Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 137

Search results for: RGB cameras

137 Hand Gesture Recognition Interface Based on IR Camera

Authors: Yang-Keun Ahn, Kwang-Soon Choi, Young-Choong Park, Kwang-Mo Jung


Vision based user interfaces to control TVs and PCs have the advantage of being able to perform natural control without being limited to a specific device. Accordingly, various studies on hand gesture recognition using RGB cameras or depth cameras have been conducted. However, such cameras have the disadvantage of lacking in accuracy or the construction cost being large. The proposed method uses a low cost IR camera to accurately differentiate between the hand and the background. Also, complicated learning and template matching methodologies are not used, and the correlation between the fingertips extracted through curvatures is utilized to recognize Click and Move gestures.

Keywords: recognition, hand gestures, infrared camera, RGB cameras

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
136 Detecting and Disabling Digital Cameras Using D3CIP Algorithm Based on Image Processing

Authors: S. Vignesh, K. S. Rangasamy


The paper deals with the device capable of detecting and disabling digital cameras. The system locates the camera and then neutralizes it. Every digital camera has an image sensor known as a CCD, which is retro-reflective and sends light back directly to its original source at the same angle. The device shines infrared LED light, which is invisible to the human eye, at a distance of about 20 feet. It then collects video of these reflections with a camcorder. Then the video of the reflections is transferred to a computer connected to the device, where it is sent through image processing algorithms that pick out infrared light bouncing back. Once the camera is detected, the device would project an invisible infrared laser into the camera's lens, thereby overexposing the photo and rendering it useless. Low levels of infrared laser neutralize digital cameras but are neither a health danger to humans nor a physical damage to cameras. We also discuss the simplified design of the above device that can used in theatres to prevent piracy. The domains being covered here are optics and image processing.

Keywords: CCD, optics, image processing, D3CIP

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
135 An Attempt to Improve Student´s Understanding on Thermal Conductivity Using Thermal Cameras

Authors: Mariana Faria Brito Francisquini


Many thermal phenomena are present and play a substantial role in our daily lives. This presence makes the study of this area at both High School and University levels a very widely explored topic in the literature. However, a lot of important concepts to a meaningful understanding of the world are neglected at the expense of a traditional approach with senseless algebraic problems. In this work, we intend to show how the introduction of new technologies in the classroom, namely thermal cameras, can work in our favor to make a clearer understanding of many of these concepts, such as thermal conductivity. The use of thermal cameras in the classroom tends to diminish the everlasting abstractness in thermal phenomena as they enable us to visualize something that happens right before our eyes, yet we cannot see it. In our study, we will provide the same amount of heat to metallic cylindrical rods of the same length, but different materials in order to study the thermal conductivity of each one. In this sense, the thermal camera allows us to visualize the increase in temperature along each rod in real time enabling us to infer how heat is being transferred from one part of the rod to another. Therefore, we intend to show how this approach can contribute to the exposure of students to more enriching, intellectually prolific, scenarios than those provided by traditional approaches.

Keywords: teaching physics, thermal cameras, thermal conductivity, thermal physics

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
134 Face Recognition Using Body-Worn Camera: Dataset and Baseline Algorithms

Authors: Ali Almadan, Anoop Krishnan, Ajita Rattani


Facial recognition is a widely adopted technology in surveillance, border control, healthcare, banking services, and lately, in mobile user authentication with Apple introducing “Face ID” moniker with iPhone X. A lot of research has been conducted in the area of face recognition on datasets captured by surveillance cameras, DSLR, and mobile devices. Recently, face recognition technology has also been deployed on body-worn cameras to keep officers safe, enabling situational awareness and providing evidence for trial. However, limited academic research has been conducted on this topic so far, without the availability of any publicly available datasets with a sufficient sample size. This paper aims to advance research in the area of face recognition using body-worn cameras. To this aim, the contribution of this work is two-fold: (1) collection of a dataset consisting of a total of 136,939 facial images of 102 subjects captured using body-worn cameras in in-door and daylight conditions and (2) evaluation of various deep-learning architectures for face identification on the collected dataset. Experimental results suggest a maximum True Positive Rate(TPR) of 99.86% at False Positive Rate(FPR) of 0.000 obtained by SphereFace based deep learning architecture in daylight condition. The collected dataset and the baseline algorithms will promote further research and development. A downloadable link of the dataset and the algorithms is available by contacting the authors.

Keywords: face recognition, body-worn cameras, deep learning, person identification

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
133 Quantitative Analysis of Camera Setup for Optical Motion Capture Systems

Authors: J. T. Pitale, S. Ghassab, H. Ay, N. Berme


Biomechanics researchers commonly use marker-based optical motion capture (MoCap) systems to extract human body kinematic data. These systems use cameras to detect passive or active markers placed on the subject. The cameras use triangulation methods to form images of the markers, which typically require each marker to be visible by at least two cameras simultaneously. Cameras in a conventional optical MoCap system are mounted at a distance from the subject, typically on walls, ceiling as well as fixed or adjustable frame structures. To accommodate for space constraints and as portable force measurement systems are getting popular, there is a need for smaller and smaller capture volumes. When the efficacy of a MoCap system is investigated, it is important to consider the tradeoff amongst the camera distance from subject, pixel density, and the field of view (FOV). If cameras are mounted relatively close to a subject, the area corresponding to each pixel reduces, thus increasing the image resolution. However, the cross section of the capture volume also decreases, causing reduction of the visible area. Due to this reduction, additional cameras may be required in such applications. On the other hand, mounting cameras relatively far from the subject increases the visible area but reduces the image quality. The goal of this study was to develop a quantitative methodology to investigate marker occlusions and optimize camera placement for a given capture volume and subject postures using three-dimension computer-aided design (CAD) tools. We modeled a 4.9m x 3.7m x 2.4m (LxWxH) MoCap volume and designed a mounting structure for cameras using SOLIDWORKS (Dassault Systems, MA, USA). The FOV was used to generate the capture volume for each camera placed on the structure. A human body model with configurable posture was placed at the center of the capture volume on CAD environment. We studied three postures; initial contact, mid-stance, and early swing. The human body CAD model was adjusted for each posture based on the range of joint angles. Markers were attached to the model to enable a full body capture. The cameras were placed around the capture volume at a maximum distance of 2.7m from the subject. We used the Camera View feature in SOLIDWORKS to generate images of the subject as seen by each camera and the number of markers visible to each camera was tabulated. The approach presented in this study provides a quantitative method to investigate the efficacy and efficiency of a MoCap camera setup. This approach enables optimization of a camera setup through adjusting the position and orientation of cameras on the CAD environment and quantifying marker visibility. It is also possible to compare different camera setup options on the same quantitative basis. The flexibility of the CAD environment enables accurate representation of the capture volume, including any objects that may cause obstructions between the subject and the cameras. With this approach, it is possible to compare different camera placement options to each other, as well as optimize a given camera setup based on quantitative results.

Keywords: motion capture, cameras, biomechanics, gait analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
132 Stereo Motion Tracking

Authors: Yudhajit Datta, Hamsi Iyer, Jonathan Bandi, Ankit Sethia


Motion Tracking and Stereo Vision are complicated, albeit well-understood problems in computer vision. Existing softwares that combine the two approaches to perform stereo motion tracking typically employ complicated and computationally expensive procedures. The purpose of this study is to create a simple and effective solution capable of combining the two approaches. The study aims to explore a strategy to combine the two techniques of two-dimensional motion tracking using Kalman Filter; and depth detection of object using Stereo Vision. In conventional approaches objects in the scene of interest are observed using a single camera. However for Stereo Motion Tracking; the scene of interest is observed using video feeds from two calibrated cameras. Using two simultaneous measurements from the two cameras a calculation for the depth of the object from the plane containing the cameras is made. The approach attempts to capture the entire three-dimensional spatial information of each object at the scene and represent it through a software estimator object. In discrete intervals, the estimator tracks object motion in the plane parallel to plane containing cameras and updates the perpendicular distance value of the object from the plane containing the cameras as depth. The ability to efficiently track the motion of objects in three-dimensional space using a simplified approach could prove to be an indispensable tool in a variety of surveillance scenarios. The approach may find application from high security surveillance scenes such as premises of bank vaults, prisons or other detention facilities; to low cost applications in supermarkets and car parking lots.

Keywords: kalman filter, stereo vision, motion tracking, matlab, object tracking, camera calibration, computer vision system toolbox

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
131 Determination of Neighbor Node in Consideration of the Imaging Range of Cameras in Automatic Human Tracking System

Authors: Kozo Tanigawa, Tappei Yotsumoto, Kenichi Takahashi, Takao Kawamura, Kazunori Sugahara


An automatic human tracking system using mobile agent technology is realized because a mobile agent moves in accordance with a migration of a target person. In this paper, we propose a method for determining the neighbor node in consideration of the imaging range of cameras.

Keywords: human tracking, mobile agent, Pan/Tilt/Zoom, neighbor relation

Procedia PDF Downloads 419
130 Low-Cost Mechatronic Design of an Omnidirectional Mobile Robot

Authors: S. Cobos-Guzman


This paper presents the results of a mechatronic design based on a 4-wheel omnidirectional mobile robot that can be used in indoor logistic applications. The low-level control has been selected using two open-source hardware (Raspberry Pi 3 Model B+ and Arduino Mega 2560) that control four industrial motors, four ultrasound sensors, four optical encoders, a vision system of two cameras, and a Hokuyo URG-04LX-UG01 laser scanner. Moreover, the system is powered with a lithium battery that can supply 24 V DC and a maximum current-hour of 20Ah.The Robot Operating System (ROS) has been implemented in the Raspberry Pi and the performance is evaluated with the selection of the sensors and hardware selected. The mechatronic system is evaluated and proposed safe modes of power distribution for controlling all the electronic devices based on different tests. Therefore, based on different performance results, some recommendations are indicated for using the Raspberry Pi and Arduino in terms of power, communication, and distribution of control for different devices. According to these recommendations, the selection of sensors is distributed in both real-time controllers (Arduino and Raspberry Pi). On the other hand, the drivers of the cameras have been implemented in Linux and a python program has been implemented to access the cameras. These cameras will be used for implementing a deep learning algorithm to recognize people and objects. In this way, the level of intelligence can be increased in combination with the maps that can be obtained from the laser scanner.

Keywords: autonomous, indoor robot, mechatronic, omnidirectional robot

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
129 An Investigation of Direct and Indirect Geo-Referencing Techniques on the Accuracy of Points in Photogrammetry

Authors: F. Yildiz, S. Y. Oturanc


Advances technology in the field of photogrammetry replaces analog cameras with reflection on aircraft GPS/IMU system with a digital aerial camera. In this system, when determining the position of the camera with the GPS, camera rotations are also determined by the IMU systems. All around the world, digital aerial cameras have been used for the photogrammetry applications in the last ten years. In this way, in terms of the work done in photogrammetry it is possible to use time effectively, costs to be reduced to a minimum level, the opportunity to make fast and accurate. Geo-referencing techniques that are the cornerstone of the GPS / INS systems, photogrammetric triangulation of images required for balancing (interior and exterior orientation) brings flexibility to the process. Also geo-referencing process; needed in the application of photogrammetry targets to help to reduce the number of ground control points. In this study, the use of direct and indirect geo-referencing techniques on the accuracy of the points was investigated in the production of photogrammetric mapping.

Keywords: photogrammetry, GPS/IMU systems, geo-referecing, digital aerial camera

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
128 Development of a Remote Testing System for Performance of Gas Leakage Detectors

Authors: Gyoutae Park, Woosuk Kim, Sangguk Ahn, Seungmo Kim, Minjun Kim, Jinhan Lee, Youngdo Jo, Jongsam Moon, Hiesik Kim


In this research, we designed a remote system to test parameters of gas detectors such as gas concentration and initial response time. This testing system is available to measure two gas instruments simultaneously. First of all, we assembled an experimental jig with a square structure. Those parts are included with a glass flask, two high-quality cameras, and two Ethernet modems for transmitting data. This remote gas detector testing system extracts numerals from videos with continually various gas concentrations while LCDs show photographs from cameras. Extracted numeral data are received to a laptop computer through Ethernet modem. And then, the numerical data with gas concentrations and the measured initial response speeds are recorded and graphed. Our remote testing system will be diversely applied on gas detector’s test and will be certificated in domestic and international countries.

Keywords: gas leak detector, inspection instrument, extracting numerals, concentration

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
127 Preserved Relative Differences between Regions of Different Thermal Scans

Authors: Tahir Majeed, Michael Handschuh, René Meier


Rheumatoid arthritis patients have swelling and pain at the joints of the hand. The regions where the patient feels pain also show increased body temperature. Thermal cameras can be used to detect the rise in temperature of the affected regions. To monitor the disease progression of rheumatoid arthritis patients, they must visit the clinic regularly for scanning and examination. After scanning and evaluation, the dosage of the medicine is regulated accordingly. To monitor the disease progression over time, the correlation between the images between different visits must be established. It has been observed that by using low-cost thermal cameras, the thermal measurements do not remain the same over time, even within a single scanning. In some situations, temperatures can vary as much as 2°C within the same scanning sequence. In this paper, it has been shown that although the absolute temperature varies over time, the relative difference between the different regions remains similar. Results have been computed over four scanning sequences and are presented.

Keywords: relative thermal difference, rheumatoid arthritis, thermal imaging, thermal sensors

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
126 A Survey on Lossless Compression of Bayer Color Filter Array Images

Authors: Alina Trifan, António J. R. Neves


Although most digital cameras acquire images in a raw format, based on a Color Filter Array that arranges RGB color filters on a square grid of photosensors, most image compression techniques do not use the raw data; instead, they use the rgb result of an interpolation algorithm of the raw data. This approach is inefficient and by performing a lossless compression of the raw data, followed by pixel interpolation, digital cameras could be more power efficient and provide images with increased resolution given that the interpolation step could be shifted to an external processing unit. In this paper, we conduct a survey on the use of lossless compression algorithms with raw Bayer images. Moreover, in order to reduce the effect of the transition between colors that increase the entropy of the raw Bayer image, we split the image into three new images corresponding to each channel (red, green and blue) and we study the same compression algorithms applied to each one individually. This simple pre-processing stage allows an improvement of more than 15% in predictive based methods.

Keywords: bayer image, CFA, lossless compression, image coding standards

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
125 Images Selection and Best Descriptor Combination for Multi-Shot Person Re-Identification

Authors: Yousra Hadj Hassen, Walid Ayedi, Tarek Ouni, Mohamed Jallouli


To re-identify a person is to check if he/she has been already seen over a cameras network. Recently, re-identifying people over large public cameras networks has become a crucial task of great importance to ensure public security. The vision community has deeply investigated this area of research. Most existing researches rely only on the spatial appearance information from either one or multiple person images. Actually, the real person re-id framework is a multi-shot scenario. However, to efficiently model a person’s appearance and to choose the best samples to remain a challenging problem. In this work, an extensive comparison of descriptors of state of the art associated with the proposed frame selection method is studied. Specifically, we evaluate the samples selection approach using multiple proposed descriptors. We show the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed method by extensive comparisons with related state-of-the-art approaches using two standard datasets PRID2011 and iLIDS-VID.

Keywords: camera network, descriptor, model, multi-shot, person re-identification, selection

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
124 Digital Image Correlation: Metrological Characterization in Mechanical Analysis

Authors: D. Signore, M. Ferraiuolo, P. Caramuta, O. Petrella, C. Toscano


The Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is a newly developed optical technique that is spreading in all engineering sectors because it allows the non-destructive estimation of the entire surface deformation without any contact with the component under analysis. These characteristics make the DIC very appealing in all the cases the global deformation state is to be known without using strain gages, which are the most used measuring device. The DIC is applicable to any material subjected to distortion caused by either thermal or mechanical load, allowing to obtain high-definition mapping of displacements and deformations. That is why in the civil and the transportation industry, DIC is very useful for studying the behavior of metallic materials as well as of composite materials. DIC is also used in the medical field for the characterization of the local strain field of the vascular tissues surface subjected to uniaxial tensile loading. DIC can be carried out in the two dimension mode (2D DIC) if a single camera is used or in a three dimension mode (3D DIC) if two cameras are involved. Each point of the test surface framed by the cameras can be associated with a specific pixel of the image, and the coordinates of each point are calculated knowing the relative distance between the two cameras together with their orientation. In both arrangements, when a component is subjected to a load, several images related to different deformation states can be are acquired through the cameras. A specific software analyzes the images via the mutual correlation between the reference image (obtained without any applied load) and those acquired during the deformation giving the relative displacements. In this paper, a metrological characterization of the digital image correlation is performed on aluminum and composite targets both in static and dynamic loading conditions by comparison between DIC and strain gauges measures. In the static test, interesting results have been obtained thanks to an excellent agreement between the two measuring techniques. In addition, the deformation detected by the DIC is compliant with the result of a FEM simulation. In the dynamic test, the DIC was able to follow with a good accuracy the periodic deformation of the specimen giving results coherent with the ones given by FEM simulation. In both situations, it was seen that the DIC measurement accuracy depends on several parameters such as the optical focusing, the parameters chosen to perform the mutual correlation between the images and, finally, the reference points on image to be analyzed. In the future, the influence of these parameters will be studied, and a method to increase the accuracy of the measurements will be developed in accordance with the requirements of the industries especially of the aerospace one.

Keywords: accuracy, deformation, image correlation, mechanical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
123 Optical Flow Based System for Cross Traffic Alert

Authors: Giuseppe Spampinato, Salvatore Curti, Ivana Guarneri, Arcangelo Bruna


This document describes an advanced system and methodology for Cross Traffic Alert (CTA), able to detect vehicles that move into the vehicle driving path from the left or right side. The camera is supposed to be not only on a vehicle still, e.g. at a traffic light or at an intersection, but also moving slowly, e.g. in a car park. In all of the aforementioned conditions, a driver’s short loss of concentration or distraction can easily lead to a serious accident. A valid support to avoid these kinds of car crashes is represented by the proposed system. It is an extension of our previous work, related to a clustering system, which only works on fixed cameras. Just a vanish point calculation and simple optical flow filtering, to eliminate motion vectors due to the car relative movement, is performed to let the system achieve high performances with different scenarios, cameras and resolutions. The proposed system just uses as input the optical flow, which is hardware implemented in the proposed platform and since the elaboration of the whole system is really speed and power consumption, it is inserted directly in the camera framework, allowing to execute all the processing in real-time.

Keywords: clustering, cross traffic alert, optical flow, real time, vanishing point

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
122 Supplementing Aerial-Roving Surveys with Autonomous Optical Cameras: A High Temporal Resolution Approach to Monitoring and Estimating Effort within a Recreational Salmon Fishery in British Columbia, Canada

Authors: Ben Morrow, Patrick O'Hara, Natalie Ban, Tunai Marques, Molly Fraser, Christopher Bone


Relative to commercial fisheries, recreational fisheries are often poorly understood and pose various challenges for monitoring frameworks. In British Columbia (BC), Canada, Pacific salmon are heavily targeted by recreational fishers while also being a key source of nutrient flow and crucial prey for a variety of marine and terrestrial fauna, including endangered Southern Resident killer whales (Orcinus orca). Although commercial fisheries were historically responsible for the majority of salmon retention, recreational fishing now comprises both greater effort and retention. The current monitoring scheme for recreational salmon fisheries involves aerial-roving creel surveys. However, this method has been identified as costly and having low predictive power as it is often limited to sampling fragments of fluid and temporally dynamic fisheries. This study used imagery from two shore-based autonomous cameras in a highly active recreational fishery around Sooke, BC, and evaluated their efficacy in supplementing existing aerial-roving surveys for monitoring a recreational salmon fishery. This study involved continuous monitoring and high temporal resolution (over one million images analyzed in a single fishing season), using a deep learning-based vessel detection algorithm and a custom image annotation tool to efficiently thin datasets. This allowed for the quantification of peak-season effort from a busy harbour, species-specific retention estimates, high levels of detected fishing events at a nearby popular fishing location, as well as the proportion of the fishery management area represented by cameras. Then, this study demonstrated how it could substantially enhance the temporal resolution of a fishery through diel activity pattern analyses, scaled monthly to visualize clusters of activity. This work also highlighted considerable off-season fishing detection, currently unaccounted for in the existing monitoring framework. These results demonstrate several distinct applications of autonomous cameras for providing enhanced detail currently unavailable in the current monitoring framework, each of which has important considerations for the managerial allocation of resources. Further, the approach and methodology can benefit other studies that apply shore-based camera monitoring, supplement aerial-roving creel surveys to improve fine-scale temporal understanding, inform the optimal timing of creel surveys, and improve the predictive power of recreational stock assessments to preserve important and endangered fish species.

Keywords: cameras, monitoring, recreational fishing, stock assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
121 Convolutional Neural Network and LSTM Applied to Abnormal Behaviour Detection from Highway Footage

Authors: Rafael Marinho de Andrade, Elcio Hideti Shiguemori, Rafael Duarte Coelho dos Santos


Relying on computer vision, many clever things are possible in order to make the world safer and optimized on resource management, especially considering time and attention as manageable resources, once the modern world is very abundant in cameras from inside our pockets to above our heads while crossing the streets. Thus, automated solutions based on computer vision techniques to detect, react, or even prevent relevant events such as robbery, car crashes and traffic jams can be accomplished and implemented for the sake of both logistical and surveillance improvements. In this paper, we present an approach for vehicles’ abnormal behaviors detection from highway footages, in which the vectorial data of the vehicles’ displacement are extracted directly from surveillance cameras footage through object detection and tracking with a deep convolutional neural network and inserted into a long-short term memory neural network for behavior classification. The results show that the classifications of behaviors are consistent and the same principles may be applied to other trackable objects and scenarios as well.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, behavior detection, computer vision, convolutional neural networks, LSTM, highway footage

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
120 Embedded Digital Image System

Authors: Dawei Li, Cheng Liu, Yiteng Liu


This paper introduces an embedded digital image system for Chinese space environment vertical exploration sounding rocket. In order to record the flight status of the sounding rocket as well as the payloads, an onboard embedded image processing system based on ADV212, a JPEG2000 compression chip, is designed in this paper. Since the sounding rocket is not designed to be recovered, all image data should be transmitted to the ground station before the re-entry while the downlink band used for the image transmission is only about 600 kbps. Under the same condition of compression ratio compared with other algorithm, JPEG2000 standard algorithm can achieve better image quality. So JPEG2000 image compression is applied under this condition with a limited downlink data band. This embedded image system supports lossless to 200:1 real time compression, with two cameras to monitor nose ejection and motor separation, and two cameras to monitor boom deployment. The encoder, ADV7182, receives PAL signal from the camera, then output the ITU-R BT.656 signal to ADV212. ADV7182 switches between four input video channels as the program sequence. Two SRAMs are used for Ping-pong operation and one 512 Mb SDRAM for buffering high frame-rate images. The whole image system has the characteristics of low power dissipation, low cost, small size and high reliability, which is rather suitable for this sounding rocket application.

Keywords: ADV212, image system, JPEG2000, sounding rocket

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
119 Advanced Driver Assistance System: Veibra

Authors: C. Fernanda da S. Sampaio, M. Gabriela Sadith Perez Paredes, V. Antonio de O. Martins


Today the transport sector is undergoing a revolution, with the rise of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), industry and society itself will undergo a major transformation. However, the technological development of these applications is a challenge that requires new techniques and great machine learning and artificial intelligence. The study proposes to develop a vehicular perception system called Veibra, which consists of two front cameras for day/night viewing and an embedded device capable of working with Yolov2 image processing algorithms with low computational cost. The strategic version for the market is to assist the driver on the road with the detection of day/night objects, such as road signs, pedestrians, and animals that will be viewed through the screen of the phone or tablet through an application. The system has the ability to perform real-time driver detection and recognition to identify muscle movements and pupils to determine if the driver is tired or inattentive, analyzing the student's characteristic change and following the subtle movements of the whole face and issuing alerts through beta waves to ensure the concentration and attention of the driver. The system will also be able to perform tracking and monitoring through GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) technology and the cameras installed in the vehicle.

Keywords: advanced driver assistance systems, tracking, traffic signal detection, vehicle perception system

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
118 Detecting Tomato Flowers in Greenhouses Using Computer Vision

Authors: Dor Oppenheim, Yael Edan, Guy Shani


This paper presents an image analysis algorithm to detect and count yellow tomato flowers in a greenhouse with uneven illumination conditions, complex growth conditions and different flower sizes. The algorithm is designed to be employed on a drone that flies in greenhouses to accomplish several tasks such as pollination and yield estimation. Detecting the flowers can provide useful information for the farmer, such as the number of flowers in a row, and the number of flowers that were pollinated since the last visit to the row. The developed algorithm is designed to handle the real world difficulties in a greenhouse which include varying lighting conditions, shadowing, and occlusion, while considering the computational limitations of the simple processor in the drone. The algorithm identifies flowers using an adaptive global threshold, segmentation over the HSV color space, and morphological cues. The adaptive threshold divides the images into darker and lighter images. Then, segmentation on the hue, saturation and volume is performed accordingly, and classification is done according to size and location of the flowers. 1069 images of greenhouse tomato flowers were acquired in a commercial greenhouse in Israel, using two different RGB Cameras – an LG G4 smartphone and a Canon PowerShot A590. The images were acquired from multiple angles and distances and were sampled manually at various periods along the day to obtain varying lighting conditions. Ground truth was created by manually tagging approximately 25,000 individual flowers in the images. Sensitivity analyses on the acquisition angle of the images, periods throughout the day, different cameras and thresholding types were performed. Precision, recall and their derived F1 score were calculated. Results indicate better performance for the view angle facing the flowers than any other angle. Acquiring images in the afternoon resulted with the best precision and recall results. Applying a global adaptive threshold improved the median F1 score by 3%. Results showed no difference between the two cameras used. Using hue values of 0.12-0.18 in the segmentation process provided the best results in precision and recall, and the best F1 score. The precision and recall average for all the images when using these values was 74% and 75% respectively with an F1 score of 0.73. Further analysis showed a 5% increase in precision and recall when analyzing images acquired in the afternoon and from the front viewpoint.

Keywords: agricultural engineering, image processing, computer vision, flower detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
117 Distribution of Traffic Volume at Fuel Station during Peak Hour Period on Arterial Road

Authors: Surachai Ampawasuvan, Supornchai Utainarumol


Most of fuel station’ customers, who drive on the major arterial road wants to use the stations to fill fuel to their vehicle during their journey to destinations. According to the survey of traffic volume of the vehicle using fuel stations by video cameras, automatic counting tools, or questionnaires, it was found that most users prefer to use fuel stations on holiday rather than on working day. They also prefer to use fuel stations in the morning rather than in the evening. When comparing the ratio of the distribution pattern of traffic volume of the vehicle using fuel stations by video cameras, automatic counting tools, there is no significant difference. However, when comparing the ratio of peak hour (peak hour rate) of the results from questionnaires at 13 to 14 percent with the results obtained by using the methods of the Institute of Transportation Engineering (ITE), it is found that the value is similar. However, it is different from a survey by video camera and automatic traffic counting at 6 to 7 percent of about half. So, this study suggests that in order to forecast trip generation of vehicle using fuel stations on major arterial road which is mostly characterized by Though Traffic, it is recommended to use the value of half of peak hour rate, which would make the forecast for trips generation to be more precise and accurate and compatible to surrounding environment.

Keywords: peak rate, trips generation, fuel station, arterial road

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
116 Deep Learning-Based Object Detection on Low Quality Images: A Case Study of Real-Time Traffic Monitoring

Authors: Jean-Francois Rajotte, Martin Sotir, Frank Gouineau


The installation and management of traffic monitoring devices can be costly from both a financial and resource point of view. It is therefore important to take advantage of in-place infrastructures to extract the most information. Here we show how low-quality urban road traffic images from cameras already available in many cities (such as Montreal, Vancouver, and Toronto) can be used to estimate traffic flow. To this end, we use a pre-trained neural network, developed for object detection, to count vehicles within images. We then compare the results with human annotations gathered through crowdsourcing campaigns. We use this comparison to assess performance and calibrate the neural network annotations. As a use case, we consider six months of continuous monitoring over hundreds of cameras installed in the city of Montreal. We compare the results with city-provided manual traffic counting performed in similar conditions at the same location. The good performance of our system allows us to consider applications which can monitor the traffic conditions in near real-time, making the counting usable for traffic-related services. Furthermore, the resulting annotations pave the way for building a historical vehicle counting dataset to be used for analysing the impact of road traffic on many city-related issues, such as urban planning, security, and pollution.

Keywords: traffic monitoring, deep learning, image annotation, vehicles, roads, artificial intelligence, real-time systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
115 Quantification Model for Capability Evaluation of Optical-Based in-Situ Monitoring System for Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) Process

Authors: Song Zhang, Hui Wang, Johannes Henrich Schleifenbaum


Due to the increasing demand for quality assurance and reliability for additive manufacturing, the development of an advanced in-situ monitoring system is required to monitor the process anomalies as input for further process control. Optical-based monitoring systems, such as CMOS cameras and NIR cameras, are proved as effective ways to monitor the geometrical distortion and exceptional thermal distribution. Therefore, many studies and applications are focusing on the availability of the optical-based monitoring system for detecting varied types of defects. However, the capability of the monitoring setup is not quantified. In this study, a quantification model to evaluate the capability of the monitoring setups for the LPBF machine based on acquired monitoring data of a designed test artifact is presented, while the design of the relevant test artifacts is discussed. The monitoring setup is evaluated based on its hardware properties, location of the integration, and light condition. Methodology of data processing to quantify the capacity for each aspect is discussed. The minimal capability of the detectable size of the monitoring set up in the application is estimated by quantifying its resolution and accuracy. The quantification model is validated using a CCD camera-based monitoring system for LPBF machines in the laboratory with different setups. The result shows the model to quantify the monitoring system's performance, which makes the evaluation of monitoring systems with the same concept but different setups possible for the LPBF process and provides the direction to improve the setups.

Keywords: data processing, in-situ monitoring, LPBF process, optical system, quantization model, test artifact

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
114 An Exponential Field Path Planning Method for Mobile Robots Integrated with Visual Perception

Authors: Magdy Roman, Mostafa Shoeib, Mostafa Rostom


Global vision, whether provided by overhead fixed cameras, on-board aerial vehicle cameras, or satellite images can always provide detailed information on the environment around mobile robots. In this paper, an intelligent vision-based method of path planning and obstacle avoidance for mobile robots is presented. The method integrates visual perception with a new proposed field-based path-planning method to overcome common path-planning problems such as local minima, unreachable destination and unnecessary lengthy paths around obstacles. The method proposes an exponential angle deviation field around each obstacle that affects the orientation of a close robot. As the robot directs toward, the goal point obstacles are classified into right and left groups, and a deviation angle is exponentially added or subtracted to the orientation of the robot. Exponential field parameters are chosen based on Lyapunov stability criterion to guarantee robot convergence to the destination. The proposed method uses obstacles' shape and location, extracted from global vision system, through a collision prediction mechanism to decide whether to activate or deactivate obstacles field. In addition, a search mechanism is developed in case of robot or goal point is trapped among obstacles to find suitable exit or entrance. The proposed algorithm is validated both in simulation and through experiments. The algorithm shows effectiveness in obstacles' avoidance and destination convergence, overcoming common path planning problems found in classical methods.

Keywords: path planning, collision avoidance, convergence, computer vision, mobile robots

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113 Multimedia Container for Autonomous Car

Authors: Janusz Bobulski, Mariusz Kubanek


The main goal of the research is to develop a multimedia container structure containing three types of images: RGB, lidar and infrared, properly calibrated to each other. An additional goal is to develop program libraries for creating and saving this type of file and for restoring it. It will also be necessary to develop a method of data synchronization from lidar and RGB cameras as well as infrared. This type of file could be used in autonomous vehicles, which would certainly facilitate data processing by the intelligent autonomous vehicle management system. Autonomous cars are increasingly breaking into our consciousness. No one seems to have any doubts that self-driving cars are the future of motoring. Manufacturers promise that moving the first of them to showrooms is the prospect of the next few years. Many experts believe that creating a network of communicating autonomous cars will be able to completely eliminate accidents. However, to make this possible, it is necessary to develop effective methods of detection of objects around the moving vehicle. In bad weather conditions, this task is difficult on the basis of the RGB(red, green, blue) image. Therefore, in such situations, you should be supported by information from other sources, such as lidar or infrared cameras. The problem is the different data formats that individual types of devices return. In addition to these differences, there is a problem with the synchronization of these data and the formatting of this data. The goal of the project is to develop a file structure that could be containing a different type of data. This type of file is calling a multimedia container. A multimedia container is a container that contains many data streams, which allows you to store complete multimedia material in one file. Among the data streams located in such a container should be indicated streams of images, films, sounds, subtitles, as well as additional information, i.e., metadata. This type of file could be used in autonomous vehicles, which would certainly facilitate data processing by the intelligent autonomous vehicle management system. As shown by preliminary studies, the use of combining RGB and InfraRed images with Lidar data allows for easier data analysis. Thanks to this application, it will be possible to display the distance to the object in a color photo. Such information can be very useful for drivers and for systems in autonomous cars.

Keywords: an autonomous car, image processing, lidar, obstacle detection

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112 Optical Flow Technique for Supersonic Jet Measurements

Authors: Haoxiang Desmond Lim, Jie Wu, Tze How Daniel New, Shengxian Shi


This paper outlines the development of a novel experimental technique in quantifying supersonic jet flows, in an attempt to avoid seeding particle problems frequently associated with particle-image velocimetry (PIV) techniques at high Mach numbers. Based on optical flow algorithms, the idea behind the technique involves using high speed cameras to capture Schlieren images of the supersonic jet shear layers, before they are subjected to an adapted optical flow algorithm based on the Horn-Schnuck method to determine the associated flow fields. The proposed method is capable of offering full-field unsteady flow information with potentially higher accuracy and resolution than existing point-measurements or PIV techniques. Preliminary study via numerical simulations of a circular de Laval jet nozzle successfully reveals flow and shock structures typically associated with supersonic jet flows, which serve as useful data for subsequent validation of the optical flow based experimental results. For experimental technique, a Z-type Schlieren setup is proposed with supersonic jet operated in cold mode, stagnation pressure of 8.2 bar and exit velocity of Mach 1.5. High-speed single-frame or double-frame cameras are used to capture successive Schlieren images. As implementation of optical flow technique to supersonic flows remains rare, the current focus revolves around methodology validation through synthetic images. The results of validation test offers valuable insight into how the optical flow algorithm can be further improved to improve robustness and accuracy. Details of the methodology employed and challenges faced will be further elaborated in the final conference paper should the abstract be accepted. Despite these challenges however, this novel supersonic flow measurement technique may potentially offer a simpler way to identify and quantify the fine spatial structures within the shock shear layer.

Keywords: Schlieren, optical flow, supersonic jets, shock shear layer

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111 Analysis of Barbell Kinematics of Snatch Technique among Women Weightlifters in India

Authors: Manish Kumar Pillai, Madhavi Pathak Pillai, Rajender Lal, Dinesh P. Sharma


India has not yet been able to produce many weightlifters in the past years. Karnam Malleshwari is the only woman to win a medal for India in Olympics. When we try to introspect, there seem to be different reasons. One of the probable cause could be the lack of biomechanical analysis for technique improvements. The analysis of motion in sports has gained prime importance for technical improvement. It helps an athlete to develop a better understanding of his own skills and increasing the rate of technical learning process. Kinematics is concerned with describing and quantifying both the linear and angular position of bodies and their time derivatives. The techniques analysis of barbell movement is very important in weightlifting. But women weightlifting has a shorter history than men’s. Research on women weightlifting based on video analysis is less; there is a lack of scientific evidence based on kinematic analysis of especially on Indian weightlifters at national level are limited. Hence, the present investigation was aimed to analyze the barbell kinematics of women weightlifters in India. The study was delimited to the medal winners of 69-kilogram weight category in the All India Inter-University Competition, age ranging between 18 and 28 years. The variables selected for the mechanical analysis of Barbell kinematics included barbell trajectory, velocity, acceleration, potential energy, kinetic energy, mechanical energy, and average power output. The performance was captured during the competition by two DV PC-60 Digital cameras (Panasonic Company, Ltd). Two cameras were placed 6-meters perpendicular to the plane of the motion, 130 cm. above the ground to record/capture the frontal and lateral view of the lifters simultaneously. Video recordings were analyzed by using Dartfish software, and barbell kinematics were analyzed with the information derived with the help of software. The result documented on the basis of the finding of the study clearly states that there are differences in the selected kinematic variables in all three lifters in respect to their technique in five phases during snatch technique using by them.

Keywords: dartfish, digital camera, kinematic, snatch, weightlifting

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110 A Wide View Scheme for Automobile's Black Box

Authors: Jaemyoung Lee


We propose a wide view camera scheme for automobile's black box. The proposed scheme uses the commercially available camera lenses of which view angles are about 120°}^{\circ}°. In the proposed scheme, we extend the view angle to approximately 200° ^{\circ}° using two cameras at the front side instead of three lenses with conventional black boxes.

Keywords: camera, black box, view angle, automobile

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109 Monte Carlo and Biophysics Analysis in a Criminal Trial

Authors: Luca Indovina, Carmela Coppola, Carlo Altucci, Riccardo Barberi, Rocco Romano


In this paper a real court case, held in Italy at the Court of Nola, in which a correct physical description, conducted with both a Monte Carlo and biophysical analysis, would have been sufficient to arrive at conclusions confirmed by documentary evidence, is considered. This will be an example of how forensic physics can be useful in confirming documentary evidence in order to reach hardly questionable conclusions. This was a libel trial in which the defendant, Mr. DS (Defendant for Slander), had falsely accused one of his neighbors, Mr. OP (Offended Person), of having caused him some damages. The damages would have been caused by an external plaster piece that would have detached from the neighbor’s property and would have hit Mr DS while he was in his garden, much more than a meter far away from the facade of the building from which the plaster piece would have detached. In the trial, Mr. DS claimed to have suffered a scratch on his forehead, but he never showed the plaster that had hit him, nor was able to tell from where the plaster would have arrived. Furthermore, Mr. DS presented a medical certificate with a diagnosis of contusion of the cerebral cortex. On the contrary, the images of Mr. OP’s security cameras do not show any movement in the garden of Mr. DS in a long interval of time (about 2 hours) around the time of the alleged accident, nor do they show any people entering or coming out from the house of Mr. DS in the same interval of time. Biophysical analysis shows that both the diagnosis of the medical certificate and the wound declared by the defendant, already in conflict with each other, are not compatible with the fall of external plaster pieces too small to be found. The wind was at a level 1 of the Beaufort scale, that is, unable to raise even dust (level 4 of the Beaufort scale). Therefore, the motion of the plaster pieces can be described as a projectile motion, whereas collisions with the building cornice can be treated using Newtons law of coefficients of restitution. Numerous numerical Monte Carlo simulations show that the pieces of plaster would not have been able to reach even the garden of Mr. DS, let alone a distance over 1.30 meters. Results agree with the documentary evidence (images of Mr. OP’s security cameras) that Mr. DS could not have been hit by plaster pieces coming from Mr. OP’s property.

Keywords: biophysics analysis, Monte Carlo simulations, Newton’s law of restitution, projectile motion

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108 Flicker Detection with Motion Tolerance for Embedded Camera

Authors: Jianrong Wu, Xuan Fu, Akihiro Higashi, Zhiming Tan


CMOS image sensors with a rolling shutter are used broadly in the digital cameras embedded in mobile devices. The rolling shutter suffers the flicker artifacts from the fluorescent lamp, and it could be observed easily. In this paper, the characteristics of illumination flicker in motion case were analyzed, and two efficient detection methods based on matching fragment selection were proposed. According to the experimental results, our methods could achieve as high as 100% accuracy in static scene, and at least 97% in motion scene.

Keywords: illumination flicker, embedded camera, rolling shutter, detection

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