Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7052

Search results for: universal soil loss equation (USLE)

7052 Mathematical Model for Flow and Sediment Yield Estimation on Tel River Basin, India

Authors: Santosh Kumar Biswal, Ramakar Jha


Soil erosion is a slow and continuous process and one of the prominent problems across the world leading to many serious problems like loss of soil fertility, loss of soil structure, poor internal drainage, sedimentation deposits etc. In this paper remote sensing and GIS based methods have been applied for the determination of soil erosion and sediment yield. Tel River basin which is the second largest tributary of the river Mahanadi laying between latitude 19° 15' 32.4"N and, 20° 45' 0"N and longitude 82° 3' 36"E and 84° 18' 18"E chosen for the present study. The catchment was discretized into approximately homogeneous sub-areas (grid cells) to overcome the catchment heterogeneity. The gross soil erosion in each cell was computed using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). Various parameters for USLE was determined as a function of land topography, soil texture, land use/land cover, rainfall, erosivity and crop management and practice in the watershed. The concept of transport limited accumulation was formulated and the transport capacity maps were generated. The gross soil erosion was routed to the catchment outlet. This study can help in recognizing critical erosion prone areas of the study basin so that suitable control measures can be implemented.

Keywords: Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), GIS, land use, sediment yield,

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7051 Soil Loss Assessment at Steep Slope: A Case Study at the Guthrie Corridor Expressway, Selangor, Malaysia

Authors: Rabiul Islam


The study was in order to assess soil erosion at plot scale Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) erosion model and Geographic Information System (GIS) technique have been used for the study 8 plots in Guthrie Corridor Expressway, Selangor, Malaysia. The USLE model estimates an average soil loss soil integrating several factors such as rainfall erosivity factor(R ), Soil erodibility factor (K), slope length and steepness factor (LS), vegetation cover factor as well as conservation practice factor (C &P) and Results shows that the four plots have very low rates of soil loss, i.e. NLDNM, NDNM, PLDM, and NDM having an average soil loss of 0.059, 0.106, 0.386 and 0.372 ton/ha/ year, respectively. The NBNM, PLDNM and NLDM plots had a relatively higher rate of soil loss, with an average of 0.678, 0.757 and 0.493ton/ha/year. Whereas, the NBM is one of the highest rate of soil loss from 0.842 ton/ha/year to maximum 16.466 ton/ha/year. The NBM plot was located at bare the land; hence the magnitude of C factor(C=0.15) was the highest one.

Keywords: USLE model, GIS, Guthrie Corridor Expressway (GCE), Malaysia

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7050 Estimating Soil Erosion Using Universal Soil Loss Equation and Gis in Algash Basin

Authors: Issamaldin Mohammed, Ahmed Abdalla, Hatim Elobied


Soil erosion is globally known for adverse effects on social, environmental and economical aspects which directly or indirectly influence the human life. The area under study suffers from problems like water quality, river and agricultural canals bed rise due to high sediment load brought by Algash River from upstream (Eritrea high land), the current study utilized from remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) to estimate the annual soil loss using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). The USLE is widely used over the world which basically relies on rainfall erosivity factor (R), soil erodibility factor (K), topographic factor (LS), cover management factor (C) and support practice factor (P). The result of the study showed high soil loss in the study area, this result was illustrated in a form of map presenting the spatial distribution of soil loss amounts which classified into seven zones ranging from very slight zone (less than 2 ton/ha.year) to very severe (100-500 ton/ha.year), also the total soil loss from the whole study area was found to be 32,916,840.87 ton/ha.year. These kinds of results will help the experts of land management to give a priority for the severely affected zones to be tackled in an appropriate way.

Keywords: Geographical Information System, remote sensing, sedimentation, soil loss

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7049 Developing a Web GIS Tool for the Evaluation of Soil Erosion of a Watershed

Authors: Y. Fekir, K. Mederbal, M. A. Hamadouche, D. Anteur


The soil erosion by water has become one of the biggest problems of the environment in the world, threatening the majority of countries. There are several models to evaluate erosion. These models are still a simplified representation of reality. They permit the analysis of complex systems, measurements are complementary to allow an extrapolation in time and space and may combine different factors. The empirical model of soil loss proposed by Wischmeier and Smith (Universal Soil Loss Equation), is widely used in many countries. He considers that erosion is a multiplicative function of five factors: rainfall erosivity (the R factor) the soil erodibility factor (K), topography (LS), the erosion control practices (P) and vegetation cover and agricultural practices (C). In this work, we tried to develop a tool based on Web GIS functionality to evaluate soil losses caused by erosion taking into account five factors. This tool allows the user to integrate all the data needed for the evaluation (DEM, Land use, rainfall ...) in the form of digital layers to calculate the five factors taken into account in the USLE equation (R, K, C, P, LS). Accordingly, and after treatment of the integrated data set, a map of the soil losses will be achieved as a result. We tested the proposed tool on a watershed basin located in the weste of Algeria where a dataset was collected and prepared.

Keywords: USLE, erosion, web gis, Algeria

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7048 Analytic Hierarchy Process and Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Approach for Selecting the Most Effective Soil Erosion Zone in Gomati River Basin

Authors: Rajesh Chakraborty, Dibyendu Das, Rabindra Nath Barman, Uttam Kumar Mandal


In the present study, the objective is to find out the most effective zone causing soil erosion in the Gumati river basin located in the state of Tripura, a north eastern state of India using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis (MOORA).The watershed is segmented into 20 zones based on Area. The watershed is considered by pointing the maximum elevation from sea lever from Google earth. The soil erosion is determined using the universal soil loss equation. The different independent variables of soil loss equation bear different weightage for different soil zones. And therefore, to find the weightage factor for all the variables of soil loss equation like rainfall runoff erosivity index, soil erodibility factor etc, analytical hierarchy process (AHP) is used. And thereafter, multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis (MOORA) approach is used to select the most effective zone causing soil erosion. The MCDM technique concludes that the maximum soil erosion is occurring in the zone 14.

Keywords: soil erosion, analytic hierarchy process (AHP), multi criteria decision making (MCDM), universal soil loss equation (USLE), multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis (MOORA)

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7047 The Use of Empirical Models to Estimate Soil Erosion in Arid Ecosystems and the Importance of Native Vegetation

Authors: Meshal M. Abdullah, Rusty A. Feagin, Layla Musawi


When humans mismanage arid landscapes, soil erosion can become a primary mechanism that leads to desertification. This study focuses on applying soil erosion models to a disturbed landscape in Umm Nigga, Kuwait, and identifying its predicted change under restoration plans, The northern portion of Umm Nigga, containing both coastal and desert ecosystems, falls within the boundaries of the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) adjacent to Iraq, and has been fenced off to restrict public access since 1994. The central objective of this project was to utilize GIS and remote sensing to compare the MPSIAC (Modified Pacific South West Inter Agency Committee), EMP (Erosion Potential Method), and USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation) soil erosion models and determine their applicability for arid regions such as Kuwait. Spatial analysis was used to develop the necessary datasets for factors such as soil characteristics, vegetation cover, runoff, climate, and topography. Results showed that the MPSIAC and EMP models produced a similar spatial distribution of erosion, though the MPSIAC had more variability. For the MPSIAC model, approximately 45% of the land surface ranged from moderate to high soil loss, while 35% ranged from moderate to high for the EMP model. The USLE model had contrasting results and a different spatial distribution of the soil loss, with 25% of area ranging from moderate to high erosion, and 75% ranging from low to very low. We concluded that MPSIAC and EMP were the most suitable models for arid regions in general, with the MPSIAC model best. We then applied the MPSIAC model to identify the amount of soil loss between coastal and desert areas, and fenced and unfenced sites. In the desert area, soil loss was different between fenced and unfenced sites. In these desert fenced sites, 88% of the surface was covered with vegetation and soil loss was very low, while at the desert unfenced sites it was 3% and correspondingly higher. In the coastal areas, the amount of soil loss was nearly similar between fenced and unfenced sites. These results implied that vegetation cover played an important role in reducing soil erosion, and that fencing is much more important in the desert ecosystems to protect against overgrazing. When applying the MPSIAC model predictively, we found that vegetation cover could be increased from 3% to 37% in unfenced areas, and soil erosion could then decrease by 39%. We conclude that the MPSIAC model is best to predict soil erosion for arid regions such as Kuwait.

Keywords: soil erosion, GIS, modified pacific South west inter agency committee model (MPSIAC), erosion potential method (EMP), Universal soil loss equation (USLE)

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7046 Erosion Susceptibility Zoning and Prioritization of Micro-Watersheds: A Remote Sensing-Gis Based Study of Asan River Basin, Western Doon Valley, India

Authors: Pijush Roy, Vinay Kumar Rai


The present study highlights the estimation of soil loss and identification of critical area for implementation of best management practice is central to the success of soil conservation programme. The quantification of morphometric and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) factors using remote sensing and GIS for prioritization of micro-watersheds in Asan River catchment, western Doon valley at foothills of Siwalik ranges in the Dehradun districts of Uttarakhand, India. The watershed has classified as a dendritic pattern with sixth order stream. The area is classified into very high, high, moderately high, medium and low susceptibility zones. High to very high erosion zone exists in the urban area and agricultural land. Average annual soil loss of 64 tons/ha/year has been estimated for the watershed. The optimum management practices proposed for micro-watersheds of Asan River basin are; afforestation, contour bunding suitable sites for water harvesting structure as check dam and soil conservation, agronomical measure and bench terrace.

Keywords: erosion susceptibility zones, morphometric characteristics, prioritization, remote sensing and GIS, universal soil loss equation

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7045 Estimation of Soil Erosion and Sediment Yield for ONG River Using GIS

Authors: Sanjay Kumar Behera, Kanhu Charan Patra


A GIS-based method has been applied for the determination of soil erosion and sediment yield in a small watershed in Ong River basin, Odisha, India. The method involves spatial disintegration of the catchment into homogenous grid cells to capture the catchment heterogeneity. The gross soil erosion in each cell was calculated using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) by carefully determining its various parameters. The concept of sediment delivery ratio is used to route surface erosion from each of the discretized cells to the catchment outlet. The process of sediment delivery from grid cells to the catchment outlet is represented by the topographical characteristics of the cells. The effect of DEM resolution on sediment yield is analyzed using two different resolutions of DEM. The spatial discretization of the catchment and derivation of the physical parameters related to erosion in the cell are performed through GIS techniques.

Keywords: DEM, GIS, sediment delivery ratio, sediment yield, soil erosion

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7044 Soil Erosion Assessment Using the RUSLE Model, Remote Sensing, and GIS in the Shatt Al-Arab Basin (Iraq-Iran)

Authors: Hadi Allafta, Christian Opp


Soil erosion is a major concern in the Shatt Al-Arab basin owing to the steepness of its topography as well as the remarkable altitudinal deference between the upstream and downstream parts of the basin. Such conditions resulted in soil vulnerability to erosion; huge amounts of soil are annually transported, creating enormous implications such as land degradation, structure damage, biodiversity loss, productivity decline, etc. Thus, evaluation of soil erosion risk and its spatial distribution is crucial to build adatabase for efficient control measures. The present study used revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) model integrated with Geographic Information System (GIS) for depicting soil erosion hazard zones in the Shatt Al-Arab basin. The RUSLE model incorporated several parameters such as rainfall-runoff erosivity, soil erodibility, slope length and steepness, land cover and management, and conservation support practice for soil erosion zonation. High to medium soil loss of 100 to 20 ton perhectare per year represents around 25% of the basin area, while the areas of low soil loss of less than 20 ton per hectare per year occupied the rest of the total area. The high soil loss rates are linked to areas of high rainfall levels, loamy soil domination, elevated terrains/plateau margins with steep side slope, and high cultivation activities. The findings of the current study can be useful for managers and policy makers in the implementation of a suitable conservation program to reduce soil erosion or to recommend soil conservation acts if development projects are to be continued at regions of high soil erosion risk.

Keywords: geographic information system, revised universal soil loss equation, shatt Al-Arab basin, soil erosion

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7043 Investigating the Impacts of Climate Change on Soil Erosion: A Case Study of Kasilian Watershed, Northern Iran

Authors: Mohammad Zare, Mahbubeh Sheikh


Many of the impact of climate change will material through change in soil erosion which were rarely addressed in Iran. This paper presents an investigation of the impacts of climate change soil erosin for the Kasilian basin. LARS-WG5 was used to downscale the IPCM4 and GFCM21 predictions of the A2 scenarios for the projected periods of 1985-2030 and 2080-2099. This analysis was carried out by means of the dataset the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) of Trieste. Soil loss modeling using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). Results indicate that soil erosion increase or decrease, depending on which climate scenarios are considered. The potential for climate change to increase soil loss rate, soil erosion in future periods was established, whereas considerable decreases in erosion are projected when land use is increased from baseline periods.

Keywords: Kasilian watershed, climatic change, soil erosion, LARS-WG5 Model, RUSLE

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7042 Determining the Sources of Sediment at Different Areas of the Catchment: A Case Study of Welbedacht Reservoir, South Africa

Authors: D. T. Chabalala, J. M. Ndambuki, M. F. Ilunga


Sedimentation includes the processes of erosion, transportation, deposition, and the compaction of sediment. Sedimentation in reservoir results in a decrease in water storage capacity, downstream problems involving aggregation and degradation, blockage of the intake, and change in water quality. A study was conducted in Caledon River catchment in the upstream of Welbedacht Reservoir located in the South Eastern part of Free State province, South Africa. The aim of this research was to investigate and develop a model for an Integrated Catchment Modelling of Sedimentation processes and management for the Welbedacht reservoir. Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) was applied to determine sources of sediment at different areas of the catchment. The model has been also used to determine the impact of changes from management practice on erosion generation. The results revealed that the main sources of sediment in the watershed are cultivated land (273 ton per hectare), built up and forest (103.3 ton per hectare), and grassland, degraded land, mining and quarry (3.9, 9.8 and 5.3 ton per hectare) respectively. After application of soil conservation practices to developed Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation model, the results revealed that the total average annual soil loss in the catchment decreased by 76% and sediment yield from cultivated land decreased by 75%, while the built up and forest area decreased by 42% and 99% respectively. Thus, results of this study will be used by government departments in order to develop sustainable policies.

Keywords: Welbedacht reservoir, sedimentation, RUSLE, Caledon River

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
7041 Evaluation of Soil Erosion Risk and Prioritization for Implementation of Management Strategies in Morocco

Authors: Lahcen Daoudi, Fatima Zahra Omdi, Abldelali Gourfi


In Morocco, as in most Mediterranean countries, water scarcity is a common situation because of low and unevenly distributed rainfall. The expansions of irrigated lands, as well as the growth of urban and industrial areas and tourist resorts, contribute to an increase of water demand. Therefore in the 1960s Morocco embarked on an ambitious program to increase the number of dams to boost water retention capacity. However, the decrease in the capacity of these reservoirs caused by sedimentation is a major problem; it is estimated at 75 million m3/year. Dams and reservoirs became unusable for their intended purposes due to sedimentation in large rivers that result from soil erosion. Soil erosion presents an important driving force in the process affecting the landscape. It has become one of the most serious environmental problems that raised much interest throughout the world. Monitoring soil erosion risk is an important part of soil conservation practices. The estimation of soil loss risk is the first step for a successful control of water erosion. The aim of this study is to estimate the soil loss risk and its spatial distribution in the different fields of Morocco and to prioritize areas for soil conservation interventions. The approach followed is the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) using remote sensing and GIS, which is the most popular empirically based model used globally for erosion prediction and control. This model has been tested in many agricultural watersheds in the world, particularly for large-scale basins due to the simplicity of the model formulation and easy availability of the dataset. The spatial distribution of the annual soil loss was elaborated by the combination of several factors: rainfall erosivity, soil erodability, topography, and land cover. The average annual soil loss estimated in several basins watershed of Morocco varies from 0 to 50t/ha/year. Watersheds characterized by high-erosion-vulnerability are located in the North (Rif Mountains) and more particularly in the Central part of Morocco (High Atlas Mountains). This variation of vulnerability is highly correlated to slope variation which indicates that the topography factor is the main agent of soil erosion within these basin catchments. These results could be helpful for the planning of natural resources management and for implementing sustainable long-term management strategies which are necessary for soil conservation and for increasing over the projected economic life of the dam implemented.

Keywords: soil loss, RUSLE, GIS-remote sensing, watershed, Morocco

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7040 Major Gullies Erosion Sites and Volume of Soil Loss in Edo State, Nigeria

Authors: Augustine Osayande


This research is on Major Gullies Erosion Sites and Volume of Soil Loss in Edo State, Nigeria. The primary objective was to identify notable gullies sites and quantify the volume of soil loss in the study area. Direct field observation and measurement of gullies dimensions was done with the help of research assistants using a measuring tape, Camera and 3percent accuracy Global Positioning System (GPS). The result revealed that notable gullies in the area have resulted in the loss of lives and properties, destruction of arable lands and wastage of large areas of usable lands. Gullies in Edo North have Mean Volume of Soil Loss of 614, 763.33 m³, followed by Edo South with 79,604.76 m³ and Edo Central is 46,242.98 m³ and as such an average of 1,772, 888.7m3 of soil is lost annually in the study area due to gully erosion problem. The danger of gully erosion in helpless regions like Edo State called for urgent remedies in order to arrest the further loss of soil, buildings and other properties.

Keywords: Edo, magnitude, gully, volume, soil, sloss

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7039 Soil Mass Loss Reduction during Rainfalls by Reinforcing the Slopes with the Surficial Confinement

Authors: Ramli Nazir, Hossein Moayedi


Soil confinement systems serve as effective solutions to any erosion control project. Various confinements systems, namely triangular, circular and rectangular with the size of 50, 100, and 150 mm, and with a depth of 10 mm, were embedded in soil samples at slope angle of 60°. The observed soil mass losses for the confined soil systems were much smaller than those from unconfined system. As a result, the size of confinement and rainfall intensity have a direct effect on the soil mass loss. The triangular and rectangular confinement systems showed the lowest and highest soil loss masses, respectively. The slopes also failed much faster in the unconfined system than in the confined slope.

Keywords: erosion control, soil confinement, soil erosion, slope stability

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7038 Laboratory Testing Regime for Quantifying Soil Collapsibility

Authors: Anne C. Okwedadi, Samson Ng’ambi, Ian Jefferson


Collapsible soils go through radical rearrangement of their particles when triggered by water, stress or/and vibration, causing loss of volume. This loss of volume in soil as seen in foundation failures has caused millions of dollars’ worth of damages to public facilities and infrastructure and so has an adverse effect on the society and people. Despite these consequences and the several studies that are available, more research is still required in the study of soil collapsibility. Discerning the pedogenesis (formation) of soils and investigating the combined effects of the different geological soil properties is key to elucidating and quantifying soils collapsibility. This study presents a novel laboratory testing regime that would be undertaken on soil samples where the effects of soil type, compactive variables (moisture content, density, void ratio, degree of saturation) and loading are analyzed. It is anticipated that results obtained would be useful in mapping the trend of the combined effect thus the basis for evaluating soil collapsibility or collapse potentials encountered in construction with volume loss problems attributed to collapse.

Keywords: collapsible soil, geomorphological process, soil collapsibility properties, soil test

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7037 Determination of Soil Loss by Erosion in Different Land Covers Categories and Slope Classes in Bovilla Watershed, Tirana, Albania

Authors: Valmir Baloshi, Fran Gjoka, Nehat Çollaku, Elvin Toromani


As a sediment production mechanism, soil erosion is the main environmental threat to the Bovilla watershed, including the decline of water quality of the Bovilla reservoir that provides drinking water to Tirana city (the capital of Albania). Therefore, an experiment with 25 erosion plots for soil erosion monitoring has been set up since June 2017. The aim was to determine the soil loss on plot and watershed scale in Bovilla watershed (Tirana region) for implementation of soil and water protection measures or payments for ecosystem services (PES) programs. The results of erosion monitoring for the period June 2017 - May 2018 showed that the highest values of surface runoff were noted in bare land of 38829.91 liters on slope of 74% and the lowest values in forest land of 12840.6 liters on slope of 64% while the highest values of soil loss were found in bare land of 595.15 t/ha on slope of 62% and lowest values in forest land of 18.99 t/ha on slope of 64%. These values are much higher than the average rate of soil loss in the European Union (2.46 ton/ha/year). In the same sloping class, the soil loss was reduced from orchard or bare land to the forest land, and in the same category of land use, the soil loss increased with increasing land slope. It is necessary to conduct chemical analyses of sediments to determine the amount of chemical elements leached out of the soil and end up in the reservoir of Bovilla. It is concluded that PES programs should be implemented for rehabilitation of sub-watersheds Ranxe, Vilez and Zall-Bastar of the Bovilla watershed with valuable conservation practices.

Keywords: ANOVA, Bovilla, land cover, slope, soil loss, watershed management

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7036 Comparison of Petrophysical Relationship for Soil Water Content Estimation at Peat Soil Area Using GPR Common-Offset Measurements

Authors: Nurul Izzati Abd Karim, Samira Albati Kamaruddin, Rozaimi Che Hasan


The appropriate petrophysical relationship is needed for Soil Water Content (SWC) estimation especially when using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). Ground penetrating radar is a geophysical tool that provides indirectly the parameter of SWC. This paper examines the performance of few published petrophysical relationships to obtain SWC estimates from in-situ GPR common- offset survey measurements with gravimetric measurements at peat soil area. Gravimetric measurements were conducted to support of GPR measurements for the accuracy assessment. Further, GPR with dual frequencies (250MHhz and 700MHz) were used in the survey measurements to obtain the dielectric permittivity. Three empirical equations (i.e., Roth’s equation, Schaap’s equation and Idi’s equation) were selected for the study, used to compute the soil water content from dielectric permittivity of the GPR profile. The results indicate that Schaap’s equation provides strong correlation with SWC as measured by GPR data sets and gravimetric measurements.

Keywords: common-offset measurements, ground penetrating radar, petrophysical relationship, soil water content

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7035 Existence Theory for First Order Functional Random Differential Equations

Authors: Rajkumar N. Ingle


In this paper, the existence of a solution of nonlinear functional random differential equations of the first order is proved under caratheodory condition. The study of the functional random differential equation has got importance in the random analysis of the dynamical systems of universal phenomena. Objectives: Nonlinear functional random differential equation is useful to the scientists, engineers, and mathematicians, who are engaged in N.F.R.D.E. analyzing a universal random phenomenon, govern by nonlinear random initial value problems of D.E. Applications of this in the theory of diffusion or heat conduction. Methodology: Using the concepts of probability theory, functional analysis, generally the existence theorems for the nonlinear F.R.D.E. are prove by using some tools such as fixed point theorem. The significance of the study: Our contribution will be the generalization of some well-known results in the theory of Nonlinear F.R.D.E.s. Further, it seems that our study will be useful to scientist, engineers, economists and mathematicians in their endeavors to analyses the nonlinear random problems of the universe in a better way.

Keywords: Random Fixed Point Theorem, functional random differential equation, N.F.R.D.E., universal random phenomenon

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7034 Evaluating the Effects of Rainfall and Agricultural Practices on Soil Erosion (Palapye Case Study)

Authors: Mpaphi Major


Soil erosion is becoming an important aspect of land degradation. Therefore it is of great consideration to note any factor that may escalate the rate of soil erosion in our arable land. There exist 3 main driving forces in soil erosion which are rainfall, wind and land use of which in this project only rainfall and land use will be looked at. With the increase in world population at an alarming rate, the demand for food production is expected to increase which will in turn lead to more land being converted from forests to agricultural use of which very few of it are now fertile. In our country Botswana, the rate of crop production is decreasing due to the wearing away of the fertile top soil and poor arable land management. As a result, some studies on the rate of soil loss and farm management practices should be conducted so that best soil and water conservation practices should be employed and hence reduce the risk of soil loss and increase the rate of crop production and yield. The Soil loss estimation model for Southern Africa (SLEMSA) will be used to estimate the rate of soil loss in some selected arable farms within the Palapye watershed and some field observations will be made to determine the management practices used and their impact on the arable land. Upon observations it have been found that many arable fields have been exposed to soil erosion, of which the affected parts are no longer suitable for any crop production unless the land areas are modified. Improper land practices such as ploughing along the slope and land cultivation practices were observed. As a result farmers need to be educated on best conservation practices that can be used to manage their arable land hence reduced risk of soil erosion and improved crop production.

Keywords: soil and water conservation, soil erosion, SLEMSA, land degradation

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7033 Comparison of Different Techniques to Estimate Surface Soil Moisture

Authors: S. Farid F. Mojtahedi, Ali Khosravi, Behnaz Naeimian, S. Adel A. Hosseini


Land subsidence is a gradual settling or sudden sinking of the land surface from changes that take place underground. There are different causes of land subsidence; most notably, ground-water overdraft and severe weather conditions. Subsidence of the land surface due to ground water overdraft is caused by an increase in the intergranular pressure in unconsolidated aquifers, which results in a loss of buoyancy of solid particles in the zone dewatered by the falling water table and accordingly compaction of the aquifer. On the other hand, exploitation of underground water may result in significant changes in degree of saturation of soil layers above the water table, increasing the effective stress in these layers, and considerable soil settlements. This study focuses on estimation of soil moisture at surface using different methods. Specifically, different methods for the estimation of moisture content at the soil surface, as an important term to solve Richard’s equation and estimate soil moisture profile are presented, and their results are discussed through comparison with field measurements obtained from Yanco1 station in south-eastern Australia. Surface soil moisture is not easy to measure at the spatial scale of a catchment. Due to the heterogeneity of soil type, land use, and topography, surface soil moisture may change considerably in space and time.

Keywords: artificial neural network, empirical method, remote sensing, surface soil moisture, unsaturated soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
7032 Estimation of Soil Erosion Potential in Herat Province, Afghanistan

Authors: M. E. Razipoor, T. Masunaga, K. Sato, M. S. Saboory


Estimation of soil erosion is economically and environmentally important in Herat, Afghanistan. Degradation of soil has negative impact (decreased soil fertility, destroyed soil structure, and consequently soil sealing and crusting) on life of Herat residents. Water and wind are the main erosive factors causing soil erosion in Herat. Furthermore, scarce vegetation cover, exacerbated by socioeconomic constraint, and steep slopes accelerate soil erosion. To sustain soil productivity and reduce soil erosion impact on human life, due to sustaining agricultural production and auditing the environment, it is needed to quantify the magnitude and extent of soil erosion in a spatial domain. Thus, this study aims to estimate soil loss potential and its spatial distribution in Herat, Afghanistan by applying RUSLE in GIS environment. The rainfall erosivity factor ranged between values of 125 and 612 (MJ mm ha-1 h-1 year-1). Soil erodibility factor varied from 0.036 to 0.073 (Mg h MJ-1 mm-1). Slope length and steepness factor (LS) values were between 0.03 and 31.4. The vegetation cover factor (C), derived from NDVI analysis of Landsat-8 OLI scenes, resulting in range of 0.03 to 1. Support practice factor (P) were assigned to a value of 1, since there is not significant mitigation practices in the study area. Soil erosion potential map was the product of these factors. Mean soil erosion rate of Herat Province was 29 Mg ha-1 year-1 that ranged from 0.024 Mg ha-1 year-1 in flat areas with dense vegetation cover to 778 Mg ha-1 year-1 in sharp slopes with high rainfall but least vegetation cover. Based on land cover map of Afghanistan, areas with soil loss rate higher than soil loss tolerance (8 Mg ha-1 year-1) occupies 98% of Forests, 81% rangelands, 64% barren lands, 60% rainfed lands, 28% urban area and 18% irrigated Lands.

Keywords: Afghanistan, erosion, GIS, Herat, RUSLE

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7031 Investigating the Contribution of Road Construction on Soil Erosion, a Case Study of Engcobo Local Municipality, Chris Hani District, South Africa

Authors: Yamkela Zitwana


Soil erosion along the roads and/or road riparian areas has become a norm in the Eastern Cape. Soil erosion refers to the detachment and transportation of soil from one area (onsite) to another (offsite). This displacement or removal of soil can be caused by water, air and sometimes gravity. This will focus on accelerated soil erosion which is the result of human interference with the environment. Engcobo local municipality falls within the Eastern Cape Province in the eastern side of CHRIS HANI District municipality. The focus road is R61 protruding from the Engcobo town outskirts along the Nyanga SSS on the way to Umtata although it will cover few Kilometers away from Engcobo. This research aims at looking at the contribution made by road construction to soil erosion. Steps to achieve the result will involve revisiting the phases of road construction through unstructured interviews, identifying the types of soil erosion evident in the area by doing a checklist, checking the material, utensils and equipment used for road construction and the contribution of road construction through stratified random sampling checking the soil color and texture. This research will use a pragmatic approach which combines related methods and consider the flaws of each method so as to ensure validity, precision and accuracy. Both qualitative and quantitative methods will be used. Statistical methods and GIS analysis will be used to analyze the collected data.

Keywords: soil erosion, road riparian, accelerated soil erosion, road construction, sampling, universal soil loss model, GIS analysis, focus groups, qualitative, quantitative method, research, checklist questionnaires, unstructured interviews, pragmatic approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
7030 Effects of Adding Gypsum in Agricultural Land on Mitigating Splash Erosion on Sandy Loam and Loam Soil Textures, Afghanistan

Authors: Abdul Malik Dawlatzai, Shafiqullah Rahmani


Splash erosion in field has affected by factors; slope, rain intensity, soil properties, and plant cover. And also, soil erosion affects not only farmland productivity but also water quality downstream. There are a number of potential soil conservation practices, but many of these are complicated and relatively expensive, such as buffer strips, agro-forestry, counter banking, catchment canal, terracing, surface mulching, reduced tillage, etc. However, mitigation soil and water loss in agricultural land, particularly in arid and semi-arid climatic conditions, is indispensable for environmental protection and agricultural production. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of adding gypsum mineral on mitigating splash erosion caused by rain drop. The research was conducted in soil laboratory Badam Bagh Agricultural Researching Farm, Kabul, Afghanistan. The stainless steel cores were used, and constant water pressure was controlled by a Mariotte’s bottle with kinetic energy of raindrops 2.36 x 10⁻⁵J. Gypsum mineral was applied at a rate of 5 and 10 t ha⁻¹ and using a sandy loam and loam soil textures. The result was showed an average soil loss from sandy loam soil texture; control was 8.22%, 4.31% and 4.06% similar from loam soil texture, control was 7.26%, 2.89%, and 2.72% respectively. The application of gypsum mineral significantly (P < 0.05) reduced dispersion of soil particles caused by the impact of raindrops compared to control. Therefore, it was concluded that the addition of gypsum was effective as a measure for mitigating splash erosion.

Keywords: gypsum, soil loss, splash erosion, Afghanistan

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7029 Leaching Losses of Fertilizer Nitrogen as Affected by Sulfur and Nitrification Inhibitor Applications

Authors: Abdel Khalek Selim, Safaa Mahmoud


Experiments were designed to study nitrogen loss through leaching in soil columns treated with different nitrogen sources and elemental sulfur. The soil material (3 kg alluvial or calcareous soil) were packed in Plexiglas columns (10 cm diameter). The soil columns were treated with 2 g N in the form of Ca(NO3)2, urea, urea + inhibitor (Nitrapyrin), another set of these treatments was prepared to add elemental sulfur. During incubation period, leaching was performed by applying a volume of water that allows the percolation of 250-ml water throughout the soil column. The leachates were analyzed for NH4-N and N03-N. After 10 weeks, soil columns were cut into four equal segments and analyzed for ammonium, nitrate, and total nitrogen. Results indicated the following: Ca(NO3)2 treatment showed a rapid NO3 leaching, especially in the first 3 weeks, in both clay and calcareous soils. This means that soil texture did not play any role in this respect. Sulfur addition also did not affect the rate of NO3 leaching. In urea treatment, there was a steady increase of NH4- and NO3–N from one leachate to another. Addition of sulfur with urea slowed down the nitrification process and decreased N losses. Clay soil contained residual N much more than calcareous soil. Almost one-third of added nitrogen might have been immobilized by soil microorganisms or lost through other loss paths. Nitrification inhibitor can play a role in preserving added nitrogen from being lost through leaching. Combining the inhibitor with elemental sulfur may help to stabilize certain preferred ratio of NH4 to NO3 in the soil for the benefit of the growing plants.

Keywords: alluvial soil, calcareous soil, elemental sulfur, nitrate leaching

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7028 Estimation of Soil Moisture at High Resolution through Integration of Optical and Microwave Remote Sensing and Applications in Drought Analyses

Authors: Donglian Sun, Yu Li, Paul Houser, Xiwu Zhan


California experienced severe drought conditions in the past years. In this study, the drought conditions in California are analyzed using soil moisture anomalies derived from integrated optical and microwave satellite observations along with auxiliary land surface data. Based on the U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM) classifications, three typical drought conditions were selected for the analysis: extreme drought conditions in 2007 and 2013, severe drought conditions in 2004 and 2009, and normal conditions in 2005 and 2006. Drought is defined as negative soil moisture anomaly. To estimate soil moisture at high spatial resolutions, three approaches are explored in this study: the universal triangle model that estimates soil moisture from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Land Surface Temperature (LST); the basic model that estimates soil moisture under different conditions with auxiliary data like precipitation, soil texture, topography, and surface types; and the refined model that uses accumulated precipitation and its lagging effects. It is found that the basic model shows better agreements with the USDM classifications than the universal triangle model, while the refined model using precipitation accumulated from the previous summer to current time demonstrated the closest agreements with the USDM patterns.

Keywords: soil moisture, high resolution, regional drought, analysis and monitoring

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7027 Effects of Watershed Erosion on Stream Channel Formation

Authors: Tiao Chang, Ivan Caballero, Hong Zhou


Streams carry water and sediment naturally by maintaining channel dimensions, pattern, and profile over time. Watershed erosion as a natural process has occurred to contribute sediment to streams over time. The formation of channel dimensions is complex. This study is to relate quantifiable and consistent channel dimensions at the bankfull stage to the corresponding watershed erosion estimation by the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). Twelve sites of which drainage areas range from 7 to 100 square miles in the Hocking River Basin of Ohio were selected for the bankfull geometry determinations including width, depth, cross-section area, bed slope, and drainage area. The twelve sub-watersheds were chosen to obtain a good overall representation of the Hocking River Basin. It is of interest to determine how these bankfull channel dimensions are related to the soil erosion of corresponding sub-watersheds. Soil erosion is a natural process that has occurred in a watershed over time. The RUSLE was applied to estimate erosions of the twelve selected sub-watersheds where the bankfull geometry measurements were conducted. These quantified erosions of sub-watersheds are used to investigate correlations with bankfull channel dimensions including discharge, channel width, channel depth, cross-sectional area, and pebble distribution. It is found that drainage area, bankfull discharge and cross-sectional area correlates strongly with watershed erosion well. Furthermore, bankfull width and depth are moderately correlated with watershed erosion while the particle size, D50, of channel bed sediment is not well correlated with watershed erosion.

Keywords: watershed, stream, sediment, channel

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7026 Modelling of Moisture Loss and Oil Uptake during Deep-Fat Frying of Plantain

Authors: James A. Adeyanju, John O. Olajide, Akinbode A. Adedeji


A predictive mathematical model based on the fundamental principles of mass transfer was developed to simulate the moisture content and oil content during Deep-Fat Frying (DFF) process of dodo. The resulting governing equation, that is, partial differential equation that describes rate of moisture loss and oil uptake was solved numerically using explicit Finite Difference Technique (FDT). Computer codes were written in MATLAB environment for the implementation of FDT at different frying conditions and moisture loss as well as oil uptake simulation during DFF of dodo. Plantain samples were sliced into 5 mm thickness and fried at different frying oil temperatures (150, 160 and 170 ⁰C) for periods varying from 2 to 4 min. The comparison between the predicted results and experimental data for the validation of the model showed reasonable agreement. The correlation coefficients between the predicted and experimental values of moisture and oil transfer models ranging from 0.912 to 0.947 and 0.895 to 0.957, respectively. The predicted results could be further used for the design, control and optimization of deep-fat frying process.

Keywords: frying, moisture loss, modelling, oil uptake

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7025 Weight Loss Degradation of Hybrid Blends LLDPE/Starch/PVA Upon Exposure to UV Light and Soil Burial

Authors: Rahmah M., Noor Zuhaira Abd Aziz, Farhan M., Mohd Muizz Fahimi M.


Polybag and mulch film for agricultural field pose environmental wastage upon disposal. Thus a degradable polybag was designed with hybrid sago starch (SS) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Two Different blended composition of SS and PVA Hybrid have been compounded. Then, the hybrids blended are mixed with linear line density polyethylene (LLDPE) resin to fabricate polybag film through conventional film blowing process. Hybrid blends was compounded at different ratios. Samples of LLDPE, SS and PVA hybrid film were exposed to UV light and soil burial. The weight loss were determined during degradation process. Hybrid film by degradation of starch was found to decrease on esterification. However the hybrid film showed greater degradation in soil and uv radiation up to 60% of SS. Weight loss were also determined in control humidity oven with 70% humidity and temperature set up at 30 °C and left in humidity chamber for a month.

Keywords: LLDPE, PVA, sago starch, degradation, soil burial, uv radiation

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7024 Water Balance in the Forest Basins Essential for the Water Supply in Central America

Authors: Elena Listo Ubeda, Miguel Marchamalo Sacristan


The demand for water doubles every twenty years, at a rate which is twice as fast as the world´s population growth. Despite it´s great importance, water is one of the most degraded natural resources in the world, mainly because of the reduction of natural vegetation coverage, population growth, contamination and changes in the soil use which reduces its capacity to collect water. This situation is especially serious in Central America, as reflected in the Human Development reports. The objective of this project is to assist in the improvement of water production and quality in Central America. In order to do these two watersheds in Costa Rica were selected as experiments: that of the Virilla-Durazno River, located in the extreme north east of the central valley which has an Atlantic influence; and that of the Jabillo River, which flows directly into the Pacific. The Virilla river watershed is located over andisols, and that of the Jabillo River is over alfisols, and both are of great importance for water supply to the Greater Metropolitan Area and the future tourist resorts respectively, as well as for the production of agriculture, livestock and hydroelectricity. The hydrological reaction in different soil-cover complexes, varying from the secondary forest to natural vegetation and degraded pasture, was analyzed according to the evaluation of the properties of the soil, infiltration, soil compaction, as well as the effects of the soil cover complex on erosion, calculated by the C factor of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). A water balance was defined for each watershed, in which the volume of water that enters and leaves were estimated, as well as the evapotranspiration, runoff, and infiltration. Two future scenarios, representing the implementation of reforestation and deforestation plans, were proposed, and were analyzed for the effects of the soil cover complex on the water balance in each case. The results obtained show an increase of the ground water recharge in the humid forest areas, and an extension of the study of the dry areas is proposed since the ground water recharge here is diminishing. These results are of great significance for the planning, design of Payment Schemes for Environmental Services and the improvement of the existing water supply systems. In Central America spatial planning is a priority, as are the watersheds, in order to assess the water resource socially and economically, and securing its availability for the future.

Keywords: Costa Rica, infiltration, soil, water

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7023 The Act of Care: Reimagined Rituals towards Unattachment

Authors: Ioana G. Turcan


reimagined rituals towards unattachment wants to look at an ambiguous loss through the perspective of caregivers, those that accompany us at the beginning and possibly the end of life, those that observe, accumulate, and are impacted by our behavior and needs, but also those that are the witnesses of the human vulnerability. Someone taking care of a patient with dementia experiences ambiguous loss, being in a present of a person partially present, partially absent. The one offering care needs care, not isolation and the aim of the project is to consolidate existing communities or engage other possible ones using performance, storytelling, and other artistic methods. The long-term aim is that with community work, we will manage to co-create rituals in order to help us live with this kind of loss. Looking at them through the lens of different cultures and individuals exercises both the ability to extract the universal essence of a ritual, but also the need and freedom to express the specificity of each situation. To be seen and acknowledged by others, but more importantly, to see oneself from outside with dignity, is very powerful. Oftentimes we forget to express, look and appreciate our own stories, and instead, we choose to outcast them.

Keywords: grief, socio-politics of loss, ambiguous loss, rituals

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