect human emotions. Relationship between color and emotions has a strong influence on how we perceive our environment. Similarly, the colors of the interface can also affect the user positively as well as negatively. This affective behavior of color and its use as emotion regulation agent is not yet exploited. Therefore, this research proposes a Color-based Emotion Regulation Model (CERM), a new framework that can automatically adapt its colors according to user’s emotional state and her personality type and can help in producing a desirable emotional effect, aiming at providing an unobtrusive emotional support to the users of e-learning environment. The evaluation of CERM is carried out by comparing it with classical non-adaptive, static colored learning management system. Results indicate that colors of the interface, when carefully selected has significant positive impact on learner’s emotions.

Keywords: effective learning, e-learning, emotion regulation, emotional design

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
133 Assisted Video Colorization Using Texture Descriptors

Authors: Andre Peres Ramos, Franklin Cesar Flores

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Colorization is the process of add colors to a monochromatic image or video. Usually, the process involves to segment the image in regions of interest and then apply colors to each one, for videos, this process is repeated for each frame, which makes it a tedious and time-consuming job. We propose a new assisted method for video colorization; the user only has to colorize one frame, and then the colors are propagated to following frames. The user can intervene at any time to correct eventual errors in color assignment. The method consists of to extract intensity and texture descriptors from the frames and then perform a feature matching to determine the best color for each segment. To reduce computation time and give a better spatial coherence we narrow the area of search and give weights for each feature to emphasize texture descriptors. To give a more natural result, we use an optimization algorithm to make the color propagation. Experimental results in several image sequences, compared to others existing methods, demonstrates that the proposed method perform a better colorization with less time and user interference.

Keywords: colorization, feature matching, texture descriptors, video segmentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
132 Aqua Logo Design 2013 Decomposition and Meanings

Authors: Peni Rizki

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This article presents decomposition on Aqua logo design 2013 as well as exploration on the meanings denoting marketing resolution. In the analysis, it is described decomposition details on Aqua logo design 2013, a semiotics implementation on marketing enterprise. 2013’s design is different in parts from its first establishment in 1973. Upon that, design elements such as pictures and colors are examined in semiotic theories of sign utilized as directives to the meaning constructed. Each part of the design is analyzed based on its significations that generate denotation and connotation as well as myth. At the end will be concluded the converses of Aqua logo design 2013 in reflection to its initiated marketing creativity; what pictures and colors do in it.

Keywords: design, aqua, semiotics, signification

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
131 The Impact of Social Media to Indonesian Muslim Fashion Trend

Authors: Siti Dewi Aisyah

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Islamic Muslim fashion has become a trend in Indonesia. It is said that social media has a huge impact on its development. Indonesia is ranked among the most users of social media. That is why people who wear hijab also use social media for different purposes, one of this is to introduce hijab fashion. Consequently, they are becoming famous in social media. Social media has become a tool for communicating their beliefs as a Muslim as well as personal branding as a good hijabi yet with a fashionable style. This research will examine the social media such as Blog and Instagram, how it triggers the consumer culture to hijabi, what is the actual meaning behind of their feed posts in their social media, how they produce good photograph in their social media and for what reason they use social media. This research had been conducted through in-depth interviews with several bloggers who created Hijabers Community who have made a new trend in Muslim fashion and also Instagrammers who made their feeds as a style inspiration. The methodology used for this research is by analyzing Blog and Instagram through visual analysis that also examines the semiotic meaning behind the photographs that are posted by the people on the social media especially about the Islamic Modest Fashion trend. The theoretical framework for this research is about studying social media that is examined through visual analysis. The Muslim fashion trend was lead by several bloggers and continued to Instagram which then created a consumption pattern. From colourful colors, pastel colors, monochrome colors to neutral coffee tone colors, it was influenced by the Muslim fashion designers that also become digital influencers in social media. It was concluded that social media had been a powerful promotional and effective tool to change the trend in Indonesian Muslim Fashion trend.

Keywords: blog, instagram, consumer culture, muslim fashion, social media, visual analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
130 Total Chromatic Number of Δ-Claw-Free 3-Degenerated Graphs

Authors: Wongsakorn Charoenpanitseri

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The total chromatic number χ"(G) of a graph G is the minimum number of colors needed to color the elements (vertices and edges) of G such that no incident or adjacent pair of elements receive the same color Let G be a graph with maximum degree Δ(G). Considering a total coloring of G and focusing on a vertex with maximum degree. A vertex with maximum degree needs a color and all Δ(G) edges incident to this vertex need more Δ(G) + 1 distinct colors. To color all vertices and all edges of G, it requires at least Δ(G) + 1 colors. That is, χ"(G) is at least Δ(G) + 1. However, no one can find a graph G with the total chromatic number which is greater than Δ(G) + 2. The Total Coloring Conjecture states that for every graph G, χ"(G) is at most Δ(G) + 2. In this paper, we prove that the Total Coloring Conjectur for a Δ-claw-free 3-degenerated graph. That is, we prove that the total chromatic number of every Δ-claw-free 3-degenerated graph is at most Δ(G) + 2.

Keywords: total colorings, the total chromatic number, 3-degenerated, CLAW-FREE

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
129 Evaluating the Performance of Color Constancy Algorithm

Authors: Damanjit Kaur, Avani Bhatia

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Color constancy is significant for human vision since color is a pictorial cue that helps in solving different visions tasks such as tracking, object recognition, or categorization. Therefore, several computational methods have tried to simulate human color constancy abilities to stabilize machine color representations. Two different kinds of methods have been used, i.e., normalization and constancy. While color normalization creates a new representation of the image by canceling illuminant effects, color constancy directly estimates the color of the illuminant in order to map the image colors to a canonical version. Color constancy is the capability to determine colors of objects independent of the color of the light source. This research work studies the most of the well-known color constancy algorithms like white point and gray world.

Keywords: color constancy, gray world, white patch, modified white patch

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
128 Costume Design Influenced by Seventeenth Century Color Palettes on a Contemporary Stage

Authors: Michele L. Dormaier

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The purpose of the research was to design costumes based on historic colors used by artists during the seventeenth century. The researcher investigated European art, primarily paintings and portraiture, as well as the color palettes used by the artists. The methodology examined the artists, their work, the color palettes used in their work, and the practices of color usage within their palettes. By examining portraits of historic figures, as well as paintings of ordinary scenes, subjects, and people, further information about color palettes was revealed. Related to the color palettes, was the use of ‘broken colors’ which was a relatively new practice, dating from the sixteenth century. The color palettes used by the artists of the seventeenth century had their limitations due to available pigments. With an examination of not only their artwork, and with a closer look at their palettes, the researcher discovered the exciting choices they made, despite those restrictions. The research was also initiated with the historical elements of the era’s clothing, as well as that of available materials and dyes. These dyes were also limited in much the same manner as the pigments which the artist had at their disposal. The color palettes of the paintings have much to tell us about the lives, status, conditions, and relationships from the past. From this research, informed decisions regarding color choices for a production on a contemporary stage of a period piece could then be made. The designer’s choices were a historic gesture to the colors which might have been worn by the character’s real-life counterparts of the era.

Keywords: broken color palette, costume color research, costume design, costume history, seventeenth century color palette, sixteenth century color palette

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
127 Electroencephalogram Signals Controlling a Parallax Boe-Bot Robot

Authors: Nema M. Salem, Hanan A. Altukhaifi, Amal Mukhtar, Reemaz K. Hetaimish

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Recently, BCI field of research has gained a lot of interest. Apart from motor neuroprosthetics, many studies showed the possibility of controlling a virtual environment of a videogame using the acquired electroencephalogram signals (EEG) from the gamer. In addition, another study had successfully moved a farm tractor using the human’s EEG signals. This article utilizes the use of EEG signals, as a source of technology, in controlling a Parallax Boe-Bot robot. The commercial Emotive Epoc headset has been used in acquiring the EEG signals from rested subjects. Because the human's visual cortex can successfully differentiate between different colors, the red and green colors are used as visual stimuli for generating EEG signals using the Epoc. Arduino and Labview are used to translate the virtually pressed keys into instructions controlling the motion and rotation of the robot. Optimistic results have been achieved except for minor delay and accuracy in the robot’s response.

Keywords: BCI, Emotiv Epoc headset, EEG, Labview, Arduino applications, robot

Procedia PDF Downloads 434
126 Journey of Striped Fabric in the History and Designs of Evening Dress from Striped Fabric

Authors: Filiz Erden, E. Elhan Özus, Melek Tufan

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If the history of clothing is examined, it is seen that clothing has gone through many stages from ancient times to present. Each nation has shaped its clothing according to its own traditions, customs, beliefs, living conditions. While clothes are being prepared, attributing different meanings to colors and patterns of the fabrics has become a common characteristic of many cultures. It is known that cloths worn in special days such as mourning, weddings, engagements, festivals and business vary according to their models, fabrics, colors and patterns. We witness use of cloth to differentiate people belonging to certain classes from nobles throughout the history. Striped fabric has carried many different meanings and uses throughout the history. In this study, place has been given to the important periods related to the history of striped fabric by examining current meaning of the striped fabric and dimensions of its meanings in the past. Also, evening dresses have been designed by using striped fabrics in order to reveal how striped fabric is liked and demanded after it coped with difficulties and being despised in its history.

Keywords: striped fabric, design, clothing, fasion

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
125 Crystallized Colored Towels Obtained by Special Coloration of Yarns

Authors: Hasan Eskin, Gizem Özmen, A. Nazmi Çeler

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When we examine the home textile development process, it follows a parallel line with the other textile products especially in the garment fabrics in terms of raw materials, production technologies and pattern characteristics. As a result, the expectations of people regarding textile, comfort, pattern (texture) and color properties are increasing. One of the places where comfort is most sought after is bath, pool, sea and baths. In addition to the material and technique that make up the physical structure in woven fabrics, color has an impressive importance with its strong effects. Color is the most prominent element in the fabric, and the color and texture are visually reinforcing. Evaluation of color in fabric is a personal phenomenon. Factors that determine color determination in fabric are the amount of color used, color ratio and its relationship with other colors. In this project; Considering the effect of color dimensions on human, we are talking about the crystallized colored towel that we developed in terms of comfort and texture properties. The basis of the effect created in the towel; It is formed by bending the yarn from its own special blend and the harmonious appearance of the natural crystallized rainbow colors with the pattern effect it determines on the warp yarns by using the weft yarns in the weaving. In addition, by using different weaving techniques and colors, alternatives can be created and personalized patterns can be created. One side of the towel determines the properties related to color, while the pile part determines the comfort characteristics with its soft touch and water absorbency.

Keywords: color effect, comfort, towel, weaving technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
124 Late Roman-Byzantine Glass Bracelet Finds at Amorium and Comparison with Other Cultures

Authors: Atilla Tekin

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Amorium was one of the biggest cities of Byzantine Empire, located under and around the modern village of Hisarköy, Emirdağ, Afyonkarahisar Province, Turkey. It was situated on the routes of trades and Byzantine military road from Constantinople to Cilicia. In addition, it was on the routes of trades and a center of bishopric. After Arab invasion, Amorium gradually lost importance. The research consists of 1372 pieces of glass bracelet finds from mostly at 1998- 2009 excavations. Most of them were found as glass bracelets fragments. The fragments are of various size, forms, colors, and decorations. During the research, they were measured and grouped according to their crossings, at first. After being photographed, they were sketched by Adobe Illustrator and decoupaged by Photoshop. All forms, colors, and decorations were specified and compared to each other. Thus, they have been tried to be dated and uncovered the place of manufacture. The importance of the research is presenting the perception of image and admiration and comparing with other cultures.

Keywords: Amorium, glass bracelets, image, Byzantine empire, jewelry

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
123 Defining the Customers' Color Preference for the Apparel Industry in Terms of Chromaticity Coordinates

Authors: Banu Hatice Gürcüm, Pınar Arslan, Mahmut Yalçın

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Fashion designers create lots of dresses, suits, shoes, and other clothing and accessories, which are purchased every year by consumers. Fashion trends, sketches of designs, accessories affect the apparel goods, but colors make the finishing touches to an outfit. In all fields of apparel men's, women's, and children's wear, including casual wear, suits, sportswear, formal wear, outerwear, maternity, and intimate apparel, color sells. Thus, specialization in color in apparel is a basic concern each season. The perception of color is the key to sales for every sector in textile business. Mechanism of color perception, cognition in brain and color emotion are unique subjects, which scientists have been investigating for many years. The parameters of color may not be corresponding to visual scales since human emotions induced by color are completely subjective. However, with a very few exception each manufacturer concern their top selling colors for each season through seasonal sales reports of apparel companies. This paper examines sensory and instrumental methods for quantifying color of fabrics and investigates the relationship between fabric color and sale numbers. 5 top selling colors for each season from 10 leading apparel companies in the same segment are taken. The compilation is based according to the sales of the companies for 5 to 10 years. The research’s main concern is the corelation with the magnitude of seasonal color selling figures and the CIE chromaticity coordinates. The colors are chosen from the globally accepted Pantone Textile Color System and the three-dimentional measurement system CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) is used, L* representing the degree of lightness of color, a* the degree of color ranging from magenta to green, and b* the degree of color ranging from blue to yellow. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of relating color perceptance to a laboratory instrument yielding measurements in the CIELAB system. Our approach is to obtain a total of a hundred reference fabrics to be measured on a laboratory spectrophotometer calibrated to the CIELAB color system. Relationships between the CIE tristimulus (X, Y, Z) and CIELAB (L*, a*, b*) are examined and are reported herein.

Keywords: CIELAB, CIE tristimulus, color preference, fashion

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
122 Spectra Analysis in Sunset Color Demonstrations with a White-Color LED as a Light Source

Authors: Makoto Hasegawa, Seika Tokumitsu

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Spectra of light beams emitted from white-color LED torches are different from those of conventional electric torches. In order to confirm if white-color LED torches can be used as light sources for popular sunset color demonstrations in spite of such differences, spectra of travelled light beams and scattered light beams with each of a white-color LED torch (composed of a blue LED and yellow-color fluorescent material) and a conventional electric torch as a light source were measured and compared with each other in a 50 cm-long water tank for sunset color demonstration experiments. Suspension liquid was prepared from acryl-emulsion and tap-water in the water tank, and light beams from the white-color LED torch or the conventional electric torch were allowed to travel in this suspension liquid. Sunset-like color was actually observed when the white-color LED torch was used as the light source in sunset color demonstrations. However, the observed colors when viewed with naked eye look slightly different from those obtainable with the conventional electric torch. At the same time, with the white-color LED, changes in colors in short to middle wavelength regions were recognized with careful observations. From those results, white-color LED torches are confirmed to be applicable as light sources in sunset color demonstrations, although certain attentions have to be paid. Further advanced classes will be successfully performed with white-color LED torches as light sources.

Keywords: blue sky demonstration, sunset color demonstration, white LED torch, physics education

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
121 Control of Belts for Classification of Geometric Figures by Artificial Vision

Authors: Juan Sebastian Huertas Piedrahita, Jaime Arturo Lopez Duque, Eduardo Luis Perez Londoño, Julián S. Rodríguez

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The process of generating computer vision is called artificial vision. The artificial vision is a branch of artificial intelligence that allows the obtaining, processing, and analysis of any type of information especially the ones obtained through digital images. Actually the artificial vision is used in manufacturing areas for quality control and production, as these processes can be realized through counting algorithms, positioning, and recognition of objects that can be measured by a single camera (or more). On the other hand, the companies use assembly lines formed by conveyor systems with actuators on them for moving pieces from one location to another in their production. These devices must be previously programmed for their good performance and must have a programmed logic routine. Nowadays the production is the main target of every industry, quality, and the fast elaboration of the different stages and processes in the chain of production of any product or service being offered. The principal base of this project is to program a computer that recognizes geometric figures (circle, square, and triangle) through a camera, each one with a different color and link it with a group of conveyor systems to organize the mentioned figures in cubicles, which differ from one another also by having different colors. This project bases on artificial vision, therefore the methodology needed to develop this project must be strict, this one is detailed below: 1. Methodology: 1.1 The software used in this project is QT Creator which is linked with Open CV libraries. Together, these tools perform to realize the respective program to identify colors and forms directly from the camera to the computer. 1.2 Imagery acquisition: To start using the libraries of Open CV is necessary to acquire images, which can be captured by a computer’s web camera or a different specialized camera. 1.3 The recognition of RGB colors is realized by code, crossing the matrices of the captured images and comparing pixels, identifying the primary colors which are red, green, and blue. 1.4 To detect forms it is necessary to realize the segmentation of the images, so the first step is converting the image from RGB to grayscale, to work with the dark tones of the image, then the image is binarized which means having the figure of the image in a white tone with a black background. Finally, we find the contours of the figure in the image to detect the quantity of edges to identify which figure it is. 1.5 After the color and figure have been identified, the program links with the conveyor systems, which through the actuators will classify the figures in their respective cubicles. Conclusions: The Open CV library is a useful tool for projects in which an interface between a computer and the environment is required since the camera obtains external characteristics and realizes any process. With the program for this project any type of assembly line can be optimized because images from the environment can be obtained and the process would be more accurate.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, artificial vision, binarized, grayscale, images, RGB

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
120 Numerical Board Game for Low-Income Preschoolers

Authors: Gozde Inal Kiziltepe, Ozgun Uyanik

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There is growing evidence that socioeconomic (SES)-related differences in mathematical knowledge primarily start in early childhood period. Preschoolers from low-income families are likely to perform substantially worse in mathematical knowledge than their counterparts from middle and higher income families. The differences are seen on a wide range of recognizing written numerals, counting, adding and subtracting, and comparing numerical magnitudes. Early differences in numerical knowledge have a permanent effect childrens’ mathematical knowledge in other grades. In this respect, analyzing the effect of number board game on the number knowledge of 48-60 month-old children from disadvantaged low-income families constitutes the main objective of the study. Participants were the 71 preschoolers from a childcare center which served low-income urban families. Children were randomly assigned to the number board condition or to the color board condition. The number board condition included 35 children and the color board game condition included 36 children. Both board games were 50 cm long and 30 cm high; had ‘The Great Race’ written across the top; and included 11 horizontally arranged, different colored squares of equal sizes with the leftmost square labeled ‘Start’. The numerical board had the numbers 1–10 in the rightmost 10 squares; the color board had different colors in those squares. A rabbit or a bear token were presented to children for selecting, and on each trial spun a spinner to determine whether the token would move one or two spaces. The number condition spinner had a ‘1’ half and a ‘2’ half; the color condition spinner had colors that matched the colors of the squares on the board. Children met one-on-one with an experimenter for four 15- to 20-min sessions within a 2-week period. In the first and fourth sessions, children were administered identical pretest and posttest measures of numerical knowledge. All children were presented three numerical tasks and one subtest presented in the following order: counting, numerical magnitude comparison, numerical identification and Count Objects – Circle Number Probe subtest of Early Numeracy Assessment. In addition, same numerical tasks and subtest were given as a follow-up test four weeks after the post-test administration. Findings obtained from the study; showed that there was a meaningful difference between scores of children who played a color board game in favor of children who played number board game.

Keywords: low income, numerical board game, numerical knowledge, preschool education

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
119 Human Identification and Detection of Suspicious Incidents Based on Outfit Colors: Image Processing Approach in CCTV Videos

Authors: Thilini M. Yatanwala

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CCTV (Closed-Circuit-Television) Surveillance System is being used in public places over decades and a large variety of data is being produced every moment. However, most of the CCTV data is stored in isolation without having integrity. As a result, identification of the behavior of suspicious people along with their location has become strenuous. This research was conducted to acquire more accurate and reliable timely information from the CCTV video records. The implemented system can identify human objects in public places based on outfit colors. Inter-process communication technologies were used to implement the CCTV camera network to track people in the premises. The research was conducted in three stages and in the first stage human objects were filtered from other movable objects available in public places. In the second stage people were uniquely identified based on their outfit colors and in the third stage an individual was continuously tracked in the CCTV network. A face detection algorithm was implemented using cascade classifier based on the training model to detect human objects. HAAR feature based two-dimensional convolution operator was introduced to identify features of the human face such as region of eyes, region of nose and bridge of the nose based on darkness and lightness of facial area. In the second stage outfit colors of human objects were analyzed by dividing the area into upper left, upper right, lower left, lower right of the body. Mean color, mod color and standard deviation of each area were extracted as crucial factors to uniquely identify human object using histogram based approach. Color based measurements were written in to XML files and separate directories were maintained to store XML files related to each camera according to time stamp. As the third stage of the approach, inter-process communication techniques were used to implement an acknowledgement based CCTV camera network to continuously track individuals in a network of cameras. Real time analysis of XML files generated in each camera can determine the path of individual to monitor full activity sequence. Higher efficiency was achieved by sending and receiving acknowledgments only among adjacent cameras. Suspicious incidents such as a person staying in a sensitive area for a longer period or a person disappeared from the camera coverage can be detected in this approach. The system was tested for 150 people with the accuracy level of 82%. However, this approach was unable to produce expected results in the presence of group of people wearing similar type of outfits. This approach can be applied to any existing camera network without changing the physical arrangement of CCTV cameras. The study of human identification and suspicious incident detection using outfit color analysis can achieve higher level of accuracy and the project will be continued by integrating motion and gait feature analysis techniques to derive more information from CCTV videos.

Keywords: CCTV surveillance, human detection and identification, image processing, inter-process communication, security, suspicious detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
118 Basins of Attraction for Quartic-Order Methods

Authors: Young Hee Geum

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We compare optimal quartic order method for the multiple zeros of nonlinear equations illustrating the basins of attraction. To construct basins of attraction effectively, we take a 600×600 uniform grid points at the origin of the complex plane and paint the initial values on the basins of attraction with different colors according to the iteration number required for convergence.

Keywords: basins of attraction, convergence, multiple-root, nonlinear equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
117 Flexible and Color Tunable Inorganic Light Emitting Diode Array for High Resolution Optogenetic Devices

Authors: Keundong Lee, Dongha Yoo, Youngbin Tchoe, Gyu-Chul Yi

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Light emitting diode (LED) array is an ideal optical stimulation tool for optogenetics, which controls inhibition and excitation of specific neurons with light-sensitive ion channels or pumps. Although a fiber-optic cable with an external light source, either a laser or LED mechanically connected to the end of the fiber-optic cable has widely been used for illumination on neural tissue, a new approach to use micro LEDs (µLEDs) has recently been demonstrated. The LEDs can be placed directly either on the cortical surface or within the deep brain using a penetrating depth probe. Accordingly, this method would not need a permanent opening in the skull if the LEDs are integrated with miniature electrical power source and wireless communication. In addition, multiple color generation from single µLED cell would enable to excite and/or inhibit neurons in localized regions. Here, we demonstrate flexible and color tunable µLEDs for the optogenetic device applications. The flexible and color tunable LEDs was fabricated using multifaceted gallium nitride (GaN) nanorod arrays with GaN nanorods grown on InxGa1−xN/GaN single quantum well structures (SQW) anisotropically formed on the nanorod tips and sidewalls. For various electroluminescence (EL) colors, current injection paths were controlled through a continuous p-GaN layer depending on the applied bias voltage. The electric current was injected through different thickness and composition, thus changing the color of light from red to blue that the LED emits. We believe that the flexible and color tunable µLEDs enable us to control activities of the neuron by emitting various colors from the single µLED cell.

Keywords: light emitting diode, optogenetics, graphene, flexible optoelectronics

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
116 Alternate Methods to Visualize 2016 U.S. Presidential Election Result

Authors: Hong Beom Hur

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Politics in America is polarized. The best illustration of this is the 2016 presidential election result map. States with megacities like California, New York, Illinois, Virginia, and others are marked blue to signify the color of the Democratic party. States located in inland and south like Texas, Florida, Tennesse, Kansas and others are marked red to signify the color of the Republican party. Such a stark difference between two colors, red and blue, combined with geolocations of each state with their borderline remarks one central message; America is divided into two colors between urban Democrats and rural Republicans. This paper seeks to defy the visualization by pointing out its limitations and search for alternative ways to visualize the 2016 election result. One such limitation is that geolocations of each state and state borderlines limit the visualization of population density. As a result, the election result map does not convey the fact that Clinton won the popular vote and only accentuates the voting patterns of urban and rural states. The paper seeks whether an alternative narrative can be observed by factoring in the population number into the size of each state and manipulating the state borderline according to the normalization. Yet another alternative narrative may be reached by factoring the size of each state by the number of the electoral college of each state by voting and visualize the number. Other alternatives will be discussed but are not implemented in visualization. Such methods include dividing the land of America into about 120 million cubes each representing a voter or by the number of whole population 300 million cubes. By exploring these alternative methods to visualize the politics of the 2016 election map, the public may be able to question whether it is possible to be free from the narrative of the divide-conquer when interpreting the election map and to look at both parties as a story of the United States of America.

Keywords: 2016 U.S. presidential election, data visualization, population scale, geo-political

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
115 The Many Faces of Inspiration: A Study on Socio-Cultural Influences in Design

Authors: Nithya Venkataraman

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The creative journey in design often starts with a spark of inspiration, the source of which can be from myriad stimuli- nature, poetry, personal experiences or even fleeting thoughts and images. While it is indeed an important source of creative exploration, interpretation of this inspiration may often times be influenced by demographic and psychographic variables of the creator - Age, gender, lifecycle stage, personal experiences and individual personality traits being some of these factors. Common sources of inspiration can thus be interpreted differently, translating to different elements of design, and using varied principles in their execution. Do such variables in the creator influence the nature of the creative output? If yes, what are the visible matrices in the output which can be differentiated? An observational study with two groups of Design students, studying in the same design institute, under the guidance of the same design mentor, was conducted to map this influence. Both the groups were unaware of each other but worked with a common source of inspiration as provided by the instructor. In order to maintain congruence, both the groups were provided with lyrical compositions from well-known ballads and poetry as the source of their inspiration. The outputs were abstract renditions using lines, colors and shapes; and these were analyzed under matrices for the elements and principles used to create the compositions. The study indicated that there was a demarcation in terms of the choice of lines, colors and shapes chosen to create the composition, between both groups. The groups also tended to use repetition, proportion and emphasis differently; giving rise to varied uses of the Design principles. The study threw interesting observations on how Design interpretation can vary for the same source of inspiration, based on demographic and psychographic variances. The implications can be traced not just to the process of creative design, but also to the deep social roots that bind creative thinking and Design ideation; which can provide an interesting commentary between different cohorts on what constitutes ‘Good Design’.

Keywords: design compositions, inspiration, interpretation, psychographic factors, social factors

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114 A Reading Light That Can Adjust Indoor Light Intensity According to the Activity and Person for Improve Indoor Visual Comfort of Occupants and Tested using Post-occupancy Evaluation Techniques for Sri Lankan Population

Authors: R.T.P. De Silva, T. K. Wijayasiriwardhane, B. Jayawardena

Abstract:

Most people nowadays spend their time indoor environment. Because of that, a quality indoor environment needs for them. This study was conducted to identify how to improve indoor visual comfort using a personalized light system. Light intensity, light color, glare, and contrast are the main facts that affect visual comfort. The light intensity which needs to perform a task is changed according to the task. Using necessary light intensity and we can improve the visual comfort of occupants. The hue can affect the emotions of occupants. The preferred light colors and intensity change according to the occupant's age and gender. The research was conducted to identify is there any relationship between personalization and visual comfort. To validate this designed an Internet of Things-based reading light. This light can work according to the standard light levels and personalized light levels. It also can measure the current light intensity of the environment and maintain continuous light levels according to the task. The test was conducted by using 25 undergraduates, and 5school students, and 5 adults. The feedbacks are gathered using Post-occupancy evaluation (POE) techniques. Feedbacks are gathered in three steps, It was done without any light control, with standard light level, and with personalized light level Users had to spend 10 minutes under each condition. After finishing each step, collected their feedbacks. According to the result gathered, 94% of participants rated a personalized light system as comfort for them. The feedbacks show stay under continuous light level help to keep their concentrate. Future research can be conducted on how the color of indoor light can affect for indoor visual comfort of occupants using a personalized light system. Further proposed IoT based can improve to change the light colors according to the user's preference.

Keywords: indoor environment quality, internet of things based light system, post occupancy evaluation, visual comfort

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113 Odor-Color Association Stroop-Task and the Importance of an Odorant in an Odor-Imagery Task

Authors: Jonathan Ham, Christopher Koch

Abstract:

There are consistently observed associations between certain odors and colors, and there is an association between the ability to imagine vivid visual objects and imagine vivid odors. However, little has been done to investigate how the associations between odors and visual information effect visual processes. This study seeks to understand the relationship between odor imaging, color associations, and visual attention by utilizing a Stroop-task based on common odor-color associations. This Stroop-task was designed using three fruits with distinct odors that are associated with the color of the fruit: lime with green, strawberry with red, and lemon with yellow. Each possible word-color combination was presented in the experimental trials. When the word matched the associated color (lime written in green) it was considered congruent; if it did not, it was considered incongruent (lime written in red or yellow). In experiment I (n = 34) participants were asked to both imagine the odor of the fruit on the screen and identify which fruit it was, and each word-color combination was presented 20 times (a total of 180 trials, with 60 congruent and 120 incongruent instances). Response time and error rate of the participant responses were recorded. There was no significant difference in either measure between the congruent and incongruent trials. In experiment II participants (n = 18) followed the identical procedure as in the previous experiment with the addition of an odorant in the room. The odorant (orange) was not the fruit or color used in the experimental trials. With a fruit-based odorant in the room, the response times (measured in milliseconds) between congruent and incongruent trials were significantly different, with incongruent trials (M = 755.919, SD = 239.854) having significantly longer response times than congruent trials (M = 690.626, SD = 198.822), t (1, 17) = 4.154, p < 0.01. This suggests that odor imagery does affect visual attention to colors, and the ability to inhibit odor-color associations; however, odor imagery is difficult and appears to be facilitated in the presence of a related odorant.

Keywords: odor-color associations, odor imagery, visual attention, inhibition

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112 Evaluating and Examining Pictures of Children of Five Years Old

Authors: Emine Yılmaz Bolat

Abstract:

Early childhood is a very important period in terms of identifying and developing early skills and abilities. It is likely that the child's development will be in the same direction in the future. This study was conducted with 26 children for the purpose of examining pictures of children of five years old. In the survey, children were asked to draw a picture with pastel dyes. The drawings were collected and evaluated by the researcher. At the end of the research, it was found that the children used the yellow color (N = 17, 16,34%) and the least gray color (N = 1, 0,96%). When the features of children's pictures are examined, the children's paintings have been found to have hierarchy, transparency, completion, the use of vivid colors, and the presence of vertical and horizontal painting lines.

Keywords: early childhood, kindergarten, pictures of children, features of pictures

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111 Parallel Version of Reinhard’s Color Transfer Algorithm

Authors: Abhishek Bhardwaj, Manish Kumar Bajpai

Abstract:

An image with its content and schema of colors presents an effective mode of information sharing and processing. By changing its color schema different visions and prospect are discovered by the users. This phenomenon of color transfer is being used by Social media and other channel of entertainment. Reinhard et al’s algorithm was the first one to solve this problem of color transfer. In this paper, we make this algorithm efficient by introducing domain parallelism among different processors. We also comment on the factors that affect the speedup of this problem. In the end by analyzing the experimental data we claim to propose a novel and efficient parallel Reinhard’s algorithm.

Keywords: Reinhard et al’s algorithm, color transferring, parallelism, speedup

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110 The Chromatic Identity of the Ancestral Architecture of the Ksour of Bechar, Algeria

Authors: Racha Ghariri, Khaldia Belkheir, Assil Ghariri

Abstract:

In this paper, the researchers present a part of their research on the colors of the city of Bechar (Algeria). It is about a chromatic study of the ancient architecture of the Ksour. Being a subject of intervention, regarding their degradable state, the Ksour are the case of their study, especially that the subject of color does not occupy, virtually, the involved on these heritage sites. This research aims to put the basics for methods which allow to know what to preserve as a color and how to do so, especially during a restoration, and to understand the evolution of the chromatic state of the city.

Keywords: architecture/colours, chromatic identity, geography of colour, regional palette, chromatic architectural analysis

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109 Impact of Colors, Space Design and Artifacts on Cognitive Health in Government Hospitals of Uttarakhand

Authors: Ila Gupta

Abstract:

The government hospitals in India by and large lack the necessary aesthetic therapeutic components, both in their interior and exterior space designs. These components especially in terms of color application are important to the emotional as well as physical well being of the patients and other participants of the space. The preliminary survey of few government hospitals in Uttarakhand, India, reveals that the government health care industry provides a wide scope for intervention. All most all of the spaces do not adhere to a proper therapeutic color scheme which directly helps the well-being of their patients and workers. The paper aims to conduct a survey and come up with recommendations in this regard. The government hospitals also lack a proper signage system which allows the space to be more user-friendly. The hospital spaces in totality also have scope for improvement in terms of space/landscape design which enhances the work environment in an efficient and positive way. This study will thus enable to come up with feasible recommendations for healthcare and built environment as well as retrofitting the existing spaces. The objective of the paper is mainly on few case studies. The present ambience in many government hospitals generally lacks a welcoming ambience. It is proposed to select one or two government hospitals and demonstrate application of appropriate and self-sustainable color schemes, placement of artifacts, changes in outdoor and indoor space design to bring about a change that is conducive for cognitive healing. Exterior changes to existing and old hospital buildings in depressed historic areas signify financial investment and change, and have the potential to play a significant role in both urban preservation and revitalization. Changes to exterior architectural colors are perhaps the most visible signifier of such revitalization, as the use of color changes as a tool in façade and interior improvement programs. The present project will provide its recommendations on the basis of case studies done in the Indian Public Health Care system. Furthermore, the recommendations will be in accordance with the extended study conducted in Indian Ayurvedic, Yogic texts as well as Vastu texts, which provides knowledge about built environments and healing properties of color.

Keywords: color, environment, facade, architectural color history, interior improvement programs, community development, district/government hospitals

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108 Melaninic Discrimination among Primary School Children

Authors: Margherita Cardellini

Abstract:

To our knowledge, dark skinned children are often victims of discrimination from adults and society, but few studies specifically focus on skin color discrimination on children coming from the same children. Even today, the 'color blind children' ideology is widespread among adults, teachers, and educators and maybe also among scholars, which seem really careful about study expressions of racism in childhood. This social and cultural belief let people think that all the children, because of their age and their brief experience in the world, are disinterested in skin color. Sometimes adults think that children are even incapable of perceiving skin colors and that it could be dangerous to talk about melaninic differences with them because they finally could notice this difference, producing prejudices and racism. Psychology and neurology research projects are showing for many years that even the newborns are already capable of perceiving skin color and ethnic differences by the age of 3 months. Starting from this theoretical framework we conducted a research project to understand if and how primary school children talk about skin colors, picking up any stereotypes or prejudices. Choosing to use the focus group as a methodology to stimulate the group dimension and interaction, several stories about skin color discrimination's episodes within their classroom or school have emerged. Using the photo elicitation technique we chose to stimulate talk about the research object, which is the skin color, asking the children what was ‘the first two things that come into your mind’ when they look the photographs presented during the focus group, which represented dark and light skinned women and men. So, this paper will present some of these stories about episodes of discrimination with an escalation grade of proximity related to the discriminatory act. It will be presented a story of discrimination happened within the school, in an after-school daycare, in the classroom and even episode of discrimination that children tell during the focus groups in the presence of the discriminated child. If it is true that the Declaration of the Right of the Child state that every child should be discrimination free, it’s also true that every adult should protect children from every form of discrimination. How, as adults, can we defend children against discrimination if we cannot admit that even children are potential discrimination’s actors? Without awareness, we risk to devalue these episodes, implicitly confident that the only way to fight against discrimination is to keep her quiet. The right not to be discriminated goes through the right to talk about its own experiences of discrimination and the right to perceive the unfairness of the constant depreciation about skin color or any element of physical diversity. Intercultural education could act as spokesperson for this mission in the belief that difference and plurality could really become elements of potential enrichment for humanity, starting from children.

Keywords: colorism, experiences of discrimination, primary school children, skin color discrimination

Procedia PDF Downloads 130