Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 58

Search results for: Lepidium sativum L.

58 Response of Lepidium Sativum to Ionic Toxicity

Authors: M. F. El-Barghathi, R. El-Tajouri

Abstract:

The effect of different concentrations of cadmium sulfate "CdSO4" (0.0, 10, 50, 100, 500 ppm) was tested on seed germination, seedling elongation and growth of Lepidium sativum (garden cress) plants. Results indicated that seed germination and seedling elongation were not inhibited by different concentrations of CdSO4. This could suggest that, Lepidium sativum may be used as a phyto remediation tool of soils contaminated with cadmium.

Keywords: Lepidium sativum, heavy metals, ionic toxicity, phytoremediation

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57 Phytochemical Screening and Anti-Hypothyroidism Activity of Lepidium sativum Ethanolic Extract

Authors: Reham Hajomer, Ikram Elsiddig, Amna Hamad

Abstract:

Lepidium sativum (Garden Cress) belonging to Brassicaceae family is an annual herb locally known as El-rshad. In Ayurveda it is an important medicinal plant, traditionally used for the treatment of jaundice, liver problems, spleen diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, menstrual problems, fracture, arthritis, inflammatory conditions and for treatment of hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones (Triiodithyronine T3 and Thyroxine T4) which are commonly caused by iodine deficiency. It’s divided into primary and secondary hypothyroidism, the primary caused by failure of thyroid function and secondary due to the failure of adequate thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion from the pituitary gland or thyroid -releasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus. The disease is most common in women over age 60. The objective regarding this study is to know whether Lepidium sativum would affect the level of thyroid hormones. The extract was prepared with 96% ethanol using Soxhlet apparatus. The anti-hypothyroidism activity was tested by using thirty male Wistar rats weighing (100-140 g) were used in the experiment. They were grouping into five groups, Group 1: Normal group= Administered only distilled water. Then 10 mg/kg Propylthiouracil was added to the drinking water of all other groups to induce hypothyroidism. Group 2: Negative control without any treatment; Group 3: Test group= treated with oral administration of 500mg/kg extract; Group 4: treated with oral administration of 250mg/kg of the extract; Group 5: Standard group (positive control) = treated with intraperitoneal Levothyroxine. All rats were incubated for 20 days at animal house with room temperature of proper ventilation provided with standard diet. The result show that the Lepidium sativum extract was found to increases the T3 and T4 in the propylthiouracil induced rats with values (0.29 ng/dl T3 and 0.57 U T4) for the 500mg/kg and (0.27 ng/dl T3 and 0.517 U T4) for the 250mg/kg in comparison with standard with values (0.241 ng/dl T3 and 0.516 U T4) so that Lepidium sativum can be stimulatory to thyroid function and possess significant anti-hypothyroidism effect with p-values ranges from (0.000006*-0.893472). In conclusion, from results obtained, Lepidium sativum plant extract was found to posses anti-hypothyroidism effects so its act as an agent that stimulates thyroid hormone secretion.

Keywords: anti-hypothyroidism, extract, lepidium, sativum

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56 Genoprotective Effect of Lepidium sativum L. Seed Methanolic Extract on Cyclophosphamide-Induced DNA Damage in Mice and Characterization of Its Flavonoidal Content

Authors: Iman A. A. Kassem, Ayman A. Farghaly, Zeinab M. Hassan, Farouk R. Melek, Neveen S. Ghaly

Abstract:

Lipidium sativum L, an annual herb that grows to 50 cm, is known as an important member of family Brassicaceae. Besides its nutritional value, the seeds were widely used in folk medicine for treatment of cough, asthma, and headache. It was also reported to possess hypocholesterolemic, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. In this study, the genoprotective properties of L. sativum seed methanolic extract (LSME) were evaluated in vivo. Three groups of mice were given LSME for five consecutive days at the three dose levels 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg b.wt. The three groups were then injected intraperitoneally with cyclophosphamide at a dose of 20 mg/kg b.wt. to induce DNA damage. A group received only cyclophosphamide (20 mg/kg b.wt.) served as control. LSME significantly inhibited the DNA aberrations in mice caused by cyclophosphamide in a dose-dependent manner in the two groups that received LSME at 50 and 100 mg/kg b.wt. dose levels. The chromosomal aberrations' inhibitory indices were calculated as 18 and 31 in mice bone marrow cells and 27 and 48 in mice spermatocytes, respectively. Phytochemical examination carried out by us revealed that flavonoids were the main chemical constituents of LSME. The major flavonoids kaempferol, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, quercetin, and quercetin-3-O-glucoside were isolated and characterized. It was concluded that the genoprotective effect of LSME might be attributed to the presence of flavonoids which are well-known for their antioxidant properties.

Keywords: cyclophosphamide, flavonoids, genoprotective effect, Lepidium sativum

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55 Toxicity Analysis of Metal Coating Industry Wastewaters by Phytotoxicity Method

Authors: Sukru Dursun, Zeynep Cansu Ayturan, Mostafa Maroof

Abstract:

Metal coating which is important method used for protecting metals against oxidation and corrosion, decreasing friction, protecting metals from chemicals, easing cleaning of the metals. There are several methods used for metal coating such as hot-dip galvanizing, thermal spraying, electroplating and sherardizing. Method which will be used for metal coating depends on the type of metal. The materials mostly used for coating are zinc, nickel, brass, chrome, gold, cadmium, copper, brass, and silver. Within these materials, chrome ion has significant negative impacts on human, other living organisms and environment. Moreover, especially on human chrome may cause lung cancer, stomach ulcer, kidney and liver function disorders and death. Therefore, wastewaters of metal coating industry including chrome should be treated very carefully. In this study, wastewater containing chrome produced by metal coating industry was analysed with phytotoxicity method that is based on measuring the reaction of some plant species against different concentrations of chrome solution. Main plants used for phytotoxicity tests are Lepidium sativum and Lemna minor. Owing to phytotoxicity test, assessing the negative effects of chrome which may harm plants and offering more accurate wastewater treatment techniques against chromium wastewater is possible. Furthermore, the results taken from phytotoxicity tests were analysed with respect to their variance and their importance against different concentrations of chrome solution were determined.

Keywords: metal coating wastewater, chrome, phytotoxicity, Lepidium sativum, Lemna minor

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54 Effect of Cellulase Pretreatment for n-Hexane Extraction of Oil from Garden Cress Seeds

Authors: Boutemak Khalida, Dahmani Siham

Abstract:

Garden cress (Lepidium Sativum L.) belonging to the family Brassicaceae, is edible growing annual herb. Its various parts (roots, leaves and seeds) have been used to treat various human ailments. Its seed extracts have been screened for various biological activities like hypotensive, antimicrobial, bronchodilator, hypoglycaemic and antianemic. The aim of the present study is to optimize the process parameters (cellulase concentration and incubation time) of enzymatic pre-treatment of the garden cress seeds and to evaluate the effect of cellulase pre-treatment of the crushed seeds on the oil yield, physico-chemical properties and antibacterial activity and comparing to non-enzymatic method. The optimum parameters of cellulase pre-treatment were as follows: cellulase of 0,1% w/w and incubation time of 2h. After enzymatic pre-treatment, the oil was extracted by n-hexane for 1.5 h, the oil yield was 4,01% for cellulase pre-treatment as against 10,99% in the control sample. The decrease in yield might be caused a result of mucilage. Garden cress seeds are covered with a layer of mucilage which gels on contact with water. At the same time, the antibacterial activity was carried out using agar diffusion method against 4 food-borne pathogens (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi,Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis). The results showed that bacterial strains are very sensitive to the oil with cellulase pre-treatment. Staphylococcus aureus is extremely sensitive with the largest zone of inhibition (40 mm), Escherichia coli and salmonella typhi had a very sensitive to the oil with a zone of inhibition (26 mm). Bacillus subtilizes is averagely sensitive which gave an inhibition of 16 mm. But it does not exhibit sensivity to the oil without enzymatic pre-treatment with a zone inhibition (< 8 mm). Enzymatic pre-treatment could be useful for antimicrobial activity of the oil, and hold a good potential for use in food and pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: Lepidium sativum L., cellulase, enzymatic pretreatment, antibacterial activity.

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53 Effects of Allium Sativum Essential Oil on MIC, MBC and Growth Curve of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus ATCC 43996 and Its Thermostable Direct Hemolysin Production

Authors: Afshin Akhondzadeh Basti, Zohreh Mashak, Ali Khanjari, Mohammad Adel Rezaei, Fatemeh Mohammadkhan

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Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a halophilic bacterium and often causes gastroenteritis because of consumption of raw or inadequately cooked seafood. Studies showed a strong association of thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) produced by members of this species with its pathogenicity. The effects of garlic (Allium sativum) essential oil at concentrations of 0, 0.005, 0.015, 0.03 and 0.045% on the minimum inhibitiotory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), growth curve and production of TDH toxin of vibrio parahaemolyticus were studied in BHI model. MIC and MBC of Allium sativum essential oil was estimated 0.03%. The results of this study revealed that the TDH production was significantly affected by Allium sativum EO and titers of TDH production in 0 and 0.005 % were 1/256 whereas this titer in 0.015 % concentration of EO. Concentrations of 0.005 and 0/015 % of garlic essential oil reduced the bacterial growth rate significantly (P < 0.05) compared to the control group. According to the results Allium sativum essential oil showed to be effective against bacterial growth and production of TDH toxin. Its potential application in food systems may be suggested.

Keywords: allium sativum essential oil, vibrio parahaemolyticus, TDH, consumption

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52 In silico and Toxicity Study of the Combination of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) and Garlic (Allium sativum L.) as Antihypertensive Herbs

Authors: Doni Dermawan

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Hypertension is a disease with a high prevalence in Indonesia. The prevalence of hypertension in Indonesia is based on the Basic Health Research (Riskesdas) in 2013 which amounted to 25.8%. Medicinal plants have been widely used to treat hypertension including roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) by a mechanism as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. The purpose of this research is to analyze the in silico (molecular studies) of pharmacological effects and toxicity of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) as well as a combination of both are used as antihypertensive herbs. The results of study showed that roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) have great potential as antihypertensive herbs based on the affinity and stability of active substances to specific receptor with a much better value than a of antihypertensive drugs (lisinopril). Toxicity values determined by the method of AST, ALT and ALP in which the three values obtained indicate the presence of acute toxic effects that need to be considered in determining the dose of the extract of roselle and garlic as antihypertensives.

Keywords: Allium sativum, antihypertensive, Hibiscus sabdariffa, in silico, toxicity

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51 The Effect of Four Local Plant Extract on the Control of Rice Weevil, Sitophilus oryzae L.

Authors: Banaz Sdiq Abdulla

Abstract:

Four local species (Allium sativum, Capsicum annum, Anethum graveolens, and Ocimum basilicum) were evaluated in the laboratory of Biolog Department, College of Education, for their ability to protect stored rice from the infection by weevil Sitophilus oryzae. Aqueous extracts of the plant species were applied as direct admixture of three concentrations levels of 1%, 2.5%, and 5% (W/V) to assess for mortality, adult emergence, and repellency and weight losses. The results showed that Al. sativum extracts was the most effective as it gave the highest mortality (90%)at 5% concentration followed by Capsicum annum (80%) on the 4th day post treatment, the result showed that the plant extract of different concentrations exhibited different level of reduction in adult emergence and different repellency of adults of Sitophilus oryzae. Allium sativum recorded the lowest mean number of adult emergence (8) followed by Capsicum annum (10) at 5% concentration, while Capsicum annum was found to be revealed complete repellent agent (100%) repellency on the 6th hours against Sitophilus oryzae followed by Allium sativum and Anethum graveolens (81.8%). There was a significant (P>0.05) reduction in the weight lossed by the weevils with less damaged recorded on grain treated with Allium sativum and Capsicum annum (1.6%) and (2.3%) respectively.

Keywords: plant extraction, rice, protectant, pest

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50 ATR-IR Study of the Mechanism of Aluminum Chloride Induced Alzheimer Disease - Curative and Protective Effect of Lepidium sativum Water Extract on Hippocampus Rats Brain Tissue

Authors: Maha J. Balgoon, Gehan A. Raouf, Safaa Y. Qusti, Soad S. Ali

Abstract:

The main cause of Alzheimer disease (AD) was believed to be mainly due to the accumulation of free radicals owing to oxidative stress (OS) in brain tissue. The mechanism of the neurotoxicity of Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) induced AD in hippocampus Albino wister rat brain tissue, the curative & the protective effects of Lipidium sativum group (LS) water extract were assessed after 8 weeks by attenuated total reflection spectroscopy ATR-IR and histologically by light microscope. ATR-IR results revealed that the membrane phospholipid undergo free radical attacks, mediated by AlCl3, primary affects the polyunsaturated fatty acids indicated by the increased of the olefinic -C=CH sub-band area around 3012 cm-1 from the curve fitting analysis. The narrowing in the half band width(HBW) of the sνCH2 sub-band around 2852 cm-1 due to Al intoxication indicates the presence of trans form fatty acids rather than gauch rotomer. The degradation of hydrocarbon chain to shorter chain length, increasing in membrane fluidity, disorder and decreasing in lipid polarity in AlCl3 group were indicated by the detected changes in certain calculated area ratios compared to the control. Administration of LS was greatly improved these parameters compared to the AlCl3 group. Al influences the Aβ aggregation and plaque formation, which in turn interferes to and disrupts the membrane structure. The results also showed a marked increase in the β-parallel and antiparallel structure, that characterize the Aβ formation in Al-induced AD hippocampal brain tissue, indicated by the detected increase in both amide I sub-bands around 1674, 1692 cm-1. This drastic increase in Aβ formation was greatly reduced in the curative and protective groups compared to the AlCl3 group and approaches nearly the control values. These results were supported too by the light microscope. AlCl3 group showed significant marked degenerative changes in hippocampal neurons. Most cells appeared small, shrieked and deformed. Interestingly, the administration of LS in curative and protective groups markedly decreases the amount of degenerated cells compared to the non-treated group. Also the intensity of congo red stained cells was decreased. Hippocampal neurons looked more/or less similar to those of control. This study showed a promising therapeutic effect of Lipidium sativum group (LS) on AD rat model that seriously overcome the signs of oxidative stress on membrane lipid and restore the protein misfolding.

Keywords: aluminum chloride, alzheimer disease, ATR-IR, Lipidium sativum

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49 Magnesium Foliar Application and Phosphorien Soil Inoculation Positively Affect Pisum sativum L. Plants Grown on Sandy Calcareous Soil

Authors: Saad M. Howladar, Ashraf Sh. Osman, Mostafa M. Rady, Hassan S. Al-Zahrani

Abstract:

The effects of soil inoculation with phosphorien-containing Phosphate-Dissolving Bacteria (PDB) and/or magnesium (Mg) foliar application at the rates of 0, 0.5 and 1mM on growth, green pod and seed yields, and chemical constituents of Pisum sativum L. grown on a sandy calcareous soil were investigated. Results indicated that PDB and/or Mg significantly increased shoot length, number of branches plant–1, total leaf area plant–1 and canopy dry weight plant–1, leaf contents of pigments, soluble sugars, free proline, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, and calcium, and Ca/Na ratio, while leaf Na content was reduced. PDB and/or Mg also increased green pod and seed yields. We concluded that PDB and Mg have pronounced positive effects on Pisum sativum L. plants grown on sandy calcareous soil. PDB and Mg, therefore, have the potential to be applied for various crops to overcome the adverse effects of the newly-reclaimed sandy calcareous soils.

Keywords: bio-p-fertilizer, mg foliar application, newly-reclaimed soils, Pisum sativum L.

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48 Impact of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles on Terrestrial Flora and Microorganisms

Authors: L. Steponavičiūtė, L. Steponavičienė

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Despite the rapid nanotechnology progress and recognition, its potential impact in ecosystems and health of humans is still not fully known. In this paper, the study of ecotoxicological dangers of nanomaterials is presented. By chemical reduction method, silver (AgNPs) and gold (AuNPs) nanoparticles were synthesized, characterized and used in experiments to examine their impact on microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans) and terrestrial flora (Phaseolus vulgaris and Lepidium sativum). The results collected during experiments with terrestrial flora show tendentious growth stimulations caused by gold nanoparticles. In contrast to these results, silver nanoparticle solutions inhibited growth of beans and garden cress, compared to control samples. The results obtained from experiments with microorganisms show similarities with ones collected from experiments with terrestrial plants. Samples treated with AuNPs of size 13 nm showed stimulation in the growth of the colonies compared with 3,5 nm size nanoparticles.

Keywords: nanomaterials, ecotoxicology, nanoparticles, ecosystems

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47 The Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum) in the Diet on Some Serum Biochemical Parameters of Oscar Fish (Astronotus ocellatus)

Authors: Ali Saghaei, Negar Ghotbeddin, Ebrahim Rajabzadeh Ghatrami, Milad Maniat

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The use of herbs as natural additives in fish diets are used to enhance the efficiency and safety systems. The use of herbs, garlic, due to the structure and composition of it has beneficial role in human nutrition and animal nutrition. This study was conducted evaluate the effect different levels of garlic (Allium sativum) powder on the some serum biochemical parameters of Oscar fish (Astronotus ocellatus). Fish were divided into four groups fed on diets containing garlic in different levels; 5 g kg˗1, 10 g kg-1, 20 g kg-1, 30 g kg-1 diet and the control group diet was without garlic. A total number of 300 fish was used and Triplicate groups of Oscar fish with initial weight of 12.43±0.24 g were hand-fed to visual satiation at three meals per day. The experiment extended for two months. Total Protein (TP), Albumin (ALB), Globulin (GLB) and Albumin/Globulin (A/G) ratio, were determined. Based on the results, no significant differences were seen among treatments and control groups during the experimental period for TP, ALB, GLB, and A/G ratio (p > 0.05). Although, the highest amount of serum total protein and globulin levels were observed in diet containing 10 g kg-1 of garlic. Also, the highest value of albumin and A/G were observed in diet containing 20 g kg-1 of garlic, but there were no significant difference with other treatments. The results of this study show that addition of garlic Allium sativum to fish diet can improve fish health.

Keywords: garlic (Allium sativum), serum, Oscar fish (Astronotus ocellatus), iran

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46 Evaluation of the Effects of Some Medicinal Plants Extracts on Seed

Authors: Areej Ali Baeshen, Hanaa Kamal Galal, Batoul Mohamed Abdullatif

Abstract:

In the present study, the allelopathic effects of Eruca sativa, Mentha peprinta, and Coriandrum sativum aqueous extracts, prepared by 25 gm and 50 gm of fresh leaves dissolved in 100 ml of double distilled water in addition to the crude extract (100%). The final concentrations were 100 %, 50%, 25% and 0% as control. The extracts were tested for their allelopathic effects on seed germination and other growth parameters of Phaseolous vulgaris. Laboratory experiments were conducted in sterilizes Petri dishes with 5 and 10 day time interval for seed germination and 24 h, 48 h and 72 h for radicle length on an average of 25°C. The effects of different concentrations of aqueous extract were compared to distilled water (0%). 25% and 50% aqueous extracts of Eruca sativa and Coriandrum sativum caused a pronounced inhibitory effect on seed germination and the tested growth parameters of the receptor plant. The inhibitory effect was proportional to the concentration of the extract. Mentha peprinta extracts, on the other hand, caused an increase in germination percentage and other growth parameters in Phaseolous vulgaris. Hence, it could be concluded that the aqueous extracts of Eruca sativa and Coriandrum sativum might contain water-soluble allelochemicals, which could inhibit the seed germination and reduce radicle length of Phaseolous vulgaris. Mentha peprinta has beneficial allelopathic effects on the receptor plant.

Keywords: Phaseolus vulgaris, Eruca sativa, Mentha peperinta, Coriandrum sativum, medicinal plants, seed germination

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45 Determination of Harmful Important Mite (ACARI) and Nematoda Species, Their Distribution and Their Control Possibility on Garlic and Onion Growing Areas in Turkey

Authors: Cihan Cilbircioğlu

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Allium sativum L.(garlic) and Allium. cepa L. (onion) are the most common species of the Allium spp. and are produced at the very high rate all over the world. The yield loss caused by pests is the most important problem in the production of these crops. In the absence of control measures, yield loss would be around 35% on average. The yield loss sometimes depending on the pest species and population density can reach about 100%. Mites and nematodes are the most important pests of them. These pests that cause damage to A. sativum and A. cepa shows a wide range of taxonomic categories. The number of common pest mite and nematode species that cause damage to either A. sativum and A. cepa are over 20 species. In this study, detailed information on morphology, life cycle, management, and symptoms of the economically most important harmful important mite (acari) and nematode species of onion and garlic has been provided through careful survey of corresponding researches in Turkey and given information about new practices and approaches on their controls.

Keywords: onion, garlic, pest, acari, nematoda control methods, Turkey

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44 The Effectiveness of Herbal Capsules Ethanol Extract of Celery (Apium graveolens L.) and Bulb of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) in Lowering Total Cholesterol Levels in Patients with Hypercholesterolemia

Authors: Anton Bahtiar, Lukas Tjandra Leksana, Fransiscus D. Suyatna

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Hypercholesterolemia is one of the major risk factors that can trigger the development of cardiovascular disease, especially coronary heart disease. One of the traditional drugs used for hypercholesterolemia is a combination of herbs celery (Apium graveolens) and garlic (Allium sativum). This study aimed to investigate the effects of the extract on lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Subjects consisted of patients with traditional medicine clinic in Jakarta. Each subject received treatment capsules containing herbal extract and placebo capsules. On the 44 subjects, the lipid profile was examined blood levels of total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides. Paired two-tailed t-test was used for the difference between lipid profile of the therapy group and the placebo group. The changes in the lipid profile between the treatment groups and the placebo group for total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides was 14,82 ± 6,946;1.45 ± 2,945;6,98 ± 8,105;2,48 ± 6,504 mg/dL. The herbal extract decrease blood cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (P <0.05).

Keywords: Allium sativum, Apium graveolens, hypercholesterolemia, cholesterol, HDL, LDL

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43 Anti-Hyperglycemic Effects and Chemical Analysis of Allium sativum Bulbs Growing in Sudan

Authors: Ikram Mohamed Eltayeb Elsiddig, Yacouba Amina Djamila, Amna El Hassan Hamad

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Hyperglycemia and diabetes have been treated with several medicinal plants for a long time, meanwhile reduce associated side effects than the synthetic ones. Therefore, the search for more effective and safer anti-diabetic agents derived from plants has become an interest area of active research. A. sativum, belonging to the Liliaceae family is well known for its medicinal uses in African traditional medicine, it used for treating of many human diseases mainly diabetes, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure. The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic effect of the extracts of A. sativum bulb growing in Sudan on glucose-loaded Wistar albino rats. A. sativum bulbs were collected from local vegetable market at Khourtoum/ Sudan in a fresh form, identified and authenticated by taxonomist, then dried, and extracted with solvents of increasing polarity: petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol by using Soxhlet apparatus. The effect of the extracts on glucose uptake was evaluated by using the isolated rats hemidiaphgrams after loading the fasting rats with glucose, and the anti-hyperglycemic effect was investigated on glucose-loaded Wistar albino rats. Their effects were compared to control rats administered with the vehicle and to a standard group administered with Metformin standard drug. The most active extract was analyzed chemically using GC-MS analysis compared to NIST library. The results showed significant anti-diabetic effect of extracts of A. sativum bulb growing in Sudan. Addition to the hypoglycemic activity of A. sativum extracts was found to be decreased with increase in the polarity of the extraction solvent; this may explain the less polarity of substance responsible for the activity and their concentration decreased with polarity increase. The petroleum ether extract possess anti-hyperglycemic activity more significant than the other extracts and the Metformin standard drug with p-value 0.000** of 400mg/kg at 1 hour, 2 hour and four hour; and p-value 0.019*, 0.015* and 0.010* of 200mg/kg at 1 hour, 2 hour and four hour respectively. The GC-MS analysis of petroleum ether extract, with highest anti -diabetes activity showed the presence of Methyl linolate (42.75%), Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (10.54%), Methyl α-linolenate (8.36%), Dotriacontane (6.83), Tetrapentacontane (6.33), Methyl 18-methylnonadecanoate (4.8), Phenol,2,2’-methylenebis[6-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methyl] (3.25), Methyl 20-methyl-heneicosanoate (2.70), Pentatriacontane (2.13) and many other minor compounds. The most of these compounds are well known for their anti-diabetic activity. The study concluded that A. sativum bulbs extracts were found to enhanced the reuptake of glucose in the isolated rat hemidiaphragm and have antihyperglycemic effect when evaluated on glucose-loaded albino rats with petroleum ether extract activity more significant than the Metformin standard drug.

Keywords: Allium, anti-hyperglycemic, bulbs, sativum

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42 Synergistic and Antagonistic Interactions between Garlic Extracts and Metformin in Diabetes Treatment

Authors: Ikram Elsiddig, Yacouba Djamila, Amna Hamad

Abstract:

Abstract—The worldwide increasing of using herbs in form of medicine with or without prescription medications potentiates the interactions between herbal products and conventional medicines; due to more research for herb-drug interactions are needed. for a long time hyperglycemia had been treated with several medicinal plants. A. sativum, belonging to the Liliaceae family is well known for its medicinal uses in African traditional medicine, it used for treating of many human diseases mainly diabetes, high cholesterol and high blood pressure. The purpose of this study is to determine the interaction effect between A. sativum bulb extracts and metformin drug used in diabetes treatment. The in vitro and in vivo evaluation were conducted by glucose reuptake using isolated rats hemidiaphgrams tissue and by estimate glucose tolerance in glucose-loaded wistar albino rats. The results showed that, petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts were found to have activity of glucose uptake in isolated rats hemidiaphgrams of 24.11 mg/g, 19.07 mg/g and 15.66 mg/g compared to metformin drug of 17 mg/g. These activity were reducded to 17.8 mg/g, 13.59 mg/g and 14.46 mg/g after combination with metformin, metformin itself reduced to 13.59 mg/g, 14.46 mg/g and 12.71 mg/g in comination with chloroform and ethyl acetate. These decrease in activity could be due to herbal–drug interaction between the extracts of A. sativum bulb and metformin drug. The interaction between A. sativum extract and metformin was also shown by in vivo study on the induced hyperglycemic rats. The glucose level after administered of 200 mg/kg was found to be increase with 47.2 % and 17.7% at first and second hour compared to the increase of blood glucose in the control group of 82.6% and76.7%.. At fourth hour the glucose level was became less than normal with 3.4% compared to control which continue to increase with 68.2%. Dose of 400 mg/kg at first hour showed increase in blood glucose of 31.5 %, at second and fourth hours the glucose level was became less than normal with decrease of 3.2 % and 30.4%. After combination the activity was found to be less than that of extract at both high and low dose, whereas, at first and second hour, the glucose level was found to be increase with 50.4% and 21.2%, at fourth hour the glucose level was became less than normal with 14%. Therefore A. sativum could be a potential source for anti-diabetic when it used alone, and it is significant important to use the garlic extract alone instead of combined with Metformin drug in diabetes- treatment.

Keywords: Antagonistic, Garlic, Metformin, Synergistic

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41 Effect of Two Different Biochars on Germination and Seedlings Growth of Salad, Cress and Barley

Authors: L. Bouqbis, H.W. Koyro, M. C. Harrouni, S. Daoud, L. F. Z. Ainlhout, C. I. Kammann

Abstract:

The application of biochar to soils is becoming more and more common. Its application which is generally reported to improve the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soils, has an indirect effect on soil health and increased crop yields. However, many of the previous results are highly variable and dependent mainly on the initial soil properties, biochar characteristics, and production conditions. In this study, two biochars which are biochar II (BC II) derived from a blend of paper sludge and wheat husks and biochar 005 (BC 005) derived from sewage sludge with a KCl additive, are used, and the physical and chemical properties of BC II are characterized. To determine the potential impact of salt stress and toxic and volatile substances, the second part of this study focused on the effect biochars have on germination of salad (Lactuca sativa L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and cress (Lepidium sativum) respectively. Our results indicate that Biochar II showed some unique properties compared to the soil, such as high EC, high content of K, Na, Mg, and low content of heavy metals. Concerning salad and barley germination test, no negative effect of BC II and BC 005 was observed. However, a negative effect of BC 005 at 8% level was revealed. The test of the effect of volatile substances on germination of cress revealed a positive effect of BC II, while a negative effect was observed for BC 005. Moreover, the water holding capacities of biochar-sand mixtures increased with increasing biochar application. Collectively, BC II could be safely used for agriculture and could provide the potential for a better plant growth.

Keywords: biochar, phytotoxic tests, seedlings growth, water holding capacity

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40 Effect of Aerobic Training with Coriandrum sativum Extract on Selection of Oxidative Stress Markers in Diabetic Rats

Authors: M. Golzade Gangraj, A. Abdi, N. ganji

Abstract:

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the Effect of aerobic training with Coriandrum sativum extract on selection of oxidative stress markers in diabetic rats. Methods: The population of male Wistar rats is the Pasteur Institute. Forty rats were randomly selected as subjects. After moving the mouse in vitro and stay for a week in a cage for sustainability, were diabetic. Diabetes induced by injection STZ (55 mg per kg of body weight of mice) was performed. According blood glucose was randomly divided into four experimental groups (control, training, extract and training-extract). Extract group consumed 150 mg per kg of body weight per day coriander juice. Training group performed aerobic training (50-55% VO2max). Result: The results showed that aerobic exercise training and coriander seed extract caused a significant increase in total antioxidant; superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly decreased malondialdehyde. Conclusion: the research findings can be stated that the exercise with coriander seed extract has the ability to inhibit free radicals and can have beneficial effects on the body's antioxidant defense system and reduce oxidative stress in diabetic rats with STZ. Because it improves the body's antioxidant defense by increasing serum levels of antioxidant enzymes.

Keywords: aerobic training, coriandrum sativum, antioxidant, diabetes

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39 Sludge and Compost Amendments in Tropical Soils: Impact on Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) Nutrient Content

Authors: M. López-Moreno, L. Lugo Avilés, F. Román, J. Lugo Rosas, J. Hernández-Viezcas Jr., Peralta-Videa, J. Gardea-Torresdey

Abstract:

Degradation of agricultural soils has increased rapidly during the last 20 years due to the indiscriminate use of pesticides and other anthropogenic activities. Currently, there is an urgent need of soil restoration to increase agricultural production. Utilization of sewage sludge or municipal solid waste is an important way to recycle nutrient elements and improve soil quality. With these amendments, nutrient availability in the aqueous phase might be increased and production of healthier crops can be accomplished. This research project aimed to achieve sustainable management of tropical agricultural soils, specifically in Puerto Rico, through the amendment of water treatment plant sludge’s. This practice avoids landfill disposal of sewage sludge and at the same time results cost-effective practice for recycling solid waste residues. Coriander sativum was cultivated in a compost-soil-sludge mixture at different proportions. Results showed that Coriander grown in a mixture of 25% compost+50% Voladora soi+25% sludge had the best growth and development. High chlorophyll content (33.01 ± 0.8) was observed in Coriander plants cultivated in 25% compost+62.5% Coloso soil+ 12.5% sludge compared to plants grown with no sludge (32.59 ± 0.7). ICP-OES analysis showed variations in mineral element contents (macro and micronutrients) in coriander plant grown I soil amended with sludge and compost.

Keywords: compost, Coriandrum sativum, nutrients, waste sludge

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38 Morphological and Elements Constituent Effects of Allelopathic Activity

Authors: Areej Ali Baeshen

Abstract:

Allelopathy is a complex phenomenon that depends on the concentration of allelochemicals. It has both inhibitory and stimulatory effects, which may be decided by concentration of allelochemicals present in extraction. In the present study, the allelopathic effects of Eruca sativa, Mentha peperina, and Coriandrum sativum water extract prepared by grinding fresh leaves of the medicinal plants in distilled water and three concentrations were taken from the crude extracts (100%, 50% and 25% in addition to 0% as control), and were tested for their effects on seed germination and some growth parameters of Zea mays. The experiment was conducted in sterilized Petri dishes under the natural laboratory conditions at temperature of 25°C, with a 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h and 120 h time interval for seed germination and 24 h, 48 h and 72 h for radicle length. The effects of different concentrations of aqueous extract were compared to distilled water (control, 0%). In maize, germination percentage was suppressed when plants was treated with 100% extracts, however, 50% and 25% of M. peprina increased germination percentage by 4 times more than the control. Moreover, 50% and 25% extracts of M. peperina and 50% of C. sativum increased maize radicle and plumule length by 3 to 4 times that of the control. Results of plumule fresh and dry weights revealed that concentrations of water extracts of 100% and 50% M. peperina, E. sativa 100% and E. sativa 50% reported almost similar plumule fresh weight as in control plants. The most interesting finding is the reduction in harmful salts and TDS which could be a good factor in saline soils of Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: Zea mays, Eruca sativa, Mentha peperina, Coriandrum sativum, medicinal plants, allelochemicals, aqueous extract

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37 Determination of Some Agricultural Characters of Developed Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Lines

Authors: Ercan Ceyhan, Mehmet Ali Avci

Abstract:

This research was made during the 2015 growing periods in the trial filed of ‘Research Station for Department of Field Crops, Agricultural Faculty, Selcuk University’ according to ‘Randomized Blocks Design’ with 3 replications. Research material was the following pea lines; PS16, PS18, PS21, PS23, PS24, PS25, PS36, PS47, PS49, PS51, PS54, PS58, PS67, PS69, PS71, PS73, PS83, PS84, PS87 and PSKY and three cultivars and other 2 commercial varieties named as Bolero, Rondo and Ultrello. Some agronomical characteristics such as plant height (cm) number of pod per plant number of seed per pod number of seed per plant 100 seed weight (g) and seed yield (kg ha-1) were determined. Results of the research implicated that the new developed lines were superior compared with the control (commercial) varieties by means of most of the characteristics. Nevertheless, similar researches should be continued in different locations and years.

Keywords: agricultural characters, pea, Pisum sativum, seed yield

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36 Growth Performance of New Born Holstein Calves Supplemented with Garlic (Allium sativum) Powder and Probiotics

Authors: T. W. Kekana, J. J. Baloyi, M. C. Muya, F. V. Nherera

Abstract:

Secondary metabolites (thiosulphinates) from Allium sativum are able to stimulate the production of volatile fatty acids. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of feeding Garlic powder or probiotics or a combination of both on feed intake and growth performance of Holstein calves. Neonatal calves were randomly allocated, according to birth weight, to four dietary treatments, each with 8 calves. The treatments were: C control, no additive (C), G: supplemented with either 5g/d garlic powder (G) or 4 g/d probiotics (P) or GP 5g/d garlic powder and 4 g/d probiotics compound (GP) with the total viable count of 1.3 x 107 cfu/g. Garlic and probiotics were diluted in the daily milk allocation from day 4. Commercial (17.5% CP) starter feed and fresh water were available ad libitum from day 4 until day 42 of age. Calves fed GP (0.27 kg day-1) tended (P=0.055) to have higher DMI than C (0.22 kg day-1). Milk, water, CP, fat intake and FCR were not affected (P>0.05) by the treatments. Metibolisable energy (ME) intake for GP group tended (P=0.058) to be higher than C calves. Combination of G and P (60.3 kg) tended (P = 0.056) to be higher than C (56.0 kg) calves on final BW. Garlic, probiotics or their combination did not affect calve’s HG, ADG and BL (P>0.05). The results of the current study indicated that combination of garlic and probiotics may improve nutrients intake and body weight when fed to calves during the first 42 days of life.

Keywords: garlic powder, probiotics, intake, growth, Holstein calves

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35 Efficacy of Pisum sativum and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis for Phytoextraction of Heavy Metalloids from Soil

Authors: Ritu Chaturvedi, Manoj Paul

Abstract:

A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) on metal(loid) uptake and accumulation efficiency of Pisum sativum along with physiological and biochemical response. Plants were grown in soil spiked with 50 and 100 mg kg-1 Pb, 25 and 50 mg kg-1 Cd, 50 and 100 mg kg-1 As and a combination of all three metal(loid)s. A parallel set was maintained and inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus for comparison. After 60 days, plants were harvested and analysed for metal(loid) content. A steady increase in metal(loid) accumulation was observed on increment of metal(loid) dose and also on AMF inoculation. Plant height, biomass, chlorophyll, carotenoid and carbohydrate content reduced upon metal(loid) exposure. Increase in enzymatic (CAT, SOD and APX) and nonenzymatic (Proline) defence proteins was observed on metal(loid) exposure. AMF inoculation leads to an increase in plant height, biomass, chlorophyll, carotenoids, carbohydrate and enzymatic defence proteins (p≤0.001) under study; whereas proline content was reduced. Considering the accumulation efficiency and adaptive response of plants and alleviation of stress by AMF, this symbiosis can be applied for on-site remediation of Pb and Cd contaminated soil.

Keywords: heavy metal, mycorrhiza, pea, phyroremediation

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34 Phytochemical Screening, Antioxidant and Hepatoprotection Assessment of Extracts of Coriandrum sativm L. on Wistar Rats

Authors: Hiba T. Allah ALtieb Gusm ALsied, Amna Beshir Medani Ahmed, Ikram Mohamed ELtayeb, Saad Mohamed Hussein Ayoub

Abstract:

This study was carried out to determine the hepatoactivity and the antioxidant activity of Coiradrum sativum L. aerial part and fruit extracts against CCL4 induced acute liver damages in Wistar rats. The aerial parts and fruits part of the plant were extracted 96% ethanol with soxhlet apparatus. Hepatic injury was achieved by subcutaneous injection of 3 ml/kg of CCL4 diluted with olive oil with ratio 1:1. The extracts were mixed together 1:1 ratio and given in different doses 100,200,400 mg/kg/day for 5 days under CCL4 induction at 3rd day. The significance of differences between means by using T-test was compared among the groups. The mixture of the two extracts didn’t show any significant result in protecting liver injury (antagonistic effects), it shows high level of liver enzyme like alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT). Serological studies further confirmed the results. The results obtained were compared with silymarin (70 mg/kg/day) orally, the standard drug for hepatoprotection which show recovery close to normalization almost like that of silymarin; therefore, further studies on this plant with different ratios especially in isolated tissue to spot more light on antagonistic effects of the two extracts. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by the DPPH method. The results obtained show high anti-oxidant activity for fruits extract while slight or moderate antioxidant activity to aerial extracts.

Keywords: antioxidant, aerial part, Coriadrum sativum L., fruity, hepatoprotection, Silymarin, phytochemical screening

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33 Extracellular Hydrolase-Producing Bacteria Isolated from Chilca Salterns in Peru

Authors: Carol N. Flores-Fernández, Guadalupe Espilco, Cynthia Esquerre, Amparo I. Zavaleta

Abstract:

Saline environments represent a valuable source of enzymes with novel properties and particular features for application in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industry. This study focuses on the isolation and screening of hydrolase-producing bacteria from Chilca salterns and the evaluation of their biotechnological potential. Soil samples were collected from Chilca salterns in Peru. For the isolation, medium containing 0.2 % of yeast extract, 5 % of NaCl and 10 % of the soil sample was used. After 72 h of incubation at 37 °C, serial dilutions were made up to 10−12 dilutions, spread on agar plates with 0.5 % of yeast extract and 5 % of NaCl, and incubated at 37 °C for 48 h. Screening of hydrolase-producing bacteria was carried out for cellulases, amylases, lipases, DNase, and proteases on specific media. Moreover, protease-producing bacteria were tested using protein extracted from the following legumes as substrate: Glycine max, Lupinus mutabilis, Pisum sativum, Erythrina edulis, Cicer arietinum, Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia faba. A total of 16 strains were isolated from soil samples. On the screening media; 75, 44, 81 and 50 % were cellulase, amylase, DNase and protease producers, respectively. Also, 19 % of the isolates produced all the hydrolytic enzymes above mentioned. Lipase producers were not found. The 37 % and 12 % of the strains grew at 20 % and 30 % of salt concentration, respectively. In addition, 75 % of the strains grew at pH range between 5 and 10. From the total of protease-producing bacteria, 100 % hydrolyzed Glycine max, Lupinus mutabilis, and Pisum sativum protein, while 87 % hydrolyzed Erythrina edulis and Cicer arietinum protein. Finally, 75 % and 50 % of the strains hydrolyzed Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia faba protein, respectively. Hydrolase-producing bacteria isolated from Chilca salterns in Peru grew at high salt concentrations and wide range of pH. In addition, protease-producing bacteria hydrolyzed protein from different sources such as leguminous. These enzymes have great biotechnological potential and could be used for different industrial processes and applications.

Keywords: bacteria, extracellular, hydrolases, Peru, salterns

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32 Branched Chain Amino Acid Kinesio PVP Gel Tape from Extract of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Based on Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Technology

Authors: Doni Dermawan

Abstract:

Modern sports competition as a consequence of the increase in the value of the business and entertainment in the field of sport has been demanding athletes to always have excellent physical endurance performance. Physical exercise is done in a long time, and intensive may pose a risk of muscle tissue damage caused by the increase of the enzyme creatine kinase. Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAA) is an essential amino acid that is composed of leucine, isoleucine, and valine which serves to maintain muscle tissue, keeping the immune system, and prevent further loss of coordination and muscle pain. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a kind of leguminous plants that are rich in Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAA) where every one gram of protein pea contains 82.7 mg of leucine; 56.3 mg isoleucine; and 56.0 mg of valine. This research aims to develop Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAA) from pea extract is applied in dosage forms Gel PVP Kinesio Tape technology using Ultrasound-assisted Extraction. The method used in the writing of this paper is the Cochrane Collaboration Review that includes literature studies, testing the quality of the study, the characteristics of the data collection, analysis, interpretation of results, and clinical trials as well as recommendations for further research. Extraction of BCAA in pea done using ultrasound-assisted extraction technology with optimization variables includes the type of solvent extraction (NaOH 0.1%), temperature (20-250C), time (15-30 minutes) power (80 watt) and ultrasonic frequency (35 KHz). The advantages of this extraction method are the level of penetration of the solvent into the membrane of the cell is high and can increase the transfer period so that the BCAA substance separation process more efficient. BCAA extraction results are then applied to the polymer PVP (Polyvinylpyrrolidone) Gel powder composed of PVP K30 and K100 HPMC dissolved in 10 mL of water-methanol (1: 1) v / v. Preparations Kinesio Tape Gel PVP is the BCAA in the gel are absorbed into the muscle tissue, and joints through tensile force then provides stimulation to the muscle circulation with variable pressure so that the muscle can increase the biomechanical movement and prevent damage to the muscle enzyme creatine kinase. Analysis and evaluation of test preparation include interaction, thickness, weight uniformity, humidity, water vapor permeability, the levels of the active substance, content uniformity, percentage elongation, stability testing, release profile, permeation in vitro and in vivo skin irritation testing.

Keywords: branched chain amino acid, BCAA, Kinesio tape, pea, PVP gel, ultrasound-assisted extraction

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31 Cochliobolus sativus: An Important Pathogen of Cereal Crops

Authors: Awet Araya

Abstract:

Cochliobolus sativus ((anamorphic stage: Bipolaris sorokiniana (synonyms: Helminthosporium sorokinianum, Drechslera sorokiniana, and Helminthosporium sativum)) is an important pathogen of cereal crops. Many other grass species are also hosts for this fungus. Yield losses have been reported from many regions, especially where barley and wheat are commercially cultivated. The fungus has a worldwide distribution. The pathogen causes root rot, seedling blight, spot blotch, head blight, and black point. Environmental conditions affect disease development. Most of the time, fungus survives as mycelia and conidia. Pseudothecium of the fungus is not commonly encountered and probably not important in the epidemiology of the disease. The fungus can be in seed, soil, or in plant parts. Crop rotation, proper fertilization, reducing other stress factors, fungicide treatments, and resistant cultivars may be used for the control of the disease.

Keywords: Cochliobolus sativus, barley, cultivars, root rot

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
30 Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum) Juice on Semen Oxidation in Male Rats

Authors: Jamshid Ghiasi Ghalehkandi, Naser Maheri Sis, Yahya Ebrahimnezhad, Shahin Hassanpour

Abstract:

The objective of present study was to examine the effects of fresh garlic juice on semen malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and total antioxidant status (TAS) in male rats. Fifty-four male rats (230-250 g) were allocated into 3 treatment groups (each include 3 groups and 6 replicate). Group 1 served as water control. In group 2, rats were gavaged with 60 mg/kg garlic juice. In group 3, rats were offered 120 mg/kg garlic juice. Animals received treatments orally and ad libitum access to chow pellets and fresh water. After 4 weeks, animals were killed, testes were taken out and semen samples were used to determine MDA, SOD, GPx and TAS activity. According to the results, garlic juice (120 mg/kg) significantly declined semen MDA activity compared to control group (P<0.05). These results suggest that presumably garlic juice protects semen oxidation in rat testes.

Keywords: garlic juice, chromium chloride, semen, rat

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29 Biodiversity of Plants Rhizosphere and Rhizoplane Bacteria in the Presence of Petroleum Hydrocarbons

Authors: Togzhan D. Mukasheva, Anel A. Omirbekova, Raikhan S. Sydykbekova, Ramza Zh. Berzhanova, Lyudmila V. Ignatova

Abstract:

Following plants-barley (Hordeum sativum), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), grass mixture (red fescue-75%, long-term ryegrass - 20% Kentucky bluegrass - 10%), oilseed rape (Brassica napus biennis), resistant to growth in the contaminated soil with oil content of 15.8 g / kg 25.9 g / kg soil were used. Analysis of the population showed that the oil pollution reduces the number of bacteria in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of plants and enhances the amount of spore-forming bacteria and saprotrophic micromycetes. It was shown that regardless of the plant, dominance of Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera bacteria was typical for the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of plants. The frequency of bacteria of these genera was more than 60%. Oil pollution changes the ratio of occurrence of various types of bacteria in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of plants. Besides the Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera, in the presence of hydrocarbons in the root zone of plants dominant and most typical were the representatives of the Mycobacterium and Rhodococcus genera. Together the number was between 62% to 72%.

Keywords: pollution, root system, micromycetes, identification

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