Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: S. C. Mandal

36 Estimation of the Mean of the Selected Population

Authors: Kalu Ram Meena, Aditi Kar Gangopadhyay, Satrajit Mandal


Two normal populations with different means and same variance are considered, where the variances are known. The population with the smaller sample mean is selected. Various estimators are constructed for the mean of the selected normal population. Finally, they are compared with respect to the bias and MSE risks by the method of Monte-Carlo simulation and their performances are analysed with the help of graphs.

Keywords: estimation after selection, Brewster-Zidek technique, estimators, selected populations

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35 Structural Properties of RC Beam with Progression of Corrosion Induced Delamination Cracking

Authors: Anupam Saxena, Achin Agrawal, Rishabh Shukla, S. Mandal


It is quite important that the properties of structural elements do not change significantly before and after cracking, and if they do, it adversely affects the structure. Corrosion in rebars causes cracking in concrete which can lead to the change in properties of beam. In the present study, two RC beams with same flexural strength but with different reinforcement arrangements are considered and modelling of cracks of RC beams has been done at different degrees of corrosion in the case of delamination using boundary conditions of Three Point Bending Test. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been done at different degree of corrosion to observe the variation of different parameters like modal frequency, Elasticity and Flexural strength in case of delamination. Also, the comparison between two different RC arrangements is made to conclude which one of them is more suitable.

Keywords: delamination, elasticity, FEA, flexural strength, modal frequency, RC beam

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34 A Parametric Study on Effects of Internal Factors on Carbonation of Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Kunal Tongaria, Abhishek Mangal, S. Mandal, Devendra Mohan


The carbonation of concrete is a phenomenon which is a function of various interdependent parameters. Therefore, in spite of numerous literature and database, the useful generalization is not an easy task. These interdependent parameters can be grouped under the category of internal and external factors. This paper focuses on the internal parameters which govern and increase the probability of the ingress of deleterious substances into concrete. The mechanism of effects of internal parameters such as microstructure for with and without supplementary cementing materials (SCM), water/binder ratio, the age of concrete etc. has been discussed. This is followed by the comparison of various proposed mathematical models for the deterioration of concrete. Based on existing laboratory experiments as well as field results, this paper concludes the present understanding of mechanism, modeling and future research needs in this field.

Keywords: carbonation, diffusion coefficient, microstructure of concrete, reinforced concrete

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33 Analysis of Cracked Beams with Spalling Having Different Arrangements of the Reinforcement Bars Using Finite Element Analysis (FEA)

Authors: Rishabh Shukla, Achin Agrawal, Anupam Saxena, S. Mandal


The existence of a crack, affects the mechanical behaviour and various properties of a structure to a great degree. This paper focuses on recognizing the parameters that gets changed due to the formation of cracks and have a great impact on the performance of the structure. Spalling is a major concern as it leaves the reinforcement bars more susceptible to environmental attacks. Beams of cross section 300 mm × 500 mm are designed and for a calculated area of steel, two different arrangements of reinforced bars are analysed. Results are prepared for different stages of cracking for each arrangement of rebars. The parameters for both arrangements are then compared. The Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is carried out and changes in the properties like flexural strength, Elasticity and modal frequency are reported. The conclusions have been drawn by comparing the results.

Keywords: cracks, elasticity, spalling, FEA

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32 An Unusual Fracture Pattern: Fracture of the Distal Radius (Colles') along with Fracture of the Ipsilateral Scaphoid & Capitate Bones

Authors: Srikanta Tagore Sarkar, Prasanta Kumar Mandal, Dibakar Roy


The association of a capitate fracture with a scaphoid fracture has been termed as the naviculocapitate syndrome. The existence of some nondisplaced fractures of scaphoid and capitate with or without the fracture of lunate or radius suggests that there is a spectrum of these injuries, and this confuses the terminology. With our case; we report an unusual variety of this naviculocapitate syndrome with distal radial Colles fracture in addition to the nondisplaced fractures of the scaphoid, capitate and the dorsal lip of radial fracture. When we looked at the literature there is no another Colles fracture reported together with undisplaced scapho-capitate syndrome. The coronal and sagittal images that obtained from the MDCT (Multidetector computed tomography) is useful and effective imaging modality to diagnose complex wrist fractures with more details that are not detected in X-rays.

Keywords: scaphoid, capitate, Colles’ fracture, syndrome, MDCT, unusual

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31 Thinned Elliptical Cylindrical Antenna Array Synthesis Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Rajesh Bera, Durbadal Mandal, Rajib Kar, Sakti P. Ghoshal


This paper describes optimal thinning of an Elliptical Cylindrical Array (ECA) of uniformly excited isotropic antennas which can generate directive beam with minimum relative Side Lobe Level (SLL). The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method, which represents a new approach for optimization problems in electromagnetic, is used in the optimization process. The PSO is used to determine the optimal set of ‘ON-OFF’ elements that provides a radiation pattern with maximum SLL reduction. Optimization is done without prefixing the value of First Null Beam Width (FNBW). The variation of SLL with element spacing of thinned array is also reported. Simulation results show that the number of array elements can be reduced by more than 50% of the total number of elements in the array with a simultaneous reduction in SLL to less than -27dB.

Keywords: thinned array, Particle Swarm Optimization, Elliptical Cylindrical Array, Side Lobe Label.

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30 Modelling the Effects of External Factors Affecting Concrete Carbonation

Authors: Abhishek Mangal, Kunal Tongaria, S. Mandal, Devendra Mohan


Carbonation of reinforced concrete structures has emerged as one of the major challenges for Civil engineers across the world. With increasing emissions from various activities, carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere has been eve rising, enhancing its penetration in porous concrete, reaching steel bars and ultimately leading to premature failure. Several literatures have been published dealing with the various interdependent variables related to carbonation. However, with innumerable variability a generalization of these data proves to be a troublesome task. This paper looks into this carbonation anomaly in concrete structures caused by various external variables such as relative humidity, concentration of CO2, curing period and ambient temperature. Significant discussions and comparisons have been presented on the basis of various studies conducted with an aim to predict the depth of carbonation as a function of these multidimensional parameters using various numerical and statistical modelling techniques.

Keywords: carbonation, curing, exposure conditions, relative humidity

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29 Bending Behaviour of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Stiffened Panel Subjected to Transverse Loading

Authors: S. Kumar, Rajesh Kumar, S. Mandal


Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) is gaining popularity in many branch of engineering and various applications due to their light weight, specific strength per unit weight and high stiffness in particular direction. As the strength of material is high it can be used in thin walled structure as industrial roof sheds satisfying the strength constraint with comparatively lesser thickness. Analysis of bending behavior of FRP panel has been done here with variation in oriented angle of stiffener panels, fiber orientation, aspect ratio and boundary conditions subjected to transverse loading by using Finite Element Method. The effect of fiber orientation and thickness of ply has also been studied to determine the minimum thickness of ply for optimized section of stiffened FRP panel.

Keywords: bending behavior, fiber reinforced polymer, finite element method, orientation of stiffeners

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28 Synthesis and Functionalization of MnFe₂O₄ Nano−Hollow Spheres for Optical and Catalytic Properties

Authors: Indranil Chakraborty, Kalyan Mandal


Herein, we synthesize MnFe₂O₄ nano−hollow spheres (NHSs) of average diameter 100 nm through a facile template free solvothermal process and carry out a time dependent morphological study to investigate their process of core excavation. Further, a surface engineering of as−synthesized MnFe₂O₄ NHSs has been executed with organic disodium tartrate dihydrate ligand and interestingly, the surface modified MnFe₂O₄ NHSs are found to capable of emerging multicolor fluorescence starting from blue, green to red. The magnetic measurements through vibrating sample magnetometer demonstrate that room temperature superparamagnetic nature of MnFe₂O₄ NHSs remains unaltered after surface modification. Moreover, functionalized MnFe₂O₄ NHSs are found to exhibit excellent reusable photocatalytic efficiency in the degradation of cationic dye, methylene blue with rate constant of 2.64×10−2 min.

Keywords: nano hollow sphere, tartrate modification, multiple fluorescence, catalytic property

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27 Design of Non-uniform Circular Antenna Arrays Using Firefly Algorithm for Side Lobe Level Reduction

Authors: Gopi Ram, Durbadal Mandal, Rajib Kar, Sakti Prasad Ghoshal


A design problem of non-uniform circular antenna arrays for maximum reduction of both the side lobe level (SLL) and first null beam width (FNBW) is dealt with. This problem is modeled as a simple optimization problem. The method of Firefly algorithm (FFA) is used to determine an optimal set of current excitation weights and antenna inter-element separations that provide radiation pattern with maximum SLL reduction and much improvement on FNBW as well. Circular array antenna laid on x-y plane is assumed. FFA is applied on circular arrays of 8-, 10-, and 12- elements. Various simulation results are presented and hence performances of side lobe and FNBW are analyzed. Experimental results show considerable reductions of both the SLL and FNBW with respect to those of the uniform case and some standard algorithms GA, PSO, and SA applied to the same problem.

Keywords: circular arrays, first null beam width, side lobe level, FFA

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26 Process Modified Geopolymer Concrete: A Sustainable Material for Green Construction Technology

Authors: Dibyendu Adak, Saroj Mandal


The fly ash based geopolymer concrete generally requires heat activation after casting, which has been considered as an important limitation for its practical application. Such limitation can be overcome by a modification in the process at the time of mixing of ingredients (fly and activator fluid) for geopolymer concrete so that curing can be made at ambient temperature. This process modified geopolymer concrete shows an appreciable improvement in structural performance compared to conventional heat cured geopolymer concrete and control cement concrete. The improved durability performance based on water absorption, sulphate test, and RCPT is also noted. The microstructural properties analyzed through Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques show the better interaction of fly ash and activator solution at early ages for the process modified geopolymer concrete. This accelerates the transformation of the amorphous phase of fly ash to the crystalline phase.

Keywords: fly ash, geopolymer concrete, process modification, structural properties, durability, micro-structures

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25 Dielectric Properties of Ternary Composite Based on Complex Perovskite Oxides Synthesized by Semi-Wet Route

Authors: K. D. Mandal, Anil Kumar Mourya, Ankur Khare


Ceramics of 0.6 CaCu3TiO12 – 0.2 Bi2/3Cu3TiO12 – 0.2 Y2/3Cu3TiO12 (i.e. 0.6CCTO-0.2BCTO-0.2 YCTO) were prepared via semi - wet route. The phase structure of the sample was identified by X-Ray diffraction. The micro structure of the sample was observed by SEM, which displays grains of different shapes having diameter in range of 2 µm–4 µm. We have studied the frequency and temperature dependence of permittivity and impedance of the compound with LCR Meter in the range of 100 Hz–1 MHz and 300–500 K. The material shows its highest dielectric constant (428000) at 100 Hz and 368 K. The material shows Debye–like relaxation and their dielectric constant are independent of frequency and temperature over a wide range. The sample shows two electrical responses in impedance formalism, indicating that there are two distinct contributions. We attribute them to grain and grain boundaries in the ceramic sample and explain the dielectric behaviors by Maxwell–Wagner relaxation arising at the interfaces between grain and their boundaries.

Keywords: complex perovskite, ceramics composite, impedance study, SEM

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24 Effects of an Educational Program on Nurses Knowledge and Practice Related to Hepatitis-B: Pre-Experimental Design

Authors: R. S. Mehta, G. N. Mandal


Hepatitis-B is the major infectious disease of mankind. In Nepal it is reported that more than 4.3% of Nepalese population at any time in their life has been infected with Hepatitis-B virus (HBV). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of planned educational programme regarding knowledge and practice of hepatitis-B among the nurses working at medical units of BPKIHS. Pre-experimental research design was used to conduct the study among the nurses working in medical units of BPKIHS. Total 40 nurses were included in the pre-test and 34 in the post-test. The education intervention was arranged on 24th May 2012 from 2:15 pm to 4:45 pm i.e. two and half hours. After two weeks of education intervention post-test was conducted. Most of the participants (60%) were of the age group of 18-22 years, Hindu (82.5%), and unmarried (65%). After education intervention there is significant differences in knowledge on the components of Hepatitis-B at 0.05 level of significance. There is no difference in the attitude components after post-test except the component patient contaminated with Hepatitis-B must be called as the last patient (p=0.035). It can conclude that hepatitis-B educational program improved knowledge and practice among the nurses.

Keywords: educational program, Hepatitis-B, pre-experimental design, medical units

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23 Tyrosine Rich Fraction as an Immunomodulatory Agent from Ficus Religiosa Bark

Authors: S. A. Nirmal, G. S. Asane, S. C. Pal, S. C. Mandal


Objective: Ficus religiosa Linn (Moraceae) is being used in traditional medicine to improve immunity hence present work was undertaken to validate this use scientifically. Material and Methods: Dried, powdered bark of F. religiosa was extracted successively using petroleum ether and 70% ethanol in soxhlet extractor. The extracts obtained were screened for immunomodulatory activity by delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH), neutrophil adhesion test and cyclophosphamide-induced neutropenia in Swiss albino mice at the dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p. 70% ethanol extract showed significant immunostimulant activity hence subjected to column chromatography to produce tyrosine rich fraction (TRF). TRF obtained was screened for immunomodulatory activity by above methods at the dose of 10 mg/kg, i.p. Results: TRF showed potentiation of DTH response in terms of significant increase in the mean difference in foot-pad thickness and it significantly increased neutrophil adhesion to nylon fibers by 48.20%. Percentage reduction in total leukocyte count and neutrophil by TRF was found to be 43.85% and 18.72%, respectively. Conclusion: Immunostimulant activity of TRF was more pronounced and thus it has great potential as a source for natural health products.

Keywords: Ficus religiosa, immunomodulatory, cyclophosphamide, neutropenia

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22 Stabilization of Fly Ash Slope Using Plastic Recycled Polymer and Finite Element Analysis Using Plaxis 3D

Authors: Tushar Vasant Salunkhe, Sariput M. Nawghare, Maheboobsab B. Nadaf, Sushovan Dutta, J. N. Mandal


The model tests were conducted in the laboratory without and with plastic recycled polymer in fly ash steep slopes overlaying soft foundation soils like fly ash and power soil in order to check the stability of steep slope. In this experiment, fly ash is used as a filling material, and Plastic Recycled Polymers of diameter = 3mm and length = 4mm were made from the waste plastic product (lower grade plastic product). The properties of fly ash and plastic recycled polymers are determined. From the experiments, load and settlement have measured. From these data, load–settlement curves have been reported. It has been observed from test results that the load carrying capacity of mixture fly ash with Plastic Recycled Polymers slope is more than that of fly ash slope. The deformation of Plastic Recycled Polymers slope is slightly more than that of fly ash slope. A Finite Element Method (F.E.M.) was also evaluated using PLAXIS 3D version. The failure pattern, deformations and factor of safety are reported based on analytical programme. The results from experimental data and analytical programme are compared and reported.

Keywords: factor of safety, finite element method (FEM), fly ash, plastic recycled polymer

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21 Effects of Rice Plant Extracts and Phenolic Allelochemicals on Seedling Growth of Radish

Authors: Mohammad Shamim Hasan Mandal, Phu Minh, Do Tan Khang, Phung Thi Tuyen, Tran Dang Xuan


Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the major crops of Vietnam which has more than thousands of varieties. Many of the local varieties have greater potentiality but they are in danger of extinct. Rice plant contains many secondary metabolites that are allelopathic to other plants. Seven rice varieties were cultivated in the field condition at Hiroshima University, Japan; stems and leaves from each variety were collected later, they were extracted with methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid contents were high in ethyl acetate extracts. DPPH antioxidant assay results showed that the ethyl acetate extracts had the higher IC50 value. Therefore, the ethyl acetate extracts were selected for laboratory experimentation through petri dish assay. Results showed that the two-local variety Re nuoc and Nan chon completely inhibited the germination of radish seedlings. Further laboratory bioassay and field experimentation will be conducted to validate the laboratory bioassay findings.

Keywords: allelopathy, bioassay, Oryza sativa, Raphanus sativus

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20 Identification of Thermally Critical Zones Based on Inter Seasonal Variation in Temperature

Authors: Sakti Mandal


Varying distribution of land surface temperature in an urbanized environment is a globally addressed phenomenon. Usually has been noticed that criticality of surface temperature increases from the periphery to the urban centre. As the centre experiences maximum severity of heat throughout the year, it also represents most critical zone in terms of thermal condition. In this present study, an attempt has been taken to propose a quantitative approach of thermal critical zonation (TCZ) on the basis of seasonal temperature variation. Here the zonation is done by calculating thermal critical value (TCV). From the Landsat 8 thermal digital data of summer and winter seasons for the year 2014, the land surface temperature maps and thermally critical zonation has been prepared, and corresponding dataset has been computed to conduct the overall study of that particular study area. It is shown that TCZ can be clearly identified and analyzed by the help of inter-seasonal temperature range. The results of this study can be utilized effectively in future urban development and planning projects as well as a framework for implementing rules and regulations by the authorities for a sustainable urban development through an environmentally affable approach.

Keywords: thermal critical values (TCV), thermally critical zonation (TCZ), land surface temperature (LST), Landsat 8, Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC)

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19 Private Inference for Credit Card Fraud Detection Using Deep Learning and Homomorphic Encryption

Authors: Bidisha Mandal, Sameer Ranjan, Prashant Chugh


Privacy preservation is one of the major concerns of today’s world as nowadays, people are more aware of the uses of their personal data. The transition to a digitalized world has accelerated after the pandemic hit the globe in 2020. Everyone started to use online services, and consumers have moved towards digital channels for their requirements. The business models of organizations and industries have also changed gears to provide services. This also increases the rate of misuse of personal data and fraud in different sectors. In this paper, we outline and propose a solution that shall be useful to detect frauds in credit card transactions while safeguarding the privacy of the consumer. The solution employs one of the most promising privacy preservation techniques, Homomorphic Encryption and Deep Learning methods. The proposal attempts to detect fraud by inferring encrypted consumer data in a pre-trained model so that the customer remains to assure about their privacy. So, the main aim of our proposal is to protect the privacy of the customer while customer data is being shared to avail the services of deep learning model and we have successfully achieved this goal with a promising accuracy, which is satisfactory considering the fact that non-linear operations have to be approximated to work with Homomorphic Encryption.

Keywords: privacy preservation, homomorphic encryption (HE), deep learning (DL), private inference, credit card fraud detection

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18 Procedural Protocol for Dual Energy Computed Tomography (DECT) Inversion

Authors: Rezvan Ravanfar Haghighi, S. Chatterjee, Pratik Kumar, V. C. Vani, Priya Jagia, Sanjiv Sharma, Susama Rani Mandal, R. Lakshmy


The dual energy computed tomography (DECT) aims at noting the HU(V) values for the sample at two different voltages V=V1, V2 and thus obtain the electron densities (ρe) and effective atomic number (Zeff) of the substance. In the present paper, we aim to obtain a numerical algorithm by which (ρe, Zeff) can be obtained from the HU(100) and HU(140) data, where V=100, 140 kVp. The idea is to use this inversion method to characterize and distinguish between the lipid and fibrous coronary artery plaques.With the idea to develop the inversion algorithm for low Zeff materials, as is the case with non calcified coronary artery plaque, we prepare aqueous samples whose calculated values of (ρe, Zeff) lie in the range (2.65×1023≤ ρe≤ 3.64×1023 per cc ) and (6.80≤ Zeff ≤ 8.90). We fill the phantom with these known samples and experimentally determine HU(100) and HU(140) for the same pixels. Knowing that the HU(V) values are related to the attenuation coefficient of the system, we present an algorithm by which the (ρe, Zeff) is calibrated with respect to (HU(100), HU(140)). The calibration is done with a known set of 20 samples; its accuracy is checked with a different set of 23 known samples. We find that the calibration gives the ρe with an accuracy of ± 4% while Zeff is found within ±1% of the actual value, the confidence being 95%.In this inversion method (ρe, Zeff) of the scanned sample can be found by eliminating the effects of the CT machine and also by ensuring that the determination of the two unknowns (ρe, Zeff) does not interfere with each other. It is found that this algorithm can be used for prediction of chemical characteristic (ρe, Zeff) of unknown scanned materials with 95% confidence level, by inversion of the DECT data.

Keywords: chemical composition, dual-energy computed tomography, inversion algorithm

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17 Use of Amaranthus Roxburghianus Root Extract in the Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis in Mice

Authors: S. A. Nirmal, J. M. Ingale, G. S. Asane, S. C. Pal, Subhash C. Mandal


The present work was undertaken to determine the effects of Amaranthus roxburghianus Nevski. (Amaranthaceae) root alone and in combination with piperine in treating ulcerative colitis (UC) in mice. Swiss albino mice were divided into seven groups (n = 6). Standard group received prednisolone (5 mg/kg, i.p.). Treatment groups received hydroalcoholic extract of roots of A. roxburghianus (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and a combination of hydroalcoholic extract of roots of A. roxburghianus (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and piperine (5 mg/kg, p.o.). Ulcer index, colitis severity, myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde and glutathione were estimated from blood and tissue. Column chromatography of the extract was done and purified fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Treatment with the combination of hydroalcoholic extract of A. roxburghianus and piperine showed minimal ulceration, hemorrhage, necrosis and leucocyte infiltration by histopathological observation. Acetic acid increased MPO levels in blood and colon tissue to 355 U/mL and 385 U/mg, respectively. The combination of hydroalcoholic extract (100 mg/kg) and piperine (5 mg/kg) significantly decreased MPO in blood and tissue to 182 U/mL and 193 U/mg, respectively. Similarly, this combination significantly reduced MPO and increased glutathione levels in blood and tissue. Various phytoconstituents were detected by GC-MS. The combination of hydroalcoholic extract and piperine is effective in the treatment of UC and the effects are comparable with the standard drug prednisolone. 4H-pyran-4-one, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl, eugenol and benzene, and 1-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-4-methyl are reported having analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties; they may play a role in the biological activity of A. roxburghianus root.

Keywords: Amaranthus roxburghianus, ulcerative colitis, anti-inflammatory, ulcerative colitis

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16 Comparative Performance Study of Steel Plate Shear Wall with Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall

Authors: Amit S. Chauhan, S. Mandal


The structural response of shear walls subjected to various types of loads is difficult to predict precisely. They are incorporated in buildings to resist lateral forces and support the gravity loads. The steel plate shear walls (SPSWs) are used as lateral load resisting systems for buildings and acts as an alternative to reinforced concrete shear walls (RCSWs). This paper compares the behavior of SPSW with the RCSW incorporated in a building frame having G+6 storey, located in Zone III, using the technique of Equivalent Static Method (ESM) as per Indian Standard Criteria For Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures IS 1893:2002. This paper intends to evaluate several parameters such as lateral displacement at tip, inter-storey drift, weight of steel and volume of concrete with the alteration of the shear wall with respect to different types viz., SPSW and RCSW. The strip model employed in this study is a widely accepted analytical tool for SPSW analysis. SPSW can be modelled as truss members by using a series of diagonal tension strips positioned at 45-degree angles. In this paper, by replacing the SPSWs with the tension strips, the G+6 building has been analyzed using STAAD.Pro V8i. Based on the present study, it can be concluded that structure with SPSWs is much better then structure with RCSWs.

Keywords: equivalent static method, inter-storey drift, lateral displacement, Steel plate shear wall, strip model

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15 Analytic Hierarchy Process and Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Approach for Selecting the Most Effective Soil Erosion Zone in Gomati River Basin

Authors: Rajesh Chakraborty, Dibyendu Das, Rabindra Nath Barman, Uttam Kumar Mandal


In the present study, the objective is to find out the most effective zone causing soil erosion in the Gumati river basin located in the state of Tripura, a north eastern state of India using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis (MOORA).The watershed is segmented into 20 zones based on Area. The watershed is considered by pointing the maximum elevation from sea lever from Google earth. The soil erosion is determined using the universal soil loss equation. The different independent variables of soil loss equation bear different weightage for different soil zones. And therefore, to find the weightage factor for all the variables of soil loss equation like rainfall runoff erosivity index, soil erodibility factor etc, analytical hierarchy process (AHP) is used. And thereafter, multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis (MOORA) approach is used to select the most effective zone causing soil erosion. The MCDM technique concludes that the maximum soil erosion is occurring in the zone 14.

Keywords: soil erosion, analytic hierarchy process (AHP), multi criteria decision making (MCDM), universal soil loss equation (USLE), multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis (MOORA)

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14 Exploring Paper Mill Sludge and Sugarcane Bagasse as Carrier Matrix in Solid State Fermentation for Carotenoid Pigment Production by Planococcus sp. TRC1

Authors: Subhasree Majumdar, Sovan Dey, Sayari Mukherjee, Sourav Dutta, Dalia Dasgupta Mandal


Bacterial isolates from Planococcus genus are known for the production of yellowish orange pigment that belongs to the carotenoid family. These pigments are of immense pharmacological importance as antioxidant, anticancer, eye and liver protective agent, etc. The production of this pigment in a cost effective manner is a challenging task. The present study explored paper mill sludge (PMS), a solid lignocellulosic waste generated in large quantities from pulp and paper mill industry as a substrate for carotenoid pigment production by Planococcus sp. TRC1. PMS was compared in terms of efficacy with sugarcane bagasse, which is a highly explored substrate for valuable product generation via solid state fermentation. The results showed that both the biomasses yielded the highest carotenoid during 48 hours of incubation, 31.6 mg/gm and 42.1 mg/gm for PMS and bagasse respectively. Compositional alterations of both the biomasses showed reduction in lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose content by 41%, 15%, 1% for PMS and 38%, 25% and 6% for sugarcane bagasse after 72 hours of incubation. Structural changes in the biomasses were examined by FT-IR, FESEM, and XRD which further confirmed modification of solid biomasses by bacterial isolate. This study revealed the potential of PMS to act as cheap substrate for carotenoid pigment production by Planococcus sp. TRC1, as it showed a significant production in comparison to sugarcane bagasse which gave only 1.3 fold higher production than PMS. Delignification of PMS by TRC1 during pigment production is another important finding for the reuse of this waste from the paper industry.

Keywords: carotenoid, lignocellulosic, paper mill sludge, Planococcus sp. TRC1, solid state fermentation, sugarcane bagasse

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13 Awareness on Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Disease among Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Attending Diabetic Clinic of B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences

Authors: Ram Sharan Mehta, Dina Khanal, Pushpa Parajuli, Gayanand Mandal, Bijaya Bartuala


Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Adequate awareness of risk factors of CVD is the first step towards effective preventive strategies to combat the CVD burden in diabetes patients.This study aims to assess the awareness on risk factors of CVD among patients with diabetes mellitus attending diabetic clinic of BPKIHS and to find the association between awareness with their selected socio demographic variables. Methods and Material: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among 112 patients with diabetes in diabetic clinic of BPKIHS. Convenient sampling technique was used for data collection over duration of one month using interview schedule by HDFQ II tool. Data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. (Chi square). Results: The mean age of respondents was 55.4±12.13 years. That mean HDFQ score was 14.31± 5.08. Only 33% of the respondents had adequate level of awareness whereas majority of the respondents (67%) had inadequate level of awareness. Majority of the respondent (83.9%) were aware about smoking, (78.6%) physical activity, (75%) increasing age, (75.9%) high blood pressure, (71.4%) overweight respectively. Whereas most of the respondents were not aware of high cholesterol, fatty diet, preventive strategies and association of diabetes with CVD. Awareness was statistically significant with (p=0.043) educational status, (p=0.025) monthly income, (p=0.05) residence, (p=0.006) CVD information received and (p=0.022) co morbid condition as a heart disease. Conclusion: The findings of this study concluded most of the respondents had an inadequate level of awareness on risk factors of CVD. So Effective education and appropriate preventive strategies of CVD are indeed important to reduce CVD burden in diabetes patients.

Keywords: cardiovascular disease, awareness, diabetes patients, risk

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12 Evaluation of Genetic Fidelity and Phytochemical Profiling of Micropropagated Plants of Cephalantheropsis obcordata: An Endangered Medicinal Orchid

Authors: Gargi Prasad, Ashiho A. Mao, Deepu Vijayan, S. Mandal


The main objective of the present study was to optimize and develop an efficient protocol for in vitro propagation of a medicinally important orchid Cephalantheropsis obcordata (Lindl.) Ormerod along with genetic stability analysis of regenerated plants. This plant has been traditionally used in Chinese folk medicine and the decoction of whole plant is known to possess anticancer activity. Nodal segments used as explants were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with various concentrations of isopentenyl adenine (2iP). The rooted plants were successfully acclimatized in the greenhouse with 100% survival rate. Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers were used to assess the genetic fidelity of in vitro raised plants and the mother plant. It was revealed that monomorphic bands showing the absence of polymorphism in all in vitro raised plantlets analyzed, confirming the genetic uniformity among the regenerants. Phytochemical analysis was done to compare the antioxidant activities and HPLC fingerprinting assay of 80% aqueous ethanol extract of the leaves and stem of in vitro and in vivo grown C. obcordata. The extracts of the plants were examined for their antioxidant activities by using free radical 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging method, 2,2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging ability, reducing power capacity, estimation of total phenolic content, flavonoid content and flavonol content. A simplified method for the detection of ascorbic acid, phenolic acids and flavonoids content was also developed by using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This is the first report on the micropropagation, genetic integrity study and quantitative phytochemical analysis of in vitro regenerated plants of C. obcordata.

Keywords: Cephalantheropsis obcordata, genetic fidelity, ISSR markers, HPLC

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11 Surface Modification of Co-Based Nanostructures to Develop Intrinsic Fluorescence and Catalytic Activity

Authors: Monalisa Pal, Kalyan Mandal


Herein we report the molecular functionalization of promising transition metal oxide nanostructures, such as Co3O4 nanocubes, using nontoxic and biocompati-ble organic ligand sodium tartrate. The electronic structural modification of the nanocubes imparted through functionalization and subsequent water solubilization reveals multiple absorption bands in the UV-vis region. Further surface modification of the solubilized nanocubes, leads to the emergence of intrinsic multi-color fluorescence (from blue, cyan, green to red region of the spectrum), upon excitation at proper wavelengths, where the respective excitation wavelengths have a direct correlation with the observed UV-vis absorption bands. Using a multitude of spectroscopic tools we have investigated the mechanistic insight behind the origin of different UV-vis absorption bands and emergence of multicolor photoluminescence from the functionalized nanocubes. Our detailed study shows that ligand to metal charge transfer (LMCT) from tartrate ligand to Co2+/Co3+ ions and d-d transitions involving Co2+/Co3+ ions are responsible for generation of this novel optical properties. Magnetic study reveals that, antiferromagnetic nature of Co3O4 nanocubes changes to ferromagnetic behavior upon functionalization, however, the overall magnetic response was very weak. To combine strong magnetism with this novel optical property, we followed the same surface modification strategy in case of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, which reveals that irrespective of size and shape, all Co-based oxides can develop intrinsic multi-color fluorescence upon facile functionalization with sodium tartrate ligands and the magnetic response was significantly higher. Surface modified Co-based oxide nanostructures also show excellent catalytic activity in degradation of biologically and environmentally harmful dyes. We hope that, our developed facile functionalization strategy of Co-based oxides will open up new opportunities in the field of biomedical applications such as bio-imaging and targeted drug delivery.

Keywords: co-based oxide nanostructures, functionalization, multi-color fluorescence, catalysis

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10 Design and Development of Bioactive a-Hydroxy Carboxylate Group Modified MnFe₂O₄ Nanoparticle: Comparative Fluorescence Study, Magnetism and DNA Nuclease Activity

Authors: Indranil Chakraborty, Kalyan Mandal


Three new α-hydroxy carboxylate group functionalized MnFe₂O₄ nanoparticles (NPs) have been developed to explore the microscopic origin of ligand modified fluorescence and magnetic properties of nearly monodispersed MnFe₂O₄ NPs. The surface functionalization has been carried out with three small organic ligands (tartrate, malate, and citrate) having different number of α-hydroxy carboxylate functional group along with steric effect. Detailed study unveils that α-hydroxy carboxylate moiety of the ligands plays key role to generate intrinsic fluorescence in functionalized MnFe₂O₄ NPs through the activation of ligand to metal charge transfer transitions, associated with ligand-Mn²⁺/Fe³⁺ interactions along with d-d transition corresponding to d-orbital energy level splitting of Fe³⁺ ions on NP surface. Further, MnFe₂O₄ NPs show a maximum 140.88% increase in coercivity and 97.95% decrease in magnetization compared to its bare one upon functionalization. The ligands that induce smallest crystal field splitting of d-orbital energy level of transition metal ions are found to result in strongest ferromagnetic activation of the NPs. Finally, our developed tartrate functionalized MnFe₂O₄ (T-MnFe₂O₄) NPs have been utilized for studying DNA binding interaction and nuclease activity for stimulating their beneficial activities toward diverse biomedical applications. The spectroscopic measurements indicate that T-MnFe₂O₄ NPs bind calf thymus DNA by intercalative mode. The ability of T-MnFe₂O₄ NPs to induce DNA cleavage was studied by gel electrophoresis technique where the complex is found to promote the cleavage of pBR322 plasmid DNA from the super coiled form I to linear coiled form II and nicked coiled form III with good efficiency. This may be taken into account for designing new biomolecular detection agents and anti-cancer drug which can open up a new door toward diverse non-invasive biomedical applications.

Keywords: MnFe₂O₄ nanoparticle, α-hydroxy carboxylic acid, comparative fluorescence, magnetism study, DNA interaction, nuclease activity

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9 Numerical Buckling of Composite Cylindrical Shells under Axial Compression Using Asymmetric Meshing Technique (AMT)

Authors: Zia R. Tahir, P. Mandal


This paper presents the details of a numerical study of buckling and post buckling behaviour of laminated carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) thin-walled cylindrical shell under axial compression using asymmetric meshing technique (AMT) by ABAQUS. AMT is considered to be a new perturbation method to introduce disturbance without changing geometry, boundary conditions or loading conditions. Asymmetric meshing affects both predicted buckling load and buckling mode shapes. Cylindrical shell having lay-up orientation [0°/+45°/-45°/0°] with radius to thickness ratio (R/t) equal to 265 and length to radius ratio (L/R) equal to 1.5 is analysed numerically. A series of numerical simulations (experiments) are carried out with symmetric and asymmetric meshing to study the effect of asymmetric meshing on predicted buckling behaviour. Asymmetric meshing technique is employed in both axial direction and circumferential direction separately using two different methods, first by changing the shell element size and varying the total number elements, and second by varying the shell element size and keeping total number of elements constant. The results of linear analysis (Eigenvalue analysis) and non-linear analysis (Riks analysis) using symmetric meshing agree well with analytical results. The results of numerical analysis are presented in form of non-dimensional load factor, which is the ratio of buckling load using asymmetric meshing technique to buckling load using symmetric meshing technique. Using AMT, load factor has about 2% variation for linear eigenvalue analysis and about 2% variation for non-linear Riks analysis. The behaviour of load end-shortening curve for pre-buckling is same for both symmetric and asymmetric meshing but for asymmetric meshing curve behaviour in post-buckling becomes extraordinarily complex. The major conclusions are: different methods of AMT have small influence on predicted buckling load and significant influence on load displacement curve behaviour in post buckling; AMT in axial direction and AMT in circumferential direction have different influence on buckling load and load displacement curve in post-buckling.

Keywords: CFRP composite cylindrical shell, asymmetric meshing technique, primary buckling, secondary buckling, linear eigenvalue analysis, non-linear riks analysis

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8 Reviewing Performance Assessment Frameworks for Urban Sanitation Services in India

Authors: Gaurav Vaidya, N. R. Mandal


UN Summit, 2000 had resolved to provide access to sanitation to whole humanity as part of ‘Millennium Development Goals -2015’. However, more than one third of world’s population still did not have the access to basic sanitation facilities by 2015. Therefore, it will be a gigantic challenge to achieve goal-6 of ‘UN Sustainable Development Goal’ to ensure availability and sustainable management of sanitation for all by the year 2030. Countries attempt to find out own ways of meeting this challenge of providing access to safe sanitation and as part of monitoring the actions have prepared varied types of ‘performance assessment frameworks (PAF)’. India introduced Service Level Benchmarking (SLB) in 2010 to set targets and achieve the goals of NUSP. Further, a method of reviewing performance was introduced as ‘Swachh Sarvekshan’ (Cleanliness Surveys) in 2016 and in 2017 guidelines for the same was revised. This study, as a first step, reviews the documents in use in India with a conclusion that the frameworks adopted are based on target setting, financial allocation and performance in achieving the targets set. However, it does not focus upon sanitation needs holistically i.e., areas and aspects not targeted through projects are not covered in the performance assessment. In this context, as a second step, this study reviews literature available on performance assessment frameworks for urban sanitation in selected other countries and compares the same with that in India. The outcome of the comparative review resulted in identification of unaddressed aspects as well as inadequacy of parameters in Indian context. Thirdly, in an attempt to restructure the performance assessment process and develop an index in urban sanitation, researches done in other urban services such as health and education were studied focusing on methods of measuring under-performance. As a fourth step, a tentative modified framework is suggested with the help of understanding drawn from above for urban sanitation using stages of Urban Sanitation Service Chain Management (SSCM) and modified set of parameters drawn from the literature review in the first and second steps. This paper reviews existing literature on SSCM procedures, Performance Index in sanitation and other urban services and identifies a tentative list of parameters and a framework for measuring under-performance in sanitation services. This may aid in preparation of a Service Delivery Under-performance Index (SDUI) in future.

Keywords: assessment, performance, sanitation, services

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7 Microstructure and Mechanical Properties Evaluation of Graphene-Reinforced AlSi10Mg Matrix Composite Produced by Powder Bed Fusion Process

Authors: Jitendar Kumar Tiwari, Ajay Mandal, N. Sathish, A. K. Srivastava


Since the last decade, graphene achieved great attention toward the progress of multifunction metal matrix composites, which are highly demanded in industries to develop energy-efficient systems. This study covers the two advanced aspects of the latest scientific endeavor, i.e., graphene as reinforcement in metallic materials and additive manufacturing (AM) as a processing technology. Herein, high-quality graphene and AlSi10Mg powder mechanically mixed by very low energy ball milling with 0.1 wt. % and 0.2 wt. % graphene. Mixed powder directly subjected to the powder bed fusion process, i.e., an AM technique to produce composite samples along with bare counterpart. The effects of graphene on porosity, microstructure, and mechanical properties were examined in this study. The volumetric distribution of pores was observed under X-ray computed tomography (CT). On the basis of relative density measurement by X-ray CT, it was observed that porosity increases after graphene addition, and pore morphology also transformed from spherical pores to enlarged flaky pores due to improper melting of composite powder. Furthermore, the microstructure suggests the grain refinement after graphene addition. The columnar grains were able to cross the melt pool boundaries in case of the bare sample, unlike composite samples. The smaller columnar grains were formed in composites due to heterogeneous nucleation by graphene platelets during solidification. The tensile properties get affected due to induced porosity irrespective of graphene reinforcement. The optimized tensile properties were achieved at 0.1 wt. % graphene. The increment in yield strength and ultimate tensile strength was 22% and 10%, respectively, for 0.1 wt. % graphene reinforced sample in comparison to bare counterpart while elongation decreases 20% for the same sample. The hardness indentations were taken mostly on the solid region in order to avoid the collapse of the pores. The hardness of the composite was increased progressively with graphene content. Around 30% of increment in hardness was achieved after the addition of 0.2 wt. % graphene. Therefore, it can be concluded that powder bed fusion can be adopted as a suitable technique to develop graphene reinforced AlSi10Mg composite. Though, some further process modification required to avoid the induced porosity after the addition of graphene, which can be addressed in future work.

Keywords: graphene, hardness, porosity, powder bed fusion, tensile properties

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