Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2958

Search results for: basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP)

2958 Buckling Resistance of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer Infill Panel Subjected to Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Viriyavudh Sim, Woo Young Jung


Performance of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP) sandwich infill panel system under diagonal compression was studied by means of numerical analysis. Furthermore, the variation of temperature was considered to affect the mechanical properties of BFRP, since their composition was based on polymeric material. Moreover, commercial finite element analysis platform ABAQUS was used to model and analyze this infill panel system. Consequently, results of the analyses show that the overall performance of BFRP panel had a 15% increase compared to that of GFRP infill panel system. However, the variation of buckling load in terms of temperature for the BFRP system showed a more sensitive nature compared to those of GFRP system.

Keywords: basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP), buckling performance, numerical simulation, temperature dependent materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
2957 Numerical Study for Compressive Strength of Basalt Composite Sandwich Infill Panel

Authors: Viriyavudh Sim, Jung Kyu Choi, Yong Ju Kwak, Oh Hyeon Jeon, Woo Young Jung


In this study, we investigated the buckling performance of basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) sandwich infill panels. Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) is a major evolution for energy dissipation when used as infill material of frame structure, a basic Polymer Matrix Composite (PMC) infill wall system consists of two FRP laminates surrounding an infill of foam core. Furthermore, this type of component is for retrofitting and strengthening frame structure to withstand the seismic disaster. In-plane compression was considered in the numerical analysis with ABAQUS platform to determine the buckling failure load of BFRP infill panel system. The present result shows that the sandwich BFRP infill panel system has higher resistance to buckling failure than those of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) infill panel system, i.e. 16% increase in buckling resistance capacity.

Keywords: Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP), buckling performance, FEM analysis, sandwich infill panel

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
2956 Effect of Fiber Orientation on the Mechanical Properties of Fabricated Plate Using Basalt Fiber

Authors: Sharmili Routray, Kishor Chandra Biswal


The use of corrosion resistant fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcement is beneficial in structures particularly those exposed to deicing salts, and/or located in highly corrosive environment. Generally Glass, Carbon and Aramid fibers are used for the strengthening purpose of the structures. Due to the necessities of low weight and high strength materials, it is required to find out the suitable substitute with low cost. Recent developments in fiber production technology allow the strengthening of structures using Basalt fiber which is made from basalt rock. Basalt fiber has good range of thermal performance, high tensile strength, resistance to acids, good electro‐magnetic properties, inert nature, resistance to corrosion, radiation and UV light, vibration and impact loading. This investigation focuses on the effect of fibre content and fiber orientation of basalt fibre on mechanical properties of the fabricated composites. Specimen prepared with unidirectional Basalt fabric as reinforcing materials and epoxy resin as a matrix in polymer composite. In this investigation different fiber orientation are taken and the fabrication is done by hand lay-up process. The variation of the properties with the increasing number of plies of fiber in the composites is also studied. Specimens are subjected to tensile strength test and the failure of the composite is examined with the help of INSTRON universal testing Machine (SATEC) of 600 kN capacities. The average tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of BFRP plates are determined from the test Program.

Keywords: BFRP, fabrication, Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP), strengthening

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
2955 Flexural Properties of RC Beams Strengthened with A Composite Reinforcement Layer: FRP Grid and ECC

Authors: Yu-Zhou Zheng, Wen-Wei Wang


In this paper, a new strengthening technique for reinforced concrete (RC) beams is proposed by combining Basalt Fibre Reinforced Polymer (BFRP) grid and Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) as a composite reinforcement layer (CRL). Five RC beams externally bonded with the CRL at the soffit and one control RC beam was tested to investigate their flexural behaviour. The thickness of BFRP grids (i.e., 1mm, 3mm and 5mm) and the sizes of CRL in test program were selected as the test parameters, while the thickness of CRL was fixed approximately at 30mm. The test results showed that there is no debonding of CRL to occur obviously in the strengthened beams. The final failure modes were the concrete crushing or the rupture of BFRP grids, indicating that the proposed technique is effective in suppressing the debonding of externally bonded materials and fully utilizing the material strengths. Compared with the non-strengthened beam, the increments of crack loading for strengthened beams were 58%~97%, 15%~35% for yield loading and 4%~33% for the ultimate loading, respectively. An analytical model is also presented to predict the full-range load-deflection responses of the strengthened beams and validated through comparisons with the test results.

Keywords: basalt fiber-reinforced polymer (BFRP) grid, ECC, RC beams, strengthening

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
2954 Flexural Behavior of Voided Slabs Reinforced With Basalt Bars

Authors: Jazlah Majeed Sulaiman, Lakshmi P.


Concrete slabs are considered to be very ductile structural members. Openings in reinforced slabs are necessary so as to install the mechanical, electrical and pumping (MEP) conduits and ducts. However, these openings reduce the load-carrying capacity, stiffness, energy, and ductility of the slabs. To resolve the undesirable effects of openings in the slab behavior, it is significant to achieve the desired strength against the loads acting on it. The use of Basalt Fiber Reinforcement Polymers (BFRP) as reinforcement has become a valid sustainable option as they produce less greenhouse gases, resist corrosion and have higher tensile strength. In this paper, five slab models are analyzed using non-linear static analysis in ANSYS Workbench to study the effect of openings on slabs reinforced with basalt bars. A parametric numerical study on the loading condition and the shape and size of the opening is conducted, and their load and displacement values are compared. One of the models is validated experimentally.

Keywords: concrete slabs, openings, BFRP, sustainable, corrosion resistant, non-linear static analysis, ANSYS

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2953 The Influence of Basalt and Steel Fibers on the Flexural Behavior of RC Beams

Authors: Yasmin Z. Murad, Haneen M. Abdl-Jabbar


An experimental program is conducted in this research to investigate the influence of basalt fibers and steel fibers on the flexural behavior of RC beams. Reinforced concrete beams are constructed using steel fiber concrete and basalt fiber concrete. Steel and basalt fibers are included in a percentage of 15% and 2.5% of the total cement weight, respectively. Test results have shown that basalt fibers have increased the load carrying capacity of the beams up to 30% and the maximum deflection to almost 2.4 times that measured in the control specimen. It has also shown that steel fibers have increased the load carrying capacity of the beams up to 47% and the ultimate deflection is almost duplicated compared to the control beam. Steel and basalt fibers have increased the ductility of the reinforced concrete beams.

Keywords: basalt fiber, steel fiber, reinforced concrete beams, flexural behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
2952 Comparing the Behaviour of the FRP and Steel Reinforced Shear Walls under Cyclic Seismic Loading in Aspect of the Energy Dissipation

Authors: H. Rahman, T. Donchev, D. Petkova


Earthquakes claim thousands of lives around the world annually due to inadequate design of lateral load resisting systems particularly shear walls. Additionally, corrosion of the steel reinforcement in concrete structures is one of the main challenges in construction industry. Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) reinforcement can be used as an alternative to traditional steel reinforcement. FRP has several excellent mechanical properties than steel such as high resistance to corrosion, high tensile strength and light self-weight; additionally, it has electromagnetic neutrality advantageous to the structures where it is important such as hospitals, some laboratories and telecommunications. This paper is about results of experimental research and it is incorporating experimental testing of two medium-scale concrete shear wall samples; one reinforced with Basalt FRP (BFRP) bar and one reinforced with steel bars as a control sample. The samples are tested under quasi-static-cyclic loading following modified ATC-24 protocol standard seismic loading. The results of both samples are compared to allow a judgement about performance of BFRP reinforced against steel reinforced concrete shear walls. The results of the conducted researches show a promising momentum toward utilisation of the BFRP as an alternative to traditional steel reinforcement with the aim of improving durability with suitable energy dissipation in the reinforced concrete shear walls.  

Keywords: shear walls, internal fibre reinforced polymer reinforcement, cyclic loading, energy dissipation, seismic behaviour

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
2951 First Cracking Moments of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Polymer-Steel Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Saruhan Kartal, Ilker Kalkan


The present paper reports the cracking moment estimates of a set of steel-reinforced, Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP)-reinforced and hybrid steel-FRP reinforced concrete beams, calculated from different analytical formulations in the codes, together with the experimental cracking load values. A total of three steel-reinforced, four FRP-reinforced, 12 hybrid FRP-steel over-reinforced and five hybrid FRP-steel under-reinforced concrete beam tests were analyzed within the scope of the study. Glass FRP (GFRP) and Basalt FRP (BFRP) bars were used in the beams as FRP bars. In under-reinforced hybrid beams, rupture of the FRP bars preceded crushing of concrete, while concrete crushing preceded FRP rupture in over-reinforced beams. In both types, steel yielding took place long before the FRP rupture and concrete crushing. The cracking moment mainly depends on two quantities, namely the moment of inertia of the section at the initiation of cracking and the flexural tensile strength of concrete, i.e. the modulus of rupture. In the present study, two different definitions of uncracked moment of inertia, i.e. the gross and the uncracked transformed moments of inertia, were adopted. Two analytical equations for the modulus of rupture (ACI 318M and Eurocode 2) were utilized in the calculations as well as the experimental tensile strength of concrete from prismatic specimen tests. The ACI 318M modulus of rupture expression produced cracking moment estimates closer to the experimental cracking moments of FRP-reinforced and hybrid FRP-steel reinforced concrete beams when used in combination with the uncracked transformed moment of inertia, yet the Eurocode 2 modulus of rupture expression gave more accurate cracking moment estimates in steel-reinforced concrete beams. All of the analytical definitions produced analytical values considerably different from the experimental cracking load values of the solely FRP-reinforced concrete beam specimens.

Keywords: polymer reinforcement, four-point bending, hybrid use of reinforcement, cracking moment

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2950 Automation of Process Waste-Free Air Filtration in Production of Concrete, Reinforced with Basalt Fiber

Authors: Stanislav Perepechko


Industrial companies - one of the major sources of harmful substances to the atmosphere. The main cause of pollution on the concrete plants are cement dust emissions. All the cement silos, pneumatic transport, and ventilation systems equipped with filters, to avoid this. Today, many Russian companies have to decide on replacement morally and physically outdated filters and guided back to the electrostatic filters as usual equipment. The offered way of a cleaning of waste-free filtering of air differs in the fact that a filtering medium of the filter is used in concrete manufacture. Basalt is widespread and pollution-free material. In the course of cleaning, one part of basalt fiber and cement immediately goes to the mixer through flow-control units of initial basalt fiber and cement. Another part of basalt fiber goes to filters for purification of the air used in systems of an air lift, and ventilating emissions passes through them, and with trapped particles also goes to the mixer through flow-control units of the basalt fiber fulfilled in filters. At the same time, regulators are adjusted in such a way that total supply of basalt fiber and cement into the mixer remains invariable and corresponds to a given technological mode.

Keywords: waste-free air filtration, concrete, basalt fiber, building automation

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
2949 Advances in Natural Fiber Surface Treatment Methodologies for Upgradation in Properties of Their Reinforced Composites

Authors: G. L. Devnani, Shishir Sinha


Natural fiber reinforced polymer composite is a very attractive area among the scientific community because of their low cost, eco-friendly and sustainable in nature. Among all advantages there are few issues which need to be addressed, those issues are the poor adhesion and compatibility between two opposite nature materials that is fiber and matrix and their relatively high water absorption. Therefore, natural fiber modifications are necessary to improve their adhesion with different matrices. Excellent properties could be achieved with the surface treatment of these natural fibers ultimately leads to property up-gradation of their reinforced composites with different polymer matrices. Lot of work is going on to improve the adhesion between reinforced fiber phase and polymer matrix phase to improve the properties of composites. Researchers have suggested various methods for natural fiber treatment like silane treatment, treatment with alkali, acetylation, acrylation, maleate coupling, etc. In this study a review is done on the different methods used for the surface treatment of natural fibers and what are the advance treatment methodologies for natural fiber surface treatment for property improvement of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites.

Keywords: composites, acetylation, natural fiber, surface treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
2948 Flexural Behavior of Heat-Damaged Concrete Beams Reinforced with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Bars

Authors: Mohammad R. Irshidat, Rami H. Haddad, Hanadi Al-Mahmoud


Reinforced concrete (RC) is the most common used material for construction in the world. In the past decades, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) bars had been widely used to substitute the steel bars due to their high resistance to corrosion, high tensile capacity, and low weight in comparison with steel. Experimental studies on the behavior of FRP bar reinforced concrete beams had been carried out worldwide for a few decades. While the research on such structural members under elevated temperatures is still very limited. In this research, the flexural behavior of heat-damaged concrete beams reinforced with FRP bars is studied. Two types of FRP rebar namely, carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP), are used. The beams are subjected to four levels of temperature before tested to monitor their flexural behavior. The results are compared with other concrete beams reinforced with regular steel bars. The results show that the beams reinforced with CFRP bars and GFRP bars had higher flexural capacity than the beams reinforced with steel bars even if heated up to 400°C and 300°C, respectively. After that the beams reinforced with steel bars had the superiority.

Keywords: concrete beams, FRP rebar, flexural behavior, heat-damaged

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
2947 Fire Resistance Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Member Strengthened by Fiber Reinforced Polymer

Authors: Soo-Yeon Seo, Jong-Wook Lim, Se-Ki Song


Currently, FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer) materials have been widely used for reinforcement of building structural members. However, since the FRP and the epoxy material for attaching it have very low resistance to heat, there is a problem in application where high temperature is an issue. In this paper, the resistance performance of FRP member made of carbon fiber at high temperature was investigated through experiment under temperature change. As a result, epoxy encapsulating FRP is damaged at not high temperatures, and the fibers are degraded. Therefore, when reinforcing a structure using FRP, a separate refractory heat treatment is necessary. The use of a 30 mm thick calcium silicate board as a fireproofing method can protect FRP up to 600ᵒC outside temperature.

Keywords: FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer), high temperature, experiment under temperature change, calcium silicate board

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
2946 Bending Behaviour of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Stiffened Panel Subjected to Transverse Loading

Authors: S. Kumar, Rajesh Kumar, S. Mandal


Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) is gaining popularity in many branch of engineering and various applications due to their light weight, specific strength per unit weight and high stiffness in particular direction. As the strength of material is high it can be used in thin walled structure as industrial roof sheds satisfying the strength constraint with comparatively lesser thickness. Analysis of bending behavior of FRP panel has been done here with variation in oriented angle of stiffener panels, fiber orientation, aspect ratio and boundary conditions subjected to transverse loading by using Finite Element Method. The effect of fiber orientation and thickness of ply has also been studied to determine the minimum thickness of ply for optimized section of stiffened FRP panel.

Keywords: bending behavior, fiber reinforced polymer, finite element method, orientation of stiffeners

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2945 Water Absorption Studies on Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites

Authors: G. L. Devnani, Shishir Sinha


In the recent years, researchers have drawn their focus on natural fibers reinforced composite materials because of their excellent properties like low cost, lower weight, better tensile and flexural strengths, biodegradability etc. There is little concern however that when these materials are put in moist conditions for long duration, their mechanical properties degrade. Therefore, in order to take maximum advantage of these novel materials, one should have a complete understanding of their moisture or water absorption phenomena. Various fiber surface treatment methods like alkaline treatment, acetylation etc. have also been suggested for reduction in water absorption of these composites. In the present study, a detailed review is done for water absorption behavior of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites, and experiments also have been performed on these composites with varying the parameters like fiber loading etc. for understanding the water absorption kinetics. Various surface treatment methods also performed to reduce the water absorption behavior of these materials and effort is made to develop a proper understanding of water absorption mechanism mathematically and experimentally for full potential utilization of natural fiber reinforced polymer composite materials.

Keywords: alkaline treatment, composites, natural fiber, water absorption

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2944 Experimentation and Analysis of Reinforced Basalt and Carbon Fibres Composite Laminate Mechanical Properties

Authors: Vara Prasad Vemu


The aim of the present work is to investigate the mechanical properties and water absorption capacity of carbon and basalt fibers mixed with matrix epoxy. At present, there is demand for nature friendly products. Basalt reinforced composites developed recently, and these mineral amorphous fibres are a valid alternative to carbon fibres for their lower cost and to glass fibres for their strength. The present paper describes briefly on basalt and carbon fibres (uni-directional) which are used as reinforcement materials for composites. The matrix epoxy (LY 556-HY 951) is taken into account to assess its influence on the evaluated parameters. In order to use reinforced composites for structural applications, it is necessary to perform a mechanical characterization. With this aim experiments like tensile strength, flexural strength, hardness and water absorption are performed. Later the mechanical properties obtained from experiments are compared with ANSYS software results.

Keywords: carbon fibre, basalt fibre, uni-directional, reinforcement, mechanical tests, water absorption test, ANSYS

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
2943 Analytical Investigation of Ductility of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthening with Polypropylene Fibers

Authors: Rifat Sezer, Abdulhamid Aryan


The purpose of this study is to research both the ductility of the reinforced concrete beams without fiber and the ductility of the reinforced concrete beams with fiber. For this purpose, the analytical load - displacement curves of the beams were formed and the areas under these curves were compared. According to the results of this comparison, it is concluded that the reinforced concrete beams with polypropylene fiber are more ductile. The dimension of the used beam-samples for analytical model in this study is 20x30 cm, their length is 200 cm and their scale is ½. The reinforced concrete reference-beams are produced as one item and the reinforced concrete beams with P-0.60 kg/m3 polypropylene fiber are produced as one item. The modeling of reinforced concrete beams was utilized with Abaqus software.

Keywords: polypropylene, fiber-reinforced beams, strengthening of the beams, abaqus program

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2942 The Flexural Strength of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Cement Mortars Using UM Resin

Authors: Min Ho Kwon, Woo Young Jung, Hyun Su Seo


A Polymer Cement Mortar (PCM) has been widely used as the material of repair and restoration work for concrete structure; however a PCM usually induces an environmental pollutant. Therefore, there is a need to develop PCM which is less impact to environments. Usually, UM resin is known to be harmless to the environment. Accordingly, in this paper, the properties of the PCM using UM resin were studied. The general cement mortar and UM resin was mixed in the specified ratio. A certain percentage of PVA fibers, steel fibers and mixed fibers (PVA fiber and steel fiber) were added to enhance the flexural strength. The flexural tests were performed in order to investigate the flexural strength of each PCM. Experimental results showed that the strength of proposed PCM using UM resin is improved when they are compared with general cement mortar.

Keywords: polymer cement mortar, UM resin, compressive strength, PVA fiber, steel fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
2941 Strengthening Bridge Piers by Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP): A Case Study for Thuan Phuoc Suspension Bridge in Vietnam

Authors: Lan Nguyen, Lam Cao Van


Thuan Phuoc is a suspension bridge built in Danang city, Vietnam. Because this bridge locates near the estuary, its structure has degraded rapidly. Many cracks have currently occurred on most of the concrete piers of the curved approach spans. This paper aims to present the results of diagnostic analysis of causes for cracks as well as some calculations for strengthening piers by carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP). Besides, it describes how to use concrete nonlinear analysis software ATENA to diagnostically analyze cracks, strengthening designs. Basing on the results of studying the map of distributing crack on Thuan Phuoc bridge’s concrete piers is analyzed by the software ATENA is suitable for the real conditions and CFRP would be the best solution to strengthen piers in a sound and fast way.

Keywords: ATENA, bridge pier strengthening, carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), crack prediction analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
2940 A Study on Reinforced Concrete Beams Enlarged with Polymer Mortar and UHPFRC

Authors: Ga Ye Kim, Hee Sun Kim, Yeong Soo Shin


Many studies have been done on the repair and strengthening method of concrete structure, so far. The traditional retrofit method was to attach fiber sheet such as CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer), GFRP (Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer) and AFRP (Aramid Fiber Reinforced Polymer) on the concrete structure. However, this method had many downsides in that there are a risk of debonding and an increase in displacement by a shortage of structure section. Therefore, it is effective way to enlarge the structural member with polymer mortar or Ultra-High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC) as a means of strengthening concrete structure. This paper intends to investigate structural performance of reinforced concrete (RC) beams enlarged with polymer mortar and compare the experimental results with analytical results. Nonlinear finite element analyses were conducted to compare the experimental results and predict structural behavior of retrofitted RC beams accurately without cost consuming experimental process. In addition, this study aims at comparing differences of retrofit material between commonly used material (polymer mortar) and recently used material (UHPFRC) by conducting nonlinear finite element analyses. In the first part of this paper, the RC beams having different cover type were fabricated for the experiment and the size of RC beams was 250 millimeters in depth, 150 millimeters in width and 2800 millimeters in length. To verify the experiment, nonlinear finite element models were generated using commercial software ABAQUS 6.10-3. From this study, both experimental and analytical results demonstrated good strengthening effect on RC beam and showed similar tendency. For the future, the proposed analytical method can be used to predict the effect of strengthened RC beam. In the second part of the study, the main parameters were type of retrofit materials. The same nonlinear finite element models were generated to compare the polymer mortar with UHPFRCC. Two types of retrofit material were evaluated and retrofit effect was verified by analytical results.

Keywords: retrofit material, polymer mortar, UHPFRC, nonlinear finite element analysis

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2939 Investigating Optical Properties of Unsaturated Polyurethane Matrix and Its Glass Fiber Composite Under Extreme Temperatures

Authors: Saad Ahmed, Sanjeev Khannaa


Glass fiber reinforced polymers are widely used in structural systems as load-bearing elements at both high and low temperatures. This investigation presents the evaluation of glass fiber reinforced unsaturated polyurethane under harsh conditions of changing temperature and moisture content. This study Explores how these parameters affect the optical properties of the polymer matrix and the composite. Using the hand layup method, the polyurethane resin was modified by E-glass fibers (15 vol. %) to manufacture fiber-reinforced composite. This work includes the preparation of glass-like polyurethane resin sheets and estimates all light transmittance properties at high and very low temperatures and wet conditions. All-optical properties were retested to evaluate the level of improvement or failure. The results found that when comprising reinforced composite fiber to the unreinforced specimens, the reinforced composite shows a fair optical property at high temperatures and good performance at low temperatures.

Keywords: unsaturated polyurethane, extreme temperatures, light transmittance, haze number

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2938 Compressive Strength of Synthetic Fiber Reinforced Concretes

Authors: Soner Guler, Demet Yavuz, Fuat Korkut


Synthetic fibers are commonly used in many civil engineering applications because of its some superior characteristics such as non-corrosive and cheapness. This study presents the results of experimental study on compressive strength of synthetic fiber reinforced concretes. Two types of polyamide (PA) synthetic fiber with the length of 12 and 54 mm are used for this study. The fiber volume ratio is kept as 0.25%, 0.75%, and 0.75% in all mixes. The plain concrete compressive strength is 36.2 MPa. The test results clearly show that the increase in compressive strength for synthetic fiber reinforced concretes is significant. The greatest increase in compressive strength is 23% for PA synthetic fiber reinforced concretes with 0.75% fiber volume.

Keywords: synthetic fibers, polyamide fibers, fiber volume, compressive strength

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2937 Effect of TEOS Electrospun Nanofiber Modified Resin on Interlaminar Shear Strength of Glass Fiber/Epoxy Composite

Authors: Dattaji K. Shinde, Ajit D. Kelkar


Interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of fiber reinforced polymer composite is an important property for most of the structural applications. Matrix modification is an effective method used to improve the interlaminar shear strength of composite. In this paper, EPON 862/w epoxy system was modified using Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) electrospun nanofibers (ENFs) which were produced using electrospinning method. Unmodified and nanofibers modified resins were used to fabricate glass fiber reinforced polymer composite (GFRP) using H-VARTM method. The ILSS of the Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymeric Composites (GFRP) was investigated. The study shows that introduction of TEOS ENFs in the epoxy resin enhanced the ILSS of GFRPby 15% with 0.6% wt. fraction of TEOS ENFs.

Keywords: electrospun nanofibers, H-VARTM, interlaminar shear strength, matrix modification

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
2936 Materials for Electrically Driven Aircrafts: Highly Conductive Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Authors: Simon Bard, Martin Demleitner, Florian Schonl, Volker Altstadt


For an electrically driven aircraft, whose engine is based on semiconductors, alternative materials are needed. The avoid hotspots in the materials thermally conductive polymers are necessary. Nevertheless, the mechanical properties of these materials should remain. Herein, the work of three years in a project with airbus and Siemens is presented. Different strategies have been pursued to achieve conductive fiber-reinforced composites: Metal-coated carbon fibers, pitch-based fibers and particle-loaded matrices have been investigated. In addition, a combination of copper-coated fibers and a conductive matrix has been successfully tested for its conductivity and mechanical properties. First, prepregs have been produced with a laboratory scale prepreg line, which can handle materials with maximum width of 300 mm. These materials have then been processed to fiber-reinforced laminates. For the PAN-fiber reinforced laminates, it could be shown that there is a strong dependency between fiber volume content and thermal conductivity. Laminates with 50 vol% of carbon fiber offer a conductivity of 0.6 W/mK, those with 66 vol% of fiber a thermal conductivity of 1 W/mK. With pitch-based fiber, the conductivity enhances to 1.5 W/mK for 61 vol% of fiber, compared to 0.81 W/mK with the same amount of fibers produced from PAN (+83% in conducitivity). The thermal conductivity of PAN-based composites with 50 vol% of fiber is at 0.6 W/mK, their nickel-coated counterparts with the same fiber volume content offer a conductivity of 1 W/mK, an increase of 66%.

Keywords: carbon, electric aircraft, polymer, thermal conductivity

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2935 An Experimental Investigation on Mechanical Behaviour of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composite Laminates Used for Pipe Applications

Authors: Tasnim Kallel, Rim Taktak


In this experimental work, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite laminates were manufactured using hand lay-up technique. The unsaturated polyester (UP) and vinylester (VE) were considered as resins reinforced with different woven fabrics (bidirectional and quadriaxial rovings). The mechanical behaviour of the resulting composites was studied and then compared. A focus was essentially done on the evaluation of the effect of E-Glass fiber and ply orientation on the mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength, and hardness of the studied composite laminates. Also, crack paths and fracture surfaces were examined, and failure mechanisms were analyzed. From the main results, it was found that the quadriaxial composite laminates (QA/VE and QA/UP) with stacking sequences of [0°, +45°, 90°, -45°] present a very ductile tensile behaviour. The other laminate samples (R500/VE, RM/VE, R500/UP and RM/UP) show a very brittle behaviour whatever the used resin. The intrinsic toughness KIC of QA/VE laminate, obtained in fracture tests, are found more important than that of RM/VE composite. Thus, the QA/VE samples, as multidirectional laminate, presents the highest interlaminar fracture resistance.

Keywords: crack growth, fiber orientation, fracture behavior, e-glass fiber fabric, laminate composite, mechanical behavior

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2934 Orthophthalic Polyester Composite Reinforced with Sodium Alginate-Treated Anahaw (Saribus rotundifolius) Fibers

Authors: Terence Tumolva, Johannes Kristoff Vito, Joanna Crystelle Ragasa, Renz Marion Dela Cruz


Natural fiber reinforced polymer (NFRP) composites have been the focus of various research projects due to their advantages over synthetic fiber-reinforced composites. For this study, ana haw is used as the fiber source due to its abundance throughout the Philippines. A problem addressed in this study is the need for an environment-friendly method of fiber treatment. The use of sodium alginate to treat fibers was thus investigated. The fibers were immersed in a sodium alginate solution and then in a calcium chloride solution afterwards. The treated fibers were used to reinforce orthophthalic unsaturated polyester (ortho-UP) resin. The mechanical properties were tested using a universal testing machine (UTM), and the fracture surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results showed that the sodium alginate treatment had increased the tensile and flexural strength of the composite. The increase in fiber load had also been found to increase the stiffness of the composite. However, sodium alginate treatment did not provide any significant improvement in the wet mechanical properties of the NFRP. The composite is comparable to some commercially available polymeric materials.

Keywords: NFRP, composite, alginate, anahaw, polymer

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2933 Numerical Investigation of Static and Dynamic Responses of Fiber Reinforced Sand

Authors: Sandeep Kumar, Mahesh Kumar Jat, Rajib Sarkar


Soil reinforced with randomly distributed fibers is an attractive means to improve the performance of soil in a cost effective manner. Static and dynamic characterization of fiber reinforced soil have become important to evaluate adequate performance for all classes of geotechnical engineering problems. Present study investigates the behaviour of fiber reinforced cohesionless soil through numerical simulation of triaxial specimen. The numerical model has been validated with the existing literature of laboratory triaxial compression testing. A parametric study has been done to find out optimum fiber content for shear resistance. Cyclic triaxial testing has been simulated and the stress-strain response of fiber-reinforced sand has been examined considering different combination of fiber contents. Shear modulus values and damping values of fiber-reinforced sand are evaluated. It has been observed from results that for 1.0 percent fiber content shear modulus increased 2.28 times and damping ratio decreased 4.6 times. The influence of amplitude of cyclic strain, confining pressure and frequency of loading on the dynamic properties of fiber reinforced sand has been investigated and presented.

Keywords: damping, fiber reinforced soil, numerical modelling, shear modulus

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2932 Nanostructure and Adhesion of Cement/Polymer Fiber Interfaces

Authors: Faezeh Shalchy


Concrete is the most used materials in the world. It is also one of the most versatile while complex materials which human have used for construction. However, concrete is weak in tension, over the past thirty years many studies were accomplished to improve the tensile properties of concrete (cement-based materials) using a variety of methods. One of the most successful attempts is to use polymeric fibers in the structure of concrete to obtain a composite with high tensile strength and ductility. Understanding the mechanical behavior of fiber reinforced concrete requires the knowledge of the fiber/matrix interfaces at the small scale. In this study, a combination of numerical simulations and experimental techniques have been used to study the nano structure of fiber/matrix interfaces. A new model for calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H)/fiber interfaces is proposed based on Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. The adhesion energy between the C-S-H gel and 2 different polymeric fibers (polyvinyl alcohol and polypropylene) was numerically studied at the atomistic level since adhesion is one of the key factors in the design of fiber reinforced composites. The mechanisms of adhesion as a function of the nano structure of fiber/matrix interfaces are also studied and discussed.

Keywords: fiber-reinforced concrete, adhesion, molecular modeling

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2931 Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Hardness and Compressive Strength of Hybrid Glass/Steel Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites

Authors: Amar Patnaik, Pankaj Agarwal


This paper investigates the experimental study of hardness and compressive strength of hybrid glass/steel fiber reinforced polymer composites by varying the glass and steel fiber layer in the epoxy matrix. The hybrid composites with four stacking sequences HSG-1, HSG-2, HSG-3, and HSG-4 were fabricated by the VARTM process under the controlled environment. The experimentally evaluated results of Vicker’s hardness of the fabricated composites increases with an increase in the fiber layers sequence showing the high resistance. The improvement of micro-structure ability has been observed from the SEM study, which governs in the enhancement of compressive strength. The finite element model was developed on ANSYS to predict the above said properties and further compared with experimental results. The results predicted by the numerical simulation are in good agreement with the experimental results. The hybrid composites developed in this study was identified as the preferred materials due to their excellent mechanical properties to replace the conventional materialsused in the marine structures.

Keywords: finite element method, interfacial strength, polymer composites, VARTM

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2930 Studying the Bond Strength of Geo-Polymer Concrete

Authors: Rama Seshu Doguparti


This paper presents the experimental investigation on the bond behavior of geo polymer concrete. The bond behavior of geo polymer concrete cubes of grade M35 reinforced with 16 mm TMT rod is analyzed. The results indicate that the bond performance of reinforced geo polymer concrete is good and thus proves its application for construction.

Keywords: geo-polymer, concrete, bond strength, behaviour

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2929 A Pull-Out Fiber/Matrix Interface Characterization of Vegetal Fibers Reinforced Thermoplastic Polymer Composites, the Influence of the Processing Temperature

Authors: Duy Cuong Nguyen, Ali Makke, Guillaume Montay


This work presents an improved single fiber pull-out test for fiber/matrix interface characterization. This test has been used to study the Inter-Facial Shear Strength ‘IFSS’ of hemp fibers reinforced polypropylene (PP). For this aim, the fiber diameter has been carefully measured using a tomography inspired method. The fiber section contour can then be approximated by a circle or a polygon. The results show that the IFSS is overestimated if the circular approximation is used. The Influence of the molding temperature on the IFSS has also been studied. We find a molding temperature of 183°C leads to better interface properties. Above or below this temperature the interface strength is reduced.

Keywords: composite, hemp, interface, pull-out, processing, polypropylene, temperature

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