Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: borrowers

18 Financial Service of Financial Institution for SME in Thailand

Authors: Charawee Butbumrung

Abstract:

This research aim to study the financial service of the Thailand financial Institution, second is to identify "best practices" offered by four financial institutions, namely, Kasikornthai Bank, Bangkok Bank, Siam Commercial Bank, and Thanachart Bank. In-depth interviews with managers of financial institution and borrowers reveal best practices from each financial institution. Close monitoring of and a close relationship with borrowers appear to be important for early detection of any problem. Another aspect that may be important is building up loyalty and developing reliability among members. A close and informal relationship with borrowers may also help in monitoring and early detection of problems that may arise in non-repayment of loans. Other factors that may be considered important to the success of a financial service scheme are cooperation and coordination among various agencies that provide additional support to borrowers. Indirectly, these support systems contribute to the success of a SME in Thailand.

Keywords: best practices, financial service, financial institution, SME in Thailand

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17 Discouraged Borrowers: Evidence for Eurozone SMEs

Authors: Javier Sanchez Vidal, Ciarán Mac An Bhaird, Brian Lucey

Abstract:

This study examines the decision by firm owners not to apply for intermediated debt due to a perception that their application will be rejected. Based on a sample of SMEs in 9 European countries over the period 2009-2011, we examine potential explanatory factors for borrower discouragement, including firm, macroeconomic, regulatory and banking industry variables. Compared with firms that applied for bank loans, discouraged borrowers are smaller, younger, have declining turnover and an increasing debt/assets ratio. Perceived willingness of banks to lend rather than the company’s own credit history is more important to encourage applications. Perceptions of refusal are procyclical and may be self-perpetuating. Increased concentration in the banking sector reduces discouragement, indicating the importance of relationship banking. Transmission of macro effects through the banking system and economic environment may also lead to higher levels of discouragement. A good regulatory scheme is also advisable, either for the lenders or the borrowers (overall the good ones).

Keywords: entrepreneurial finance, discouraged borrowers, banking, financial crisis, eurozone

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16 Fund Seekers’ Deception in Peer-to-Peer Lending in Times of COVID

Authors: Olivier Mesly

Abstract:

This article examines the likelihood of deception on the part of borrowers wishing to obtain credit from institutional or private lenders. In our first study, we identify five explanatory variables that account for nearly forty percent of the propensity to act deceitfully: a poor credit history, debt, risky behavior, and to a much lesser degree, irrational behavior and disconnection from the bundle of needs, goals, and preferences. For the second study, we remodeled the initial questionnaire to adapt it to the needs of institutional bankers and borrowers, especially those that engage in money on-line peer-to-peer lending, a growing business fueled by the COVID pandemic. We find that the three key psychological variables that help to indirectly predict the likelihood of deceitful behaviors and possible default on loan reimbursement, i.e., risky behaviors, ir-rationality, and dis-connection, interact with each other to form a loop. This study presents two benefits: first, we provide evidence that it is to some degree possible to tighten control over lending practices. Second, we offer a pragmatic tool: a questionnaire, that lenders can use or adapt to gauge potential borrowers’ deceit, notably by combining their results with standard hard-data measures of risk.

Keywords: bundle of needs, default, debt, deception, risk, peer-to-peer lending

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15 Malaysian Challenges and Experiences with National Higher Education Fund Corporation’s Educational Loan Default

Authors: Anjali Dewi Krishnan

Abstract:

This paper attempts to explore the factors causing student loan defaults among NHEFC borrower besides measuring the enforcement actions that have been took by NHEFC to improve repayment rate. It starts by reviewing the causes of student loan default from the perspective of the loan borrowers besides finding out about the effectiveness of approaches taken by NHEFC (National Higher Education Fund Corporation) until now in order to increase the repayment rate and recover student loan default. The results gathered from the research used to investigate or identify the relationship between job statuses, gender, and ethnicity of the borrowers with repayment status, enforcement from the NHEFC side in the sense of student loan repayment; and respondent's opinion about enforcement in encouraging repayment of student loan and recover loan default. A combination of unemployment, financial constraint, inefficient repayment method and some other reasons of student loan defaults were discovered through this research. It finishes by presenting the reality whereby a student loan default is a result of inability to pay back and not about willingness to pay back.

Keywords: loan default, loan recovery, loan repayment, national higher education fund corporation

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14 Improve Decision Support System for Personal Loans Eligibility and Interest Rate Proposal Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Bashayer Alfawaz

Abstract:

The loan decision is a risky task. When the borrower decides to apply for any type of credit, be it a loan, credit card, or mortgage, the creditor (loan officer) will perform a very thorough analysis to determine the creditworthiness. This study aims to develop a system to help the financial institutions in the loan (approving/declining) decision process to minimize non-performing loans, financial losses. Furthermore, it helps the borrowers to know the risks that they may encounter if they choose to take a loan. A classification model has been built using a neural network to classify the eligibility of loan borrowers based on selected features that have the most substantial impact on the decision provided about the borrower. Then, an interpreting model has been built to explain the reason behind the outputs using the Local Interpretable Model-Agnostic Explanations (LIME) method. Moreover, once the borrower has been approved for the loan, A prediction model has been created using a neural network also to predict the appropriate interest rate to better fit the borrower’s financial status. The accuracy has been achieved for the classification model is around 65% while, Precision is around 0.53, Recall 0.92 and F1-score is 0.66. Mean Absolute Error has been used to evaluate the performance of the interest rate model and the result that has been achieved is 0.047. Finally, an interactive user interface has been generated to present the model's results.

Keywords: personal loans, interpreting model, classification model, neural network, predicting model

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13 Loan Supply and Asset Price Volatility: An Experimental Study

Authors: Gabriele Iannotta

Abstract:

This paper investigates credit cycles by means of an experiment based on a Kiyotaki & Moore (1997) model with heterogeneous expectations. The aim is to examine how a credit squeeze caused by high lender-level risk perceptions affects the real prices of a collateralised asset, with a special focus on the macroeconomic implications of rising price volatility in terms of total welfare and the number of bankruptcies that occur. To do that, a learning-to-forecast experiment (LtFE) has been run where participants are asked to predict the future price of land and then rewarded based on the accuracy of their forecasts. The setting includes one lender and five borrowers in each of the twelve sessions split between six control groups (G1) and six treatment groups (G2). The only difference is that while in G1 the lender always satisfies borrowers’ loan demand (bankruptcies permitting), in G2 he/she closes the entire credit market in case three or more bankruptcies occur in the previous round. Experimental results show that negative risk-driven supply shocks amplify the volatility of collateral prices. This uncertainty worsens the agents’ ability to predict the future value of land and, as a consequence, the number of defaults increases and the total welfare deteriorates.

Keywords: Behavioural Macroeconomics, Credit Cycle, Experimental Economics, Heterogeneous Expectations, Learning-to-Forecast Experiment

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12 Global Digital Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Lending Platform Empowering Rural India: Determinants of Funding

Authors: Ankur Mehra, M. V. Shivaani

Abstract:

With increasing digitization, the world is coming closer, not only in terms of informational flow but also in terms of capital flows. And micro-finance institutions (MFIs) have perfectly leveraged this digital world by resorting to the innovative digital social peer-to-peer (P2P) lending platforms, such as, Kiva. These digital P2P platforms bring together micro-borrowers and lenders from across the world. The main objective of this study is to understand the funding preferences of social investors primarily from developed countries (such as US, UK, Australia), lending money to borrowers from rural India at zero interest rates through Kiva. Further, the objective of this study is to increase awareness about such a platform among various MFIs engaged in providing micro-loans to those in need. The sample comprises of India based micro-loan applications posted by various MFIs on Kiva lending platform over the period Sept 2012-March 2016. Out of 7,359 loans, 256 loans failed to get funded by social investors. On an average a micro-loan with 30 days to expiry gets fully funded in 7,593 minutes or 5.27 days. 62% of the loans raised on Kiva are related to livelihood, 32.5% of the loans are for funding basic necessities and balance 5.5% loans are for funding education. 47% of the loan applications have more than one borrower; while, currency exchange risk is on the social lenders for 45% of the loans. Controlling for the loan amount and loan tenure, the analyses suggest that those loan applications where the number of borrowers is more than one have a lower chance of getting funded as compared to the loan applications made by a sole borrower. Such group applications also take more time to get funded. Further, loan application by a solo woman not only has a higher chance of getting funded but as such get funded faster. The results also suggest that those loan applications which are supported by an MFI that has a religious affiliation, not only have a lower chance of getting funded, but also take longer to get funded as compared to the loan applications posted by secular MFIs. The results do not support cross-border currency risk to be a factor in explaining the determinants of loan funding. Finally, analyses suggest that loans raised for the purpose of earning livelihood and education have a higher chance of getting funded and such loans get funded faster as compared to the loans applied for purposes related to basic necessities such a clothing, housing, food, health, and personal use. The results are robust to controls for ‘MFI dummy’ and ‘year dummy’. The key implication from this study is that global social investors tend to develop an emotional connect with single woman borrowers and consequently they get funded faster Hence, MFIs should look for alternative ways for funding loans whose purpose is to meet basic needs; while, more loans related to livelihood and education should be raised via digital platforms.

Keywords: P2P lending, social investing, fintech, financial inclusion

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11 Hardships Faced by Entrepreneurs in Marketing Projects for Acquiring Business Loans

Authors: Sudipto Sarkar

Abstract:

Capital is the primary fuel for starting and running a business. Since capital is crucial for every business, entrepreneurs must successfully acquire adequate capital for executing their projects. Sources for the necessary capital for entrepreneurs include their own personal funds from existing bank accounts, or lines of credit or loans from banks or financial institutions, or equity funding from investors. The most commonly selected source of capital is a bank loan. However, acquiring a loan by any entrepreneur requires adhering to strict guidelines, conditions and norms. Because not only they have to show evidence for viability of the project, but also the means to return the acquired loan. On the bank’s part, it requires that every loan officer performs a thorough credit appraisal of the prospective borrowers and makes decisions about whether or not to lend money, how much to lend, and what conditions should be attached to it. Moreover, these credit decisions in general were often based on biases, analytical techniques, or prior experience. A loan can either turn out to be good or poor, irrespective of what type of credit decisions were followed. However, based on prior experience, the loan officers seem to differentiate between a good and a bad loan by examining the borrower’s credit history, pattern of borrowing, volume of borrowing, frequency of borrowing, and reasons for borrowing. As per an article written by Maureen Wallenfang on postcrescent.com dated May 10, 2010, it is observed that borrowers with good credit, solid business plans and adequate collateral security were able to procure loans very easily in the Fox Valley region. Since loans are required to run businesses, and also with the propensity of loans to become bad, loan officers tend to be very critical and cautious before approving and disbursing the loans. The pressure to be critical and cautious, at least partly, is a result of increased scrutiny by the Securities and Exchange Commission. As per Wall Street Journal (Sidel & Eaglesham, March, 3 2011, online), the Securities and Exchange Commission scrutinized banks that have restructured troubled loans in order to make them appear healthier than they really are. Therefore, loan officers’ loan criteria are of immense importance for entrepreneurs and banks alike.

Keywords: entrepreneur, loans, marketing, banks

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10 A Study of the Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on the Financial Performance of Banks in Mauritius

Authors: Narvada Ramdhany, Reena Bhattu Babajee

Abstract:

The 2007-2008 Global Financial Crisis which initiated in the US had a global outreach, impacting the financial and banking sectors of several economies; such as European countries, developing and emerging countries in Asia, Latin America and Africa. European countries represent one of the main sources of export earnings for Mauritius and given that Europe has been quite profoundly affected by the crisis, the Mauritian economy also could have been negatively affected. This study is being undertaken to see if the crisis had a spill-over effect on the Mauritian banking system. It will also enable to determine if the measures put in place to counteract the crisis by regulatory authorities have been effective. The study will be carried out on 17 banks and data will be collected over a time frame of seven years; with a pre-crisis period from 2005 to 2007 and a post-crisis period from 2009 to 2011. The impact of the crisis as such will be measured through the financial performance of the banks, using financial ratios and regression analysis. The results show that during the period concerned Mauritian banks have remained solvent and relatively stable. One of the main explanations put forward to explain the resilience of the banking sector to the crisis is that foreign exposure was relatively low. Another explanation put forward is that Mauritian banks normally transact mainly with prime borrowers unlike most the banks which were affected by the financial crisis.  

Keywords: global financial crisis, banking sector, financial performance, Mauritian banks

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9 Microfinance for the Marginalised: The Impact of the Rojiroti Approach in India

Authors: Gil Yaron, Rebecca Gordon, John Best, Sunil Choudhary

Abstract:

There have been a number of studies examining the impact of microfinance; however, the magnitude of impact varies across regions, and there has been mixed evidence due to the differences in the nature of interventions, context and the way in which microfinance is implemented. The Rojiroti approach to microfinance involves the creation of women's self-help groups (SHGs), rotated loans from savings and subsequent credit from a Bihar-based NGO. Rojiroti serves customers who are significantly poorer and more marginalised than those typically served by microfinance in India. In the data analysed, more than 90 percent of members are from scheduled caste and tribes (62 percent) or other disadvantaged castes. This paper analyses the impact of Rojiroti microfinance using panel data on 740 new SHG members and 340 women in matched control sites at baseline and after 18 months. We consider changes in assets, children's education, women's mobility and domestic violence among other indicators. These results show significant gains for Rojiroti borrowers relative to control sites for important, but not all, variables. Comparison with more longstanding SHGs (at least 36 months) helps to explain how the borrowing patterns of poor and marginalised SHG members evolve. The context of this intervention is also important; in this case, innovative microfinance is provided too much poorer and marginalised women than is typically the case, and so the results seen are in contrast to numerous studies that show little or no effect of microfinance on the lives of their clients.

Keywords: microfinance, gender, impact, pro-poor

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8 Micro Waqf Banks as an Alternative Financing Micro Business in Indonesia

Authors: Achmad Muchaddam Fahham, Sony Hendra Permana

Abstract:

For rural communities and micro-entrepreneurs, access to formal financial institutions is very difficult. So, borrowing to moneylenders is the most possible way to fulfill their needs. But actually it does not solve their problems, precisely their problems are increasing because they have to pay at very high-interest rates. For this reason, microfinance institution is very important as a solution for rural communities and micro-entrepreneurs who need loans to fulfill their needs. This paper aims to describe the role of micro waqf banks in Indonesia as an alternative funding for rural communities and micro-entrepreneurs. This research is descriptive using a qualitative approach. The interview technique was also carried out with key informants who understood sharia microfinance institutions. The results of the study revealed that the micro waqf bank is Islamic microfinance institutions which targeted the micro business sector by channeling small financing with a maximum financing of Rp1 million. The funding of this micro waqf bank comes from donors who donate funds through the Amil Zakat institution. The margins imposed on borrowers are as high as 3 percent per year, with payment schemes in installments every week, so it is made easier for borrower. In addition, financing is followed by training and mentoring so that borrower is able to utilize the loan for productive business activities. In the end, it is hoped that this micro waqf bank can become an incubator for micro businesses in Indonesia.

Keywords: micro business, micro waqf banks, micro-entrepreneurs, Amil Zakat institution

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7 Fintech Credit and Bank Efficiency Two-way Relationship: A Comparison Study Across Country Groupings

Authors: Tan Swee Liang

Abstract:

This paper studies the two-way relationship between fintech credit and banking efficiency using the Generalized panel Method of Moment (GMM) estimation in structural equation modeling (SEM). Banking system efficiency, defined as its ability to produce the existing level of outputs with minimal inputs, is measured using input-oriented data envelopment analysis (DEA), where the whole banking system of an economy is treated as a single DMU. Banks are considered an intermediary between depositors and borrowers, utilizing inputs (deposits and overhead costs) to provide outputs (increase credits to the private sector and its earnings). Analysis of the interrelationship between fintech credit and bank efficiency is conducted to determine the impact in different country groupings (ASEAN, Asia and OECD), in particular the banking system response to fintech credit platforms. Our preliminary results show that banks do respond to the greater pressure caused by fintech platforms to enhance their efficiency, but differently across the different groups. The author’s earlier research on ASEAN-5 high bank overhead costs (as a share of total assets) as the determinant of economic growth suggests that expenses may not have been channeled efficiently to income-generating activities. One practical implication of the findings is that policymakers should enable alternative financing, such as fintech credit, as a warning or encouragement for banks to improve their efficiency.

Keywords: fintech lending, banking efficiency, data envelopment analysis, structural equation modeling

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6 Borrower Discouragement in Spain: An Empirical Analysis Using a Survey Data Set

Authors: Ginés Hernández-Cánovas, Mª Camino Ramón-Llorens, Johanna Koëter-Kant

Abstract:

This paper uses a survey data-set of 837 Spanish SMEs to analyze the association between borrower discouragement and prior firm´s strategic decisions, while controlling for firm and owner characteristics. While existing literature has neglected factors limiting the demand for resources by an overreliance on arguments which attempt to explain the existence of discouraged borrowers solely in terms of lack of access to supply of credit. The objective of this paper is to show that factors limiting the demand for resources and, therefore, reducing the availability of funds, can be traced back to the firm manager´s decision. Our hypothesis is that managers that undertake strategic decisions seeking growth or improvement in their business performance participate more in the banking market than those showing contentment with their current business situation. Our results shows that SMEs that undertake an active role in research and development activities and that achieve improvements in the operating performance of their business are less likely to be discouraged from applying for a loan. Who needs credit and who applies for credit is important for firms, prospective lenders and policymakers interested in the financial health of these firms. Credit constrained firms are less likely to invest in R&D and to introduce new products, possibly harming long-term economic growth. Knowing how important borrower discouragement is in Europe, is important for judging the priority which should be attached to government policies aimed at reducing its effects. For example, policy makers could encourage the transparency about credit eligibility and conditions in order to reduce discouragement.

Keywords: discouragement, financial constraints, SMEs financing

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5 Effect of Islamic Finance on Jobs Generation in Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: B. Ashraf, A. M. Malik

Abstract:

The study was accomplished at the Department of Economics and Agriculture Economics, Pir Mahar Ali Shah ARID Agriculture University, Punjab, Pakistan during 2013-16 with a purpose to discover the effect of Islamic finance/banking on employment in Punjab, Pakistan. Islamic banking system is sub-component of conventional banking system in various countries of the world; however, in Pakistan, it has been established as a separate Islamic banking system. The Islamic banking operates under the doctrine of Shariah. It is claimed that the referred banking is free of interest (Riba) and addresses the philosophy and basic values of Islam in finance that reduces the factors of uncertainty, risk and others speculative activities. Two Islamic bank’s; Meezan Bank Limited (Pakistan) and Al-Baraka Bank Limited (Pakistan) from North Punjab (Bahawalnagar) and central Punjab (Lahore) west Punjab (Gujrat), Pakistan were randomly selected for the conduct of research. A total of 206 samples were collected from the define areas and banks through questionnaire. The data was analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0. Multiple linear regressions were applied to prove the hypothesis. The results revealed that the assets formation had significant positive; whereas, the technology, length of business (experience) and bossiness size had significant negative impact with employment generation in Islamic finance/banking in Punjab, Pakistan. This concludes that the employment opportunities may be created in the country by extending the finance to business/firms to start new business and increase the Public awareness by the Islamic banks through intensive publicity. However; Islamic financial institutions may be encouraged by Government as it enhances the employment in the country.

Keywords: assets formation, borrowers, employment generation, Islamic banks, Islamic finance

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4 The Prospect of Income Contingent Loan in Malaysia Higher Education Financing Using Deterministic and Stochastic Methods in Modelling Income

Authors: Syaza Isma, Timothy Higgins

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In Malaysia, increased take-up rates of tertiary student borrowing, and reliance on retirement savings to fund children's education show the importance of public higher education financing schemes (PTPTN). PTPTN has been operating for 2 decades now; however, there are some critical issues and challenges that include low loan recovery and loan default that suggest a detailed consideration of student loan/financing scheme alternatives is crucial. In addition, the decline in funding level per student following introduction of the new PTPTN full and partial loan scheme has raised ongoing concerns over the sustainability of the scheme to provide continuous financial assistance to students in tertiary education. This research seeks to assess these issues that put greater efficiency in an effort to ensure equitable access to student funding for current and future generations. We explore the extent of repayment hardship under the current loan arrangements that presumably led to low recovery from the borrowers, particularly low-income graduates. The concept of manageable debt exists in the design of income-contingent repayment schemes, as practiced in Australia, New Zealand, UK, Hungary, USA (in limited form), the Netherlands, and South Korea. Can Income Contingent Loans (ICL) offer the best practice for an education financing scheme, and address the issue of repayment hardship and concurrently, can a properly designed ICL scheme provide a solution to the current issues and challenges facing Malaysia student financing? We examine the different potential ICL models using deterministic and stochastic approach to simulate income of graduates.

Keywords: deterministic, income contingent loan, repayment burden, simulation, stochastic

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3 The Responsible Lending Principle in the Spanish Proposal of the Mortgage Credit Act

Authors: Noelia Collado-Rodriguez

Abstract:

The Mortgage Credit Directive 2014/17/UE should have been transposed the 21st of March of 2016. However, in Spain not only we did not meet the deadline, but currently we just have a preliminary draft of the so-called Mortgage Credit Act. Before we analyze the preliminary draft from the standpoint of the responsible lending principle, we should point out that this preliminary draft is not a consumer law statute. Through the text of the preliminary draft we cannot see any reference to the consumer, but we see references to the borrower. Furthermore, and more important, the application of this statute would not be, according to its text, circumscribed to borrowers who address the credit to a personal purpose. Instead, it seems that the preliminary draft aims to be one more of the rules of banking transparency that already exists in the Spanish legislation. In this sense, we can also mention that the sanctions contained in the preliminary draft are referred to these laws of banking ordination and oversight – where the rules of banking transparency belong –. This might be against the spirit of the Mortgage Credit Directive, which allows the extension of its scope to credits aimed to acquire other immovable property beyond the residential one. However, the borrower has to be a consumer accordingly with the Directive. It is quite relevant that the prospective Spanish Mortgage Credit Act might not be a consumer protection statute; specially, from the perspective of the responsible lending principle. The responsible lending principle is a consumer law principle, which is based on the structural weakness of the consumer’s position in the relationship with the creditor. Therefore, it cannot surprise that the Spanish preliminary draft does not state any of the pre contractual conducts that express the responsible lending principle. We are referring to the lender’s duty to provide adequate explanations; the consumer’s suitability test; the lender’s duty to assess consumer’s creditworthiness; the consultation of databases to perform the creditworthiness assessment; and the most important, the lender’s prohibition to grant credit in case of a negative creditworthiness assessment. The preliminary draft just entitles the Economy Ministry to enact provisions related to those topics. Thus, the duties and rules derived from the responsible lending principle included in the EU Directive will not have legal character in Spain, being mere administrative regulations. To conclude, the two main questions that come up after reading the Spanish Mortgage Credit Act preliminary draft are, in the first place, what kind of consequences might arise from the Mortgage Credit Act if finally it is not a consumer law statute. And in the second place, what might be the consequences for the responsible lending principle of being developed by administrative regulations instead of by legislation.

Keywords: consumer credit, consumer protection, creditworthiness assessment, responsible lending

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2 The Risk and Prevention of Peer-To-Peer Network Lending in China

Authors: Zhizhong Yuan, Lili Wang, Chenya Zheng, Wuqi Yang

Abstract:

How to encourage and support peer-to-peer (P2P) network lending, and effectively monitor the risk of P2P network lending, has become the focus of the Chinese government departments, industrialists, experts and scholars in recent years. The reason is that this convenient online micro-credit service brings a series of credit risks and other issues. Avoiding the risks brought by the P2P network lending model, it can better play a benign role and help China's small and medium-sized private enterprises with vigorous development to solve the capital needs; otherwise, it will bring confusion to the normal financial order. As a form of financial services, P2P network lending has injected new blood into China's non-government finance in the past ten years, and has found a way out for idle funds and made up for the shortage of traditional financial services in China. However, it lacks feasible measures in credit evaluation and government supervision. This paper collects a large amount of data about P2P network lending of China. The data collection comes from the official media of the Chinese government, the public achievements of existing researchers and the analysis and collation of correlation data by the authors. The research content of this paper includes literature review; the current situation of China's P2P network lending development; the risk analysis of P2P network lending in China; the risk prevention strategy of P2P network lending in China. The focus of this paper is to try to find a specific program to strengthen supervision and avoid risks from the perspective of government regulators, operators of P2P network lending platform, investors and users of funds. These main measures include: China needs to develop self-discipline organization of P2P network lending industry and formulate self-discipline norms as soon as possible; establish a regular information disclosure system of P2P network lending platform; establish censorship of credit rating of borrowers; rectify the P2P network lending platform in compliance through the implementation of bank deposition. The results and solutions will benefit all the P2P network lending platforms, creditors, debtors, bankers, independent auditors and government agencies of China and other countries.

Keywords: peer-to-peer(P2P), regulation, risk prevention, supervision

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1 Emerging Issues for Global Impact of Foreign Institutional Investors (FII) on Indian Economy

Authors: Kamlesh Shashikant Dave

Abstract:

The global financial crisis is rooted in the sub-prime crisis in U.S.A. During the boom years, mortgage brokers attracted by the big commission, encouraged buyers with poor credit to accept housing mortgages with little or no down payment and without credit check. A combination of low interest rates and large inflow of foreign funds during the booming years helped the banks to create easy credit conditions for many years. Banks lent money on the assumptions that housing price would continue to rise. Also the real estate bubble encouraged the demand for houses as financial assets .Banks and financial institutions later repackaged these debts with other high risk debts and sold them to worldwide investors creating financial instruments called collateral debt obligations (CDOs). With the rise in interest rate, mortgage payments rose and defaults among the subprime category of borrowers increased accordingly. Through the securitization of mortgage payments, a recession developed in the housing sector and consequently it was transmitted to the entire US economy and rest of the world. The financial credit crisis has moved the US and the global economy into recession. Indian economy has also affected by the spill over effects of the global financial crisis. Great saving habit among people, strong fundamentals, strong conservative and regulatory regime have saved Indian economy from going out of gear, though significant parts of the economy have slowed down. Industrial activity, particularly in the manufacturing and infrastructure sectors decelerated. The service sector too, slow in construction, transport, trade, communication, hotels and restaurants sub sectors. The financial crisis has some adverse impact on the IT sector. Exports had declined in absolute terms in October. Higher inputs costs and dampened demand have dented corporate margins while the uncertainty surrounding the crisis has affected business confidence. To summarize, reckless subprime lending, loose monetary policy of US, expansion of financial derivatives beyond acceptable norms and greed of Wall Street has led to this exceptional global financial and economic crisis. Thus, the global credit crisis of 2008 highlights the need to redesign both the global and domestic financial regulatory systems not only to properly address systematic risk but also to support its proper functioning (i.e financial stability).Such design requires: 1) Well managed financial institutions with effective corporate governance and risk management system 2) Disclosure requirements sufficient to support market discipline. 3)Proper mechanisms for resolving problem institution and 4) Mechanisms to protect financial services consumers in the event of financial institutions failure.

Keywords: FIIs, BSE, sensex, global impact

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