Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17827

Search results for: high heat flux

17827 Effect of External Radiative Heat Flux on Combustion Characteristics of Rigid Polyurethane Foam under Piloted-Ignition and Radiative Auto-Ignition Modes

Authors: Jia-Jia He, Lin Jiang, Jin-Hua Sun


Rigid polyurethane foam (RPU) has been extensively applied in building insulation system, yet with high flammability for being easily ignited by high temperature spark or radiative heat flux from other flaming materials or surrounding building facade. Using a cone calorimeter by Fire Testing Technology and thermal couple tree, this study systematically investigated the effect of radiative heat flux on the ignition time and characteristic temperature distribution during RPU combustion under different heat fluxes gradient (12, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 kW/m²) with spark ignition/ignition by radiation. The ignition time decreases proportionally with increase of external heat flux, meanwhile increasing the external heat flux raises the peak heat release rate and impresses on the vertical temperature distribution greatly. The critical ignition heat flux is found to be 15 and 25 kW/m² for spark ignition and radiative ignition, respectively. Based on previous experienced ignition formula, a methodology to predict ignition times in both modes has been developed theoretically. By analyzing the heat transfer mechanism around the sample surroundings, both radiation from cone calorimeter and convection flow are considered and calculated theoretically. The experimental ignition times agree well with the theoretical ones in both radiative and convective conditions; however, the observed critical ignition heat flux is higher than the calculated one under piloted-ignition mode because the heat loss process, especially in lower heat flux radiation, is not considered in this developed methodology.

Keywords: rigid polyurethane foam, cone calorimeter, ignition time, external heat flux

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17826 Design of a Compact Herriott Cell for Heat Flux Measurement Applications

Authors: R. G. Ramírez-Chavarría, C. Sánchez-Pérez, V. Argueta-Díaz


In this paper we present the design of an optical device based on a Herriott multi-pass cell fabricated on a small sized acrylic slab for heat flux measurements using the deflection of a laser beam propagating inside the cell. The beam deflection is produced by the heat flux conducted to the acrylic slab due to a gradient in the refractive index. The use of a long path cell as the sensitive element in this measurement device, gives the possibility of high sensitivity within a small size device. We present the optical design as well as some experimental results in order to validate the device’s operation principle.

Keywords: heat flux, Herriott cell, optical beam deflection, thermal conductivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 490
17825 Investigation on Ultrahigh Heat Flux of Nanoporous Membrane Evaporation Using Dimensionless Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: W. H. Zheng, J. Li, F. J. Hong


Thin liquid film evaporation in ultrathin nanoporous membranes, which reduce the viscous resistance while still maintaining high capillary pressure and efficient liquid delivery, is a promising thermal management approach for high-power electronic devices cooling. Given the challenges and technical limitations of experimental studies for accurate interface temperature sensing, complex manufacturing process, and short duration of membranes, a dimensionless lattice Boltzmann method capable of restoring thermophysical properties of working fluid is particularly derived. The evaporation of R134a to its pure vapour ambient in nanoporous membranes with the pore diameter of 80nm, thickness of 472nm, and three porosities of 0.25, 0.33 and 0.5 are numerically simulated. The numerical results indicate that the highest heat transfer coefficient is about 1740kW/m²·K; the highest heat flux is about 1.49kW/cm² with only about the wall superheat of 8.59K in the case of porosity equals to 0.5. The dissipated heat flux scaled with porosity because of the increasing effective evaporative area. Additionally, the self-regulation of the shape and curvature of the meniscus under different operating conditions is also observed. This work shows a promising approach to forecast the membrane performance for different geometry and working fluids.

Keywords: high heat flux, ultrathin nanoporous membrane, thin film evaporation, lattice Boltzmann method

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17824 Experimental Study of Heat Transfer in Pulsation Mist Flow in Rectanglar Duct Partially Filled with a Porous Medium

Authors: Hosein Shokoohmand, Mohamad Esmaeil Jomeh


The present thesis studies the effect of different factors such as frequency of oscillatory flow, change in constant wall heat flux and two-phase current state, on heat transfer in a pipe in presence of porous medium. In this experimental study is conducted for Reynolds numbers in a range of Re=850 to Re=10000 and oscillatory frequencies of 5, 20, 10, 30 and 40 Hz with constant heat flux of 585 w/m2 and 819 w/m2. The results indicate that increase in oscillation frequency in higher frequencies for heat flux of 585 w/m2 leads to an increase in heat transfer; however, in the rest of tests it results in a heat transfer decrease. Increasing Reynolds number in a pulsation mist flow causes an increase in average Nusselt number values. The effect of oscillation frequencies in a pulsation mist flow for different Reynolds numbers has revealed different results, in a way that for some Reynolds numbers an increase of frequency has led to a heat transfer decrease.

Keywords: Reynolds numbers, frequency of oscillatory flow, constant heat flux, mist flow

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17823 Optimization of Heat Insulation Structure and Heat Flux Calculation Method of Slug Calorimeter

Authors: Zhu Xinxin, Wang Hui, Yang Kai


Heat flux is one of the most important test parameters in the ground thermal protection test. Slug calorimeter is selected as the main sensor measuring heat flux in arc wind tunnel test due to the convenience and low cost. However, because of excessive lateral heat transfer and the disadvantage of the calculation method, the heat flux measurement error of the slug calorimeter is large. In order to enhance measurement accuracy, the heat insulation structure and heat flux calculation method of slug calorimeter were improved. The heat transfer model of the slug calorimeter was built according to the energy conservation principle. Based on the heat transfer model, the insulating sleeve of the hollow structure was designed, which helped to greatly decrease lateral heat transfer. And the slug with insulating sleeve of hollow structure was encapsulated using a package shell. The improved insulation structure reduced heat loss and ensured that the heat transfer characteristics were almost the same when calibrated and tested. The heat flux calibration test was carried out in arc lamp system for heat flux sensor calibration, and the results show that test accuracy and precision of slug calorimeter are improved greatly. In the meantime, the simulation model of the slug calorimeter was built. The heat flux values in different temperature rise time periods were calculated by the simulation model. The results show that extracting the data of the temperature rise rate as soon as possible can result in a smaller heat flux calculation error. Then the different thermal contact resistance affecting calculation error was analyzed by the simulation model. The contact resistance between the slug and the insulating sleeve was identified as the main influencing factor. The direct comparison calibration correction method was proposed based on only heat flux calibration. The numerical calculation correction method was proposed based on the heat flux calibration and simulation model of slug calorimeter after the simulation model was solved by solving the contact resistance between the slug and the insulating sleeve. The simulation and test results show that two methods can greatly reduce the heat flux measurement error. Finally, the improved slug calorimeter was tested in the arc wind tunnel. And test results show that the repeatability accuracy of improved slug calorimeter is less than 3%. The deviation of measurement value from different slug calorimeters is less than 3% in the same fluid field. The deviation of measurement value between slug calorimeter and Gordon Gage is less than 4% in the same fluid field.

Keywords: correction method, heat flux calculation, heat insulation structure, heat transfer model, slug calorimeter

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17822 Wall Heat Flux Mapping in Liquid Rocket Combustion Chamber with Different Jet Impingement Angles

Authors: O. S. Pradeep, S. Vigneshwaran, K. Praveen Kumar, K. Jeyendran, V. R. Sanal Kumar


The influence of injector attitude on wall heat flux plays an important role in predicting the start-up transient and also determining the combustion chamber wall durability of liquid rockets. In this paper comprehensive numerical studies have been carried out on an idealized liquid rocket combustion chamber to examine the transient wall heat flux during its start-up transient at different injector attitude. Numerical simulations have been carried out with the help of a validated 2d axisymmetric, double precision, pressure-based, transient, species transport, SST k-omega model with laminar finite rate model for governing turbulent-chemistry interaction for four cases with different jet intersection angles, viz., 0o, 30o, 45o, and 60o. We concluded that the jets intersection angle is having a bearing on the time and location of the maximum wall-heat flux zone of the liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient. We also concluded that the wall heat flux mapping in liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient is a meaningful objective for the chamber wall material selection and the lucrative design optimization of the combustion chamber for improving the payload capability of the rocket.  

Keywords: combustion chamber, injector, liquid rocket, rocket engine wall heat flux

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17821 Heat Transfer Enhancement Using Copper Metallic Foam during Convective Boiling in a Plate Heat Exchanger

Authors: A.Kouidri, B.Madani


The present work deals with the study of the heat transfer in a rectangular channel equipped with a metallic foam. The tested metallic foam sample is made from copper with 20 PPI (Pore per Inch Linear) and 93% of porosity and the working fluid used is the n-pentane. In the present work the independent variables are the velocity in the range from 0.02 to 0.06 m/s and a boiling heat flux rate varying between 30 and 70 kW/m2. The heat transfer coefficient is presented versus boiling heat flux, vapor quality and superheat ΔTsat. The thermal results are compared to those found for a plain tube for the same conditions. The comparison with the plain tube shows that the insert of a metallic foam enhances the heat transfer coefficient by a factor between 1.3 and 3.

Keywords: boiling, metallic foam, heat transfer, plate heat exchanger

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17820 Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of Sub-Channels of Pressurized Water Reactors with Hexagonal Array: A Numerical Approach

Authors: Md. Asif Ullah, M. A. R. Sarkar


This paper illustrates 2-D and 3-D simulations of sub-channels of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) having hexagonal array of fuel rods. At a steady state, the temperature of outer surface of the cladding of fuel rod is kept about 1200°C. The temperature of this isothermal surface is taken as boundary condition for simulation. Water with temperature of 290°C is given as a coolant inlet to the primary water circuit which is pressurized upto 157 bar. Turbulent flow of pressurized water is used for heat removal. In 2-D model, temperature, velocity, pressure and Nusselt number distributions are simulated in a vertical sectional plane through the sub-channels of a hexagonal fuel rod assembly. Temperature, Nusselt number and Y-component of convective heat flux along a line in this plane near the end of fuel rods are plotted for different Reynold’s number. A comparison between X-component and Y-component of convective heat flux in this vertical plane is analyzed. Hexagonal fuel rod assembly has three types of sub-channels according to geometrical shape whose boundary conditions are different too. In 3-D model, temperature, velocity, pressure, Nusselt number, total heat flux magnitude distributions for all the three sub-channels are studied for a suitable Reynold’s number. A horizontal sectional plane is taken from each of the three sub-channels to study temperature, velocity, pressure, Nusselt number and convective heat flux distribution in it. Greater values of temperature, Nusselt number and Y-component of convective heat flux are found for greater Reynold’s number. X-component of convective heat flux is found to be non-zero near the bottom of fuel rod and zero near the end of fuel rod. This indicates that the convective heat transfer occurs totally along the direction of flow near the outlet. As, length to radius ratio of sub-channels is very high, simulation for a short length of the sub-channels are done for graphical interface advantage. For the simulations, Turbulent Flow (K-Є ) module and Heat Transfer in Fluids (ht) module of COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS 5.0 are used.

Keywords: sub-channels, Reynold’s number, Nusselt number, convective heat transfer

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17819 Experimental Study of Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Serpentine Channel Water Cooler Heat Sink

Authors: Hao Xiaohong, Wu Zongxiang, Chen Xuefeng


With the high power density and high integration of electronic devices, their heat flux has been increasing rapidly. Therefore, an effective cooling technology is essential for the reliability and efficient operation of electronic devices. Liquid cooling is studied increasingly widely for its higher heat transfer efficiency. Serpentine channels are superior in the augmentation of single-phase convective heat transfer because of their better channel velocity distribution. In this paper, eight different frame sizes water-cooled serpentine channel heat sinks are designed to study the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics. With water as the working fluid, experiment setup is established and the results showed the effect of different channel width, fin thickness and number of channels on thermal resistance and pressure drop.

Keywords: heat transfer, experiment, serpentine heat sink, pressure drop

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17818 Investigation Bubble Growth and Nucleation Rates during the Pool Boiling Heat Transfer of Distilled Water Using Population Balance Model

Authors: V. Nikkhah Rashidabad, M. Manteghian, M. Masoumi, S. Mousavian


In this research, the changes in bubbles diameter and number that may occur due to the change in heat flux of pure water during pool boiling process. For this purpose, test equipment was designed and developed to collect test data. The bubbles were graded using Caliper Screen software. To calculate the growth and nucleation rates of bubbles under different fluxes, population balance model was employed. The results show that the increase in heat flux from q=20 kw/m2 to q=102 kw/m2 raised the growth and nucleation rates of bubbles.

Keywords: heat flux, bubble growth, bubble nucleation, population balance model

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17817 Numerical Modeling of Film Cooling of the Surface at Non-Uniform Heat Flux Distributions on the Wall

Authors: M. V. Bartashevich


The problem of heat transfer at thin laminar liquid film is solved numerically. A thin film of liquid flows down an inclined surface under conditions of variable heat flux on the wall. The use of thin films of liquid allows to create the effective technologies for cooling surfaces. However, it is important to investigate the most suitable cooling regimes from a safety point of view, in order, for example, to avoid overheating caused by the ruptures of the liquid film, and also to study the most effective cooling regimes depending on the character of the distribution of the heat flux on the wall, as well as the character of the blowing of the film surface, i.e., the external shear stress on its surface. In the statement of the problem on the film surface, the heat transfer coefficient between the liquid and gas is set, as well as a variable external shear stress - the intensity of blowing. It is shown that the combination of these factors - the degree of uniformity of the distribution of heat flux on the wall and the intensity of blowing, affects the efficiency of heat transfer. In this case, with an increase in the intensity of blowing, the cooling efficiency increases, reaching a maximum, and then decreases. It is also shown that the more uniform the heating of the wall, the more efficient the heat sink. A separate study was made for the flow regime along the horizontal surface when the liquid film moves solely due to external stress influence. For this mode, the analytical solution is used for the temperature at the entrance region for further numerical calculations downstream. Also the influence of the degree of uniformity of the heat flux distribution on the wall and the intensity of blowing of the film surface on the heat transfer efficiency was also studied. This work was carried out at the Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS (Russia) and supported by FASO Russia.

Keywords: Heat Flux, Heat Transfer Enhancement, External Blowing, Thin Liquid Film

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17816 Research on the Aero-Heating Prediction Based on Hybrid Meshes and Hybrid Schemes

Authors: Qiming Zhang, Youda Ye, Qinxue Jiang


Accurate prediction of external flowfield and aero-heating at the wall of hypersonic vehicle is very crucial for the design of aircrafts. Unstructured/hybrid meshes have more powerful advantages than structured meshes in terms of pre-processing, parallel computing and mesh adaptation, so it is imperative to develop high-resolution numerical methods for the calculation of aerothermal environment on unstructured/hybrid meshes. The inviscid flux scheme is one of the most important factors affecting the accuracy of unstructured/ hybrid mesh heat flux calculation. Here, a new hybrid flux scheme is developed and the approach of interface type selection is proposed: i.e. 1) using the exact Riemann scheme solution to calculate the flux on the faces parallel to the wall; 2) employing Sterger-Warming (S-W) scheme to improve the stability of the numerical scheme in other interfaces. The results of the heat flux fit the one observed experimentally and have little dependence on grids, which show great application prospect in unstructured/ hybrid mesh.

Keywords: aero-heating prediction, computational fluid dynamics, hybrid meshes, hybrid schemes

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17815 An Accurate Prediction of Surface Temperature History in a Supersonic Flight

Authors: A. M. Tahsini, S. A. Hosseini


In the present study, the surface temperature history of the adaptor part in a two-stage supersonic launch vehicle is accurately predicted. The full Navier-Stokes equations are used to estimate the aerodynamic heat flux. The one-dimensional heat conduction in solid phase is used to compute the temperature history. The instantaneous surface temperature is used to improve the applied heat flux, to improve the accuracy of the results.

Keywords: aerodynamic heating, heat conduction, numerical simulation, supersonic flight, launch vehicle

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17814 Enhanced Boiling Heat Transfer Using Wettability Patterned Surfaces

Authors: Dong Il Shim, Geehong Choi, Donghwi Lee, Namkyu Lee, Hyung Hee Cho


Effective cooling technology is required to secure thermal stability in extreme heat generated systems such as integrated electronic devices and power generated systems. Pool boiling heat transfer is one of the powerful cooling mechanisms using phase change phenomena. Critical heat flux (CHF) and heat transfer coefficient (HTC) are main factors to evaluate the performance of boiling heat transfer. CHF is the limitation of boiling heat transfer before film boiling which occurs thermal failure. Surface wettability is an important surface characteristic of boiling heat transfer. A hydrophilic surface has higher CHF through effective working fluid supply to local hot spots. A hydrophobic surface promotes the onset of nucleate boiling (ONB) to enhance HTC. In this study, superbiphilic surfaces, which is combined with superhydrophillic and superhydrophobic, are applied on boiling experiments to maximize boiling performance. We conducted pool boiling heat transfer using DI water at a saturated temperature and recorded bubble dynamics using a high-speed camera with 2000 fps. As a result, superbiphilic patterned surfaces promote ONB and enhance both CHF and HTC. This study demonstrates the enhanced boiling performance using superbiphilic surfaces by effective nucleation and separation of liquid/vapor pathway. We expect that further enhancement of heat transfer could be achieved in future work using optimized patterned surfaces.

Keywords: boiling heat transfer, wettability, critical heat flux, heat transfer coefficient

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17813 Effect of Hydraulic Diameter on Flow Boiling Instability in a Single Microtube with Vertical Upward Flow

Authors: Qian You, Ibrahim Hassan, Lyes Kadem


An experiment is conducted to fundamentally investigate flow oscillation characteristics in different sizes of single microtubes in vertical upward flow direction. Three microtubes have 0.889 mm, 0.533 mm, and 0.305 mm hydraulic diameters with 100 mm identical heated length. The mass flux of the working fluid FC-72 varies from 700 kg/m2•s to 1400 kg/m2•s, and the heat flux is uniformly applied on the tube surface up to 9.4 W/cm2. The subcooled inlet temperature is maintained around 24°C during the experiment. The effect of hydraulic diameter and mass flux are studied. The results showed that they have interactions on the flow oscillations occurrence and behaviors. The onset of flow instability (OFI), which is a threshold of unstable flow, usually appears in large microtube with diversified and sustained flow oscillations, while the transient point, which is the point when the flow turns from one stable state to another suddenly, is more observed in small microtube without characterized flow oscillations due to the bubble confinement. The OFI/transient point occurs early as hydraulic diameter reduces at a given mass flux. The increased mass flux can delay the OFI/transient point occurrence in large hydraulic diameter, but no significant effect in small size. Although the only transient point is observed in the smallest tube, it appears at small heat flux and is not sensitive to mass flux; hence, the smallest microtube is not recommended since increasing heat flux may cause local dryout.

Keywords: flow boiling instability, hydraulic diameter effect, a single microtube, vertical upward flow

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17812 Effect of Zinc Oxide on Characteristics of Active Flux TIG Welds of 1050 Aluminum Plates

Authors: H. Fazlinejad, A. Halvaee


In this study, characteristics of ATIG welds using ZnO flux on aluminum was investigated and compared with TIG welds. Autogenously AC-ATIG bead on plate welding was applied on Al1050 plate with a coating of ZnO as the flux. Different levels of welding current and flux layer thickness was considered to study the effect of heat input and flux quantity on ATIG welds and was compared with those of TIG welds. Geometrical investigation of the weld cross sections revealed that penetration depth of the ATIG welds with ZnO flux, was increased up to 2 times in some samples compared to the TIG welds. Optical metallographic and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations revealed similar microstructures in TIG and ATIG welds. Composition of the ATIG welds slag was also analyzed using X-ray diffraction. In both TIG and ATIG samples, the lowest values of microhardness were observed in the HAZ.

Keywords: ATIG, active flux, weld penetration, Al 1050, ZnO

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17811 Influence of Low and Extreme Heat Fluxes on Thermal Degradation of Carbon Fibre-Reinforced Polymers

Authors: Johannes Bibinger, Sebastian Eibl, Hans-Joachim Gudladt


This study considers the influence of different irradiation scenarios on the thermal degradation of carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP). Real threats are simulated, such as fires with long-lasting low heat fluxes and nuclear heat flashes with short-lasting high heat fluxes. For this purpose, coated and uncoated quasi-isotropic samples of the commercially available CFRP HexPly® 8552/IM7 are thermally irradiated from one side by a cone calorimeter and a xenon short-arc lamp with heat fluxes between 5 and 175 W/cm² at varying time intervals. The specimen temperature is recorded on the front and backside as well as at different laminate depths. The CFRP is non-destructively tested with ultrasonic testing, infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and micro-focused computed X-Ray tomography (μCT). Destructive tests are performed to evaluate the mechanical properties in terms of interlaminar shear strength (ILSS), compressive and tensile strength. The irradiation scenarios vary significantly in heat flux and exposure time. Thus, different heating rates, radiation effects, and temperature distributions occur. This leads to unequal decomposition processes, which affect the sensitivity of the strength type and damage behaviour of the specimens. However, with the use of surface coatings, thermal degradation of composite materials can be delayed.

Keywords: CFRP, one-sided thermal damage, high heat flux, heating rate, non-destructive and destructive testing

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17810 Thermal Management of Ground Heat Exchangers Applied in High Power LED

Authors: Yuan-Ching Chiang, Chien-Yeh Hsu, Chen Chih-Hao, Sih-Li Chen


The p-n junction temperature of LEDs directly influences their operating life and luminous efficiency. An excessively high p-n junction temperature minimizes the output flux of LEDs, decreasing their brightness and influencing the photon wavelength; consequently, the operating life of LEDs decreases and their luminous output changes. The maximum limit of the p-n junction temperature of LEDs is approximately 120 °C. The purpose of this research was to devise an approach for dissipating heat generated in a confined space when LEDs operate at low temperatures to reduce light decay. The cooling mode of existing commercial LED lights can be divided into natural- and forced convection cooling. In natural convection cooling, the volume of LED encapsulants must be increased by adding more fins to increase the cooling area. However, this causes difficulties in achieving efficient LED lighting at high power. Compared with forced convection cooling, heat transfer through water convection is associated with a higher heat transfer coefficient per unit area; therefore, we dissipated heat by using a closed loop water cooling system. Nevertheless, cooling water exposed to air can be easily influenced by environmental factors. Thus, we incorporated a ground heat exchanger into the water cooling system to minimize the influence of air on cooling water and then observed the relationship between the amounts of heat dissipated through the ground and LED efficiency.

Keywords: helical ground heat exchanger, high power LED, ground source cooling system, heat dissipation

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17809 Analyses of Natural Convection Heat Transfer from a Heated Cylinder Mounted in Vertical Duct

Authors: H. Bhowmik, A. Faisal, Ahmed Al Yaarubi, Nabil Al Alawi


Experiments are conducted to analyze the steady-state and the power-on transient natural convection heat transfer from a horizontal cylinder mounted in a vertical up flow circular duct. The heat flux ranges from 177 W/m2 to 2426 W/m2 and the Rayleigh number ranges from 1×104 to 4.35×104. For natural air flow and constant heat flux condition, the effects of heat transfer around the cylinder under steady-state condition are investigated. The steady-state results compare favorably with that of the available data. The effects of transient heat transfer data on different angular position of the thermocouple (0o, 90o, 180o) are also reported. It is observed that the transient heat transfer around the cylinder is strongly affected by the position of thermocouples. In the transient region, the rate of heat transfer obtained at 90o and 180o are higher than that of stagnation point (0o). Finally, the dependence of the average Nusselt number on Rayleigh number for steady and transient natural convection heat transfer are analyzed, and a correlation equation is presented.

Keywords: Fourier number, Nusselt number, Rayleigh number, steady state, transient

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
17808 The Improvement of Turbulent Heat Flux Parameterizations in Tropical GCMs Simulations Using Low Wind Speed Excess Resistance Parameter

Authors: M. O. Adeniyi, R. T. Akinnubi


The parameterization of turbulent heat fluxes is needed for modeling land-atmosphere interactions in Global Climate Models (GCMs). However, current GCMs still have difficulties with producing reliable turbulent heat fluxes for humid tropical regions, which may be due to inadequate parameterization of the roughness lengths for momentum (z0m) and heat (z0h) transfer. These roughness lengths are usually expressed in term of excess resistance factor (κB^(-1)), and this factor is used to account for different resistances for momentum and heat transfers. In this paper, a more appropriate excess resistance factor (〖 κB〗^(-1)) suitable for low wind speed condition was developed and incorporated into the aerodynamic resistance approach (ARA) in the GCMs. Also, the performance of various standard GCMs κB^(-1) schemes developed for high wind speed conditions were assessed. Based on the in-situ surface heat fluxes and profile measurements of wind speed and temperature from Nigeria Micrometeorological Experimental site (NIMEX), new κB^(-1) was derived through application of the Monin–Obukhov similarity theory and Brutsaert theoretical model for heat transfer. Turbulent flux parameterizations with this new formula provides better estimates of heat fluxes when compared with others estimated using existing GCMs κB^(-1) schemes. The derived κB^(-1) MBE and RMSE in the parameterized QH ranged from -1.15 to – 5.10 Wm-2 and 10.01 to 23.47 Wm-2, while that of QE ranged from - 8.02 to 6.11 Wm-2 and 14.01 to 18.11 Wm-2 respectively. The derived 〖 κB〗^(-1) gave better estimates of QH than QE during daytime. The derived 〖 κB〗^(-1)=6.66〖 Re〗_*^0.02-5.47, where Re_* is the Reynolds number. The derived κB^(-1) scheme which corrects a well documented large overestimation of turbulent heat fluxes is therefore, recommended for most regional models within the tropic where low wind speed is prevalent.

Keywords: humid, tropic, excess resistance factor, overestimation, turbulent heat fluxes

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17807 Research on Axial End Flux Leakage and Detent Force of Transverse Flux PM Linear Machine

Authors: W. R. Li, J. K. Xia, R. Q. Peng, Z. Y. Guo, L. Jiang


According to 3D magnetic circuit of the transverse flux PM linear machine, distribution law is presented, and analytical expression of axial end flux leakage is derived using numerical method. Maxwell stress tensor is used to solve detent force of mover. A 3D finite element model of the transverse flux PM machine is built to analyze the flux distribution and detent force. Experimental results of the prototype verified the validity of axial end flux leakage and detent force theoretical derivation, the research on axial end flux leakage and detent force provides a valuable reference to other types of linear machine.

Keywords: axial end flux leakage, detent force, flux distribution, transverse flux PM linear machine

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17806 Effects of Cattaneo-Christov Heat Flux on 3D Magnetohydrodynamic Viscoelastic Fluid Flow with Variable Thermal Conductivity

Authors: Muhammad Ramzan


A mathematical model has been envisaged to discuss three-dimensional Viscoelastic fluid flow with an effect of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux in attendance of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD). Variable thermal conductivity with the impact of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions and convective boundary condition is also taken into account. Homotopy analysis method is engaged to obtain series solutions. Graphical illustrations depicting behaviour of sundry parameters on skin friction coefficient and all involved distributions are also given. It is observed that velocity components are decreasing functions of Viscoelastic fluid parameter. Furthermore, strength of homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions have opposite effects on concentration distribution. A comparison with a published paper has also been established and an excellent agreement is obtained; hence reliable results are being presented.

Keywords: Cattaneo Christov heat flux, homogenous-heterogeneous reactions, magnetic field, variable thermal conductivity

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17805 Free Convection in a Darcy Thermally Stratified Porous Medium That Embeds a Vertical Wall of Constant Heat Flux and Concentration

Authors: Maria Neagu


This paper presents the heat and mass driven natural convection succession in a Darcy thermally stratified porous medium that embeds a vertical semi-infinite impermeable wall of constant heat flux and concentration. The scale analysis of the system determines the two possible maps of the heat and mass driven natural convection sequence along the wall as a function of the process parameters. These results are verified using the finite differences method applied to the conservation equations.

Keywords: finite difference method, natural convection, porous medium, scale analysis, thermal stratification

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17804 Heat Transfer Studies for LNG Vaporization During Underwater LNG Releases

Authors: S. Naveen, V. Sivasubramanian


A modeling theory is proposed to consider the vaporization of LNG during its contact with water following its release from an underwater source. The spillage of LNG underwater can lead to a decrease in the surface temperature of water and subsequent freezing. This can in turn affect the heat flux distribution from the released LNG onto the water surrounding it. The available models predict the rate of vaporization considering the surface of contact as a solid wall, and considering the entire phenomena as a solid-liquid operation. This assumption greatly under-predicted the overall heat transfer on LNG water interface. The vaporization flux would first decrease during the film boiling, followed by an increase during the transition boiling and a steady decrease during the nucleate boiling. A superheat theory is introduced to enhance the accuracy in the prediction of the heat transfer between LNG and water. The work suggests that considering the superheat theory can greatly enhance the prediction of LNG vaporization on underwater releases and also help improve the study of overall thermodynamics.

Keywords: evaporation rate, heat transfer, LNG vaporization, underwater LNG release

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17803 Heat Transfer Performance of a Small Cold Plate with Uni-Directional Porous Copper for Cooling Power Electronics

Authors: K. Yuki, R. Tsuji, K. Takai, S. Aramaki, R. Kibushi, N. Unno, K. Suzuki


A small cold plate with uni-directional porous copper is proposed for cooling power electronics such as an on-vehicle inverter with the heat generation of approximately 500 W/cm2. The uni-directional porous copper with the pore perpendicularly orienting the heat transfer surface is soldered to a grooved heat transfer surface. This structure enables the cooling liquid to evaporate in the pore of the porous copper and then the vapor to discharge through the grooves. In order to minimize the cold plate, a double flow channel concept is introduced for the design of the cold plate. The cold plate consists of a base plate, a spacer, and a vapor discharging plate, totally 12 mm in thickness. The base plate has multiple nozzles of 1.0 mm in diameter for the liquid supply and 4 slits of 2.0 mm in width for vapor discharging, and is attached onto the top surface of the porous copper plate of 20 mm in diameter and 5.0 mm in thickness. The pore size is 0.36 mm and the porosity is 36 %. The cooling liquid flows into the porous copper as an impinging jet flow from the multiple nozzles, and then the vapor, which is generated in the pore, is discharged through the grooves and the vapor slits outside the cold plate. A heated test section consists of the cold plate, which was explained above, and a heat transfer copper block with 6 cartridge heaters. The cross section of the heat transfer block is reduced in order to increase the heat flux. The top surface of the block is the grooved heat transfer surface of 10 mm in diameter at which the porous copper is soldered. The grooves are fabricated like latticework, and the width and depth are 1.0 mm and 0.5 mm, respectively. By embedding three thermocouples in the cylindrical part of the heat transfer block, the temperature of the heat transfer surface ant the heat flux are extrapolated in a steady state. In this experiment, the flow rate is 0.5 L/min and the flow velocity at each nozzle is 0.27 m/s. The liquid inlet temperature is 60 °C. The experimental results prove that, in a single-phase heat transfer regime, the heat transfer performance of the cold plate with the uni-directional porous copper is 2.1 times higher than that without the porous copper, though the pressure loss with the porous copper also becomes higher than that without the porous copper. As to the two-phase heat transfer regime, the critical heat flux increases by approximately 35% by introducing the uni-directional porous copper, compared with the CHF of the multiple impinging jet flow. In addition, we confirmed that these heat transfer data was much higher than that of the ordinary single impinging jet flow. These heat transfer data prove high potential of the cold plate with the uni-directional porous copper from the view point of not only the heat transfer performance but also energy saving.

Keywords: cooling, cold plate, uni-porous media, heat transfer

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17802 The Effect of Radiation on Unsteady MHD Flow past a Vertical Porous Plate in the Presence of Heat Flux

Authors: Pooja Sharma


In the present paper the effects of radiation is studied on unsteady flow of viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid past a vertical porous plate embedded in the porous medium in the presence of constant heat flux. A uniform Transverse Magnetic field is considered and induced magnetic field is supposed as negligible. The non-linear governing equations are solved numerically. Numerical results of the velocity and temperature fields are shown through graphs. The results illustrates that the appropriator combination of regulated values of thermo-physical parameters is expedient for controlling the flow system.

Keywords: heat transfer, radiation, MHD flow, porous medium

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17801 Numerical Investigation of Heat Transfer in a Channel with Delta Winglet Vortex Generators at Different Reynolds Numbers

Authors: N. K. Singh


In this study the augmentation of heat transfer in a rectangular channel with triangular vortex generators is evaluated. The span wise averaged Nusselt number, mean temperature and total heat flux are compared with and without vortex generators in the channel at a blade angle of 30° for Reynolds numbers 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000. The use of vortex generators increases the span wise averaged Nusselt number compared to the case without vortex generators considerably. At a particular blade angle, increasing the Reynolds number results in an enhancement in the overall performance and span wise averaged Nusselt number was found to be greater at particular location for larger Reynolds number. The total heat flux from the bottom wall with vortex generators was found to be greater than that without vortex generators and the difference increases with increase in Reynolds number.

Keywords: heat transfer, channel with vortex generators, numerical simulation, effect of Reynolds number on heat transfer

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17800 Assessment of Land Use Land Cover Change-Induced Climatic Effects

Authors: Mahesh K. Jat, Ankan Jana, Mahender Choudhary


Rapid population and economic growth resulted in changes in large-scale land use land cover (LULC) changes. Changes in the biophysical properties of the Earth's surface and its impact on climate are of primary concern nowadays. Different approaches, ranging from location-based relationships or modelling earth surface - atmospheric interaction through modelling techniques like surface energy balance (SEB) are used in the recent past to examine the relationship between changes in Earth surface land cover and climatic characteristics like temperature and precipitation. A remote sensing-based model i.e., Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL), has been used to estimate the surface heat fluxes over Mahi Bajaj Sagar catchment (India) from 2001 to 2020. Landsat ETM and OLI satellite data are used to model the SEB of the area. Changes in observed precipitation and temperature, obtained from India Meteorological Department (IMD) have been correlated with changes in surface heat fluxes to understand the relative contributions of LULC change in changing these climatic variables. Results indicate a noticeable impact of LULC changes on climatic variables, which are aligned with respective changes in SEB components. Results suggest that precipitation increases at a rate of 20 mm/year. The maximum and minimum temperature decreases and increases at 0.007 ℃ /year and 0.02 ℃ /year, respectively. The average temperature increases at 0.009 ℃ /year. Changes in latent heat flux and sensible heat flux positively correlate with precipitation and temperature, respectively. Variation in surface heat fluxes influences the climate parameters and is an adequate reason for climate change. So, SEB modelling is helpful to understand the LULC change and its impact on climate.

Keywords: LULC, sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, SEBAL, landsat, precipitation, temperature

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17799 Comparative Analysis of Internal Combustion Engine Cooling Fins Using Ansys Software

Authors: Aakash Kumar R. G., Anees K. Ahamed, Raj M. Mohan


Effective engine cooling can improve the engine’s life and efficacy. The design of the fin of the cylinder head and block determines the cooling mechanism of air cooled engine. The heat conduction takes place through the engine parts and convection of heat from the surface of the fins takes place with air as the heat transferring medium. The air surrounding the cooling fins helps in removal of heat built up by the air cooled engine. If the heat removal rate is inadequate, it will result in lower engine efficiency and high thermal stresses in the engine. The main drawback of the air cooled engine is the low heat transfer rate of the cooling fins .This work is based on scrutiny of previous researches that involves enhancing of heat transfer rate of cooling fins. The current research is about augmentation of heat transfer rate of longitudinal rectangular fin profiles by varying the length of the fin and diameter of holes on the fins. Thermal and flow analysis is done for two different models of fins. One is simple fin without holes and the other is perforated (consist of holes). It can be inferred from the research that the fins with holes have a higher fin efficiency than the fins without holes. The geometry of the fin is done in CREO. The heat transfer analysis is done using ANSYS software.

Keywords: fins, heat transfer, perforated fins, thermal analysis, thermal flux

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17798 Performance of Flat Plate Loop Heat Pipe for Thermal Management of Lithium-Ion Battery in Electric Vehicle Application

Authors: Bambang Ariantara, Nandy Putra, Rangga Aji Pamungkas


The development of electric vehicle batteries has resulted in very high energy density lithium-ion batteries. However, this progress is accompanied by the risk of thermal runaway, which can result in serious accidents. Heat pipes are heat exchangers that are suitable to be applied in electric vehicle battery thermal management for their lightweight, compact size and do not require external power supply. This paper aims to examine experimentally a flat plate loop heat pipe (FPLHP) performance as a heat exchanger in the thermal management system of the lithium-ion battery for electric vehicle application. The heat generation of the battery was simulated using a cartridge heater. Stainless steel screen mesh was used as the capillary wick. Distilled water, alcohol and acetone were used as working fluids with a filling ratio of 60%. It was found that acetone gives the best performance that produces the thermal resistance of 0.22 W/°C with 50 °C evaporator temperature at heat flux load of 1.61 W/cm2.

Keywords: electric vehicle, flat-plate loop heat pipe, lithium-ion battery, thermal management system

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