Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: D. P. Kothari

10 Privatising Higher Education: Imparting Quality in Academics

Authors: Manish Khanna

Abstract:

Higher education seeks to preserve, transmit and advance knowledge. It is one of the most important instruments of change and progress. The observation of Kothari Commission (1964-66) is true even today; The destiny of India is now being shaped in her classrooms. This, we believe, is no more rhetoric. In the world based on science and technology it is education that determines the level of prosperity, welfare, and security of the people. On the quality and number of persons coming out of our schools and colleges will depend our success in the great enterprise of national reconstruction.

Keywords: higher education, quality in academics, Kothari commission, privatising higher education

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9 Application of ANN and Fuzzy Logic Algorithms for Runoff and Sediment Yield Modelling of Kal River, India

Authors: Mahesh Kothari, K. D. Gharde

Abstract:

The ANN and fuzzy logic (FL) models were developed to predict the runoff and sediment yield for catchment of Kal river, India using 21 years (1991 to 2011) rainfall and other hydrological data (evaporation, temperature and streamflow lag by one and two day) and 7 years data for sediment yield modelling. The ANN model performance improved with increasing the input vectors. The fuzzy logic model was performing with R value more than 0.95 during developmental stage and validation stage. The comparatively FL model found to be performing well to ANN in prediction of runoff and sediment yield for Kal river.

Keywords: transferred function, sigmoid, backpropagation, membership function, defuzzification

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8 Resource Assessment of Animal Dung for Power Generation: A Case Study

Authors: Gagandeep Kaur, Yadwinder Singh Brar, D. P. Kothari

Abstract:

The paper has an aggregate analysis of animal dung for converting it into renewable biomass fuel source that could be used to help the Indian state Punjab to meet rising power demand. In Punjab district Bathinda produces over 4567 tonnes of animal dung daily on a renewable basis. The biogas energy potential has been calculated using values for the daily per head animal dung production and total no. of large animals in Bathinda of Punjab. The 379540 no. of animals in district could produce nearly 116918 m3 /day of biogas as renewable energy. By converting this biogas into electric energy could produce 89.8 Gwh energy annually.

Keywords: livestock, animal dung, biogas, renewable energy

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7 Green Aviation System: The Way Forward for Better Environment

Authors: Ramana Reddy, Vijay Kothari

Abstract:

Aircraft provide a fast, reliable mode of transport with no comparable alternative for long distance travel. Throughout the years, technology improvements have been made to aircraft and engines to make them more fuel efficient. Air traffic continues to grow around the world and needs more aircrafts to accommodate such rapid growth. This has direct consequences on two of the most important environmental factors i.e. emissions and noise. Aviation contributes about 2% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Aviation emits a number of pollutants that alter the chemical composition of the atmosphere, changing its radiative balance and hence influencing the climate. In order to reduce or if possible eliminate potential harm to the environment and also make air travel efficient and economical, an environmentally beneficial concept called “Green Aviation System” is required. This is a structured frame work with elements like innovative technologies/tools in engineering design, manufacturing, airport and fleet operations.

Keywords: air traffic, environment, emissions, noise, green aviation system

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6 Corporate Governance and Firm Performance: Empirical Evidence from India

Authors: G. C. Surya Bahadur, Ranjana Kothari

Abstract:

The paper attempts to analyze linkages between corporate governance and firm performance in India. The study employs a panel data of 50 Nifty companies from 2008 to 2012. Using LSDV panel data model and 2SLS model the study reveals that that good corporate governance practices adopted by companies is positively related with financial performance. Board independence, number of board committees and executive compensation are found to have positive relationship while ownership by promoters and financial leverage have negative relationship with performance. There is existence of bi-directional relationship between corporate governance and financial performance. Companies with sound financial performance are more likely to conform to corporate governance norms and standards and implement sound corporate governance system. The findings indicate that companies can enhance business performance and sustainability by embracing sound corporate governance practices.

Keywords: board structure, corporate governance, executive compensation, ownership structure

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5 Endoscopic Ultrasound Guided Fine Needle Aspiration/Brush in Cytopathology Diagnosis: A Fifteen-Month Study

Authors: Santosh Tummidi, Pragati Sathe, Kanchan Kothari, Prachi Gholap, Mona Agnihotri, Gwendolyn Fernandes, Leena Naik, Rachana Chaturvedi

Abstract:

Introduction: EUS-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration/Brush (EUS-FNA/Brush) has become increasingly popular for the diagnosis and staging of gastrointestinal and peri-gastrointestinal lesions. Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and spectrum of lesions in gastrointestinal EUS-FNA. Material and Methods: A total of 124 EUS-FNA during the period from Aug 2015-Nov 2016 were studied. Results: Age ranged from 13-80 years with a slight female predominance. CBD was the most common site with 47 cases amongst which were 9 adenocarcinoma, and 7 cases were suspicious for malignancy. Pancreatic EUS-FNA showed 5 adenocarcinoma, 2 SPEN, 1 case each of neuroendocrine tumor, anaplastic carcinoma and NHL. Amongst oesophageal lesions, 3 cases were suspicious for malignancy, and 4 were inflammatory, 4 showed SCC, 1case each adenocarcinoma and leiomyoma. Stomach- 1 case each of adenocarcinoma, granulomatous inflammation, and GIST. Periportal lymph nodes were the commonest nodes, and there were 11 necrotising granulomatous inflammations, 3 metastatic adenocarcinoma, 2 cases of atypical cells and 1 case of NHL. 17 cases were unsatisfactory, 41 cases had histopathology follow up with 85% cases being concordant. Conclusion: EUS-FNA is reliable, sensitive and specific. It can be utilized for better management of intra-abdominal lesions.

Keywords: EUS-FNA, brush, cytology, histopathology

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4 Collapse Load Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Pile Group in Liquefying Soils under Lateral Loading

Authors: Pavan K. Emani, Shashank Kothari, V. S. Phanikanth

Abstract:

The ultimate load analysis of RC pile groups has assumed a lot of significance under liquefying soil conditions, especially due to post-earthquake studies of 1964 Niigata, 1995 Kobe and 2001 Bhuj earthquakes. The present study reports the results of numerical simulations on pile groups subjected to monotonically increasing lateral loads under design amounts of pile axial loading. The soil liquefaction has been considered through the non-linear p-y relationship of the soil springs, which can vary along the depth/length of the pile. This variation again is related to the liquefaction potential of the site and the magnitude of the seismic shaking. As the piles in the group can reach their extreme deflections and rotations during increased amounts of lateral loading, a precise modeling of the inelastic behavior of the pile cross-section is done, considering the complete stress-strain behavior of concrete, with and without confinement, and reinforcing steel, including the strain-hardening portion. The possibility of the inelastic buckling of the individual piles is considered in the overall collapse modes. The model is analysed using Riks analysis in finite element software to check the post buckling behavior and plastic collapse of piles. The results confirm the kinds of failure modes predicted by centrifuge test results reported by researchers on pile group, although the pile material used is significantly different from that of the simulation model. The extension of the present work promises an important contribution to the design codes for pile groups in liquefying soils.

Keywords: collapse load analysis, inelastic buckling, liquefaction, pile group

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3 Effect of Lithium Bromide Concentration on the Structure and Performance of Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Membrane for Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Poojan Kothari, Yash Madhani, Chayan Jani, Bharti Saini

Abstract:

The requirements for quality drinking and industrial water are increasing and water resources are depleting. Moreover large amount of wastewater is being generated and dumped into water bodies without treatment. These have made improvement in water treatment efficiency and its reuse, an important agenda. Membrane technology for wastewater treatment is an advanced process and has become increasingly popular in past few decades. There are many traditional methods for tertiary treatment such as chemical coagulation, adsorption, etc. However recent developments in membrane technology field have led to manufacturing of better quality membranes at reduced costs. This along with the high costs of conventional treatment processes, high separation efficiency and relative simplicity of the membrane treatment process has made it an economically viable option for municipal and industrial purposes. Ultrafiltration polymeric membranes can be used for wastewater treatment and drinking water applications. The proposed work focuses on preparation of one such UF membrane - Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) doped with LiBr for wastewater treatment. Majorly all polymeric membranes are hydrophobic in nature. This property leads to repulsion of water and hence solute particles occupy the pores, decreasing the lifetime of a membrane. Thus modification of membrane through addition of small amount of salt such as LiBr helped us attain certain characteristics of membrane, which can then be used for wastewater treatment. The membrane characteristics are investigated through measuring its various properties such as porosity, contact angle and wettability to find out the hydrophilic nature of the membrane and morphology (surface as well as structure). Pure water flux, solute rejection and permeability of membrane is determined by permeation experiments. A study of membrane characteristics with various concentration of LiBr helped us to compare its effectivity.

Keywords: Lithium bromide (LiBr), morphology, permeability, Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), solute rejection, wastewater treatment

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2 In vitro Regeneration of Neural Cells Using Human Umbilical Cord Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Authors: Urvi Panwar, Kanchan Mishra, Kanjaksha Ghosh, ShankerLal Kothari

Abstract:

Background: Day-by-day the increasing prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases have become a global issue to manage them by medical sciences. The adult neural stem cells are rare and require an invasive and painful procedure to obtain it from central nervous system. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) therapies have shown remarkable application in treatment of various cell injuries and cell loss. MSCs can be derived from various sources like adult tissues, human bone marrow, umbilical cord blood and cord tissue. MSCs have similar proliferation and differentiation capability, but the human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) are proved to be more beneficial with respect to cell procurement, differentiation to other cells, preservation, and transplantation. Material and method: Human umbilical cord is easily obtainable and non-controversial comparative to bone marrow and other adult tissues. The umbilical cord can be collected after delivery of baby, and its tissue can be cultured using explant culture method. Cell culture medium such as DMEMF12+10% FBS and DMEMF12+Neural growth factors (bFGF, human noggin, B27) with antibiotics (Streptomycin/Gentamycin) were used to culture and differentiate mesenchymal stem cells into neural cells, respectively. The characterisations of MSCs were done with Flow Cytometer for surface markers CD90, CD73 and CD105 and colony forming unit assay. The differentiated various neural cells will be characterised by fluorescence markers for neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes; quantitative PCR for genes Nestin and NeuroD1 and Western blotting technique for gap43 protein. Result and discussion: The high quality and number of MSCs were isolated from human umbilical cord via explant culture method. The obtained MSCs were differentiated into neural cells like neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The differentiated neural cells can be used to treat neural injuries and neural cell loss by delivering cells by non-invasive administration via cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or blood. Moreover, the MSCs can also be directly delivered to different injured sites where they differentiate into neural cells. Therefore, human umbilical cord is demonstrated to be an inexpensive and easily available source for MSCs. Moreover, the hUCMSCs can be a potential source for neural cell therapies and neural cell regeneration for neural cell injuries and neural cell loss. This new way of research will be helpful to treat and manage neural cell damages and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer and Parkinson. Still the study has a long way to go but it is a promising approach for many neural disorders for which at present no satisfactory management is available.

Keywords: bone marrow, cell therapy, explant culture method, flow cytometer, human umbilical cord, mesenchymal stem cells, neurodegenerative diseases, neuroprotective, regeneration

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1 Correlation Analysis of Reactivity in the Oxidation of Para and Meta-Substituted Benzyl Alcohols by Benzimidazolium Dichromate in Non-Aqueous Media: A Kinetic and Mechanistic Aspects

Authors: Seema Kothari, Dinesh Panday

Abstract:

An observed correlation of the reaction rates with the changes in the nature of substituent present on one of the reactants often reveals the nature of transition state. Selective oxidation of organic compounds under non-aqueous media is an important transformation in synthetic organic chemistry. Inorganic chromates and dichromates being drastic oxidant and are generally insoluble in most organic solvents, a number of different chromium (VI) derivatives have been synthesized. Benzimidazolium dichromate (BIDC) is one of the recently reported Cr(VI) reagents which is neither hygroscopic nor light sensitive being, therefore, much stable. Not many reports on the kinetics of the oxidations by BIDC are seemed to be available in the literature. In the present investigation, the kinetics and mechanism of benzyl alcohol (BA) and a number of para- and meta-substituted benzyl alcohols by benzimidazolium dichromate (BIDC), in dimethyl sulphoxide, is reported. The reactions were followed spectrophotometrically at 364 nm by monitoring the decrease in [BIDC] for up to 85-90% reaction, the temperature being constant. The observed oxidation product is the corresponding benzaldehyde. The reactions were of first order with respect to each the alcohol and BIDC. The reactions are catalyzed by proton, and the dependence is of the form: kobs = a + b[H+]. The reactions thus follow both, an acid-dependent and acid-independent paths. The oxidation of [1,1 2H2]benzyl alcohol exhibited the presence of a substantial kinetic isotope effect ( kH/kD = 6.20 at 298 K ). This indicated the cleavage of a α-C-H bond in the rate-determining step. An analysis of the temperature dependence of the deuterium isotope effect showed that the loss of hydrogen proceeds through a concerted cyclic process. The rate of oxidation of BA was determined in 19 organic solvents. An analysis of the solvent effect by Swain’s equation indicated that though both the anion and cation-solvating powers of the solvent contribute to the observed solvent effect, the role of cation-solvation is major. The rates of the para and meta compounds, at 298 K, failed to exhibit a significant correlation in terms of Hammett or Brown's substituent constants. The rates were then subjected to analyses in terms of dual substituent parameter (DSP) equations. The rates of oxidation of the para-substituted benzyl alcohols show an excellent correlation with Taft's σI and σRBA values. However, the rates for the meta-substituted benzyl alcohols show an excellent correlation with σI and σR0. The polar reaction constants are negative indicating an electron-deficient transition state. Hence the overall mechanism is proposed to involve the formation of a chromate ester in a fast pre-equilibrium and then a decomposition of the ester in a subsequent slow step via a cyclic concerted symmetrical transition state, involving hydride-ion transfer, leading to the product. The first order dependence on alcohol may be accounted in terms of the small value of the formation constant of the ester intermediate. An another reaction mechanism accounting the acid-catalysis involve the formation of a protonated BIDC prior to formation of an ester intermediate which subsequently decomposes in a slow step leading to the product.

Keywords: benzimidazolium dichromate, benzyl alcohols, correlation analysis, kinetics, oxidation

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