Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: photodetectors

24 Nanocomposites Based Micro/Nano Electro-Mechanical Systems for Energy Harvesters and Photodetectors

Authors: Radhamanohar Aepuru, R. V. Mangalaraja


Flexible electronic devices have drawn potential interest and provide significant new insights to develop energy conversion and storage devices such as photodetectors and nanogenerators. Recently, self-powered electronic systems have captivated huge attention for next generation MEMS/NEMS devices that can operate independently by generating built-in field without any need of external bias voltage and have wide variety of applications in telecommunication, imaging, environmental and defence sectors. The basic physical process involved in these devices are charge generation, separation, and charge flow across the electrodes. Many inorganic nanostructures have been exploring to fabricate various optoelectronic and electromechanical devices. However, the interaction of nanostructures and their excited charge carrier dynamics, photoinduced charge separation, and fast carrier mobility are yet to be studied. The proposed research is to address one such area and to realize the self-powered electronic devices. In the present work, nanocomposites of inorganic nanostructures based on ZnO, metal halide perovskites; and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) based nanocomposites are realized for photodetectors and nanogenerators. The characterization of the inorganic nanostructures is carried out through steady state optical absorption and luminescence spectroscopies as well as X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. The detailed carrier dynamics is investigated using various spectroscopic techniques. The developed composite nanostructures exhibit significant optical and electrical properties, which have wide potential applications in various MEMS/NEMS devices such as photodetectors and nanogenerators.

Keywords: dielectrics, nanocomposites, nanogenerators, photodetectors

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23 Characterization of the in 0.53 Ga 0.47 as n+nn+ Photodetectors

Authors: Fatima Zohra Mahi, Luca Varani


We present an analytical model for the calculation of the sensitivity, the spectral current noise and the detectivity for an optically illuminated In0.53Ga0.47As n+nn+ diode. The photocurrent due to the excess carrier is obtained by solving the continuity equation. Moreover, the current noise level is evaluated at room temperature and under a constant voltage applied between the diode terminals. The analytical calculation of the current noise in the n+nn+ structure is developed. The responsivity and the detectivity are discussed as functions of the doping concentrations and the emitter layer thickness in one-dimensional homogeneous n+nn+ structure.

Keywords: detectivity, photodetectors, continuity equation, current noise

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22 Infrared Photodetectors Based on Nanowire Arrays: Towards Far Infrared Region

Authors: Mohammad Karimi, Magnus Heurlin, Lars Samuelson, Magnus Borgstrom, Hakan Pettersson


Nanowire semiconductors are promising candidates for optoelectronic applications such as solar cells, photodetectors and lasers due to their quasi-1D geometry and large surface to volume ratio. The functional wavelength range of NW-based detectors is typically limited to the visible/near-infrared region. In this work, we present electrical and optical properties of IR photodetectors based on large square millimeter ensembles (>1million) of vertically processed semiconductor heterostructure nanowires (NWs) grown on InP substrates which operate in longer wavelengths. InP NWs comprising single or multiple (20) InAs/InAsP QDics axially embedded in an n-i-n geometry, have been grown on InP substrates using metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The NWs are contacted in vertical direction by atomic layer deposition (ALD) deposition of 50 nm SiO2 as an insulating layer followed by sputtering of indium tin oxide (ITO) and evaporation of Ti and Au as top contact layer. In order to extend the sensitivity range to the mid-wavelength and long-wavelength regions, the intersubband transition within conduction band of InAsP QDisc is suggested. We present first experimental indications of intersubband photocurrent in NW geometry and discuss important design parameters for realization of intersubband detectors. Key advantages with the proposed design include large degree of freedom in choice of materials compositions, possible enhanced optical resonance effects due to periodically ordered NW arrays and the compatibility with silicon substrates. We believe that the proposed detector design offers the route towards monolithic integration of compact and sensitive III-V NW long wavelength detectors with Si technology.

Keywords: intersubband photodetector, infrared, nanowire, quantum disc

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21 Photoresponse of Epitaxial GaN Films Grown by Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy

Authors: Nisha Prakash, Kritika Anand, Arun Barvat, Prabir Pal, Sonachand Adhikari, Suraj P. Khanna


Group-III nitride semiconductors (GaN, AlN, InN and their ternary and quaternary compounds) have attracted a great deal of attention for the development of high-performance Ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors. Any midgap defect states in the epitaxial grown film have a direct influence on the photodetectors responsivity. The proportion of the midgap defect states can be controlled by the growth parameters. To study this we have grown high quality epitaxial GaN films on MOCVD- grown GaN template using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) with different growth parameters. Optical and electrical properties of the films were characterized by room temperature photoluminescence and photoconductivity measurements, respectively. The observed persistent photoconductivity behaviour is proportional to the yellow luminescence (YL) and the absolute responsivity has been found to decrease with decreasing YL. The results will be discussed in more detail later.

Keywords: gallium nitride, plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, photoluminescence, photoconductivity, persistent photoconductivity, yellow luminescence

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20 Photo Electrical Response in Graphene Based Resistive Sensor

Authors: H. C. Woo, F. Bouanis, C. S. Cojocaur


Graphene, which consists of a single layer of carbon atoms in a honeycomb lattice, is an interesting potential optoelectronic material because of graphene’s high carrier mobility, zero bandgap, and electron–hole symmetry. Graphene can absorb light and convert it into a photocurrent over a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum, from the ultraviolet to visible and infrared regimes. Over the last several years, a variety of graphene-based photodetectors have been reported, such as graphene transistors, graphene-semiconductor heterojunction photodetectors, graphene based bolometers. It is also reported that there are several physical mechanisms enabling photodetection: photovoltaic effect, photo-thermoelectric effect, bolometric effect, photogating effect, and so on. In this work, we report a simple approach for the realization of graphene based resistive photo-detection devices and the measurements of their photoelectrical response. The graphene were synthesized directly on the glass substrate by novel growth method patented in our lab. Then, the metal electrodes were deposited by thermal evaporation on it, with an electrode length and width of 1.5 mm and 300 μm respectively, using Co to fabricate simple graphene based resistive photosensor. The measurements show that the graphene resistive devices exhibit a photoresponse to the illumination of visible light. The observed re-sistance response was reproducible and similar after many cycles of on and off operations. This photoelectrical response may be attributed not only to the direct photocurrent process but also to the desorption of oxygen. Our work shows that the simple graphene resistive devices have potential in photodetection applications.

Keywords: graphene, resistive sensor, optoelectronics, photoresponse

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19 Highly Responsive p-NiO/n-rGO Heterojunction Based Self-Powered UV Photodetectors

Authors: P. Joshna, Souvik Kundu


Detection of ultraviolet (UV) radiation is very important as it has exhibited a profound influence on humankind and other existences, including military equipment. In this work, a self-powered UV photodetector was reported based on oxides heterojunctions. The thin films of p-type nickel oxide (NiO) and n-type reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were used for the formation of p-n heterojunction. Low-Cost and low-temperature chemical synthesis was utilized to prepare the oxides, and the spin coating technique was employed to deposit those onto indium doped tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates. The top electrode platinum was deposited utilizing physical vapor evaporation technique. NiO offers strong UV absorption with high hole mobility, and rGO prevents the recombination rate by separating electrons out from the photogenerated carriers. Several structural characterizations such as x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscope, scanning electron microscope were used to study the materials crystallinity, microstructures, and surface roughness. On one side, the oxides were found to be polycrystalline in nature, and no secondary phases were present. On the other side, surface roughness was found to be low with no pit holes, which depicts the formation of high-quality oxides thin films. Whereas, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was employed to study the chemical compositions and oxidation structures. The electrical characterizations such as current-voltage and current response were also performed on the device to determine the responsivity, detectivity, and external quantum efficiency under dark and UV illumination. This p-n heterojunction device offered faster photoresponse and high on-off ratio under 365 nm UV light illumination of zero bias. The device based on the proposed architecture shows the efficacy of the oxides heterojunction for efficient UV photodetection under zero bias, which opens up a new path towards the development of self-powered photodetector for environment and health monitoring sector.

Keywords: chemical synthesis, oxides, photodetectors, spin coating

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18 Influence of Wavelengths on Photosensitivity of Copper Phthalocyanine Based Photodetectors

Authors: Lekshmi Vijayan, K. Shreekrishna Kumar


We demonstrated an organic field effect transistor based photodetector using phthalocyanine as the active material that exhibited high photosensitivity under varying light wavelengths. The thermally grown SiO₂ layer on silicon wafer act as a substrate. The critical parameters, such as photosensitivity, responsivity and detectivity, are comparatively high and were 3.09, 0.98AW⁻¹ and 4.86 × 10¹⁰ Jones, respectively, under a bias of 5 V and a monochromatic illumination intensity of 4mW cm⁻². The photodetector has a linear I-V curve with a low dark current. On comparing photoresponse of copper phthalocyanine at four different wavelengths, 560 nm shows better photoresponse and the highest value of photosensitivity is also obtained.

Keywords: photodetector, responsivity, photosensitivity, detectivity

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17 Miniaturization of Germanium Photo-Detectors by Using Micro-Disk Resonator

Authors: Haifeng Zhou, Tsungyang Liow, Xiaoguang Tu, Eujin Lim, Chao Li, Junfeng Song, Xianshu Luo, Ying Huang, Lianxi Jia, Lianwee Luo, Kim Dowon, Qing Fang, Mingbin Yu, Guoqiang Lo


Several Germanium photodetectors (PD) built on silicon micro-disks are fabricated on the standard Si photonics multiple project wafers (MPW) and demonstrated to exhibit very low dark current, satisfactory operation bandwidth and moderate responsivity. Among them, a vertical p-i-n Ge PD based on a 2.0 µm-radius micro-disk has a dark current of as low as 35 nA, compared to a conventional PD current of 1 µA with an area of 100 µm2. The operation bandwidth is around 15 GHz at a reverse bias of 1V. The responsivity is about 0.6 A/W. Microdisk is a striking planar structure in integrated optics to enhance light-matter interaction and construct various photonics devices. The disk geometries feature in strongly and circularly confining light into an ultra-small volume in the form of whispering gallery modes. A laser may benefit from a microdisk in which a single mode overlaps the gain materials both spatially and spectrally. Compared to microrings, micro-disk removes the inner boundaries to enable even better compactness, which also makes it very suitable for some scenarios that electrical connections are needed. For example, an ultra-low power (≈ fJ) athermal Si modulator has been demonstrated with a bit rate of 25Gbit/s by confining both photons and electrically-driven carriers into a microscale volume.In this work, we study Si-based PDs with Ge selectively grown on a microdisk with the radius of a few microns. The unique feature of using microdisk for Ge photodetector is that mode selection is not important. In the applications of laser or other passive optical components, microdisk must be designed very carefully to excite the fundamental mode in a microdisk in that essentially the microdisk usually supports many higher order modes in the radial directions. However, for detector applications, this is not an issue because the local light absorption is mode insensitive. Light power carried by all modes are expected to be converted into photo-current. Another benefit of using microdisk is that the power circulation inside avoids any introduction of the reflector. A complete simulation model with all involved materials taken into account is established to study the promise of microdisk structures for photodetector by using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. By viewing from the current preliminary data, the directions to further improve the device performance are also discussed.

Keywords: integrated optical devices, silicon photonics, micro-resonator, photodetectors

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16 p-Type Multilayer MoS₂ Enabled by Plasma Doping for Ultraviolet Photodetectors Application

Authors: Xiao-Mei Zhang, Sian-Hong Tseng, Ming-Yen Lu


Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), such as MoS₂, have attracted considerable attention owing to the unique optical and electronic properties related to its 2D ultrathin atomic layer structure. MoS₂ is becoming prevalent in post-silicon digital electronics and in highly efficient optoelectronics due to its extremely low thickness and its tunable band gap (Eg = 1-2 eV). For low-power, high-performance complementary logic applications, both p- and n-type MoS₂ FETs (NFETs and PFETs) must be developed. NFETs with an electron accumulation channel can be obtained using unintentionally doped n-type MoS₂. However, the fabrication of MoS₂ FETs with complementary p-type characteristics is challenging due to the significant difficulty of injecting holes into its inversion channel. Plasma treatments with different species (including CF₄, SF₆, O₂, and CHF₃) have also been found to achieve the desired property modifications of MoS₂. In this work, we demonstrated a p-type multilayer MoS₂ enabled by selective-area doping using CHF₃ plasma treatment. Compared with single layer MoS₂, multilayer MoS₂ can carry a higher drive current due to its lower bandgap and multiple conduction channels. Moreover, it has three times the density of states at its minimum conduction band. Large-area growth of MoS₂ films on 300 nm thick SiO₂/Si substrate is carried out by thermal decomposition of ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, (NH₄)₂MoS₄, in a tube furnace. A two-step annealing process is conducted to synthesize MoS₂ films. For the first step, the temperature is set to 280 °C for 30 min in an N₂ rich environment at 1.8 Torr. This is done to transform (NH₄)₂MoS₄ into MoS₃. To further reduce MoS₃ into MoS₂, the second step of annealing is performed. For the second step, the temperature is set to 750 °C for 30 min in a reducing atmosphere consisting of 90% Ar and 10% H₂ at 1.8 Torr. The grown MoS₂ films are subjected to out-of-plane doping by CHF₃ plasma treatment using a Dry-etching system (ULVAC original NLD-570). The radiofrequency power of this dry-etching system is set to 100 W and the pressure is set to 7.5 mTorr. The final thickness of the treated samples is obtained by etching for 30 s. Back-gated MoS₂ PFETs were presented with an on/off current ratio in the order of 10³ and a field-effect mobility of 65.2 cm²V⁻¹s⁻¹. The MoS₂ PFETs photodetector exhibited ultraviolet (UV) photodetection capability with a rapid response time of 37 ms and exhibited modulation of the generated photocurrent by back-gate voltage. This work suggests the potential application of the mild plasma-doped p-type multilayer MoS₂ in UV photodetectors for environmental monitoring, human health monitoring, and biological analysis.

Keywords: photodetection, p-type doping, multilayers, MoS₂

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15 Post Growth Annealing Effect on Deep Level Emission and Raman Spectra of Hydrothermally Grown ZnO Nanorods Assisted by KMnO4

Authors: Ashish Kumar, Tejendra Dixit, I. A. Palani, Vipul Singh


Zinc oxide, with its interesting properties such as large band gap (3.37eV), high exciton binding energy (60 meV) and intense UV absorption has been studied in literature for various applications viz. optoelectronics, biosensors, UV-photodetectors etc. The performance of ZnO devices is highly influenced by morphologies, size, crystallinity of the ZnO active layer and processing conditions. Recently, our group has shown the influence of the in situ addition of KMnO4 in the precursor solution during the hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanorods (NRs) on their near band edge (NBE) emission. In this paper, we have investigated the effect of post-growth annealing on the variations in NBE and deep level (DL) emissions of as grown ZnO nanorods. These observed results have been explained on the basis of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopic analysis, which clearly show that improved crystalinity and quantum confinement in ZnO nanorods.

Keywords: ZnO, nanorods, hydrothermal, KMnO4

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14 Barrier Lowering in Contacts between Graphene and Semiconductor Materials

Authors: Zhipeng Dong, Jing Guo


Graphene-semiconductor contacts have been extensively studied recently, both as a stand-alone diode device for potential applications in photodetectors and solar cells, and as a building block to vertical transistors. Graphene is a two-dimensional nanomaterial with vanishing density-of-states at the Dirac point, which differs from conventional metal. In this work, image-charge-induced barrier lowering (BL) in graphene-semiconductor contacts is studied and compared to that in metal Schottky contacts. The results show that despite of being a semimetal with vanishing density-of-states at the Dirac point, the image-charge-induced BL is significant. The BL value can be over 50% of that of metal contacts even in an intrinsic graphene contacted to an organic semiconductor, and it increases as the graphene doping increases. The dependences of the BL on the electric field and semiconductor dielectric constant are examined, and an empirical expression for estimating the image-charge-induced BL in graphene-semiconductor contacts is provided.

Keywords: graphene, semiconductor materials, schottky barrier, image charge, contacts

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13 Anomalous Behaviors of Visible Luminescence from Graphene Quantum Dots

Authors: Hyunho Shin, Jaekwang Jung, Jeongho Park, Sungwon Hwang


For the application of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to optoelectronic nanodevices, it is of critical importance to understand the mechanisms which result in novel phenomena of their light absorption/emission. The optical transitions are known to be available up to ~6 eV in GQDs, especially useful for ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors (PDs). Here, we present size-dependent shape/edge-state variations of GQDs and visible photoluminescence (PL) showing anomalous size dependencies. With varying the average size (da) of GQDs from 5 to 35 nm, the peak energy of the absorption spectra monotonically decreases, while that of the visible PL spectra unusually shows nonmonotonic behaviors having a minimum at diameter ∼17 nm. The PL behaviors can be attributed to the novel feature of GQDs, that is, the circular-to-polygonal-shape and corresponding edge-state variations of GQDs at diameter ∼17 nm as the GQD size increases, as demonstrated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. We believe that such a comprehensive scheme in designing device architecture and the structural formulation of GQDs provides a device for practical realization of environmentally benign, high performance flexible devices in the future.

Keywords: graphene, quantum dot, size, photoluminescence

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12 Development of Colorimetric Based Microfluidic Platform for Quantification of Fluid Contaminants

Authors: Sangeeta Palekar, Mahima Rana, Jayu Kalambe


In this paper, a microfluidic-based platform for the quantification of contaminants in the water is proposed. The proposed system uses microfluidic channels with an embedded environment for contaminants detection in water. Microfluidics-based platforms present an evident stage of innovation for fluid analysis, with different applications advancing minimal efforts and simplicity of fabrication. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microfluidics channel is fabricated using a soft lithography technique. Vertical and horizontal connections for fluid dispensing with the microfluidic channel are explored. The principle of colorimetry, which incorporates the use of Griess reagent for the detection of nitrite, has been adopted. Nitrite has high water solubility and water retention, due to which it has a greater potential to stay in groundwater, endangering aquatic life along with human health, hence taken as a case study in this work. The developed platform also compares the detection methodology, containing photodetectors for measuring absorbance and image sensors for measuring color change for quantification of contaminants like nitrite in water. The utilization of image processing techniques offers the advantage of operational flexibility, as the same system can be used to identify other contaminants present in water by introducing minor software changes.

Keywords: colorimetric, fluid contaminants, nitrite detection, microfluidics

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11 Photodetector Engineering with Plasmonic Properties

Authors: Hasan Furkan Kurt, Tugba Nur Atabey, Onat Cavit Dereli, Ahmad Salmanogli, H. Selcuk Gecim


In the article, the main goal is to study the effect of the plasmonic properties on the photocurrent generated by a photodetector. Fundamentally, a typical photodetector is designed and simulated using the finite element methods. To utilize the plasmonic effect, gold nanoparticles with different shape, size and morphology are buried into the intrinsic region. Plasmonic effect is arisen through the interaction of the incoming light with nanoparticles by which electrical properties of the photodetector are manipulated. In fact, using plasmonic nanoparticles not only increases the absorption bandwidth of the incoming light, but also generates a high intensity near-field close to the plasmonic nanoparticles. Those properties strongly affect the generated photocurrent. The simulation results show that using plasmonic nanoparticles significantly enhances the electrical properties of the photodetectors. More importantly, one can easily manipulate the plasmonic properties of the gold nanoparticles through engineering the nanoparticles' size, shape and morphology. Another important phenomenon is plasmon-plasmon interaction inside the photodetector. It is shown that plasmon-plasmon interaction improves the electron-hole generation rate by which the rate of the current generation is severely enhanced. This is the key factor that we want to focus on, to improve the photodetector electrical properties.

Keywords: plasmonic photodetector, plasmon-plasmon interaction, Gold nanoparticle, electrical properties

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10 High Photosensitivity and Broad Spectral Response of Multi-Layered Germanium Sulfide Transistors

Authors: Rajesh Kumar Ulaganathan, Yi-Ying Lu, Chia-Jung Kuo, Srinivasa Reddy Tamalampudi, Raman Sankar, Fang Cheng Chou, Yit-Tsong Chen


In this paper, we report the optoelectronic properties of multi-layered GeS nanosheets (~28 nm thick)-based field-effect transistors (called GeS-FETs). The multi-layered GeS-FETs exhibit remarkably high photoresponsivity of Rλ ~ 206 AW-1 under illumination of 1.5 µW/cm2 at  = 633 nm, Vg = 0 V, and Vds = 10 V. The obtained Rλ ~ 206 AW-1 is excellent as compared with a GeS nanoribbon-based and the other family members of group IV-VI-based photodetectors in the two-dimensional (2D) realm, such as GeSe and SnS2. The gate-dependent photoresponsivity of GeS-FETs was further measured to be able to reach Rλ ~ 655 AW-1 operated at Vg = -80 V. Moreover, the multi-layered GeS photodetector holds high external quantum efficiency (EQE ~ 4.0 × 104 %) and specific detectivity (D* ~ 2.35 × 1013 Jones). The measured D* is comparable to those of the advanced commercial Si- and InGaAs-based photodiodes. The GeS photodetector also shows an excellent long-term photoswitching stability with a response time of ~7 ms over a long period of operation (>1 h). These extraordinary properties of high photocurrent generation, broad spectral range, fast response, and long-term stability make the GeS-FET photodetector a highly qualified candidate for future optoelectronic applications.

Keywords: germanium sulfide, photodetector, photoresponsivity, external quantum efficiency, specific detectivity

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9 Design of Bacterial Pathogens Identification System Based on Scattering of Laser Beam Light and Classification of Binned Plots

Authors: Mubashir Hussain, Mu Lv, Xiaohan Dong, Zhiyang Li, Bin Liu, Nongyue He


Detection and classification of microbes have a vast range of applications in biomedical engineering especially in detection, characterization, and quantification of bacterial contaminants. For identification of pathogens, different techniques are emerging in the field of biomedical engineering. Latest technology uses light scattering, capable of identifying different pathogens without any need for biochemical processing. Bacterial Pathogens Identification System (BPIS) which uses a laser beam, passes through the sample and light scatters off. An assembly of photodetectors surrounded by the sample at different angles to detect the scattering of light. The algorithm of the system consists of two parts: (a) Library files, and (b) Comparator. Library files contain data of known species of bacterial microbes in the form of binned plots, while comparator compares data of unknown sample with library files. Using collected data of unknown bacterial species, highest voltage values stored in the form of peaks and arranged in 3D histograms to find the frequency of occurrence. Resulting data compared with library files of known bacterial species. If sample data matching with any library file of known bacterial species, sample identified as a matched microbe. An experiment performed to identify three different bacteria particles: Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. By applying algorithm using library files of given samples, results were compromising. This system is potentially applicable to several biomedical areas, especially those related to cell morphology.

Keywords: microbial identification, laser scattering, peak identification, binned plots classification

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8 Preparation and Characterization of Transparent and Conductive SnO2 Thin Films by Spray Pyrolysis

Authors: V. Jelev, P. Petkov, P. Shindov


Thin films of undoped and As-doped tin oxide (As:SnO2) were obtained on silicon and glass substrates at 450°- 480°C by spray pyrolysis technique. Tin chloride (SnCl4.5H2O) and As oxide (3As2O5.5H2O) were used as a source for Sn and As respectively. The As2O5 concentration was varied from 0 to 10 mol% in the starting water-alcoholic solution. The characterization of the films was provided with XRD, CEM, AFM and UV-VIS spectroscopy. The influence of the synthesis parameters (the temperature of the substrate, solution concentration, gas and solution flow rates, deposition time, nozzle-to substrate distance) on the optical, electrical and structural properties of the films was investigated. The substrate temperature influences on the surface topography, structure and resistivity of the films. Films grown at low temperatures (<300°C) are amorphous whereas this deposited at higher temperatures have certain degree of polycrystallinity. Thin oxide films deposited at 450°C are generally polycrystalline with tetragonal rutile structure. The resistivity decreases with dopant concentration. The minimum resistivity was achieved at dopant concentration about 2.5 mol% As2O5 in the solution. The transmittance greater than 80% and resistivity smaller than 7.5.10-4Ω.cm were achieved in the films deposited at 480°C. The As doped films (SnO2: As) deposited on silicon substrates was used for preparation of a large area position sensitive photodetector (PSD), acting on the base of a lateral photovoltaic effect. The position characteristic of PSD is symmetric to the zero and linear in the 80% of the active area. The SnO2 films are extremely stable under typical environmental conditions and extremely resistant to chemical etching.

Keywords: metal oxide film, SnO2 film, position sensitive photodetectors (PSD), lateral photovoltaic effect

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7 Temperature Dependent Current-Voltage (I-V) Characteristics of CuO-ZnO Nanorods Based Heterojunction Solar Cells

Authors: Venkatesan Annadurai, Kannan Ethirajalu, Anu Roshini Ramakrishnan


Copper oxide (CuO) and zinc oxide (ZnO) based coaxial (CuO-ZnO nanorods) heterojunction has been the interest of various research communities for solar cells, light emitting diodes (LEDs) and photodetectors applications. Copper oxide (CuO) is a p-type material with the band gap of 1.5 eV and it is considered to be an attractive absorber material in solar cells applications due to its high absorption coefficient and long minority carrier diffusion length. Similarly, n-type ZnO nanorods possess many attractive advantages over thin films such as, the light trapping ability and photosensitivity owing to the presence of oxygen related hole-traps at the surface. Moreover, the abundant availability, non-toxicity, and inexpensiveness of these materials make them suitable for potentially cheap, large area, and stable photovoltaic applications. However, the efficiency of the CuO-ZnO nanorods heterojunction based devices is greatly affected by interface defects which generally lead to the poor performance. In spite of having much potential, not much work has been carried out to understand the interface quality and transport mechanism involved across the CuO-ZnO nanorods heterojunction. Therefore, a detailed investigation of CuO-ZnO heterojunction is needed to understand the interface which affects its photovoltaic performance. Herein, we have fabricated the CuO-ZnO nanorods based heterojunction by simple hydrothermal and electrodeposition technique and investigated its interface quality by carrying out temperature (300 –10 K) dependent current-voltage (I-V) measurements under dark and illumination of visible light. Activation energies extracted from the temperature dependent I-V characteristics reveals that recombination and tunneling mechanism across the interfacial barrier plays a significant role in the current flow.

Keywords: heterojunction, electrical transport, nanorods, solar cells

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6 Recent Progress in the Uncooled Mid-Infrared Lead Selenide Polycrystalline Photodetector

Authors: Hao Yang, Lei Chen, Ting Mei, Jianbang Zheng


Currently, the uncooled PbSe photodetectors in the mid-infrared range (2-5μm) with sensitization technology extract more photoelectric response than traditional ones, and enable the room temperature (300K) photo-detection with high detectivity, which have attracted wide attentions in many fields. This technology generally contains the film fabrication with vapor phase deposition (VPD) and a sensitizing process with doping of oxygen and iodine. Many works presented in the recent years almost provide and high temperature activation method with oxygen/iodine vapor diffusion, which reveals that oxygen or iodine plays an important role in the sensitization of PbSe material. In this paper, we provide our latest experimental results and discussions in the stoichiometry of oxygen and iodine and its influence on the polycrystalline structure and photo-response. The experimental results revealed that crystal orientation was transformed from (200) to (420) by sensitization, and the responsivity of 5.42 A/W was gained by the optimal stoichiometry of oxygen and iodine with molecular density of I2 of ~1.51×1012 mm-3 and oxygen pressure of ~1Mpa. We verified that I2 plays a role in transporting oxygen into the lattice of crystal, which is actually not its major role. It is revealed that samples sensitized with iodine transform atomic proportion of Pb from 34.5% to 25.0% compared with samples without iodine from XPS data, which result in the proportion of about 1:1 between Pb and Se atoms by sublimation of PbI2 during sensitization process, and Pb/Se atomic proportion is controlled by I/O atomic proportion in the polycrystalline grains, which is very an important factor for improving responsivity of uncooled PbSe photodetector. Moreover, a novel sensitization and dopant activation method is proposed using oxygen ion implantation with low ion energy of < 500eV and beam current of ~120μA/cm2. These results may be helpful to understanding the sensitization mechanism of polycrystalline lead salt materials.

Keywords: polycrystalline PbSe, sensitization, transport, stoichiometry

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5 Study of the Hysteretic I-V Characteristics in a Polystyrene/ZnO-Nanorods Stack Layer

Authors: You-Lin Wu, Yi-Hsing Sung, Shih-Hung Lin, Jing-Jenn Lin


Performance improvement in optoelectronic devices such as solar cells and photodetectors has been reported when a polymer/ZnO nanorods stack is used. Resistance switching of polymer/ZnO nanocrystals (or nanorods) hybrid has also gained a lot of research interests recently. It has been reported that high- and low-resistance states of a metal/insulator/metal (MIM) structure diode with a polystyrene (PS) and ZnO hybrid as the insulator layer can be switched by applied bias after a high-voltage forming process, while the same device structure merely with a PS layer does not show any forming behavior. In this work, we investigated the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of an MIM device with a PS/ZnO nanorods stack deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate. The ZnO nanorods were grown by a hydrothermal method using a mixture of zinc nitrate, hexamethylenetetramine, and DI water. Following that, a PS layer was deposited by spin coating. Finally, the device with a structure of Ti/ PS/ZnO nanorods/FTO was completed by e-gun evaporated Ti layer on top of the PS layer. Semiconductor parameters analyzer Agilent 4156C was then used to measure the I-V characteristics of the device by applying linear ramp sweep voltage with sweep sequence of 0V → 4V → 0V → 3V → 0V → 2V → 0V → 1V → 0V in both positive and negative directions. It is interesting to find that the I-V characteristics are bias dependent and hysteretic, indicating that the device Ti/PS/ZnO nanorods/FTO structure has ferroelectricity. Our results also show that the maximum hysteresis loop height of the I-V characteristics as well as the voltage at which the maximum hysteresis loop height of each scan occurs increase with increasing maximum sweep voltage. It should be noticed that, although ferroelectricity has been found in ZnO at its melting temperature (1975℃) and in Li- or Co-doped ZnO, neither PS nor ZnO has ferroelectricity at room temperature. Using the same structure but with a PS or ZnO layer only as the insulator does not give and hysteretic I-V characteristics. It is believed that a charge polarization layer is induced near the PS/ZnO nanorods stack interface and thus causes the ferroelectricity in the device with Ti/PS/ZnO nanorods/FTO structure. Our results show that the PS/ZnO stack can find a potential application in a resistive switching memory device with MIM structure.

Keywords: ferroelectricity, hysteresis, polystyrene, resistance switching, ZnO nanorods

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4 Ammonia Sensing Properties of Nanostructured Hybrid Halide Perovskite Thin Film

Authors: Nidhi Gupta, Omita Nanda, Rakhi Grover, Kanchan Saxena


Hybrid perovskite is new class of material which has gained much attention due to their different crystal structure and interesting optical and electrical properties. Easy fabrication, high absorption coefficient, and photoluminescence properties make them a strong candidate for various applications such as sensors, photovoltaics, photodetectors, etc. In perovskites, ions arrange themselves in a special type of crystal structure with chemical formula ABX3, where A is organic species like CH3NH3+, B is metal ion (e.g., Pb, Sn, etc.) and X is halide (Cl-, Br-, I-). In crystal structure, A is present at corner position, B at center of the crystal lattice and halide ions at the face centers. High stability and sensitivity of nanostructured perovskite make them suitable for chemical sensors. Researchers have studied sensing properties of perovskites for number of analytes such as 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, ethanol and other hazardous chemical compounds. Ammonia being highly toxic agent makes it a reason of concern for the environment. Thus the detection of ammonia is extremely important. Our present investigation deals with organic inorganic hybrid perovskite based ammonia sensor. Various methods like sol-gel, solid state synthesis, thermal vapor deposition etc can be used to synthesize Different hybrid perovskites. In the present work, a novel hybrid perovskite has been synthesized by a single step method. Ethylenediammnedihalide and lead halide were used as precursor. Formation of hybrid perovskite was confirmed by FT-IR and XRD. Morphological characterization of the synthesized material was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM analysis revealed the formation of one dimensional nanowire perovskite with mean diameter of 200 nm. Measurements for sensing properties of halide perovskite for ammonia vapor were carried out. Perovskite thin films showed a color change from yellow to orange on exposure of ammonia vapor. Electro-optical measurements show that sensor based on lead halide perovskite has high sensitivity towards ammonia with effective selectivity and reversibility. Sensor exhibited rapid response time of less than 20 seconds.

Keywords: hybrid perovskite, ammonia, sensor, nanostructure, thin film

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3 Different Types of Bismuth Selenide Nanostructures for Targeted Applications: Synthesis and Properties

Authors: Jana Andzane, Gunta Kunakova, Margarita Baitimirova, Mikelis Marnauza, Floriana Lombardi, Donats Erts


Bismuth selenide (Bi₂Se₃) is known as a narrow band gap semiconductor with pronounced thermoelectric (TE) and topological insulator (TI) properties. Unique TI properties offer exciting possibilities for fundamental research as observing the exciton condensate and Majorana fermions, as well as practical application in spintronic and quantum information. In turn, TE properties of this material can be applied for wide range of thermoelectric applications, as well as for broadband photodetectors and near-infrared sensors. Nanostructuring of this material results in improvement of TI properties due to suppression of the bulk conductivity, and enhancement of TE properties because of increased phonon scattering at the nanoscale grains and interfaces. Regarding TE properties, crystallographic growth direction, as well as orientation of the nanostructures relative to the growth substrate, play significant role in improvement of TE performance of nanostructured material. For instance, Bi₂Se₃ layers consisting of randomly oriented nanostructures and/or of combination of them with planar nanostructures show significantly enhanced in comparison with bulk and only planar Bi₂Se₃ nanostructures TE properties. In this work, a catalyst-free vapour-solid deposition technique was applied for controlled obtaining of different types of Bi₂Se₃ nanostructures and continuous nanostructured layers for targeted applications. For example, separated Bi₂Se₃ nanoplates, nanobelts and nanowires can be used for investigations of TI properties; consisting from merged planar and/or randomly oriented nanostructures Bi₂Se₃ layers are useful for applications in heat-to-power conversion devices and infrared detectors. The vapour-solid deposition was carried out using quartz tube furnace (MTI Corp), equipped with an inert gas supply and pressure/temperature control system. Bi₂Se₃ nanostructures/nanostructured layers of desired type were obtained by adjustment of synthesis parameters (process temperature, deposition time, pressure, carrier gas flow) and selection of deposition substrate (glass, quartz, mica, indium-tin-oxide, graphene and carbon nanotubes). Morphology, structure and composition of obtained Bi₂Se₃ nanostructures and nanostructured layers were inspected using SEM, AFM, EDX and HRTEM techniques, as well as home-build experimental setup for thermoelectric measurements. It was found that introducing of temporary carrier gas flow into the process tube during the synthesis and deposition substrate choice significantly influence nanostructures formation mechanism. Electrical, thermoelectric, and topological insulator properties of different types of deposited Bi₂Se₃ nanostructures and nanostructured coatings are characterized as a function of thickness and discussed.

Keywords: bismuth seleinde, nanostructures, topological insulator, vapour-solid deposition

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2 Highly Conducting Ultra Nanocrystalline Diamond Nanowires Decorated ZnO Nanorods for Long Life Electronic Display and Photo-Detectors Applications

Authors: A. Saravanan, B. R. Huang, C. J. Yeh, K. C. Leou, I. N. Lin


A new class of ultra-nano diamond-graphite nano-hybrid (DGH) composite materials containing nano-sized diamond needles was developed at low temperature process. Such kind of diamond- graphite nano-hybrid composite nanowires exhibit high electrical conductivity and excellent electron field emission (EFE) properties. Few earlier reports mention that addition of N2 gas to the growth plasma requires high growth temperature (800°C) to trigger the dopants to generate the conductivity in the films. High growth temperature is not familiar with the Si-based device fabrications. We have used a novel process such as bias-enhanced-grown (beg) MPECVD process to grow diamond films at low substrate temperature (450°C). We observed that the beg-N/UNCD films thus obtained possess high conductivity of σ=987 S/cm, ever reported for diamond films with excellent Electron field emission (EFE) properties. TEM investigation indicated that these films contain needle-like diamond grains about 5 nm in diameter and hundreds of nanometers in length. Each of the grains was encased in graphitic layers about tens of nano-meters in thickness. These materials properties suitable for more specific applications, such as high conductivity for electron field emitters, high robustness for microplasma cathodes and high electrochemical activity for electro-chemical sensing. Subsequently, other hand, the highly conducting DGH films were coated on vertically aligned ZnO nanorods, there is no prior nucleation or seeding process needed due to the use of BEG method. Such a composite structure provides significant enhancement in the field emission characteristics of the cold cathode was observed with ultralow turn on voltage 1.78 V/μm with high EFE current density of 3.68 mA/ cm2 (at 4.06V/μm) due to decoration of DGH material on ZnO nanorods. The DGH/ZNRs based device get stable emission for longer duration of 562min than bare ZNRs (104min) without any current degradation because the diamond coating protects the ZNRs from ion bombardment when they are used as the cathode for microplasma devices. The potential application of these materials is demonstrated by the plasma illumination measurements that ignited the plasma at the minimum voltage by 290 V. The photoresponse (Iphoto/Idark) behavior of the DGH/ZNRs based photodetectors exhibits a much higher photoresponse (1202) than bare ZNRs (229). During the process the electron transport is easy from ZNRs to DGH through graphitic layers, the EFE properties of these materials comparable to other primarily used field emitters like carbon nanotubes, graphene. The DGH/ZNRs composite also providing a possibility of their use in flat panel, microplasma and vacuum microelectronic devices.

Keywords: bias-enhanced nucleation and growth, ZnO nanorods, electrical conductivity, electron field emission, photo-detectors

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1 Fe Modified Tin Oxide Thin Film Based Matrix for Reagentless Uric Acid Biosensing

Authors: Kashima Arora, Monika Tomar, Vinay Gupta


Biosensors have found potential applications ranging from environmental testing and biowarfare agent detection to clinical testing, health care, and cell analysis. This is driven in part by the desire to decrease the cost of health care and to obtain precise information more quickly about the health status of patient by the development of various biosensors, which has become increasingly prevalent in clinical testing and point of care testing for a wide range of biological elements. Uric acid is an important byproduct in human body and a number of pathological disorders are related to its high concentration in human body. In past few years, rapid growth in the development of new materials and improvements in sensing techniques have led to the evolution of advanced biosensors. In this context, metal oxide thin film based matrices due to their bio compatible nature, strong adsorption ability, high isoelectric point (IEP) and abundance in nature have become the materials of choice for recent technological advances in biotechnology. In the past few years, wide band-gap metal oxide semiconductors including ZnO, SnO₂ and CeO₂ have gained much attention as a matrix for immobilization of various biomolecules. Tin oxide (SnO₂), wide band gap semiconductor (Eg =3.87 eV), despite having multifunctional properties for broad range of applications including transparent electronics, gas sensors, acoustic devices, UV photodetectors, etc., it has not been explored much for biosensing purpose. To realize a high performance miniaturized biomolecular electronic device, rf sputtering technique is considered to be the most promising for the reproducible growth of good quality thin films, controlled surface morphology and desired film crystallization with improved electron transfer property. Recently, iron oxide and its composites have been widely used as matrix for biosensing application which exploits the electron communication feature of Fe, for the detection of various analytes using urea, hemoglobin, glucose, phenol, L-lactate, H₂O₂, etc. However, to the authors’ knowledge, no work is being reported on modifying the electronic properties of SnO₂ by implanting with suitable metal (Fe) to induce the redox couple in it and utilizing it for reagentless detection of uric acid. In present study, Fe implanted SnO₂ based matrix has been utilized for reagentless uric acid biosensor. Implantation of Fe into SnO₂ matrix is confirmed by energy-dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. Electrochemical techniques have been used to study the response characteristics of Fe modified SnO₂ matrix before and after uricase immobilization. The developed uric acid biosensor exhibits a high sensitivity to about 0.21 mA/mM and a linear variation in current response over concentration range from 0.05 to 1.0 mM of uric acid besides high shelf life (~20 weeks). The Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameter (Km) is found to be relatively very low (0.23 mM), which indicates high affinity of the fabricated bioelectrode towards uric acid (analyte). Also, the presence of other interferents present in human serum has negligible effect on the performance of biosensor. Hence, obtained results highlight the importance of implanted Fe:SnO₂ thin film as an attractive matrix for realization of reagentless biosensors towards uric acid.

Keywords: Fe implanted tin oxide, reagentless uric acid biosensor, rf sputtering, thin film

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