Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 914

Search results for: ultrathin nanoporous membrane

914 Investigation on Ultrahigh Heat Flux of Nanoporous Membrane Evaporation Using Dimensionless Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: W. H. Zheng, J. Li, F. J. Hong

Abstract:

Thin liquid film evaporation in ultrathin nanoporous membranes, which reduce the viscous resistance while still maintaining high capillary pressure and efficient liquid delivery, is a promising thermal management approach for high-power electronic devices cooling. Given the challenges and technical limitations of experimental studies for accurate interface temperature sensing, complex manufacturing process, and short duration of membranes, a dimensionless lattice Boltzmann method capable of restoring thermophysical properties of working fluid is particularly derived. The evaporation of R134a to its pure vapour ambient in nanoporous membranes with the pore diameter of 80nm, thickness of 472nm, and three porosities of 0.25, 0.33 and 0.5 are numerically simulated. The numerical results indicate that the highest heat transfer coefficient is about 1740kW/m²·K; the highest heat flux is about 1.49kW/cm² with only about the wall superheat of 8.59K in the case of porosity equals to 0.5. The dissipated heat flux scaled with porosity because of the increasing effective evaporative area. Additionally, the self-regulation of the shape and curvature of the meniscus under different operating conditions is also observed. This work shows a promising approach to forecast the membrane performance for different geometry and working fluids.

Keywords: high heat flux, ultrathin nanoporous membrane, thin film evaporation, lattice Boltzmann method

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913 Ultrathin Tin-Silicalite 1 Zeolite Membrane in Ester Solvent Recovery

Authors: Kun Liang Ang, Eng Toon Saw, Wei He, Xuecheng Dong, Seeram Ramakrishna

Abstract:

Ester solvents are widely used in pharmaceutical, printing and flavor industry due to their good miscibility, low toxicity, and high volatility. Through pervaporation, these ester solvents can be recovered from industrial wastewater. While metal-doped silicalite 1 zeolite membranes are commonly used in organic solvent recovery in the pervaporation process, these ceramic membranes suffer from low membrane permeation flux, mainly due to the high thickness of the metal-doped zeolite membrane. Herein, a simple method of fabricating an ultrathin tin-silicalite 1 membrane supported on alumina tube is reported. This ultrathin membrane is able to achieve high permeation flux and separation factor for an ester in a diluted aqueous solution. Nanosized tin-Silicalite 1 seeds which are smaller than 500nm has been formed through hydrothermal synthesis. The sn-Silicalite 1 seeds were then seeded onto alumina tube through dip coating, and the tin-Silicalite 1 membrane was then formed by hydrothermal synthesis in an autoclave through secondary growth method. Multiple membrane synthesis factors such as seed size, ceramic substrate surface pore size selection, and secondary growth conditions were studied for their effects on zeolite membrane growth. The microstructure, morphology and the membrane thickness of tin-Silicalite 1 zeolite membrane were examined. The membrane separation performance and stability will also be reported.

Keywords: ceramic membrane, pervaporation, solvent recovery, Sn-MFI zeolite

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912 Ultrathin NaA Zeolite Membrane in Solvent Recovery: Preparation and Application

Authors: Eng Toon Saw, Kun Liang Ang, Wei He, Xuecheng Dong, Seeram Ramakrishna

Abstract:

Solvent recovery process is receiving utmost attention in recent year due to the scarcity of natural resource and consciousness of circular economy in chemical and pharmaceutical manufacturing process. Solvent dehydration process is one of the important process to recover and to purify the solvent for reuse. Due to the complexity of solvent waste or wastewater effluent produced in pharmaceutical industry resulting the wastewater treatment process become complicated, thus an alternative solution is to recover the valuable solvent in solvent waste. To treat solvent waste and to upgrade solvent purity, membrane pervaporation process is shown to be a promising technology due to the energy intensive and low footprint advantages. Ceramic membrane is adopted as solvent dehydration membrane owing to the chemical and thermal stability properties as compared to polymeric membrane. NaA zeolite membrane is generally used as solvent dehydration process because of its narrow and distinct pore size and high hydrophilicity. NaA zeolite membrane has been mainly applied in alcohol dehydration in fermentation process. At this stage, the membrane performance exhibits high separation factor with low flux using tubular ceramic membrane. Thus, defect free and ultrathin NaA membrane should be developed to increase water flux. Herein, we report a simple preparation protocol to prepare ultrathin NaA zeolite membrane supported on tubular ceramic membrane by controlling the seed size synthesis, seeding methods and conditions, ceramic substrate surface pore size selection and secondary growth conditions. The microstructure and morphology of NaA zeolite membrane will be examined and reported. Moreover, the membrane separation performance and stability will also be reported in isopropanol dehydration, ketone dehydration and ester dehydration particularly for the application in pharmaceutical industry.

Keywords: ceramic membrane, NaA zeolite, pharmaceutical industry, solvent recovery

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911 Removal of Na₂SO₄ by Electro-Confinement on Nanoporous Carbon Membrane

Authors: Jing Ma, Guotong Qin

Abstract:

We reported electro-confinement desalination (ECMD), a desalination method combining electric field effects and confinement effects using nanoporous carbon membranes as electrode. A carbon membrane with average pore size of 8.3 nm was prepared by organic sol-gel method. The precursor of support was prepared by curing porous phenol resin tube. Resorcinol-formaldehyde sol was coated on porous tubular resin support. The membrane was obtained by carbonisation of coated support. A well-combined top layer with the thickness of 35 μm was supported by macroporous support. Measurements of molecular weight cut-off using polyethylene glycol showed the average pore size of 8.3 nm. High salt rejection can be achieved because the water molecules need not overcome high energy barriers in confined space, while huge inherent dehydration energy was required for hydrated ions to enter the nanochannels. Additionally, carbon membrane with additional electric field can be used as an integrated membrane electrode combining the effects of confinement and electric potential gradient. Such membrane electrode can repel co-ions and attract counter-ions using pressure as the driving force for mass transport. When the carbon membrane was set as cathode, the rejection of SO₄²⁻ was 94.89%, while the removal of Na⁺ was less than 20%. We set carbon membrane as anode chamber to treat the effluent water from the cathode chamber. The rejection of SO₄²⁻ and Na⁺ reached to 100% and 88.86%, respectively. ECMD will be a promising energy efficient method for salt rejection.

Keywords: nanoporous carbon membrane, confined effect, electric field, desalination, membrane reactor

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910 Vibration Frequencies Analysis of Nanoporous Graphene Membrane

Authors: Haw-Long Lee, Win-Jin Chang, Yu-Ching Yang

Abstract:

In this study, we use the atomic-scale finite element method to investigate the vibrational behavior of the armchair- and zigzag-structured nanoporous graphene layers with different size under the SFSF and CFFF boundary conditions. The fundamental frequencies computed for the graphene layers without pore are compared with the results of previous studies. We observe very good correspondence of our results with that of the other studies in all the considered cases. For the armchair- and zigzag-structured nanoporous graphene layers under the SFSF and CFFF boundary conditions, the frequencies decrease as the size of the nanopore increase. When the positions of the pore are symmetric with respect to the center of the graphene, the frequency of the zigzag pore graphene is higher than that of the armchair one.

Keywords: atomic-scale finite element method, graphene, nanoporous, natural frequency

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909 Hybrid Treatment Method for Decolorization of Mixed Dyes: Rhodamine-B, Brilliant Green and Congo Red

Authors: D. Naresh Yadav, K. Anand Kishore, Bhaskar Bethi, Shirish H. Sonawane, D. Bhagawan

Abstract:

The untreated industrial wastewater discharged into the environment causes the contamination of soil, water and air. Advanced treatment methods for enhanced wastewater treatment are attracting substantial interest among the currently employed unit processes in wastewater treatment. The textile industry is one of the predominant in wastewater production at current industrialized situation. The refused dyes at textile industry need to be treated in proper manner before its discharge into water bodies. In the present investigation, hybrid treatment process has been developed for the treatment of synthetic mixed dye wastewater. Photocatalysis and ceramic nanoporous membrane are mainly used for process integration to minimize the fouling and increase the flux. Commercial semiconducting powders (TiO2 and ZnO) has used as a nano photocatalyst for the degradation of mixed dye in the hybrid system. Commercial ceramic nanoporous tubular membranes have been used for the rejection of dye and suspended catalysts. Photocatalysis with catalyst has shown the average of 34% of decolorization (RB-32%, BG-34% and CR-36%), whereas ceramic nanofiltration has shown the 56% (RB-54%, BG-56% and CR-58%) of decolorization. Integration of photocatalysis and ceramic nanofiltration has shown 96% (RB-94%, BG-96% and CR-98%) of dye decolorization over 90 min of operation.

Keywords: photocatalysis, ceramic nanoporous membrane, wastewater treatment, advanced oxidation process, process integration

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908 Graphene Based Materials as Novel Membranes for Water Desalination and Boron Separation

Authors: Francesca Risplendi, Li-Chiang Lin, Jeffrey C. Grossman, Giancarlo Cicero

Abstract:

Desalination is one of the most employed approaches to supply water in the context of a rapidly growing global water shortage. However, the most popular water filtration method available is the reverse osmosis (RO) technique, still suffers from important drawbacks, such as a large energy demands and high process costs. In addition some serious limitations have been recently discovered, among them, the boron problem seems to have a critical meaning. Boron has been found to have a dual effect on the living systems on Earth and the difference between boron deficiency and boron toxicity levels is quite small. The aim of this project is to develop a new generation of RO membranes based on porous graphene or reduced graphene oxide (rGO) able to remove salts from seawater and to reduce boron concentrations in the permeate to the level that meets the drinking or process water requirements, by means of a theoretical approach based on density functional theory and classical molecular dynamics. Computer simulations have been employed to investigate the relationship between the atomic structure of nanoporous graphene or rGO monolayer and its membrane properties in RO applications (i.e. water permeability and resilience at RO pressures). In addition, an emphasis has been given to multilayer nanoporous rGO and rGO flakes based membranes. By means of non-equilibrium MD simulations, we investigated the water transport mechanism permeating through such multilayer membrane focusing on the effect of slit widths and sheet geometries. These simulations allowed us to establish the implications of these graphene based materials as promising membrane properties for desalination plants and as boron filtration.

Keywords: boron filtration, desalination, graphene membrane, reduced graphene oxide membrane

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907 Nanowire by Ac Electrodeposition Into Nanoporous Alumina Fabrication of High Aspect Ratio Metalic

Authors: M. Beyzaiea, S. Mohammadia

Abstract:

High aspect ratio metallic (silver, cobalt) nanowire arrays were fabricated using ac electrodeposition techniques into the nanoporous alumina template. The template with long pore dept fabricated by hard anodization (HA) and thinned for ac electrodeposition. Template preparation was done in short time by using HA technique and high speed thing process. The TEM and XRD investigation confirm the three dimensional nucleation growth mechanism of metallic nanowire inside the nanoporous alumina that fabricated by HA process.

Keywords: metallic, nanowire, nanoporous alumina, ac electrodeposition

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906 Nanoporous Metals Reinforced with Fullerenes

Authors: Deni̇z Ezgi̇ Gülmez, Mesut Kirca

Abstract:

Nanoporous (np) metals have attracted considerable attention owing to their cellular morphological features at atomistic scale which yield ultra-high specific surface area awarding a great potential to be employed in diverse applications such as catalytic, electrocatalytic, sensing, mechanical and optical. As one of the carbon based nanostructures, fullerenes are also another type of outstanding nanomaterials that have been extensively investigated due to their remarkable chemical, mechanical and optical properties. In this study, the idea of improving the mechanical behavior of nanoporous metals by inclusion of the fullerenes, which offers a new metal-carbon nanocomposite material, is examined and discussed. With this motivation, tensile mechanical behavior of nanoporous metals reinforced with carbon fullerenes is investigated by classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Atomistic models of the nanoporous metals with ultrathin ligaments are obtained through a stochastic process simply based on the intersection of spherical volumes which has been used previously in literature. According to this technique, the atoms within the ensemble of intersecting spherical volumes is removed from the pristine solid block of the selected metal, which results in porous structures with spherical cells. Following this, fullerene units are added into the cellular voids to obtain final atomistic configurations for the numerical tensile tests. Several numerical specimens are prepared with different number of fullerenes per cell and with varied fullerene sizes. LAMMPS code was used to perform classical MD simulations to conduct uniaxial tension experiments on np models filled by fullerenes. The interactions between the metal atoms are modeled by using embedded atomic method (EAM) while adaptive intermolecular reactive empirical bond order (AIREBO) potential is employed for the interaction of carbon atoms. Furthermore, atomic interactions between the metal and carbon atoms are represented by Lennard-Jones potential with appropriate parameters. In conclusion, the ultimate goal of the study is to present the effects of fullerenes embedded into the cellular structure of np metals on the tensile response of the porous metals. The results are believed to be informative and instructive for the experimentalists to synthesize hybrid nanoporous materials with improved properties and multifunctional characteristics.

Keywords: fullerene, intersecting spheres, molecular dynamic, nanoporous metals

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905 An Atomic Finite Element Model for Mechanical Properties of Graphene Sheets

Authors: Win-Jin Chang, Haw-Long Lee, Yu-Ching Yang

Abstract:

In this study, we use the atomic-scale finite element method to investigate the mechanical behavior of the armchair- and zigzag-structured nanoporous graphene sheets with the clamped-free-free-free boundary condition under tension and shear loadings. The effect of porosity on Young’s modulus and shear modulus of nanoporous graphene sheets is obvious. For the armchair- and zigzag-structured nanoporous graphene sheets, Young’s modulus and shear modulus decreases with increasing porosity. Young’s modulus and shear modulus of zigzag graphene are larger than that of armchair one for the same porosity. The results are useful for application in the design of nanoporous graphene sheets.

Keywords: graphene, nanoporous, Young's modulus, shear modulus

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904 Hybrid Method Development for the Removal of Crystal Violet Dye from Aqueous Medium

Authors: D. Nareshyadav, K. Anand Kishore, D. Bhagawan

Abstract:

Water scarcity is the much-identified issue all over the world. The available sources of water need to be reused to sustainable future. The present work explores the treatment of dye wastewater using combinative photocatalysis and ceramic nanofiltration membrane. Commercial ceramic membrane and TiO₂ catalyst were used in this study to investigate the removal of crystal violet dye from the aqueous solution. The effect of operating parameters such as inlet pressure, initial concentration of crystal violet dye, catalyst (TiO₂) loading, initial pH was investigated in the individual system as well as the combined system. In this study, 95 % of dye water was decolorized and 89 % of total organic carbon (TOC) was removed by the hybrid system for 500 ppm of dye and 0.75 g/l of TiO₂ concentrations at pH 9. The operation of the integrated photocatalytic reactor and ceramic membrane filtration has shown the maximum removal of crystal violet dye compared to individual systems. Hence this proposed method may be effective for the removal of Crystal violet dye from effluents.

Keywords: advanced oxidation process, ceramic nanoporous membrane, dye degradation/removal, hybrid system, photocatalysis

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903 Controlling Dimensions and Shape of Carbon Nanotubes Using Nanoporous Anodic Alumina under Different Conditions

Authors: Amine Mezni, Merfat Algethami, Ali Aldalbahi, Arwa Alrooqi, Abel Santos, Dusan Losic, Sarah Alharthi, Tariq Altalhi

Abstract:

In situ synthesis of carbon nanotubes featuring different diameters (10-200 nm), lengths (1 to 100 µm) and periodically nanostructured shape was performed in a custom designed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system using nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) under different conditions. The morphology of the resulting CNTs/NAA composites and free-standing CNTs were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results confirm that highly ordered arrays of CNTs with precise control of nanotube dimensions in the range 20-200 nm with tube length in the range < 1 µm to > 100 μm and with periodically shaped morphology can be fabricated using nanostructured NAA templates prepared by anodization. This technique allows us to obtain tubes open at one / both ends with a uniform diameter along the pore length without using any metal catalyst. Our finding suggests that this fabrication strategy for designing new CNTs membranes and structures can be significant for emerging applications as molecular separation/transport, optical biosensing, and drug delivery.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, CVD approach, composites membrane, nanoporous anodic alumina

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902 Dipeptide Functionalized Nanoporous Anodic Aluminium Oxide Membrane for Capturing Small Molecules

Authors: Abdul Mutalib Md Jani, Abdul Hadi Mahmud, Mohd Tajuddin Mohd Ali

Abstract:

The rapid growth of interest in surface modification of nanostructures materials that exhibit improved structural and functional properties is attracting more researchers. The unique properties of highly ordered nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide (NAAO) membrane have been proposed as a platform for biosensing applications. They exhibit excellent physical and chemical properties with high porosity, high surface area, tunable pore sizes and excellent chemical resistance. In this study, NAAO was functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) to prepared silane-modified NAAO. Amine functional groups are formed on the surface of NAAO during silanization and were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The synthesis of multi segment of peptide on NAAO surfaces can be realized by changing the surface chemistry of the NAAO membrane via click chemistry. By click reactions, utilizing alkyne terminated with amino group, various peptides tagged on NAAO can be envisioned from chiral natural or unnatural amino acids using standard coupling methods (HOBt, EDCI and HBTU). This strategy seemly versatile since coupling strategy of dipeptide with another amino acids, leading to tripeptide, tetrapeptide or pentapeptide, can be synthesized without purification. When an appropriate terminus is selected, multiple segments of amino acids can be successfully synthesized on the surfaces. The immobilized NAAO should be easily separated from the reaction medium by conventional filtration, thus avoiding complicated purification methods. Herein, we proposed to synthesize multi fragment peptide as a model for capturing and attaching various small biomolecules on NAAO surfaces and can be also applied as biosensing device, drug delivery systems and biocatalyst.

Keywords: nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide, silanization, peptide synthesise, click chemistry

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901 Kinetics of Cu(II) Transport through Bulk Liquid Membrane with Different Membrane Materials

Authors: Siu Hua Chang, Ayub Md Som, Jagannathan Krishnan

Abstract:

The kinetics of Cu(II) transport through a bulk liquid membrane with different membrane materials was investigated in this work. Three types of membrane materials were used: Fresh cooking oil, waste cooking oil, and kerosene each of which was mixed with di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (carrier) and tributylphosphate (modifier). Kinetic models derived from the kinetic laws of two consecutive irreversible first-order reactions were used to study the facilitated transport of Cu(II) across the source, membrane, and receiving phases of bulk liquid membrane. It was found that the transport kinetics of Cu(II) across the source phase was not affected by different types of membrane materials but decreased considerably when the membrane materials changed from kerosene, waste cooking oil to fresh cooking oil. The rate constants of Cu(II) removal and recovery processes through the bulk liquid membrane were also determined.

Keywords: transport kinetics, Cu(II), bulk liquid membrane, waste cooking oil

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900 Study of a Developed Model Describing a Vacuum Membrane Distillation Unit Coupled to Solar Energy

Authors: Fatma Khaled, Khaoula Hidouri, Bechir Chaouachi

Abstract:

Desalination using solar energy coupled with membrane techniques such as vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) is considered as an interesting alternative for the production of pure water. During this work, a developed model of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) hollow fiber membrane module of a VMD unit of seawater was carried out. This simulation leads to establishing a comparison between the effects of two different equations of the vaporization latent heat on the membrane surface temperature and on the unit productivity. Besides, in order to study the effect of putting membrane modules in series on the outlet fluid temperature and on the productivity of the process, a simulation was executed.

Keywords: vacuum membrane distillation, membrane module, membrane temperature, productivity

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899 Basic Evaluation for Polyetherimide Membrane Using Spectroscopy Techniques

Authors: Hanan Alenezi

Abstract:

Membrane performance depends on the kind of solvent used in preparation. A membrane made by Polyetherimide (PEI) was evaluated for gas separation using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The purity and the thickness are detected to evaluate the membrane in order to optimize PEI membrane preparation.

Keywords: Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS), Membrane, Polyetherimide PEI, Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Solvent, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)

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898 Effects of Nano-Coating on the Mechanical Behavior of Nanoporous Metals

Authors: Yunus Onur Yildiz, Mesut Kirca

Abstract:

In this study, mechanical properties of a nanoporous metal coated with a different metallic material are studied through a new atomistic modelling technique and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. This new atomistic modelling technique is based on the Voronoi tessellation method for the purpose of geometric representation of the ligaments. With the proposed technique, atomistic models of nanoporous metals which have randomly oriented ligaments with non-uniform mass distribution along the ligament axis can be generated by enabling researchers to control both ligament length and diameter. Furthermore, by the utilization of this technique, atomistic models of coated nanoporous materials can be numerically obtained for further mechanical or thermal characterization. In general, this study consists of two stages. At the first stage, we use algorithms developed for generating atomic coordinates of the coated nanoporous material. In this regard, coordinates of randomly distributed points are determined in a controlled way to be employed in the establishment of the Voronoi tessellation, which results in randomly oriented and intersected line segments. Then, line segment representation of the Voronoi tessellation is transformed to atomic structure by a special process. This special process includes generation of non-uniform volumetric core region in which atoms can be generated based on a specific crystal structure. As an extension, this technique can be used for coating of nanoporous structures by creating another volumetric region encapsulating the core region in which atoms for the coating material are generated. The ultimate goal of the study at this stage is to generate atomic coordinates that can be employed in the MD simulations of randomly organized coated nanoporous structures. At the second stage of the study, mechanical behavior of the coated nanoporous models is investigated by examining deformation mechanisms through MD simulations. In this way, the effect of coating on the mechanical behavior of the selected material couple is investigated.

Keywords: atomistic modelling, molecular dynamic, nanoporous metals, voronoi tessellation

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897 An Inorganic Nanofiber/Polymeric Microfiber Network Membrane for High-Performance Oil/Water Separation

Authors: Zhaoyang Liu

Abstract:

It has been highly desired to develop a high-performance membrane for separating oil/water emulsions with the combined features of high water flux, high oil separation efficiency, and high mechanical stability. Here, we demonstrated a design for high-performance membranes constructed with ultra-long titanate nanofibers (over 30 µm in length)/cellulose microfibers. An integrated network membrane was achieved with these ultra-long nano/microfibers, contrast to the non-integrated membrane constructed with carbon nanotubes (5 µm in length)/cellulose microfibers. The morphological properties of the prepared membranes were characterized by A FEI Quanta 400 (Hillsboro, OR, United States) environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). The hydrophilicity, underwater oleophobicity and oil adhesion property of the membranes were examined using an advanced goniometer (Rame-hart model 500, Succasunna, NJ, USA). More specifically, the hydrophilicity of membranes was investigated by analyzing the spreading process of water into membranes. A filtration device (Nalgene 300-4050, Rochester, NY, USA) with an effective membrane area of 11.3 cm² was used for evaluating the separation properties of the fabricated membranes. The prepared oil-in-water emulsions were poured into the filtration device. The separation process was driven under vacuum with a constant pressure of 5 kPa. The filtrate was collected, and the oil content in water was detected by a Shimadzu total organic carbon (TOC) analyzer (Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan) to examine the separation efficiency. Water flux (J) of the membrane was calculated by measuring the time needed to collect some volume of permeate. This network membrane demonstrated good mechanical flexibility and robustness, which are critical for practical applications. This network membrane also showed high separation efficiency (99.9%) for oil/water emulsions with oil droplet size down to 3 µm, and meanwhile, has high water permeation flux (6.8 × 10³ L m⁻² h⁻¹ bar⁻¹) at low operation pressure. The high water flux is attributed to the interconnected scaffold-like structure throughout the whole membrane, while the high oil separation efficiency is attributed to the nanofiber-made nanoporous selective layer. Moreover, the economic materials and low-cost fabrication process of this membrane indicate its great potential for large-scale industrial applications.

Keywords: membrane, inorganic nanofibers, oil/water separation, emulsions

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896 Water Purification By Novel Nanocomposite Membrane

Authors: E. S. Johal, M. S. Saini, M. K. Jha

Abstract:

Currently, 1.1 billion people are at risk due to lack of clean water and about 35 % of people in the developed world die from water related problem. To alleviate these problems water purification technology requires new approaches for effective management and conservation of water resources. Electrospun nanofibres membrane has a potential for water purification due to its high large surface area and good mechanical strength. In the present study PAMAM dendrimers composite nynlon-6 nanofibres membrane was prepared by crosslinking method using Glutaraldehyde. Further, the efficacy of the modified membrane can be renewed by mere exposure of the saturated membrane with the solution having acidic pH. The modified membrane can be used as an effective tool for water purification.

Keywords: dendrimer, nanofibers, nanocomposite membrane, water purification

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895 Gas Permeation Behavior of Single and Mixed Gas Components Using an Asymmetric Ceramic Membrane

Authors: Ngozi Claribelle Nwogu, Mohammed Nasir Kajama, Godson Osueke, Edward Gobina

Abstract:

A unique sol–gel dip-coating process to form an asymmetric silica membrane with improved membrane performance and reproducibility has been reported. First, we deposited repeatedly a silica solution on top of a commercial alumina membrane support to improve its structural make up. The coated membrane is further processed under clean room conditions to avoid dust impurity and subsequent drying in an oven for high thermal, chemical and physical stability. The resulting asymmetric membrane exhibits a gradual change in the membrane layer thickness. Compared to a single-layer process using only the membrane support, the dual-layer process improves both flux and selectivity. For the scientifically significant difficulties of natural gas purification, collective CO2, CH4 and H2 gas fluxes and separation factors obtained gave reasonably excellent values. In addition, the membrane selectively separated hydrogen as demonstrated by a high concentration of hydrogen recovery.

Keywords: gas permeation, silica membrane, separation factor, membrane layer thickness

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894 Effect of Fluidized Granular Activated Carbon for the Mitigation of Membrane Fouling in Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Jingwei Wang, Anthony G. Fane, Jia Wei Chew

Abstract:

The use of fluidized Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) as a means of mitigation membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) has received much attention in recent years, especially in anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactors (AFMBRs). It has been affirmed that the unsteady-state tangential shear conferred by GAC fluidization on membrane surface suppressed the extent of membrane fouling with energy consumption much lower than that of bubbling (i.e., air sparging). In a previous work, the hydrodynamics of the fluidized GAC particles were correlated with membrane fouling mitigation effectiveness. Results verified that the momentum transfer from particle to membrane held a key in fouling mitigation. The goal of the current work is to understand the effect of fluidized GAC on membrane critical flux. Membrane critical flux values were measured by a vertical Direct Observation Through the Membrane (DOTM) setup. The polystyrene particles (known as latex particles) with the particle size of 5 µm were used as model foulant thus to give the number of the foulant on the membrane surface. Our results shed light on the positive effect of fluidized GAC enhancing the critical membrane flux by an order-of-magnitude as compared to that of liquid shear alone. Membrane fouling mitigation was benefitted by the increasing of power input.

Keywords: membrane fouling mitigation, liquid-solid fluidization, critical flux, energy input

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893 Micro-Filtration with an Inorganic Membrane

Authors: Benyamina, Ouldabess, Bensalah

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to use membrane technique for filtration of a coloring solution. the preparation of the micro-filtration membranes is based on a natural clay powder with a low cost, deposited on macro-porous ceramic supports. The micro-filtration membrane provided a very large permeation flow. Indeed, the filtration effectiveness of membrane was proved by the total discoloration of bromothymol blue solution with initial concentration of 10-3 mg/L after the first minutes.

Keywords: the inorganic membrane, micro-filtration, coloring solution, natural clay powder

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892 Experimental Analysis on the Thermal Performance of Vacuum Membrane Distillation Module Using Polyvinylidene Fluoride Hollow Fiber Membrane

Authors: Hong-Jin Joo, Hee-Yoel Kwak

Abstract:

Vacuum Membrane Distillation (VMD) uses pressure lower than the atmospheric pressure. The feed seawater is capable of producing more vapor at the same temperature than Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD), Air Gap Membrane Distillation (AGMD) or Sweep Gas Membrane Distillation (SGMD). It is advantageous because it is operable at a lower temperature than other membrane distillations. However, no commercial product is available that uses the VMD method, as it is still in the study stage. In this study, therefore, thermal performance test according to the feed water conditions was performed prior to both construction of the demonstration plant, which uses VMD module of the capacity of 400m³/d in South Korea, and commercialization of VMD module with hollow fiber membrane. Such study was performed by designing and constructing the VMD module of the capacity of 2 m³/day which utilizes the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber membrane. The results obtained from the VMD module manufactured by ECONITY Co., Ltd in South Korea, showed that the maximum performance ratio (PR) value of 0.904, feed water temperature of 75 ℃, and the flow rate of 8 m3/h. As the temperature of and flow rate of the feed water increased, the PR value of the VMD module also increased.

Keywords: membrane distillation, vacuum membrane distillation, hollow fiber membrane, desalination

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891 Super-Hydrophilic TFC Membrane with High Stability in Oil

Authors: M. Obaid, Nasser A. M. Barakat, Fadali O.A

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Low stability in oil media and the hydrophobicity problems of the ploysulfone electrospun membranes could be overcome in the present study. Synthesis of super-hydrophilic and highly stable in oil polysulfone electrospun nanofiber membrane was achieved by electrospinning of polysulfone solution containing NaOH salt followed by activation of the dried electrospun membrane by deposition of polyamide layer on the surface using m-phenylenediamine and 1,3,5-benzenetricarbonyl chloride. The introduced membrane has super-hydrophilicity characteristic (contact angle=3o), excellent stability in oil media and distinct performance in oil-water separation process.

Keywords: electrospinning, oil-degradability, membrane, nanofibers

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890 High Performance Methyl Orange Capture on Magnetic Nanoporous MCM-41 Prepared by Incipient Wetness Impregnation Method

Authors: Talib M. Albayati, Omar S. Mahdy, Ghanim M. Alwan

Abstract:

This work is aimed to prepare magnetic nanoporous material Fe/MCM-41 and study its Physical characterization in order to enhance the magnetic properties for study the operating conditions on separation efficiency of methyl orange (MO) from wastewater by adsorption process. The experimental results are analysed to select the best operating conditions for different studied parameters which were obtained for both adsorbents mesoporous material samples MCM-41 and magnetic Fe/MCM-41 as follow: constant temperature (20 ºC), pH: (2) adsorbent dosage (0.03 gm), contact time (10 minute) and concentrations (30 mg/L). The results are demonstrated that the adsorption processes can be well fitted by the Langmuir isotherm model for pure MCM-41 with a higher correlation coefficient (0.999) and fitted by the freundlich isotherm model for magnetic Fe/MCM-41 with a higher correlation coefficient of (0.994).

Keywords: adsorption, nanoporous materials, mcm-41, magnetic material, wastewater, orange, wastewater

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889 Single Layer Carbon Nanotubes Array as an Efficient Membrane for Desalination: A Molecular Dynamics Study

Authors: Elisa Y. M. Ang, Teng Yong Ng, Jingjie Yeo, Rongming Lin, Zishun Liu, K. R. Geethalakshmi

Abstract:

By stacking carbon nanotubes (CNT) one on top of another, single layer CNT arrays can perform water-salt separation with ultra-high permeability and selectivity. Such outer-wall CNT slit membrane is named as the transverse flow CNT membrane. By adjusting the slit size between neighboring CNTs, the membrane can be configured to sieve out different solutes, right down to the separation of monovalent salt ions from water. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation results show that the permeability of transverse flow CNT membrane is more than two times that of conventional axial-flow CNT membranes, and orders of magnitude higher than current reverse osmosis membrane. In addition, by carrying out MD simulations with different CNT size, it was observed that the variance in desalination performance with CNT size is small. This insensitivity of the transverse flow CNT membrane’s performance to CNT size is a distinct advantage over axial flow CNT membrane designs. Not only does the membrane operate well under constant pressure desalination operation, but MD simulations further indicate that oscillatory operation can further enhance the membrane’s desalination performance, making it suitable for operation such as electrodialysis reversal. While there are still challenges that need to be overcome, particularly on the physical fabrication of such membrane, it is hope that this versatile membrane design can bring the idea of using low dimensional structures for desalination closer to reality.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, membrane desalination, transverse flow carbon nanotube membrane, molecular dynamics

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888 Effect of Silver Nanoparticles in Temperature Polarization of Distillation Membranes for Desalination Technologies

Authors: Lopez J., Mehrvar M., Quinones E., Suarez A., Romero C.

Abstract:

Membrane Distillation is an emerging technology that uses thermal and membrane steps for the desalination process to get drinking water. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were deposited by dip-coating process over Polyvinylidene Fluoride, Fiberglass hydrophilic, and Polytetrafluoroethylene hydrophobic commercial membranes as substrate. Membranes were characterized and used in a Vacuum Membrane Distillation cell under Ultraviolet light with sea salt feed solution. The presence of AgNP increases the absorption of energy on the membrane, which improves the transmembrane flux.

Keywords: silver nanoparticles, membrane distillation, desalination technologies, heat deliver

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887 Effects of SRT and HRT on Treatment Performance of MBR and Membrane Fouling

Authors: M. I. Aida Isma, Azni Idris, Rozita Omar, A. R. Putri Razreena

Abstract:

40L of hollow fiber membrane bioreactor with solids retention times (SRT) of 30, 15 and 4 days were setup for treating synthetic wastewater at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 12, 8 and 4 hours. The objectives of the study were to investigate the effects of SRT and HRT on membrane fouling. A comparative analysis was carried out for physiochemical quality parameters (turbidity, suspended solids, COD, NH3-N and PO43-). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy diffusive X-ray (EDX) analyzer and particle size distribution (PSD) were used to characterize the membrane fouling properties. The influence of SRT on the quality of effluent, activated sludge quality, and membrane fouling were also correlated. Lower membrane fouling and slower rise in trans-membrane pressure (TMP) were noticed at the longest SRT and HRT of 30d and 12h, respectively. Increasing SRT results in noticeable reduction of dissolved organic matters. The best removal efficiencies of COD, TSS, NH3-N and PO43- were 93%, 98%, 80% and 30% respectively. The high HRT with shorter SRT induced faster fouling rate. The main fouling resistance was cake layer. The most severe membrane fouling was observed at SRT and HRT of 4 and 12, respectively with thickness cake layer of 17 μm as reflected by higher TMP, lower effluent removal and thick sludge cake layer.

Keywords: membrane bioreactor, SRT, HRT, fouling

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886 Organic Rejection and Membrane Fouling with Inorganic Alumina Membrane for Industrial Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Rizwan Ahmad, Soomin Chang, Daeun Kwon, Jeonghwan Kim

Abstract:

Interests in an inorganic membrane are growing rapidly for industrial wastewater treatment due to its excellent chemical and thermal stability over polymeric membrane. Nevertheless, understanding of the membrane rejection and fouling rate caused by the deposit of contaminants on membrane surface and within membrane pores through inorganic porous membranes still requires much attention. Microfiltration alumina membranes were developed and applied for the industrial wastewater treatment to investigate rejection efficiency of organic contaminant and membrane fouling at various operational conditions. In this study, organic rejection and membrane fouling were investigated by using the alumina flat-tubular membrane developed for the treatment of industrial wastewaters. The flat-tubular alumina membranes were immersed in a fluidized membrane reactor added with granular activated carbon (GAC) particles. Fluidization was driven by recirculating a bulk industrial wastewater along membrane surface through the reactor. In the absence of GAC particles, for hazardous anionic dye contaminants, functional group characterized by the organic contaminant was found as one of the main factors affecting both membrane rejection and fouling rate. More fouling on the membrane surface led to the existence of dipolar characterizations and this was more pronounced at lower solution pH, thereby improving membrane rejection accordingly. Similar result was observed with a real metal-plating wastewater. Strong correlation was found that higher fouling rate resulted in higher organic rejection efficiency. Hydrophilicity exhibited by alumina membrane improved the organic rejection efficiency of the membrane due to the formation of hydrophilic fouling layer deposited on it. In addition, less surface roughness of alumina membrane resulted in less fouling rate. Regardless of the operational conditions applied in this study, fluidizing the GAC particles along the surface of alumina membrane was very effective to enhance organic removal efficiency higher than 95% and provide an excellent tool to reduce membrane fouling. Less than 0.1 bar as suction pressure was maintained with the alumina membrane at 25 L/m²hr of permeate set-point flux during the whole operational periods without performing any backwashing and chemical enhanced cleaning for the membrane.

Keywords: alumina membrane, fluidized membrane reactor, industrial wastewater, membrane fouling, rejection

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
885 Hydrogen Permeability of BSCY Proton-Conducting Perovskite Membrane

Authors: M. Heidari, A. Safekordi, A. Zamaniyan, E. Ganji Babakhani, M. Amanipour

Abstract:

Perovskite-type membrane Ba0.5Sr0.5Ce0.9Y0.1O3-δ (BSCY) was successfully synthesized by liquid citrate method. The hydrogen permeation and stability of BSCY perovskite-type membranes were studied at high temperatures. The phase structure of the powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize microstructures of the membrane sintered under various conditions. SEM results showed that increasing in sintering temperature, formed dense membrane with clear grains. XRD results for BSCY membrane that sintered in 1150 °C indicated single phase perovskite structure with orthorhombic configuration, and SEM results showed dense structure with clear grain size which is suitable for permeation tests. Partial substitution of Sr with Ba in SCY structure improved the hydrogen permeation flux through the membrane due to the larger ionic radius of Ba2+. BSCY membrane shows high hydrogen permeation flux of 1.6 ml/min.cm2 at 900 °C and partial pressure of 0.6.

Keywords: hydrogen separation, perovskite, proton conducting membrane.

Procedia PDF Downloads 263