Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6477

Search results for: Random simple polygon generation.

6477 A Genetic Based Algorithm to Generate Random Simple Polygons Using a New Polygon Merge Algorithm

Authors: Ali Nourollah, Mohsen Movahedinejad


In this paper a new algorithm to generate random simple polygons from a given set of points in a two dimensional plane is designed. The proposed algorithm uses a genetic algorithm to generate polygons with few vertices. A new merge algorithm is presented which converts any two polygons into a simple polygon. This algorithm at first changes two polygons into a polygonal chain and then the polygonal chain is converted into a simple polygon. The process of converting a polygonal chain into a simple polygon is based on the removal of intersecting edges. The merge algorithm has the time complexity of O ((r+s) *l) where r and s are the size of merging polygons and l shows the number of intersecting edges removed from the polygonal chain. It will be shown that 1 < l < r+s. The experiments results show that the proposed algorithm has the ability to generate a great number of different simple polygons and has better performance in comparison to celebrated algorithms such as space partitioning and steady growth.

Keywords: Divide and conquer, genetic algorithm, merge polygons, Random simple polygon generation.

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6476 Heuristic to Generate Random X-Monotone Polygons

Authors: Kamaljit Pati, Manas Kumar Mohanty, Sanjib Sadhu


A heuristic has been designed to generate a random simple monotone polygon from a given set of ‘n’ points lying on a 2-Dimensional plane. Our heuristic generates a random monotone polygon in O(n) time after O(nℓogn) preprocessing time which is improved over the previous work where a random monotone polygon is produced in the same O(n) time but the preprocessing time is O(k) for n < k < n2. However, our heuristic does not generate all possible random polygons with uniform probability. The space complexity of our proposed heuristic is O(n).

Keywords: sorting, monotone polygon, visibility, chain

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
6475 Understanding the Polygon with the Eyes of Blinds

Authors: Tuğba Horzum, Ahmet Arikan


This paper was part of a broader study that investigated what blind students (BSs) understood and how they used concept definitions (CDs) and concept images (CIs) for some mathematical concepts. This paper focused on the polygon concept. For this purpose, four open-ended questions were asked to five blind middle school students. During the interviews, BSs were presented with raised-line materials and were given opportunities to construct geometric shapes with magnetic sticks and micro-balls. Qualitative research techniques applied in grounded theory were used for analyzing documents pictures which were taken from magnetic geometric shapes that BSs constructed, raised-line materials and researcher’s observation notes and interviews. At the end of the analysis, it was observed that BSs used mostly their CIs and never took into account the CDs. Besides, BSs encountered with the difficulties associated with the combination of polygon edges’ endpoints consecutively. Additionally, they focused on the interior of the polygon and the angles which have smaller a size. Lastly, BSs were often conflicted about triangle, rectangle, square and circle whether or not a polygon.

Keywords: blind students, concept definition, concept image, polygon

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
6474 Statistical Characteristics of Distribution of Radiation-Induced Defects under Random Generation

Authors: P. Selyshchev


We consider fluctuations of defects density taking into account their interaction. Stochastic field of displacement generation rate gives random defect distribution. We determinate statistical characteristics (mean and dispersion) of random field of point defect distribution as function of defect generation parameters, temperature and properties of irradiated crystal.

Keywords: irradiation, primary defects, interaction, fluctuations

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
6473 Generation of Symmetric Key Using Randomness of Hash Function

Authors: Sai Charan Kamana, Harsha Vardhan Nakkina, B.R. Chandavarkar


In a highly secure and robust key generation process, a key role is played by randomness and random numbers when current real-world cryptosystems are observed. Most of the present-day cryptographic protocols depend upon the Random Number Generators (RNG), Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG). These protocols often use noisy channels such as Disk seek time, CPU temperature, Mouse pointer movement, Fan noise to obtain true random values. Despite being cost-effective, these noisy channels may need additional hardware devices to continuously communicate with them. On the other hand, Hash functions are Pseudo-Random (because of their requirements). So, they are a good replacement for these noisy channels and have low hardware requirements. This paper discusses, some of the key generation methodologies, and their drawbacks. This paper explains how hash functions can be used in key generation, how to combine Key Derivation Functions with hash functions.

Keywords: key derivation, hash based key derivation, password based key derivation, symmetric key derivation

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
6472 A Study on Improvement of the Electromagnetic Vibration of a Polygon Mirror Scanner Motor

Authors: Yongmin You


Electric machines for office automation device such as printer and scanner have been required the low noise and vibration performance. Many researches about the low noise and vibration of polygon mirror scanner motor have been also progressed. The noise and vibration of polygon mirror scanner motor can be classified by aerodynamic, structural and electromagnetic. Electromagnetic noise and vibration can be occurred by high cogging torque and nonsinusoidal back EMF. To improve the cogging torque and back EMF characteristic, we apply unequal air-gap. To analyze characteristic of a polygon mirror scanner motor, two dimensional finite element method is used. To minimize the cogging torque of a polygon mirror motor, Kriging based on latin hypercube sampling (LHS) is utilized. Compared to the initial model, the torque ripple of the optimized unequal air-gap model was reduced by 23.4 % while maintaining the back EMF and average torque. To verify the optimal design results, the experiment was performed. We measured the vibration in motors at 23,600 rpm which is the rated velocity. The radial and axial gravitational acceleration of the optimal model were declined more than seven times and three times, respectively. From these results, a shape optimized unequal polygon mirror scanner motor has shown the usefulness of an improvement in the torque ripple and electromagnetic vibration characteristic.

Keywords: polygon mirror scanner motor, optimal design, finite element method, vibration

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
6471 A Very Efficient Pseudo-Random Number Generator Based On Chaotic Maps and S-Box Tables

Authors: M. Hamdi, R. Rhouma, S. Belghith


Generating random numbers are mainly used to create secret keys or random sequences. It can be carried out by various techniques. In this paper we present a very simple and efficient pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) based on chaotic maps and S-Box tables. This technique adopted two main operations one to generate chaotic values using two logistic maps and the second to transform them into binary words using random S-Box tables. The simulation analysis indicates that our PRNG possessing excellent statistical and cryptographic properties.

Keywords: Random Numbers, Chaotic map, S-box, cryptography, statistical tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
6470 TRNG Based Key Generation for Certificateless Signcryption

Authors: S.Balaji, R.Sujatha, M. Ramakrishnan


Signcryption is a cryptographic primitive that fulfills both the functions of digital signature and public key encryption simultaneously in low cost when compared with the traditional signature-then-encryption approach. In this paper, we propose a novel mouse movement based key generation technique to generate secret keys which is secure against the outer and insider attacks. Tag Key Encapsulation Mechanism (KEM) process is implemented using True Random Number Generator (TRNG) method. This TRNG based key is used for data encryption in the Data Encapsulation Mechanism (DEM). We compare the statistical reports of the proposed system with the previous methods which implements TKEM based on pseudo random number generator

Keywords: pseudo random umber generator, signcryption, true random number generator, node deployment

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
6469 Sweepline Algorithm for Voronoi Diagram of Polygonal Sites

Authors: Dmitry A. Koptelov, Leonid M. Mestetskiy


Voronoi Diagram (VD) of finite set of disjoint simple polygons, called sites, is a partition of plane into loci (for each site at the locus) – regions, consisting of points that are closer to a given site than to all other. Set of polygons is a universal model for many applications in engineering, geoinformatics, design, computer vision, and graphics. VD of polygons construction usually done with a reduction to task of constructing VD of segments, for which there are effective O(n log n) algorithms for n segments. Preprocessing – constructing segments from polygons’ sides, and postprocessing – polygon’s loci construction by merging the loci of the sides of each polygon are also included in reduction. This approach doesn’t take into account two specific properties of the resulting segment sites. Firstly, all this segments are connected in pairs in the vertices of the polygons. Secondly, on the one side of each segment lies the interior of the polygon. The polygon is obviously included in its locus. Using this properties in the algorithm for VD construction is a resource to reduce computations. The article proposes an algorithm for the direct construction of VD of polygonal sites. Algorithm is based on sweepline paradigm, allowing to effectively take into account these properties. The solution is performed based on reduction. Preprocessing is the constructing of set of sites from vertices and edges of polygons. Each site has an orientation such that the interior of the polygon lies to the left of it. Proposed algorithm constructs VD for set of oriented sites with sweepline paradigm. Postprocessing is a selecting of edges of this VD formed by the centers of empty circles touching different polygons. Improving the efficiency of the proposed sweepline algorithm in comparison with the general Fortune algorithm is achieved due to the following fundamental solutions: 1. Algorithm constructs only such VD edges, which are on the outside of polygons. Concept of oriented sites allowed to avoid construction of VD edges located inside the polygons. 2. The list of events in sweepline algorithm has a special property: the majority of events are connected with “medium” polygon vertices, where one incident polygon side lies behind the sweepline and the other in front of it. The proposed algorithm processes such events in constant time and not in logarithmic time, as in the general Fortune algorithm. The proposed algorithm is fully implemented and tested on a large number of examples. The high reliability and efficiency of the algorithm is also confirmed by computational experiments with complex sets of several thousand polygons. It should be noted that, despite the considerable time that has passed since the publication of Fortune's algorithm in 1986, a full-scale implementation of this algorithm for an arbitrary set of segment sites has not been made. The proposed algorithm fills this gap for an important special case - a set of sites formed by polygons.

Keywords: voronoi diagram, sweepline, polygon sites, fortunes' algorithm, segment sites

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
6468 Simple and Concise Maximum Power Control Circuit for PV Power Generation

Authors: Keiju Matsui, Mikio Yasubayashi, Masayoshi Umeno


Consumption of energy is increasing every year, and yet does not the decline at all. The main energy source is fossil fuels such as petroleum and natural gas. Since it is the finite resources, they will be exhausted someday. Moreover, to make the fossil fuel an energy source causes an environment problem. In such way, one solution of the problems is the solar battery that is remarkable as one of the alternative energies. Under such circumstances, in this paper, we propose a novel maximum power control circuit for photovoltaic power generation system with simple and fast-response operation. In addition to an application to the solar battery, since this control system is possible to operate with simple circuit and fast-response, the polar value control like the maximum or the minimum value tracking for general application could be easily realized.

Keywords: maximum power control, inter-connection, photovoltaic power generation, PI controller, multiplier, exclusive-or, power system

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
6467 Design and Implementation of Pseudorandom Number Generator Using Android Sensors

Authors: Mochamad Beta Auditama, Yusuf Kurniawan


A smartphone or tablet require a strong randomness to establish secure encrypted communication, encrypt files, etc. Therefore, random number generation is one of the main keys to provide secrecy. Android devices are equipped with hardware-based sensors, such as accelerometer, gyroscope, etc. Each of these sensors provides a stochastic process which has a potential to be used as an extra randomness source, in addition to /dev/random and /dev/urandom pseudorandom number generators. Android sensors can provide randomness automatically. To obtain randomness from Android sensors, each one of Android sensors shall be used to construct an entropy source. After all entropy sources are constructed, output from these entropy sources are combined to provide more entropy. Then, a deterministic process is used to produces a sequence of random bits from the combined output. All of these processes are done in accordance with NIST SP 800-22 and the series of NIST SP 800-90. The operation conditions are done 1) on Android user-space, and 2) the Android device is placed motionless on a desk.

Keywords: Android hardware-based sensor, deterministic process, entropy source, random number generation/generators

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
6466 Different Sampling Schemes for Semi-Parametric Frailty Model

Authors: Nursel Koyuncu, Nihal Ata Tutkun


Frailty model is a survival model that takes into account the unobserved heterogeneity for exploring the relationship between the survival of an individual and several covariates. In the recent years, proposed survival models become more complex and this feature causes convergence problems especially in large data sets. Therefore selection of sample from these big data sets is very important for estimation of parameters. In sampling literature, some authors have defined new sampling schemes to predict the parameters correctly. For this aim, we try to see the effect of sampling design in semi-parametric frailty model. We conducted a simulation study in R programme to estimate the parameters of semi-parametric frailty model for different sample sizes, censoring rates under classical simple random sampling and ranked set sampling schemes. In the simulation study, we used data set recording 17260 male Civil Servants aged 40–64 years with complete 10-year follow-up as population. Time to death from coronary heart disease is treated as a survival-time and age, systolic blood pressure are used as covariates. We select the 1000 samples from population using different sampling schemes and estimate the parameters. From the simulation study, we concluded that ranked set sampling design performs better than simple random sampling for each scenario.

Keywords: frailty model, ranked set sampling, efficiency, simple random sampling

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
6465 Stochastic Simulation of Random Numbers Using Linear Congruential Method

Authors: Melvin Ballera, Aldrich Olivar, Mary Soriano


Digital computers nowadays must be able to have a utility that is capable of generating random numbers. Usually, computer-generated random numbers are not random given predefined values such as starting point and end points, making the sequence almost predictable. There are many applications of random numbers such business simulation, manufacturing, services domain, entertainment sector and other equally areas making worthwhile to design a unique method and to allow unpredictable random numbers. Applying stochastic simulation using linear congruential algorithm, it shows that as it increases the numbers of the seed and range the number randomly produced or selected by the computer becomes unique. If this implemented in an environment where random numbers are very much needed, the reliability of the random number is guaranteed.

Keywords: stochastic simulation, random numbers, linear congruential algorithm, pseudorandomness

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
6464 Possibility of Creating Polygon Layers from Raster Layers Obtained by using Classic Image Processing Software: Case of Geological Map of Rwanda

Authors: Louis Nahimana


Most maps are in a raster or pdf format and it is not easy to get vector layers of published maps. Faced to the production of geological simplified map of the northern Lake Tanganyika countries without geological information in vector format, I tried a method of obtaining vector layers from raster layers created from geological maps of Rwanda and DR Congo in pdf and jpg format. The procedure was as follows: The original raster maps were georeferenced using ArcGIS10.2. Under Adobe Photoshop, map areas with the same color corresponding to a lithostratigraphic unit were selected all over the map and saved in a specific raster layer. Using the same image processing software Adobe Photoshop, each RGB raster layer was converted in grayscale type and improved before importation in ArcGIS10. After georeferencing, each lithostratigraphic raster layer was transformed into a multitude of polygons with the tool "Raster to Polygon (Conversion)". Thereafter, tool "Aggregate Polygons (Cartography)" allowed obtaining a single polygon layer. Repeating the same steps for each color corresponding to a homogeneous rock unit, it was possible to reconstruct the simplified geological constitution of Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo in vector format. By using the tool «Append (Management)», vector layers obtained were combined with those from Burundi to achieve vector layers of the geology of the « Northern Lake Tanganyika countries ».

Keywords: creating raster layer under image processing software, raster to polygon, aggregate polygons, adobe photoshop

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6463 Investigating the Efficiency of Stratified Double Median Ranked Set Sample for Estimating the Population Mean

Authors: Mahmoud I. Syam


Stratified double median ranked set sampling (SDMRSS) method is suggested for estimating the population mean. The SDMRSS is compared with the simple random sampling (SRS), stratified simple random sampling (SSRS), and stratified ranked set sampling (SRSS). It is shown that SDMRSS estimator is an unbiased of the population mean and more efficient than SRS, SSRS, and SRSS. Also, by SDMRSS, we can increase the efficiency of mean estimator for specific value of the sample size. SDMRSS is applied on real life examples, and the results of the example agreed the theoretical results.

Keywords: efficiency, double ranked set sampling, median ranked set sampling, ranked set sampling, stratified

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
6462 Existence Result of Third Order Functional Random Integro-Differential Inclusion

Authors: D. S. Palimkar


The FRIGDI (functional random integrodifferential inclusion) seems to be new and includes several known random differential inclusions already studied in the literature as special cases have been discussed in the literature for various aspects of the solutions. In this paper, we prove the existence result for FIGDI under the non-convex case of multi-valued function involved in it.Using random fixed point theorem of B. C. Dhage and caratheodory condition. This result is new to the theory of differential inclusion.

Keywords: caratheodory condition, random differential inclusion, random solution, integro-differential inclusion

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6461 Numerical Simulations on Feasibility of Stochastic Model Predictive Control for Linear Discrete-Time Systems with Random Dither Quantization

Authors: Taiki Baba, Tomoaki Hashimoto


The random dither quantization method enables us to achieve much better performance than the simple uniform quantization method for the design of quantized control systems. Motivated by this fact, the stochastic model predictive control method in which a performance index is minimized subject to probabilistic constraints imposed on the state variables of systems has been proposed for linear feedback control systems with random dither quantization. In other words, a method for solving optimal control problems subject to probabilistic state constraints for linear discrete-time control systems with random dither quantization has been already established. To our best knowledge, however, the feasibility of such a kind of optimal control problems has not yet been studied. Our objective in this paper is to investigate the feasibility of stochastic model predictive control problems for linear discrete-time control systems with random dither quantization. To this end, we provide the results of numerical simulations that verify the feasibility of stochastic model predictive control problems for linear discrete-time control systems with random dither quantization.

Keywords: model predictive control, stochastic systems, probabilistic constraints, random dither quantization

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
6460 Deterministic Random Number Generator Algorithm for Cryptosystem Keys

Authors: Adi A. Maaita, Hamza A. A. Al Sewadi


One of the crucial parameters of digital cryptographic systems is the selection of the keys used and their distribution. The randomness of the keys has a strong impact on the system’s security strength being difficult to be predicted, guessed, reproduced or discovered by a cryptanalyst. Therefore, adequate key randomness generation is still sought for the benefit of stronger cryptosystems. This paper suggests an algorithm designed to generate and test pseudo random number sequences intended for cryptographic applications. This algorithm is based on mathematically manipulating a publically agreed upon information between sender and receiver over a public channel. This information is used as a seed for performing some mathematical functions in order to generate a sequence of pseudorandom numbers that will be used for encryption/decryption purposes. This manipulation involves permutations and substitutions that fulfills Shannon’s principle of “confusion and diffusion”. ASCII code characters wereutilized in the generation process instead of using bit strings initially, which adds more flexibility in testing different seed values. Finally, the obtained results would indicate sound difficulty of guessing keys by attackers.

Keywords: cryptosystems, information security agreement, key distribution, random numbers

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
6459 Existence Theory for First Order Functional Random Differential Equations

Authors: Rajkumar N. Ingle


In this paper, the existence of a solution of nonlinear functional random differential equations of the first order is proved under caratheodory condition. The study of the functional random differential equation has got importance in the random analysis of the dynamical systems of universal phenomena. Objectives: Nonlinear functional random differential equation is useful to the scientists, engineers, and mathematicians, who are engaged in N.F.R.D.E. analyzing a universal random phenomenon, govern by nonlinear random initial value problems of D.E. Applications of this in the theory of diffusion or heat conduction. Methodology: Using the concepts of probability theory, functional analysis, generally the existence theorems for the nonlinear F.R.D.E. are prove by using some tools such as fixed point theorem. The significance of the study: Our contribution will be the generalization of some well-known results in the theory of Nonlinear F.R.D.E.s. Further, it seems that our study will be useful to scientist, engineers, economists and mathematicians in their endeavors to analyses the nonlinear random problems of the universe in a better way.

Keywords: Random Fixed Point Theorem, functional random differential equation, N.F.R.D.E., universal random phenomenon

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6458 Programming with Grammars

Authors: Peter M. Maurer Maurer


DGL is a context free grammar-based tool for generating random data. Many types of simulator input data require some computation to be placed in the proper format. For example, it might be necessary to generate ordered triples in which the third element is the sum of the first two elements, or it might be necessary to generate random numbers in some sorted order. Although DGL is universal in computational power, generating these types of data is extremely difficult. To overcome this problem, we have enhanced DGL to include features that permit direct computation within the structure of a context free grammar. The features have been implemented as special types of productions, preserving the context free flavor of DGL specifications.

Keywords: DGL, Enhanced Context Free Grammars, Programming Constructs, Random Data Generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
6457 Valuation of Entrepreneurship Education (EE) Curriculum and Self-Employment Generation among Graduates of Tertiary Institutions in Edo State, Nigeria

Authors: Dr. Angela Obose Oriazowanlan


Despite the introduction of Entrepreneurship education into the Nigerian University curriculum to prepare graduates for self-employment roles in order to abate employment challenges, their unemployment rate still soars high. The study, therefore, examined the relevance of the curriculum contents and its delivery mechanism to equip graduates with appropriate entrepreneurial skills prior to graduation. Four research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The survey research design was adopted for the study. An infinite population of graduates of a period of five years with 200 sample representatives using the simple random sampling technique was adopted. A 45-item structured questionnaire was used for data gathering. The gathered data thereof was anlysed using the descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation, while the formulated hypotheses were tested with Z-score at 0.5 level of significance. The findings revealed, among others, that graduates acquisition of appropriate entrepreneurial skills for self-employment generation is low due to curriculum deficiencies, insufficient time allotment, and the delivery mechanism. It was recommended, among others, that the curriculum should be reviewed to improve its relevancy and that sufficient time should be allotted to enable adequate teaching and learning process.

Keywords: evaluation of entrepreneurship education (EE) curriculum, self-employment generation, graduates of tertiary institutions, Edo state, Nigeria

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6456 Radio Frequency Identification Encryption via Modified Two Dimensional Logistic Map

Authors: Hongmin Deng, Qionghua Wang


A modified two dimensional (2D) logistic map based on cross feedback control is proposed. This 2D map exhibits more random chaotic dynamical properties than the classic one dimensional (1D) logistic map in the statistical characteristics analysis. So it is utilized as the pseudo-random (PN) sequence generator, where the obtained real-valued PN sequence is quantized at first, then applied to radio frequency identification (RFID) communication system in this paper. This system is experimentally validated on a cortex-M0 development board, which shows the effectiveness in key generation, the size of key space and security. At last, further cryptanalysis is studied through the test suite in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

Keywords: chaos encryption, logistic map, pseudo-random sequence, RFID

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
6455 Artificial Intelligence Based Meme Generation Technology for Engaging Audience in Social Media

Authors: Andrew Kurochkin, Kostiantyn Bokhan


In this study, a new meme dataset of ~650K meme instances was created, a technology of meme generation based on the state of the art deep learning technique - GPT-2 model was researched, a comparative analysis of machine-generated memes and human-created was conducted. We justified that Amazon Mechanical Turk workers can be used for the approximate estimating of users' behavior in a social network, more precisely to measure engagement. It was shown that generated memes cause the same engagement as human memes that produced low engagement in the social network (historically). Thus, generated memes are less engaging than random memes created by humans.

Keywords: content generation, computational social science, memes generation, Reddit, social networks, social media interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
6454 Unified Assessment of Power System Reserve-based Reliability Levels

Authors: B. M. Alshammari, M. A. El-Kady


This paper presents a unified framework for assessment of reserve-based reliability levels in electric power systems. The unified approach is based on reserve-based analysis and assessment of the relationship between available generation capacities and required demand levels. The developed approach takes into account the load variations as well as contingencies which occur randomly causing some generation and/or transmission capacities to be lost (become unavailable). The calculated reserve based indices, which are important to assess the reserve capabilities of the power system for various operating scenarios are therefore probabilistic in nature. They reflect the fact that neither the load levels nor the generation or transmission capacities are known with absolute certainty. They are rather subjects to random variations and consequently. The calculated reserve-based reliability indices are all subjects to random variations where only expected values of these indices can be evaluated. This paper presents a unified approach to reserve-based reliability assessment of power systems using various reserve assessment criteria. Practical applications are also presented for demonstration purposes to the Saudi electricity power grid.

Keywords: assessment, power system, reserve, reliability

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6453 Probabilistic Gathering of Agents with Simple Sensors: Distributed Algorithm for Aggregation of Robots Equipped with Binary On-Board Detectors

Authors: Ariel Barel, Rotem Manor, Alfred M. Bruckstein


We present a probabilistic gathering algorithm for agents that can only detect the presence of other agents in front of or behind them. The agents act in the plane and are identical and indistinguishable, oblivious, and lack any means of direct communication. They do not have a common frame of reference in the plane and choose their orientation (direction of possible motion) at random. The analysis of the gathering process assumes that the agents act synchronously in selecting random orientations that remain fixed during each unit time-interval. Two algorithms are discussed. The first one assumes discrete jumps based on the sensing results given the randomly selected motion direction, and in this case, extensive experimental results exhibit probabilistic clustering into a circular region with radius equal to the step-size in time proportional to the number of agents. The second algorithm assumes agents with continuous sensing and motion, and in this case, we can prove gathering into a very small circular region in finite expected time.

Keywords: control, decentralized, gathering, multi-agent, simple sensors

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
6452 Random Access in IoT Using Naïve Bayes Classification

Authors: Alhusein Almahjoub, Dongyu Qiu


This paper deals with the random access procedure in next-generation networks and presents the solution to reduce total service time (TST) which is one of the most important performance metrics in current and future internet of things (IoT) based networks. The proposed solution focuses on the calculation of optimal transmission probability which maximizes the success probability and reduces TST. It uses the information of several idle preambles in every time slot, and based on it, it estimates the number of backlogged IoT devices using Naïve Bayes estimation which is a type of supervised learning in the machine learning domain. The estimation of backlogged devices is necessary since optimal transmission probability depends on it and the eNodeB does not have information about it. The simulations are carried out in MATLAB which verify that the proposed solution gives excellent performance.

Keywords: random access, LTE/LTE-A, 5G, machine learning, Naïve Bayes estimation

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
6451 Constant Factor Approximation Algorithm for p-Median Network Design Problem with Multiple Cable Types

Authors: Chaghoub Soraya, Zhang Xiaoyan


This research presents the first constant approximation algorithm to the p-median network design problem with multiple cable types. This problem was addressed with a single cable type and there is a bifactor approximation algorithm for the problem. To the best of our knowledge, the algorithm proposed in this paper is the first constant approximation algorithm for the p-median network design with multiple cable types. The addressed problem is a combination of two well studied problems which are p-median problem and network design problem. The introduced algorithm is a random sampling approximation algorithm of constant factor which is conceived by using some random sampling techniques form the literature. It is based on a redistribution Lemma from the literature and a steiner tree problem as a subproblem. This algorithm is simple, and it relies on the notions of random sampling and probability. The proposed approach gives an approximation solution with one constant ratio without violating any of the constraints, in contrast to the one proposed in the literature. This paper provides a (21 + 2)-approximation algorithm for the p-median network design problem with multiple cable types using random sampling techniques.

Keywords: approximation algorithms, buy-at-bulk, combinatorial optimization, network design, p-median

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
6450 Transformation of Periodic Fuzzy Membership Function to Discrete Polygon on Circular Polar Coordinates

Authors: Takashi Mitsuishi


Fuzzy logic has gained acceptance in the recent years in the fields of social sciences and humanities such as psychology and linguistics because it can manage the fuzziness of words and human subjectivity in a logical manner. However, the major field of application of the fuzzy logic is control engineering as it is a part of the set theory and mathematical logic. Mamdani method, which is the most popular technique for approximate reasoning in the field of fuzzy control, is one of the ways to numerically represent the control afforded by human language and sensitivity and has been applied in various practical control plants. Fuzzy logic has been gradually developing as an artificial intelligence in different applications such as neural networks, expert systems, and operations research. The objects of inference vary for different application fields. Some of these include time, angle, color, symptom and medical condition whose fuzzy membership function is a periodic function. In the defuzzification stage, the domain of the membership function should be unique to obtain uniqueness its defuzzified value. However, if the domain of the periodic membership function is determined as unique, an unintuitive defuzzified value may be obtained as the inference result using the center of gravity method. Therefore, the authors propose a method of circular-polar-coordinates transformation and defuzzification of the periodic membership functions in this study. The transformation to circular polar coordinates simplifies the domain of the periodic membership function. Defuzzified value in circular polar coordinates is an argument. Furthermore, it is required that the argument is calculated from a closed plane figure which is a periodic membership function on the circular polar coordinates. If the closed plane figure is continuous with the continuity of the membership function, a significant amount of computation is required. Therefore, to simplify the practice example and significantly reduce the computational complexity, we have discretized the continuous interval and the membership function in this study. In this study, the following three methods are proposed to decide the argument from the discrete polygon which the continuous plane figure is transformed into. The first method provides an argument of a straight line passing through the origin and through the coordinate of the arithmetic mean of each coordinate of the polygon (physical center of gravity). The second one provides an argument of a straight line passing through the origin and the coordinate of the geometric center of gravity of the polygon. The third one provides an argument of a straight line passing through the origin bisecting the perimeter of the polygon (or the closed continuous plane figure).

Keywords: defuzzification, fuzzy membership function, periodic function, polar coordinates transformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
6449 Efficient Internal Generator Based on Random Selection of an Elliptic Curve

Authors: Mustapha Benssalah, Mustapha Djeddou, Karim Drouiche


The random number generation (RNG) presents a significant importance for the security and the privacy of numerous applications, such as RFID technology and smart cards. Since, the quality of the generated bit sequences is paramount that a weak internal generator for example, can directly cause the entire application to be insecure, and thus it makes no sense to employ strong algorithms for the application. In this paper, we propose a new pseudo random number generator (PRNG), suitable for cryptosystems ECC-based, constructed by randomly selecting points from several elliptic curves randomly selected. The main contribution of this work is the increasing of the generator internal states by extending the set of its output realizations to several curves auto-selected. The quality and the statistical characteristics of the proposed PRNG are validated using the Chi-square goodness of fit test and the empirical Special Publication 800-22 statistical test suite issued by NIST.

Keywords: PRNG, security, cryptosystem, ECC

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6448 Determining Optimal Number of Trees in Random Forests

Authors: Songul Cinaroglu


Background: Random Forest is an efficient, multi-class machine learning method using for classification, regression and other tasks. This method is operating by constructing each tree using different bootstrap sample of the data. Determining the number of trees in random forests is an open question in the literature for studies about improving classification performance of random forests. Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze whether there is an optimal number of trees in Random Forests and how performance of Random Forests differ according to increase in number of trees using sample health data sets in R programme. Method: In this study we analyzed the performance of Random Forests as the number of trees grows and doubling the number of trees at every iteration using “random forest” package in R programme. For determining minimum and optimal number of trees we performed Mc Nemar test and Area Under ROC Curve respectively. Results: At the end of the analysis it was found that as the number of trees grows, it does not always means that the performance of the forest is better than forests which have fever trees. In other words larger number of trees only increases computational costs but not increases performance results. Conclusion: Despite general practice in using random forests is to generate large number of trees for having high performance results, this study shows that increasing number of trees doesn’t always improves performance. Future studies can compare different kinds of data sets and different performance measures to test whether Random Forest performance results change as number of trees increase or not.

Keywords: classification methods, decision trees, number of trees, random forest

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