Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: J. A. Louw Coetzee

18 Baring Witness, Bearing Withness: Paradoxes of Testimony in J.M. Coetzee’s Waiting for the Barbarians

Authors: Alexandra Sweny

Abstract:

This paper contends with the intersection between the act of witnessing and the act of reading in order to consider the relevance of literary testimony and fiction as tools for postcolonial readings of history. J. M. Coetzee's Waiting for the Barbarians elucidates what Primo Levi deems the 'paradoxical' task of testimony: that suffering can only be fully narrated by the sufferer themselves, whose voice and narrative capacity is often foreclosed by the very extent of their trauma. By examining the fictional Magistrate's position as both a reader and translator of history, this paper posits Waiting for the Barbarians as an ethical command against the appropriation of trauma.

Keywords: ethical criticism, limit-experience, postcolonialism, psychic trauma in literature, testimony

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17 An Experimental Study on the Effects of Aspect Ratio of a Rectangular Microchannel on the Two-Phase Frictional Pressure Drop

Authors: J. A. Louw Coetzee, Josua P. Meyer

Abstract:

The thermodynamic properties of different refrigerants in combination with the variation in geometrical properties (hydraulic diameter, aspect ratio, and inclination angle) of a rectangular microchannel determine the two-phase frictional pressure gradient. The effect of aspect ratio on frictional pressure drop had not been investigated enough during adiabatic two-phase flow and condensation in rectangular microchannels. This experimental study was concerned with measurement of the frictional pressure gradient in a rectangular microchannel, with hydraulic diameter of 900 μm. The aspect ratio of this microchannel was varied over a range that stretched from 0.3 to 3 in order to capture the effect of aspect ratio variation. A commonly used refrigerant, R134a, was used in the tests that spanned over a mass flux range of 100 to 1000 kg m-2 s-1 as well as the whole vapour quality range. This study formed part of a refrigerant condensation experiment and was therefore conducted at a saturation temperature of 40 °C. The study found that there was little influence of the aspect ratio on the frictional pressure drop at the test conditions. The data was compared to some of the well known micro- and macro-channel two-phase pressure drop correlations. Most of the separated flow correlations predicted the pressure drop data well at mass fluxes larger than 400 kg m-2 s-1 and vapour qualities above 0.2.

Keywords: aspect ratio, microchannel, two-phase, pressure gradient

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16 Developing a Grading System for Restaurants

Authors: Joseph Roberson, Carina Kleynhans, Willie Coetzee

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The low entry barriers of the restaurant industry lead to an extremely competitive business environment. In this volatile business sector it is of the utmost importance to implement a strategy of quality differentiation. Vital aspects of a quality differentiation strategy are total quality management, benchmarking and service quality management. Ultimately, restaurant success depends on the continuous support of customers. Customers select restaurants based on their expectations of quality. If the customers' expectations are met, they perceive quality service and will re-patronize the restaurant. The restaurateur can manage perceptions of quality by influencing expectations while ensuring that those expectations are not inflated. The management of expectations can be done by communicating service quality to customers. The aim of this research paper is to describe the development of a grading process for restaurants. An assessment of the extensive body of literature on grading was conducted through content analysis. A standardized method for developing a grading system would assist in successful grading systems that could inform both customers and restaurateurs of restaurant quality.

Keywords: benchmarking, restaurants, grading, service quality, total quality management

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15 Post-Exercise Effects of Cold Water Immersion over a 48-Hour Recovery Period on the Physical and Haematological Parameters of Male University-Level Rugby Players

Authors: Adele Broodryk, Cindy Pienaar, Martinique Sparks, Ben Coetzee

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Background: Cold water immersion (CWI) is a popular recovery modality utilised. However, discrepancies exist regarding the results over a 48 hour recovery period. Aim: To evaluate the effects of CWI and passive recovery (PAR) on a range of haematological and physical parameters over a 48-hour using a cross-sectional, pre-post-test design. Subjects and Methods: Both the and physical parameters were evaluated at baseline, after a 15-min fitness session, and at 0, 24 and 48 hours post-recovery in 23 male university rugby players. The CWI group sat in a cold water pool (8°C) for 20 min whereas the PAR group remained seated. Results: At 0 hours post-CWI, three (blood lactate (BLa-), Sodium (Na+) and haemoglobin) returned to baseline values, however Vertical Jump Test (VJT) height results decreased whereas after PAR it improved. From 0 to 24 and/or 48 h, four (Partial Oxygen (PO2) VJT-height, plasma glucose, and Na+) significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) in either and/or both groups. Significant intergroup differences (p ≤ 0.05) were noticed in the physical tests. Conclusions: PAR is superior as an acute modality (0 hours) due to CWI cooling the body down. However, CWI demonstrates advantageous over a 24-hour period in a wide range of haematological variables.

Keywords: cryotherapy, recuperation, haematological, rugby

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14 Calibration of the Discrete Element Method Using a Large Shear Box

Authors: C. J. Coetzee, E. Horn

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One of the main challenges in using the Discrete Element Method (DEM) is to specify the correct input parameter values. In general, the models are sensitive to the input parameter values and accurate results can only be achieved if the correct values are specified. For the linear contact model, micro-parameters such as the particle density, stiffness, coefficient of friction, as well as the particle size and shape distributions are required. There is a need for a procedure to accurately calibrate these parameters before any attempt can be made to accurately model a complete bulk materials handling system. Since DEM is often used to model applications in the mining and quarrying industries, a calibration procedure was developed for materials that consist of relatively large (up to 40 mm in size) particles. A coarse crushed aggregate was used as the test material. Using a specially designed large shear box with a diameter of 590 mm, the confined Young’s modulus (bulk stiffness) and internal friction angle of the material were measured by means of the confined compression test and the direct shear test respectively. DEM models of the experimental setup were developed and the input parameter values were varied iteratively until a close correlation between the experimental and numerical results was achieved. The calibration process was validated by modelling the pull-out of an anchor from a bed of material. The model results compared well with experimental measurement.

Keywords: Discrete Element Method (DEM), calibration, shear box, anchor pull-out

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13 Influence of Aluminium on Grain Refinement in As-Rolled Vanadium-Microalloyed Steels

Authors: Kevin Mark Banks, Dannis Rorisang Nkarapa Maubane, Carel Coetzee

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The influence of aluminium content, reheating temperature, and sizing (final) strain on the as-rolled microstructure was systematically investigated in vanadium-microalloyed and C-Mn plate steels. Reheating, followed by hot rolling and air cooling simulations were performed on steels containing a range of aluminium and nitrogen contents. Natural air cooling profiles, corresponding to 6 and 20mm thick plates, were applied. The austenite and ferrite/pearlite microstructures were examined using light optical microscopy. Precipitate species and volume fraction were determined on selected specimens. No influence of aluminium content was found below 0.08% on the as-rolled grain size in all steels studied. A low Al-V-steel produced the coarsest initial austenite grain size due to AlN dissolution at low temperatures leading to abnormal grain growth. An Al-free V-N steel had the finest initial microstructure. Although the as-rolled grain size for 20mm plate was similar in all steels tested, the grain distribution was relatively mixed. The final grain size in 6mm plate was similar for most compositions; the exception was an as-cast V low N steel, where the size of the second phase was inversely proportional to the sizing strain. This was attributed to both segregation and a low VN volume fraction available for effective pinning of austenite grain boundaries during cooling. Increasing the sizing strain refined the microstructure significantly in all steels.

Keywords: aluminium, grain size, nitrogen, reheating, sizing strain, steel, vanadium

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12 Factors Influencing the Enjoyment and Performance of Students in Statistics Service Courses: A Mixed-Method Study

Authors: Wilma Coetzee

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Statistics lecturers experience that many students who are taking a service course in statistics do not like statistics. Students in these courses tend to struggle and do not perform well. This research takes a look at the student’s perspective, with the aim to determine how to change the teaching of statistics so that students will enjoy it more and perform better. Questionnaires were used to determine the perspectives of first year service statistics students at a South African university. Factors addressed included motivation to study, attitude toward statistics, statistical anxiety, mathematical abilities and tendency to procrastinate. Logistic regression was used to determine what contributes to students performing badly in statistics. The results show that the factors that contribute the most to students performing badly are: statistical anxiety, not being motivated and having had mathematical literacy instead of mathematics in secondary school. Two open ended questions were included in the questionnaire: 'I will enjoy statistics more if…' and 'I will perform better in statistics if…'. The answers to these questions were analyzed using qualitative methods. Frequent themes were identified for each of the questions. A simulation study incorporating bootstrapping was done to determine the saturation of the themes. The majority of the students indicated that they would perform better in statistics if they studied more, managed their time better, had a flare for mathematics and if the lecturer was able to explain difficult concepts better. They also want more active learning. To ensure that students enjoy statistics more, they want an active learning experience. They want fun activities, more interaction with the lecturer and with one another, more computer based problems, and more challenges. They want a better understanding of the subject, want to understand the relevance of statistics to their future career and want excellent lecturers. These findings can be used to direct the improvement of the tuition of statistics.

Keywords: active learning, performance in statistics, statistical anxiety, statistics education

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11 Global Positioning System Match Characteristics as a Predictor of Badminton Players’ Group Classification

Authors: Yahaya Abdullahi, Ben Coetzee, Linda Van Den Berg

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The study aimed at establishing the global positioning system (GPS) determined singles match characteristics that act as predictors of successful and less-successful male singles badminton players’ group classification. Twenty-two (22) male single players (aged: 23.39 ± 3.92 years; body stature: 177.11 ± 3.06cm; body mass: 83.46 ± 14.59kg) who represented 10 African countries participated in the study. Players were categorised as successful and less-successful players according to the results of five championships’ of the 2014/2015 season. GPS units (MinimaxX V4.0), Polar Heart Rate Transmitter Belts and digital video cameras were used to collect match data. GPS-related variables were corrected for match duration and independent t-tests, a cluster analysis and a binary forward stepwise logistic regression were calculated. A Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC) was used to determine the validity of the group classification model. High-intensity accelerations per second were identified as the only GPS-determined variable that showed a significant difference between groups. Furthermore, only high-intensity accelerations per second (p=0.03) and low-intensity efforts per second (p=0.04) were identified as significant predictors of group classification with 76.88% of players that could be classified back into their original groups by making use of the GPS-based logistic regression formula. The ROC showed a value of 0.87. The identification of the last-mentioned GPS-related variables for the attainment of badminton performances, emphasizes the importance of using badminton drills and conditioning techniques to not only improve players’ physical fitness levels but also their abilities to accelerate at high intensities.

Keywords: badminton, global positioning system, match analysis, inertial movement analysis, intensity, effort

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10 The Optimal Utilization of Centrally Located Land: The Case of the Bloemfontein Show Grounds

Authors: D. F. Coetzee, M. M. Campbell

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The urban environment is constantly expanding and the optimal use of centrally located land is important in terms of sustainable development. Bloemfontein has expanded and this affects land-use functions. The purpose of the study is to examine the possible shift in location of the Bloemfontein show grounds to utilize the space of the grounds more effectively in context of spatial planning. The research method used is qualitative case study research with the case study on the Bloemfontein show grounds. The purposive sample consisted of planners who work or consult in the Bloemfontein area and who are registered with the South African Council for Planners (SACPLAN). Interviews consisting of qualitative open-ended questionnaires were used. When considering relocation the social and economic aspects need to be considered. The findings also indicated a majority consensus that the property can be utilized more effectively in terms of mixed land use. The showground development trust compiled a master plan to ensure that the property is used to its full potential without the relocation of the showground function itself. This Master Plan can be seen as the next logical step for the showground property itself, and it is indeed an attempt to better utilize the land parcel without relocating the show function. The question arises whether the proposed Master Plan is a permanent solution or whether it is merely delaying the relocation of the core showground function to another location. For now, it is a sound solution, making the best out of the situation at hand and utilizing the property more effectively. If the show grounds were to be relocated the researcher proposed a recommendation of mixed-use development, in terms an expansion on the commercial business/retail, together with a sport and recreation function. The show grounds in Bloemfontein are well positioned to capitalize on and to meet the needs of the changing economy, while complimenting the future economic growth strategies of the city if the right plans are in place.

Keywords: centrally located land, spatial planning, show grounds, central business district

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9 The Family, Tradition and Change in Africa: The Perspective of Postcolonial African Fiction

Authors: Ayobami Kehinde

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The literary representations of the family, tradition and change in African literature offer an immense, and as yet little theorised area of literary scholarship. Therefore, this paper explores the nexus among the family, tradition and change in five purposively selected post-colonial African fiction: Chimamanda Adichie’s Purple Hibiscus, Wale Okediran’s Tenants of the House, J. M. Coetzee’s In the Heart of the Country, Tsitsi Dangrembga’s Nervous Condition and Meja Mwangi’s Striving for the Wind. The methodology centres on analysing, questioning, undermining and celebrating the family and its contemporary vicissitudes as depicted in the texts. This is with a view to exploring the postcolonial novel with references to concepts developed by major theorists in the field of postcolonial studies, including Frantz Fanon, Edward Said, Gayatri Spivak, Homi Bhabha, Kwame Appiah and Achille Mbembe. It is revealed that in spite of the fact that the family is a vital institution, the primary social unit in any community, an agent of acculturation and the first focus of development, independence and growth, the texts reflect a diversity of problems confronting the family unit in Africa. These include the multiple problems of disrupted family lives, enforced family separation, political and personal violence with the domestic environment. It is concluded that the post-colonial African novel is a quintessential weapon to analyse the continent, opening up to the reader the specific expressions and experiences of human lives and their wider contexts. Therefore, the post-colonial African novel is a primary socio-cultural indicator representing an immense variety of lived realities in the continent. The study, therefore, suggests a concerted concern with the preservation of traditional family structures and other related aspects, such as cultural values, spirituality, gender roles and mutual trust.

Keywords: family, African fiction, postcolonialism, African tradition, domestic dissonance

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8 Effects of Artificial Nectar Feeders on Bird Distribution and Erica Visitation Rate in the Cape Fynbos

Authors: Monique Du Plessis, Anina Coetzee, Colleen L. Seymour, Claire N. Spottiswoode

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Artificial nectar feeders are used to attract nectarivorous birds to gardens and are increasing in popularity. The costs and benefits of these feeders remain controversial, however. Nectar feeders may have positive effects by attracting nectarivorous birds towards suburbia, facilitating their urban adaptation, and supplementing bird diets when floral resources are scarce. However, this may come at the cost of luring them away from the plants they pollinate in neighboring indigenous vegetation. This study investigated the effect of nectar feeders on an African pollinator-plant mutualism. Given that birds are important pollinators to many fynbos plant species, this study was conducted in gardens and natural vegetation along the urban edge of the Cape Peninsula. Feeding experiments were carried out to compare relative bird abundance and local distribution patterns for nectarivorous birds (i.e., sunbirds and sugarbirds) between feeder and control treatments. Resultant changes in their visitation rates to Erica flowers in the natural vegetation were tested by inspection of their anther ring status. Nectar feeders attracted higher densities of nectarivores to gardens relative to natural vegetation and decreased their densities in the neighboring fynbos, even when floral abundance in the neighboring vegetation was high. The consequent changes to their distribution patterns and foraging behavior decreased their visitation to at least Erica plukenetii flowers (but not to Erica abietina). This study provides evidence that nectar feeders may have positive effects for birds themselves by reducing their urban sensitivity but also highlights the unintended negative effects feeders may have on the surrounding fynbos ecosystem. Given that nectar feeders appear to compete with the flowers of Erica plukenetii, and perhaps those of other Erica species, artificial feeding may inadvertently threaten bird-plant pollination networks.

Keywords: avian nectarivores, bird feeders, bird pollination, indirect effects in human-wildlife interactions, sugar water feeders, supplementary feeding

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7 Motivation and Self-Concept in Language Learning: An Exploratory Study of English Language Learners

Authors: A. van Staden, M. M. Coetzee

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Despite numerous efforts to increase the literacy level of South African learners, for example, through the implementation of educational policies such as the Revised National Curriculum statement, advocating mother-tongue instruction (during a child's formative years), in reality, the majority of South African children are still being educated in a second language (in most cases English). Moreover, despite the fact that a significant percentage of our country's budget is spent on the education sector and that both policy makers and educationalists have emphasized the importance of learning English in this globalized world, the poor overall academic performance and English literacy level of a large number of school leavers are still a major concern. As we move forward in an attempt to comprehend the nuances of English language and literacy development in our country, it is imperative to explore both extrinsic and intrinsic factors that contribute or impede the effective development of English as a second language. In the present study, the researchers set out to investigate how intrinsic factors such as motivation and self-concept contribute to or affect English language learning amongst high school learners in South Africa. Emanating from the above the main research question that guided this research is the following: Is there a significant relationship between high school learners' self-concept, motivation, and English second language performances? In order to investigate this hypothesis, this study utilized quantitative research methodology to investigate the interplay of self-concept and motivation in English language learning. For this purpose, we sampled 201 high school learners from various schools in South Africa. Methods of data gathering inter alia included the following: A biographical questionnaire; the Academic Motivational Scale and the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analyses yielded significant correlations between L2 learners' motivation and their English language proficiency, including demonstrating positive correlations between L2 learners' self-concept and their achievements in English. Accordingly, researchers have argued that the learning context, in which students learn English as a second language, has a crucial influence on students' motivational levels. This emphasizes the important role the teacher has to play in creating learning environments that will enhance L2 learners' motivation and improve their self-concepts.

Keywords: motivation, self-concept, language learning, English second language learners (L2)

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6 Investigating the Essentiality of Oxazolidinones in Resistance-Proof Drug Combinations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Selected under in vitro Conditions

Authors: Gail Louw, Helena Boshoff, Taeksun Song, Clifton Barry

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Drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is primarily attributed to mutations in target genes. These mutations incur a fitness cost and result in bacterial generations that are less fit, which subsequently acquire compensatory mutations to restore fitness. We hypothesize that mutations in specific drug target genes influence bacterial metabolism and cellular function, which affects its ability to develop subsequent resistance to additional agents. We aim to determine whether the sequential acquisition of drug resistance and specific mutations in a well-defined clinical M. tuberculosis strain promotes or limits the development of additional resistance. In vitro mutants resistant to pretomanid, linezolid, moxifloxacin, rifampicin and kanamycin were generated from a pan-susceptible clinical strain from the Beijing lineage. The resistant phenotypes to the anti-TB agents were confirmed by the broth microdilution assay and genetic mutations were identified by targeted gene sequencing. Growth of mono-resistant mutants was done in enriched medium for 14 days to assess in vitro fitness. Double resistant mutants were generated against anti-TB drug combinations at concentrations 5x and 10x the minimum inhibitory concentration. Subsequently, mutation frequencies for these anti-TB drugs in the different mono-resistant backgrounds were determined. The initial level of resistance and the mutation frequencies observed for the mono-resistant mutants were comparable to those previously reported. Targeted gene sequencing revealed the presence of known and clinically relevant mutations in the mutants resistant to linezolid, rifampicin, kanamycin and moxifloxacin. Significant growth defects were observed for mutants grown under in vitro conditions compared to the sensitive progenitor. Mutation frequencies determination in the mono-resistant mutants revealed a significant increase in mutation frequency against rifampicin and kanamycin, but a significant decrease in mutation frequency against linezolid and sutezolid. This suggests that these mono-resistant mutants are more prone to develop resistance to rifampicin and kanamycin, but less prone to develop resistance against linezolid and sutezolid. Even though kanamycin and linezolid both inhibit protein synthesis, these compounds target different subunits of the ribosome, thereby leading to different outcomes in terms of fitness in the mutants with impaired cellular function. These observations showed that oxazolidinone treatment is instrumental in limiting the development of multi-drug resistance in M. tuberculosis in vitro.

Keywords: oxazolidinones, mutations, resistance, tuberculosis

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5 Evaluating the Teaching and Learning Value of Tablets

Authors: Willem J. A. Louw

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The wave of new advanced computing technology that has been developed during the recent past has significantly changed the way we communicate, collaborate and collect information. It has created a new technology environment and paradigm in which our children and students grow-up and this impacts on their learning. Research confirmed that Generation Y students have a preference for learning in the new technology environment. The challenge or question is: How do we adjust our teaching and learning to make the most of these changes. The complexity of effective and efficient teaching and learning must not be underestimated and changes must be preceded by proper objective research to prevent any haphazard developments that could do more harm than benefit. A blended learning approach has been used in the Forestry department for a few numbers of years including the use of electronic-peer assisted learning (e-pal) in a fixed-computer set-up within a learning management system environment. It was decided to extend the investigation and do some exploratory research by using a range of different Tablet devices. For this purpose, learning activities or assignments were designed to cover aspects of communication, collaboration and collection of information. The Moodle learning management system was used to present normal module information, to communicate with students and for feedback and data collection. Student feedback was collected by using an online questionnaire and informal discussions. The research project was implemented in 2013, 2014 and 2015 amongst first and third-year students doing a forestry three-year technical tertiary qualification in commercial plantation management. In general, more than 80% of the students alluded to that the device was very useful in their learning environment while the rest indicated that the devices were not very useful. More than ninety percent of the students acknowledged that they would like to continue using the devices for all of their modules whilst the rest alluded to functioning efficiently without the devices. Results indicated that information collection (access to resources) was rated the highest advantageous factor followed by communication and collaboration. The main general advantages of using Tablets were listed by the students as being mobility (portability), 24/7 access to learning material and information of any kind on a user friendly device in a Wi-Fi environment, fast computing process speeds, saving time, effort and airtime through skyping and e-mail, and use of various applications. Ownership of the device is a critical factor while the risk was identified as a major potential constraint. Significant differences were reported between the different types and quality of Tablets. The preferred types are those with a bigger screen and the ones with overall better functionality and quality features. Tablets significantly increase the collaboration, communication and information collection needs of the students. It does, however, not replace the need of a computer/laptop because of limited storage and computation capacity, small screen size and inefficient typing.

Keywords: tablets, teaching, blended learning, tablet quality

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4 Disclosure on Adherence of the King Code's Audit Committee Guidance: Cluster Analyses to Determine Strengths and Weaknesses

Authors: Philna Coetzee, Clara Msiza

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In modern society, audit committees are seen as the custodians of accountability and the conscience of management and the board. But who holds the audit committee accountable for their actions or non-actions and how do we know what they are supposed to be doing and what they are doing? The purpose of this article is to provide greater insight into the latter part of this problem, namely, determine what best practises for audit committees and the disclosure of what is the realities are. In countries where governance is well established, the roles and responsibilities of the audit committee are mostly clearly guided by legislation and/or guidance documents, with countries increasingly providing guidance on this topic. With high cost involved to adhere to governance guidelines, the public (for public organisations) and shareholders (for private organisations) expect to see the value of their ‘investment’. For audit committees, the dividends on the investment should reflect in less fraudulent activities, less corruption, higher efficiency and effectiveness, improved social and environmental impact, and increased profits, to name a few. If this is not the case (which is reflected in the number of fraudulent activities in both the private and the public sector), stakeholders have the right to ask: where was the audit committee? Therefore, the objective of this article is to contribute to the body of knowledge by comparing the adherence of audit committee to best practices guidelines as stipulated in the King Report across public listed companies, national and provincial government departments, state-owned enterprises and local municipalities. After constructs were formed, based on the literature, factor analyses were conducted to reduce the number of variables in each construct. Thereafter, cluster analyses, which is an explorative analysis technique that classifies a set of objects in such a way that objects that are more similar are grouped into the same group, were conducted. The SPSS TwoStep Clustering Component was used, being capable of handling both continuous and categorical variables. In the first step, a pre-clustering procedure clusters the objects into small sub-clusters, after which it clusters these sub-clusters into the desired number of clusters. The cluster analyses were conducted for each construct and the measure, namely the audit opinion as listed in the external audit report, were included. Analysing 228 organisations' information, the results indicate that there is a clear distinction between the four spheres of business that has been included in the analyses, indicating certain strengths and certain weaknesses within each sphere. The results may provide the overseers of audit committees’ insight into where a specific sector’s strengths and weaknesses lie. Audit committee chairs will be able to improve the areas where their audit committee is lacking behind. The strengthening of audit committees should result in an improvement of the accountability of boards, leading to less fraud and corruption.

Keywords: audit committee disclosure, cluster analyses, governance best practices, strengths and weaknesses

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3 Evaluating the Knowledge and Skill of Final Year Pharmacy Students in Maternal and Child Health at a University in South Africa

Authors: E. O. Egieyeh, N. Butler, R. Coetzee, M. Van Huyssteen, A. Bheekie

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Background: High rate of maternal and child mortality is a global concern. Nationally, it constitutes one of South Africa’s quadruple burdens of diseases. Pharmacists have a crucial role in maternal and child health care delivery and as such should be equipped with adequate knowledge and skill required to contribute to maternal and child well-being. The International Pharmaceutical Federation statement of policy (2013) outlines pharmacist-led interventions in accordance with the World Health Organisation’s interventions in maternal, new-born and child health care. The South African Pharmacy Council’s guideline on Good Pharmacy Practice (2010) also stipulates the minimum standards required to participate in reproductive, maternal and child care. Pharmacy schools are obliged to train pharmacy students to meet priority health needs of the population so that graduates are ‘fit for purpose’. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the knowledge and skill of final year pharmacy students at a university in South Africa to determine their preparedness to contribute effectively to maternal and child health care. Method: A quantitative, descriptive, non-randomized baseline study was conducted among the final year students at the School of Pharmacy. Data was collected using a questionnaire designed in sections to assess knowledge of contraception, maternal and child health directed at the primary care level and framed within the scope of practice required of an entry-level generalist pharmacist. Participants’ skill in infant growth assessment was assessed in a section of the questionnaire in a written format. Participants ticked the topics they had been exposed to on a curriculum content assessment tool which was not graded. A pilot study examined the clarity and suitability of question items, and duration to complete the questionnaire. A score of 50% in each section of the questionnaire indicated a pass. The questionnaire was delivered in campus lecture venue. Results: Of the 102 students in final year, 53 (52%) students consented to participate in the study. Only 13.2% of participants scored above 50% in each section. Forty five (85%) participants scored above 50% in the contraception section while 40 (75%) scored less than 50% in the skills assessment. Less than half (45.3%) of the participants had a total score above 50%. Being a parent or working part-time as pharmacist assistance did not have any influence on the performance of the participants. Evaluation of participants’ curriculum content exposure showed differences in exposure to the various topics. Exposure to contraception teaching received the most recognition. Conclusion: Maternal and child health curriculum content should be reviewed at the university to enhance the knowledge and skill of pharmacy graduates.

Keywords: final year pharmacy students, knowledge and skill, maternal and child health, South Africa

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2 Lack of Regulation Leads to Complexity: A Case Study of the Free Range Chicken Meat Sector in the Western Cape, South Africa

Authors: A. Coetzee, C. F. Kelly, E. Even-Zahav

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Dominant approaches to livestock production are harmful to the environment, human health and animal welfare, yet global meat consumption is rising. Sustainable alternative production approaches are therefore urgently required, and ‘free range’ is the main alternative for chicken meat offered in South Africa (and globally). Although the South African Poultry Association provides non-binding guidelines, there is a lack of formal definition and regulation of free range chicken production, meaning it is unclear what this alternative entails and if it is consistently practised (a trend observed globally). The objective of this exploratory qualitative case study is therefore to investigate who and what determines free range chicken. The case study, conducted from a social constructivist worldview, uses semi-structured interviews, photographs and document analysis to collect data. Interviews are conducted with those involved with bringing free range chicken to the market - farmers, chefs, retailers, and regulators. Data is analysed using thematic analysis to establish dominant patterns in the data. The five major themes identified (based on prevalence in data and on achieving the research objective) are: 1) free range means a bird reared with good animal welfare in mind, 2) free range means quality meat, 3) free range means a profitable business, 4) free range is determined by decision makers or by access to markets, and 5) free range is coupled with concerns about the lack of regulation. Unpacking the findings in the context of the literature reveals who and what determines free range. The research uncovers wide-ranging interpretations of ‘free range’, driven by the absence of formal regulation for free range chicken practices and the lack of independent private certification. This means that the term ‘free range’ is socially constructed, thus varied and complex. The case study also shows that whether chicken meat is free range is generally determined by those who have access to markets. Large retailers claim adherence to the internationally recognised Five Freedoms, also include in the South African Poultry Association Code of Good Practice, which others in the sector say are too broad to be meaningful. Producers describe animal welfare concerns as the main driver for how they practice/view free range production, yet these interpretations vary. An additional driver is a focus on human health, which participants achieve mainly through the use of antibiotic-free feed, resulting in what participants regard as higher quality meat. The participants are also strongly driven by business imperatives, with most stating that free range chicken should carry a higher price than conventionally-reared chicken due to increased production costs. Recommendations from this study focus on, inter alia, a need to understand consumers’ perspectives on free range chicken, given that those in the sector claim they are responding to consumer demand, and conducting environmental research such as life cycle assessment studies to establish the true (environmental) sustainability of free range production. At present, it seems the sector mostly responds to social sustainability: human health and animal welfare.

Keywords: chicken meat production, free range, socially constructed, sustainability

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1 Targeting Tumour Survival and Angiogenic Migration after Radiosensitization with an Estrone Analogue in an in vitro Bone Metastasis Model

Authors: Jolene M. Helena, Annie M. Joubert, Peace Mabeta, Magdalena Coetzee, Roy Lakier, Anne E. Mercier

Abstract:

Targeting the distant tumour and its microenvironment whilst preserving bone density is important in improving the outcomes of patients with bone metastases. 2-Ethyl-3-O-sulphamoyl-estra1,3,5(10)16-tetraene (ESE-16) is an in-silico-designed 2- methoxyestradiol analogue which aimed at enhancing the parent compound’s cytotoxicity and providing a more favourable pharmacokinetic profile. In this study, the potential radiosensitization effects of ESE-16 were investigated in an in vitro bone metastasis model consisting of murine pre-osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1) and pre-osteoclastic (RAW 264.7) bone cells, metastatic prostate (DU 145) and breast (MDA-MB-231) cancer cells, as well as human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Cytotoxicity studies were conducted on all cell lines via spectrophotometric quantification of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide. The experimental set-up consisted of flow cytometric analysis of cell cycle progression and apoptosis detection (Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate) to determine the lowest ESE-16 and radiation doses to induce apoptosis and significantly reduce cell viability. Subsequent experiments entailed a 24-hour low-dose ESE-16-exposure followed by a single dose of radiation. Termination proceeded 2, 24 or 48 hours thereafter. The effect of the combination treatment was investigated on osteoclasts via tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity- and actin ring formation assays. Tumour cell experiments included investigation of mitotic indices via haematoxylin and eosin staining; pro-apoptotic signalling via spectrophotometric quantification of caspase 3; deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage via micronuclei analysis and histone H2A.X phosphorylation (γ-H2A.X); and Western blot analyses of bone morphogenetic protein-7 and matrix metalloproteinase-9. HUVEC experiments included flow cytometric quantification of cell cycle progression and free radical production; fluorescent examination of cytoskeletal morphology; invasion and migration studies on an xCELLigence platform; and Western blot analyses of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 and 2. Tumour cells yielded half-maximal growth inhibitory concentration (GI50) values in the nanomolar range. ESE-16 concentrations of 235 nM (DU 145) and 176 nM (MDA-MB-231) and a radiation dose of 4 Gy were found to be significant in cell cycle and apoptosis experiments. Bone and endothelial cells were exposed to the same doses as DU 145 cells. Cytotoxicity studies on bone cells reported that RAW 264.7 cells were more sensitive to the combination treatment than MC3T3-E1 cells. Mature osteoclasts were more sensitive than pre-osteoclasts with respect to TRAP activity. However, actin ring morphology was retained. The mitotic arrest was evident in tumour and endothelial cells in the mitotic index and cell cycle experiments. Increased caspase 3 activity and superoxide production indicated pro-apoptotic signalling in tumour and endothelial cells. Increased micronuclei numbers and γ-H2A.X foci indicated increased DNA damage in tumour cells. Compromised actin and tubulin morphologies and decreased invasion and migration were observed in endothelial cells. Western blot analyses revealed reduced metastatic and angiogenic signalling. ESE-16-induced radiosensitization inhibits metastatic signalling and tumour cell survival whilst preferentially preserving bone cells. This low-dose combination treatment strategy may promote the quality of life of patients with metastatic bone disease. Future studies will include 3-dimensional in-vitro and murine in-vivo models.

Keywords: angiogenesis, apoptosis, bone metastasis, cancer, cell migration, cytoskeleton, DNA damage, ESE-16, radiosensitization.

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