Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9301

Search results for: autonomous hovering control

9301 A Simple Autonomous Hovering and Operating Control of Multicopter Using Only Web Camera

Authors: Kazuya Sato, Toru Kasahara, Junji Kuroda


In this paper, an autonomous hovering control method of multicopter using only Web camera is proposed. Recently, various control method of an autonomous flight for multicopter are proposed. But, in the previously proposed methods, a motion capture system (i.e., OptiTrack) and laser range finder are often used to measure the position and posture of multicopter. To achieve an autonomous flight control of multicopter with simple equipment, we propose an autonomous flight control method using AR marker and Web camera. AR marker can measure the position of multicopter with Cartesian coordinate in three dimensional, then its position connects with aileron, elevator, and accelerator throttle operation. A simple PID control method is applied to the each operation and adjust the controller gains. Experimental result are given to show the effectiveness of our proposed method. Moreover, another simple operation method for autonomous flight control multicopter is also proposed.

Keywords: autonomous hovering control, multicopter, Web camera, operation

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9300 Numerical Study of Flapping-Wing Flight of Hummingbird Hawkmoth during Hovering: Longitudinal Dynamics

Authors: Yao Jie, Yeo Khoon Seng


In recent decades, flapping wing aerodynamics has attracted great interest. Understanding the physics of biological flyers such as birds and insects can help improve the performance of micro air vehicles. The present research focuses on the aerodynamics of insect-like flapping wing flight with the approach of numerical computation. Insect model of hawkmoth is adopted in the numerical study with rigid wing assumption currently. The numerical model integrates the computational fluid dynamics of the flow and active control of wing kinematics to achieve stable flight. The computation grid is a hybrid consisting of background Cartesian nodes and clouds of mesh-free grids around immersed boundaries. The generalized finite difference method is used in conjunction with single value decomposition (SVD-GFD) in computational fluid dynamics solver to study the dynamics of a free hovering hummingbird hawkmoth. The longitudinal dynamics of the hovering flight is governed by three control parameters, i.e., wing plane angle, mean positional angle and wing beating frequency. In present work, a PID controller works out the appropriate control parameters with the insect motion as input. The controller is adjusted to acquire desired maneuvering of the insect flight. The numerical scheme in present study is proven to be accurate and stable to simulate the flight of the hummingbird hawkmoth, which has relatively high Reynolds number. The PID controller is responsive to provide feedback to the wing kinematics during the hovering flight. The simulated hovering flight agrees well with the real insect flight. The present numerical study offers a promising route to investigate the free flight aerodynamics of insects, which could overcome some of the limitations of experiments.

Keywords: aerodynamics, flight control, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), flapping-wing flight

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9299 Guidance and Control of a Torpedo Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

Authors: Soheil Arash Moghadam, Abdol R. Kashani Nia, Ali Akrami Zade


Considering numerous applications of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles in various industries, there has been plenty of researches and studies on the motion control of such vehicles. One of the useful aspects for studying is the guidance of these vehicles. In this paper, while presenting motion equations with six degrees of freedom for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles, Proportional Navigation Guidance Law and the first order sliding mode control for TAIPAN AUV was used to address its guidance for the purpose of collision with a moving target.

Keywords: Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV), degree of freedom (DOF), hydrodynamic, line of sight(LOS), proportional navigation guidance(PNG), sliding mode control(SMC)

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9298 Feasibility Study of Distributed Lightless Intersection Control with Level 1 Autonomous Vehicles

Authors: Bo Yang, Christopher Monterola


Urban intersection control without the use of the traffic light has the potential to vastly improve the efficiency of the urban traffic flow. For most proposals in the literature, such lightless intersection control depends on the mass market commercialization of highly intelligent autonomous vehicles (AV), which limits the prospects of near future implementation. We present an efficient lightless intersection traffic control scheme that only requires Level 1 AV as defined by NHTSA. The technological barriers of such lightless intersection control are thus very low. Our algorithm can also accommodate a mixture of AVs and conventional vehicles. We also carry out large scale numerical analysis to illustrate the feasibility, safety and robustness, comfort level, and control efficiency of our intersection control scheme.

Keywords: intersection control, autonomous vehicles, traffic modelling, intelligent transport system

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9297 Autonomous Control of Ultrasonic Transducer Drive System

Authors: Dong-Keun Jeong, Jong-Hyun Kim, Woon-Ha Yoon, Hee-Je Kim


In order to automatically operate the ultrasonic transducer drive system for sonicating aluminum, this paper proposes the ultrasonic transducer sensorless control algorithm. The resonance frequency shift and electrical impedance change is a common phenomenon in the state of the ultrasonic transducer. The proposed control algorithm make use of the impedance change of ultrasonic transducer according to the environment between air state and aluminum alloy state, it controls the ultrasonic transducer drive system autonomous without a sensor. The proposed sensorless autonomous ultrasonic transducer control algorithm was experimentally verified using a 3kW prototype ultrasonic transducer drive system.

Keywords: ultrasonic transducer drive system, impedance change, sensorless, autonomous control algorithm

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9296 Non-Linear Control Based on State Estimation for the Convoy of Autonomous Vehicles

Authors: M-M. Mohamed Ahmed, Nacer K. M’Sirdi, Aziz Naamane


In this paper, a longitudinal and lateral control approach based on a nonlinear observer is proposed for a convoy of autonomous vehicles to follow a desired trajectory. To authors best knowledge, this topic has not yet been sufficiently addressed in the literature for the control of multi vehicles. The modeling of the convoy of the vehicles is revisited using a robotic method for simulation purposes and control design. With these models, a sliding mode observer is proposed to estimate the states of each vehicle in the convoy from the available sensors, then a sliding mode control based on this observer is used to control the longitudinal and lateral movement. The validation and performance evaluation are done using the well-known driving simulator Scanner-Studio. The results are presented for different maneuvers of 5 vehicles.

Keywords: autonomous vehicles, convoy, non-linear control, non-linear observer, sliding mode

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9295 Design and Development of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle for Irrigation Canal Monitoring

Authors: Mamoon Masud, Suleman Mazhar


Indus river basin’s irrigation system in Pakistan is extremely complex, spanning over 50,000 km. Maintenance and monitoring of this demands enormous resources. This paper describes the development of a streamlined and low-cost autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) for the monitoring of irrigation canals including water quality monitoring and water theft detection. The vehicle is a hovering-type AUV, designed mainly for monitoring irrigation canals, with fully documented design and open source code. It has a length of 17 inches, and a radius of 3.5 inches with a depth rating of 5m. Multiple sensors are present onboard the AUV for monitoring water quality parameters including pH, turbidity, total dissolved solids (TDS) and dissolved oxygen. A 9-DOF Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), GY-85, is used, which incorporates an Accelerometer (ADXL345), a Gyroscope (ITG-3200) and a Magnetometer (HMC5883L). The readings from these sensors are fused together using directional cosine matrix (DCM) algorithm, providing the AUV with the heading angle, while a pressure sensor gives the depth of the AUV. 2 sonar-based range sensors are used for obstacle detection, enabling the vehicle to align itself with the irrigation canals edges. 4 thrusters control the vehicle’s surge, heading and heave, providing 3 DOF. The thrusters are controlled using a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) feedback control system, with heading angle and depth being the controller’s input and the thruster motor speed as the output. A flow sensor has been incorporated to monitor canal water level to detect water-theft event in the irrigation system. In addition to water theft detection, the vehicle also provides information on water quality, providing us with the ability to identify the source(s) of water contamination. Detection of such events can provide useful policy inputs for improving irrigation efficiency and reducing water contamination. The AUV being low cost, small sized and suitable for autonomous maneuvering, water level and quality monitoring in the irrigation canals, can be used for irrigation network monitoring at a large scale.

Keywords: the autonomous underwater vehicle, irrigation canal monitoring, water quality monitoring, underwater line tracking

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9294 Multipurpose Agricultural Robot Platform: Conceptual Design of Control System Software for Autonomous Driving and Agricultural Operations Using Programmable Logic Controller

Authors: P. Abhishesh, B. S. Ryuh, Y. S. Oh, H. J. Moon, R. Akanksha


This paper discusses about the conceptual design and development of the control system software using Programmable logic controller (PLC) for autonomous driving and agricultural operations of Multipurpose Agricultural Robot Platform (MARP). Based on given initial conditions by field analysis and desired agricultural operations, the structural design development of MARP is done using modelling and analysis tool. PLC, being robust and easy to use, has been used to design the autonomous control system of robot platform for desired parameters. The robot is capable of performing autonomous driving and three automatic agricultural operations, viz. hilling, mulching, and sowing of seeds in the respective order. The input received from various sensors on the field is later transmitted to the controller via ZigBee network to make the changes in the control program to get desired field output. The research is conducted to provide assistance to farmers by reducing labor hours for agricultural activities by implementing automation. This study will provide an alternative to the existing systems with machineries attached behind tractors and rigorous manual operations on agricultural field at effective cost.

Keywords: agricultural operations, autonomous driving, MARP, PLC

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9293 Research of Control System for Space Intelligent Robot Based on Vision Servo

Authors: Changchun Liang, Xiaodong Zhang, Xin Liu, Pengfei Sun


Space intelligent robotic systems are expected to play an increasingly important role in the future. The robotic on-orbital service, whose key is the tracking and capturing technology, becomes research hot in recent years. In this paper, the authors propose a vision servo control system for target capturing. Robotic manipulator will be an intelligent robotic system with large-scale movement, functional agility, and autonomous ability, and it can be operated by astronauts in the space station or be controlled by the ground operator in the remote operation mode. To realize the autonomous movement and capture mission of SRM, a kind of autonomous programming strategy based on multi-camera vision fusion is designed and the selection principle of object visual position and orientation measurement information is defined for the better precision. Distributed control system hierarchy is designed and reliability is considering to guarantee the abilities of control system. At last, a ground experiment system is set up based on the concept of robotic control system. With that, the autonomous target capturing experiments are conducted. The experiment results validate the proposed algorithm, and demonstrates that the control system can fulfill the needs of function, real-time and reliability.

Keywords: control system, on-orbital service, space robot, vision servo

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9292 Autonomous Rendezvous for Underactuated Spacecraft

Authors: Espen Oland


This paper presents a solution to the problem of autonomous rendezvous for spacecraft equipped with one main thruster for translational control and three reaction wheels for rotational control. With fewer actuators than degrees of freedom, this constitutes an underactuated control problem, requiring a coupling between the translational and rotational dynamics to facilitate control. This paper shows how to obtain this coupling, and applies the results to autonomous rendezvous between a follower spacecraft and a leader spacecraft. Additionally, since the thrust is constrained between zero and an upper bound, no negative forces can be generated to slow down the speed of the spacecraft. A combined speed and attitude control logic is therefore created that can be divided into three main phases: 1) The orbital velocity vector is pointed towards the desired position and the thrust is used to obtain the desired speed, 2) during the coasting phase, the attitude is changed to facilitate deceleration using the main thruster, 3) the speed is decreased as the spacecraft reaches its desired position. The results are validated through simulations, showing the capabilities of the proposed approach.

Keywords: attitude control, spacecraft rendezvous, translational control, underactuated rigid body

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9291 Hybrid Control Mode Based on Multi-Sensor Information by Fuzzy Approach for Navigation Task of Autonomous Mobile Robot

Authors: Jonqlan Lin, C. Y. Tasi, K. H. Lin


This paper addresses the issue of the autonomous mobile robot (AMR) navigation task based on the hybrid control modes. The novel hybrid control mode, based on multi-sensors information by using the fuzzy approach, has been presented in this research. The system operates in real time, is robust, enables the robot to operate with imprecise knowledge, and takes into account the physical limitations of the environment in which the robot moves, obtaining satisfactory responses for a large number of different situations. An experiment is simulated and carried out with a pioneer mobile robot. From the experimental results, the effectiveness and usefulness of the proposed AMR obstacle avoidance and navigation scheme are confirmed. The experimental results show the feasibility, and the control system has improved the navigation accuracy. The implementation of the controller is robust, has a low execution time, and allows an easy design and tuning of the fuzzy knowledge base.

Keywords: autonomous mobile robot, obstacle avoidance, MEMS, hybrid control mode, navigation control

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9290 Design and Implementation of Control System in Underwater Glider of Ganeshblue

Authors: Imam Taufiqurrahman, Anugrah Adiwilaga, Egi Hidayat, Bambang Riyanto Trilaksono


Autonomous Underwater Vehicle glider is one of the renewal of underwater vehicles. This vehicle is one of the autonomous underwater vehicles that are being developed in Indonesia. Glide ability is obtained by controlling the buoyancy and attitude of the vehicle using the movers within the vehicle. The glider motion mechanism is expected to provide energy resistance from autonomous underwater vehicles so as to increase the cruising range of rides while performing missions. The control system on the vehicle consists of three parts: controlling the attitude of the pitch, the buoyancy engine controller and the yaw controller. The buoyancy and pitch controls on the vehicle are sequentially referring to the finite state machine with pitch angle and depth of diving inputs to obtain a gliding cycle. While the yaw control is done through the rudder for the needs of the guide system. This research is focused on design and implementation of control system of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle glider based on PID anti-windup. The control system is implemented on an ARM TS-7250-V2 device along with a mathematical model of the vehicle in MATLAB using the hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) method. The TS-7250-V2 is chosen because it complies industry standards, has high computing capability, minimal power consumption. The results show that the control system in HILS process can form glide cycle with depth and angle of operation as desired. In the implementation using half control and full control mode, from the experiment can be concluded in full control mode more precision when tracking the reference. While half control mode is considered more efficient in carrying out the mission.

Keywords: control system, PID, underwater glider, marine robotics

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9289 Linear Quadratic Gaussian/Loop Transfer Recover Control Flight Control on a Nonlinear Model

Authors: T. Sanches, K. Bousson


As part of the development of a 4D autopilot system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), i.e. a time-dependent robust trajectory generation and control algorithm, this work addresses the problem of optimal path control based on the flight sensors data output that may be unreliable due to noise on data acquisition and/or transmission under certain circumstances. Although several filtering methods, such as the Kalman-Bucy filter or the Linear Quadratic Gaussian/Loop Transfer Recover Control (LQG/LTR), are available, the utter complexity of the control system, together with the robustness and reliability required of such a system on a UAV for airworthiness certifiable autonomous flight, required the development of a proper robust filter for a nonlinear system, as a way of further mitigate errors propagation to the control system and improve its ,performance. As such, a nonlinear algorithm based upon the LQG/LTR, is validated through computational simulation testing, is proposed on this paper.

Keywords: autonomous flight, LQG/LTR, nonlinear state estimator, robust flight control

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9288 Disturbance Observer for Lateral Trajectory Tracking Control for Autonomous and Cooperative Driving

Authors: Christian Rathgeber, Franz Winkler, Dirk Odenthal, Steffen Müller


In this contribution a structure for high level lateral vehicle tracking control based on the disturbance observer is presented. The structure is characterized by stationary compensating side forces disturbances and guaranteeing a cooperative behavior at the same time. Driver inputs are not compensated by the disturbance observer. Moreover the structure is especially useful as it robustly stabilizes the vehicle. Therefore the parameters are selected using the Parameter Space Approach. The implemented algorithms are tested in real world scenarios.

Keywords: disturbance observer, trajectory tracking, robust control, autonomous driving, cooperative driving

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9287 Development of Agricultural Robotic Platform for Inter-Row Plant: An Autonomous Navigation Based on Machine Vision

Authors: Alaa El-Din Rezk


In Egypt, management of crops still away from what is being used today by utilizing the advances of mechanical design capabilities, sensing and electronics technology. These technologies have been introduced in many places and recorm, for Straight Path, Curved Path, Sine Wave ded high accuracy in different field operations. So, an autonomous robotic platform based on machine vision has been developed and constructed to be implemented in Egyptian conditions as self-propelled mobile vehicle for carrying tools for inter/intra-row crop management based on different control modules. The experiments were carried out at plant protection research institute (PPRI) during 2014-2015 to optimize the accuracy of agricultural robotic platform control using machine vision in term of the autonomous navigation and performance of the robot’s guidance system. Results showed that the robotic platform' guidance system with machine vision was able to adequately distinguish the path and resisted image noise and did better than human operators for getting less lateral offset error. The average error of autonomous was 2.75, 19.33, 21.22, 34.18, and 16.69 mm. while the human operator was 32.70, 4.85, 7.85, 38.35 and 14.75 mm Path, Offset Discontinuity and Angle Discontinuity respectively.

Keywords: autonomous robotic, Hough transform, image processing, machine vision

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9286 Sliding Mode Control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

Authors: Ahmad Forouzantabar, Mohammad Azadi, Alireza Alesaadi


This paper describes a sliding mode controller for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). The dynamic of AUV model is highly nonlinear because of many factors, such as hydrodynamic drag, damping, and lift forces, Coriolis and centripetal forces, gravity and buoyancy forces, as well as forces from thruster. To address these difficulties, a nonlinear sliding mode controller is designed to approximate the nonlinear dynamics of AUV and improve trajectory tracking. Moreover, the proposed controller can profoundly attenuate the effects of uncertainties and external disturbances in the closed-loop system. Using the Lyapunov theory the boundedness of AUV tracking errors and the stability of the proposed control system are also guaranteed. Numerical simulation studies of an AUV are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the presented approach.

Keywords: lyapunov stability, autonomous underwater vehicle, sliding mode controller, electronics engineering

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9285 Autonomous Flight Control for Multirotor by Alternative Input Output State Linearization with Nested Saturations

Authors: Yong Eun Yoon, Eric N. Johnson, Liling Ren


Multirotor is one of the most popular types of small unmanned aircraft systems and has already been used in many areas including transport, military, surveillance, and leisure. Together with its popularity, the needs for proper flight control is growing because in most applications it is required to conduct its missions autonomously, which is in many aspects based on autonomous flight control. There have been many studies about the flight control for multirotor, but there is still room for enhancements in terms of performance and efficiency. This paper presents an autonomous flight control method for multirotor based on alternative input output linearization coupled with nested saturations. With alternative choice of the output of the multirotor flight control system, we can reduce computational cost regarding Lie algebra, and the linearized system can be stabilized with the introduction of nested saturations with real poles of our own design. Stabilization of internal dynamics is also based on the nested saturations and accompanies the determination of part of desired states. In particular, outer control loops involving state variables which originally are not included in the output of the flight control system is naturally rendered through this internal dynamics stabilization. We can also observe that desired tilting angles are determined by error dynamics from outer loops. Simulation results show that in any tracking situations multirotor stabilizes itself with small time constants, preceded by tuning process for control parameters with relatively low degree of complexity. Future study includes control of piecewise linear behavior of multirotor with actuator saturations, and the optimal determination of desired states while tracking multiple waypoints.

Keywords: automatic flight control, input output linearization, multirotor, nested saturations

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9284 A Systematic Review of the Factors Influencing the Acceptance of the Autonomous Bus

Authors: Ardion Beldad, Nannan Liu


In recent years, autonomous driving technologies (ADTs) have drawn much attention and have been developing at breakneck speed. The autonomous bus as the form of ADTs is generally regarded as one of the more suitable candidates to benefit from automating certain driving tasks. It is believed to improve safety in urban areas, reduce the cost of last-mile transportation (i.e., the last leg of a journey comprising the movement of passengers from a transportation hub to a final destination), decrease congestion, and improve global service for most users. Therefore, in order to learn the acceptance of the public of the autonomous bus systemically and implement widespread the autonomous bus in the future, this paper describes the results of a systematic literature review of the factors influencing the acceptance of the public of the autonomous bus. Previous literature in the field was gathered and analyzed using the primary and secondary selection criteria to identify factors that influencing autonomous bus acceptance. Various factors influencing acceptance were identified from 43 articles published in peer-reviewed journals. In total, there are 26 different factors influencing acceptance, which are clustered in various categories, namely demographic, social, economic, environmental, mobility service, and psychological factors. This systematic review could be of interest to the autonomous bus manufacturers and operators, as well as urban planners and policymakers, to assist with the successful implementation of autonomous bus services which are better implement and meet the needs of all potential users.

Keywords: autonomous bus, acceptance of autonomous buses, systematic review, factors influencing acceptance

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9283 Super-ellipsoidal Potential Function for Autonomous Collision Avoidance of a Teleoperated UAV

Authors: Mohammed Qasim, Kyoung-Dae Kim


In this paper, we present the design of the super-ellipsoidal potential function (SEPF), that can be used for autonomous collision avoidance of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in a 3-dimensional space. In the design of SEPF, we have the full control over the shape and size of the potential function. In particular, we can adjust the length, width, height, and the amount of flattening at the tips of the potential function so that the collision avoidance motion vector generated from the potential function can be adjusted accordingly. Based on the idea of the SEPF, we also propose an approach for the local autonomy of a UAV for its collision avoidance when the UAV is teleoperated by a human operator. In our proposed approach, a teleoperated UAV can not only avoid collision autonomously with other surrounding objects but also track the operator’s control input as closely as possible. As a result, an operator can always be in control of the UAV for his/her high-level guidance and navigation task without worrying too much about the UAVs collision avoidance while it is being teleoperated. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated through a human-in-the-loop simulation of quadrotor UAV teleoperation using virtual robot experimentation platform (v-rep) and Matlab programs.

Keywords: artificial potential function, autonomous collision avoidance, teleoperation, quadrotor

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9282 Data Recording for Remote Monitoring of Autonomous Vehicles

Authors: Rong-Terng Juang


Autonomous vehicles offer the possibility of significant benefits to social welfare. However, fully automated cars might not be going to happen in the near further. To speed the adoption of the self-driving technologies, many governments worldwide are passing laws requiring data recorders for the testing of autonomous vehicles. Currently, the self-driving vehicle, (e.g., shuttle bus) has to be monitored from a remote control center. When an autonomous vehicle encounters an unexpected driving environment, such as road construction or an obstruction, it should request assistance from a remote operator. Nevertheless, large amounts of data, including images, radar and lidar data, etc., have to be transmitted from the vehicle to the remote center. Therefore, this paper proposes a data compression method of in-vehicle networks for remote monitoring of autonomous vehicles. Firstly, the time-series data are rearranged into a multi-dimensional signal space. Upon the arrival, for controller area networks (CAN), the new data are mapped onto a time-data two-dimensional space associated with the specific CAN identity. Secondly, the data are sampled based on differential sampling. Finally, the whole set of data are encoded using existing algorithms such as Huffman, arithmetic and codebook encoding methods. To evaluate system performance, the proposed method was deployed on an in-house built autonomous vehicle. The testing results show that the amount of data can be reduced as much as 1/7 compared to the raw data.

Keywords: autonomous vehicle, data compression, remote monitoring, controller area networks (CAN), Lidar

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9281 Research on Autonomous Controllability of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Based on Knowledge Transformation

Authors: Hang Ju, Changmin Zhu


The development level of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) can strongly reflect national defense strength as an important spatial information infrastructure. BDS can be not only used for military purposes, such as intelligence gathering, nuclear explosion monitoring, emergency communications, but also for location services, transportation, mapping, precision agriculture. In order to ensure the national defense security and the wide application of BDS in civil and military areas, BDS must be autonomous and controllable. As a complex system of knowledge-intensive, knowledge transformation runs through the whole process of research and development, production, operation, and maintenance of BDS. Based on the perspective of knowledge transformation, this paper expounds on the meaning of socialization, externalization, combination, and internalization of knowledge transformation, and the coupling relationship of autonomy and control on the basis of analyzing the status quo and problems of the autonomy and control of BDS. The autonomous and controllable framework of BDS based on knowledge transformation is constructed from six dimensions of management capability, R&D capability, technical capability, manufacturing capability, service support capability, and application capability. It can provide support for the smooth implementation of information security policy, provide a reference for the autonomy and control of the upstream and downstream industrial chains in Beidou, and provide a reference for the autonomous and controllable research of aerospace components, military measurement test equipment, and other related industries.

Keywords: knowledge transformation, BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, autonomy and control, framework

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9280 Design, Control and Autonomous Trajectory Tracking of an Octorotor Rotorcraft

Authors: Seyed Jamal Haddadi, M. Reza Mehranpour, Roya Sadat Mortazavi, Zahra Sadat Mortazavi


Principal aim of this research is trajectory tracking, attitude and position control scheme in real flight mode by an Octorotor helicopter. For more stability, in this Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), number of motors is increased to eight motors which end of each arm installed two coaxial counter rotating motors. Dynamic model of this Octorotor includes of motion equation for translation and rotation. Utilized controller is proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control loop. The proposed controller is designed such that to be able to attenuate an effect of external wind disturbance and guarantee stability in this condition. The trajectory is determined by a Global Positioning System (GPS). Also an ARM CortexM4 is used as microprocessor. Electronic board of this UAV designed as able to records all of the sensors data, similar to an aircraft black box in external memory. Finally after auto landing of Octorotor, flight data is shown in MATLAB software and Experimental results of the proposed controller show the effectiveness of our approach on the Autonomous Quadrotor in real conditions.

Keywords: octorotor, design, PID controller, autonomous, trajectory tracking

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9279 RAFU Functions in Robotics and Automation

Authors: Alicia C. Sanchez


This paper investigates the implementation of RAFU functions (radical functions) in robotics and automation. Specifically, the main goal is to show how these functions may be useful in lane-keeping control and the lateral control of autonomous machines, vehicles, robots or the like. From the knowledge of several points of a certain route, the RAFU functions are used to achieve the lateral control purpose and maintain the lane-keeping errors within the fixed limits. The stability that these functions provide, their ease of approaching any continuous trajectory and the control of the possible error made on the approximation may be useful in practice.

Keywords: automatic navigation control, lateral control, lane-keeping control, RAFU approximation

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9278 The User Acceptance of Autonomous Shuttles in Pretoria

Authors: D. Onanena Adegono, P. Altinsoy, A. Schuster, P. Schäfer


Autonomous vehicles look set to drastically alter the way we move people and goods, in urban as well as rural areas. However, little has been written about Africa with this regard. Moreover, in order for this new technology to be adopted, user acceptance is vital. The current research examines the user acceptance of autonomous minibus shuttles, as a solution for first/last mile public transport in Pretoria, South Africa. Of the respondents surveyed, only 2.31% perceived them as not useful. Respondents showed more interest in using these shuttles in combination with the bus rapid transit system (75.4%) as opposed to other modes of public transportation (40%). The significance of these findings is that they can help ensure that the implementation of autonomous public transport in South Africa is adapted to the local user. Furthermore, these findings could be adapted for other South African cities and other cities across the continent.

Keywords: autonomous buses and shuttles, autonomous public transport, urban mobility, user acceptance

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9277 A Biomimetic Approach for the Multi-Objective Optimization of Kinetic Façade Design

Authors: Do-Jin Jang, Sung-Ah Kim


A kinetic façade responds to user requirements and environmental conditions.  In designing a kinetic façade, kinetic patterns play a key role in determining its performance. This paper proposes a biomimetic method for the multi-objective optimization for kinetic façade design. The autonomous decentralized control system is combined with flocking algorithm. The flocking agents are autonomously reacting to sensor values and bring about kinetic patterns changing over time. A series of experiments were conducted to verify the potential and limitations of the flocking based decentralized control. As a result, it could show the highest performance balancing multiple objectives such as solar radiation and openness among the comparison group.

Keywords: biomimicry, flocking algorithm, autonomous decentralized control, multi-objective optimization

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9276 Winged Test Rocket with Fully Autonomous Guidance and Control for Realizing Reusable Suborbital Vehicle

Authors: Koichi Yonemoto, Hiroshi Yamasaki, Masatomo Ichige, Yusuke Ura, Guna S. Gossamsetti, Takumi Ohki, Kento Shirakata, Ahsan R. Choudhuri, Shinji Ishimoto, Takashi Mugitani, Hiroya Asakawa, Hideaki Nanri


This paper presents the strategic development plan of winged rockets WIRES (WInged REusable Sounding rocket) aiming at unmanned suborbital winged rocket for demonstrating future fully reusable space transportation technologies, such as aerodynamics, Navigation, Guidance and Control (NGC), composite structure, propulsion system, and cryogenic tanks etc., by universities in collaboration with government and industries, as well as the past and current flight test results.

Keywords: autonomous guidance and control, reusable rocket, space transportation system, suborbital vehicle, winged rocket

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9275 An Android Geofencing App for Autonomous Remote Switch Control

Authors: Jamie Wong, Daisy Sang, Chang-Shyh Peng


Geofence is a virtual fence defined by a preset physical radius around a target location. Geofencing App provides location-based services which define the actionable operations upon the crossing of a geofence. Geofencing requires continual location tracking, which can consume noticeable amount of battery power. Additionally, location updates need to be frequent and accurate or order so that actions can be triggered within an expected time window after the mobile user navigate through the geofence. In this paper, we build an Android mobile geofencing Application to remotely and autonomously control a power switch.

Keywords: location based service, geofence, autonomous, remote switch

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9274 Identification and Control the Yaw Motion Dynamics of Open Frame Underwater Vehicle

Authors: Mirza Mohibulla Baig, Imil Hamda Imran, Tri Bagus Susilo, Sami El Ferik


The paper deals with system identification and control a nonlinear model of semi-autonomous underwater vehicle (UUV). The input-output data is first generated using the experimental values of the model parameters and then this data is used to compute the estimated parameter values. In this study, we use the semi-autonomous UUV LAURS model, which is developed by the Sensors and Actuators Laboratory in University of Sao Paolo. We applied three methods to identify the parameters: integral method, which is a classical least square method, recursive least square, and weighted recursive least square. In this paper, we also apply three different inputs (step input, sine wave input and random input) to each identification method. After the identification stage, we investigate the control performance of yaw motion of nonlinear semi-autonomous Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV) using feedback linearization-based controller. In addition, we compare the performance of the control with an integral and a non-integral part along with state feedback. Finally, disturbance rejection and resilience of the controller is tested. The results demonstrate the ability of the system to recover from such fault.

Keywords: system identification, underwater vehicle, integral method, recursive least square, weighted recursive least square, feedback linearization, integral error

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9273 Predictive Output Feedback Linearization for Safe Control of Collaborative Robots

Authors: Aliasghar Arab


Autonomous robots interacting with humans, as safety-critical nonlinear control systems, are complex closed-loop cyber-physical dynamical machines. Keeping these intelligent yet complicated systems safe and smooth during their operations is challenging. The aim of the safe predictive output feedback linearization control synthesis is to design a novel controller for smooth trajectory following while unsafe situations must be avoided. The controller design should obtain a linearized output for smoothness and invariance to a safety subset. Inspired by finite-horizon nonlinear model predictive control, the problem is formulated as constrained nonlinear dynamic programming. The safety constraints can be defined as control barrier functions. Avoiding unsafe maneuvers and performing smooth motions increases the predictability of the robot’s movement for humans when robots and people are working together. Our results demonstrate the proposed output linearization method obeys the safety constraints and, compared to existing safety-guaranteed methods, is smoother and performs better.

Keywords: robotics, collaborative robots, safety, autonomous robots

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9272 Genetic Algorithms Based ACPS Safety

Authors: Emine Laarouchi, Daniela Cancila, Laurent Soulier, Hakima Chaouchi


Cyber-Physical Systems as drones proved their efficiency for supporting emergency applications. For these particular applications, travel time and autonomous navigation algorithms are of paramount importance, especially when missions are performed in urban environments with high obstacle density. In this context, however, safety properties are not properly addressed. Our ambition is to optimize the system safety level under autonomous navigation systems, by preserving performance of the CPS. At this aim, we introduce genetic algorithms in the autonomous navigation process of the drone to better infer its trajectory considering the possible obstacles. We first model the wished safety requirements through a cost function and then seek to optimize it though genetics algorithms (GA). The main advantage in the use of GA is to consider different parameters together, for example, the level of battery for navigation system selection. Our tests show that the GA introduction in the autonomous navigation systems minimize the risk of safety lossless. Finally, although our simulation has been tested for autonomous drones, our approach and results could be extended for other autonomous navigation systems such as autonomous cars, robots, etc.

Keywords: safety, unmanned aerial vehicles , CPS, ACPS, drones, path planning, genetic algorithms

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