Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2439

Search results for: Northeast India

2439 Traditional Ecological Knowledge System as Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for Mountain Community of Tangkhul Tribe in Northeast India

Authors: Tuisem Shimrah

Abstract:

One general agreement on climate change is that its causes may be local but the effects are global. Indigenous people are subscribed to “low-carbon” traditional ways of life and as such they have contributed little to causes of climate change. On the contrary they are the most adversely affected by climate change due to their dependence on surrounding rich biological wealth as a source of their livelihood, health care, entertainment and cultural activities This paper deals with the results of the investigation of various adaptation strategies adopted to combat climate change by traditional community. The result shows effective ways of application of traditional knowledge and wisdom applied by Tangkhul traditional community at local and community level in remote areas in Northeast India. Four adaptation measures are being presented in this paper.

Keywords: adaptation, climate change, Northeast India, Tangkhul, traditional community

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2438 Infant and Child Mortality among the Low Socio-Economic Households in India

Authors: Narendra Kumar

Abstract:

This study uses data from the ‘National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) 2005-06’ to investigate the predictors of infant and child mortality among low economic households in East and Northeast region. The cross tabulation, life table survival estimates and Cox proportional hazard model techniques have been used to estimate the predictors of infant and child mortality. The life table survival estimates for infant and child mortality shows that infant mortality in female child is lower in comparison to male child but with child mortality, the rates are higher for female in comparison to male child and the Cox proportional hazard model also give highly significant in female in comparison to male child. The infant and child mortality rates among poor households highest in the Central region followed by North and Northeast region and the lowest in South region in comparison to all regions of India. Education of respondent has been found a significant characteristics in both analyzes, further birth interval, respondent occupation, caste/tribe and place of delivery has substantial impact on infant and child mortality among low economic households in East and Northeast region. Finally these findings specified that an increase in parents’ education, improve health care services and improve socioeconomic conditions of low economic households which should in turn raise infant and child survival and should decrease child mortality among low economic households in India.

Keywords: infant, child, mortality, socio-economic, India

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2437 Economic Integration vs. Conflicts in Northeast Asia

Authors: Heeho Kim, Byeong-Hae Sohn

Abstract:

This study has examined the culture commonality of Northeast Asian countries based on Confucian values, and their relations to institutional economic integration. This study demonstrates that Confucian values inherent in the Northeast Asian countries have served as the cultural ethos for the rapid economic growth of this region since the 1960s and will be able to form the foundation of Northeast Asian values in the future. This paper re-appreciates these cultural values as a necessary condition for regional integration to catalyze the stagnated discussions about economic integration and extends its inter-weaving connection role for intra-regional transaction among China, Japan and Korea.

Keywords: Confucianism, Northeast Asia, economic integration, economic growth, regional conflicts

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2436 Evaluation of Nutritional Potential of Five Unexplored Wild Edible Food Plants from Eastern Himalayan Biodiversity Hotspot Region (India)

Authors: Pallabi Kalita, Hui Tag, Loxmi Jamoh, H. N. Sarma, A. K. Das

Abstract:

Wild edible food plants contain a number of organic phytochemical that have been linked to the promotion of good health. These plants used by the local people of Arunachal Pradesh (Northeast India) are found to have high nutritional potential to maintain general balance diet. A study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional potential of five commonly found, unexplored wild food plants namely, Piper pedicellatum C. DC (leaves), Gonostegia hirta (Blume ex Hassk.) Miq. (leaves), Mussaenda roxburghii Hook. f. (leaves), Solanum spirale Roxb. (leaves and fruits) and Cyathea spinulosa Wall. ex Hook. (pith portion and tender rachis) from East Siang District of Arunachal Pradesh Northeast (India) for ascertaining their suitability for utilization as supplementary food. Results of study revealed that P. pedicellatum, C. spinulosa, and S. spirale (leaves) are the most promising species which have high nutritional content out of the five wild food plants investigated which is required for the normal growth and development of human.

Keywords: wild edible plants, gross energy, Gonostegia hirta, Cyathea spinulosa

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2435 Biosocial Determinants of Maternal and Child Health in Northeast India: A Case Study

Authors: Benrithung Murry

Abstract:

This paper highlights the biosocial determinants of health-seeking behavior in tribal population groups of northeast India, focusing on maternal and child health. The northeastern region of India is a conglomeration of several ethnic groups, most of which are scheduled as tribal groups. A total of 750 ever-married women in reproductive ages (15-49 years) were interviewed from three tribal groups of Nagaland, India using pre-tested and modified maternal health schedule. Data pertaining to reproductive performance of the mothers and their children health status were collected from 12 villages of Dimapur district, Nagaland, India. The sample for study comprises 212 Angami women, 267 Ao women, and 271 Sumi women, all of which belonging to tribal populations of Northeast India. Sex ratios of 15-49 years in these three populations are 1018.18, 1086.69, and 1106.92, respectively. 90% of the populations in the study are nuclear families, with about 10% of households falling below the poverty line as per the cutoffs for India. Female literacy level in these population groups is higher than the national average of 65.46%; however, about 30% of all married women are not engaged in any sort of earnings. Total fertility rates of these populations are alarming (Total Fertility Rate ≥ 6) and far from replacement fertility level, while infant mortality rates are found to be much lower than the national average of 34 per 1000. The perception and practice of maternal health in this region is unimpressive despite the availability of medical amenities. Only 3 % of mothers in the study have reported 4 times antenatal checkups during last two pregnancies. Other mothers have reported 1 to 3 times of antenatal checkups, but about 25% of them never visited a doctor during the entire pregnancy period. About 15% of mothers never took tetanus injection, while 40% of mothers never took iron folic supplements during pregnancy. Almost half of all women and their husbands do not use birth control measures even for the spacing of children, which has an immense impact on prenatal mortality mainly due to deliberate abortions: the percentage of prenatal mortality among Angami, Ao and Sumi populations is 44.88, 31.88 and 54.98, respectively per 1000 live births. The steep decline in fertility levels in most countries is a consequence of the increasing use of modern methods of contraception. However, among users of birth control measures in these populations, it is seen that most couples use it only after they have the desired number of children, thus its use having no substantial influence in reducing fertility. It is also seen that the majority of the children were only partially vaccinated. With many child deliveries being done at home, many newborns are not administered with polio at birth. Two-third of all children do not have complete basic immunization against polio, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, bacillus, and hepatitis besides others. Certain adherence to traditional beliefs and customs apart from the socio-economic factors is believed to have been operating in these populations, which determines their health-seeking behavior. While a more in-depth study combining biological, socio-cultural, economic, and genetic factors is suggested, there is an urgent need for intervention in these populations to combat with the poor maternal and child health status.

Keywords: case study, health behavior, mother and child, northeast india

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2434 Estimation of Maize Yield by Using a Process-Based Model and Remote Sensing Data in the Northeast China Plain

Authors: Jia Zhang, Fengmei Yao, Yanjing Tan

Abstract:

The accurate estimation of crop yield is of great importance for the food security. In this study, a process-based mechanism model was modified to estimate yield of C4 crop by modifying the carbon metabolic pathway in the photosynthesis sub-module of the RS-P-YEC (Remote-Sensing-Photosynthesis-Yield estimation for Crops) model. The yield was calculated by multiplying net primary productivity (NPP) and the harvest index (HI) derived from the ratio of grain to stalk yield. The modified RS-P-YEC model was used to simulate maize yield in the Northeast China Plain during the period 2002-2011. The statistical data of maize yield from study area was used to validate the simulated results at county-level. The results showed that the Pearson correlation coefficient (R) was 0.827 (P < 0.01) between the simulated yield and the statistical data, and the root mean square error (RMSE) was 712 kg/ha with a relative error (RE) of 9.3%. From 2002-2011, the yield of maize planting zone in the Northeast China Plain was increasing with smaller coefficient of variation (CV). The spatial pattern of simulated maize yield was consistent with the actual distribution in the Northeast China Plain, with an increasing trend from the northeast to the southwest. Hence the results demonstrated that the modified process-based model coupled with remote sensing data was suitable for yield prediction of maize in the Northeast China Plain at the spatial scale.

Keywords: process-based model, C4 crop, maize yield, remote sensing, Northeast China Plain

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2433 The Factors Affecting the Operations of the Industrial Enterprises of Cassava in the Northeast of Thailand

Authors: Thanasuwit Thabhiranrak

Abstract:

This research aims to study factors that affected the operations of the cassava industrial enterprises in northeast of Thailand. Hypothesis was tested by regress analysis and also the analysis in order to determine the relationship between variables with Pearson correlation and show a class action in cassava process including the owner of business executives and supervisors. The research samples were 400 people in northeast region of Thailand. The research results revealed that success of entrepreneurs related to transformation leadership and knowledge management in a positive way at statistical significance level of 0.01 and respondents also emphasized on the importance of transformational leadership factors. The individual and the use of intelligence affect the success of entrepreneurs in cassava industry at statistical significance level of 0.05. The qualitative data were also collected by interviewing with operational level staff, supervisors, executives, and enterprise owners in the northeast of Thailand. The result was found that knowledge management was important in their business operations. Personnel in the organizations should learn from working experience, develop their skills, and increase knowledge from education.

Keywords: transformational leadership, knowledge management (KM), cassava, northeast of Thailand, industrial

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2432 India’s Neighborhood Policy and the Northeast: Exploratory Study of the Nagas in the Indo-Myanmar Border

Authors: Sachoiba Inkah

Abstract:

The Northeast region has not been a major factor in India’s foreign policy calculation since independence. Instead, the region was ignored and marginalized even to the extent of using force and repressive Acts such as AFSPA(Armed Forces Special Powers Act) to suppress the voices of both states and non-state actors. The liberalization of the economy in the 90s in the wake of globalization gave India a new outlook and the Look East Policy (LEP) was a paradigm shift in India’s engagement with the Southeast Asian nations as it seeks to explore the benefits of the ASEAN. The reorienting of India’s foreign policy to ‘Neighborhood First” is attributed to the present political dispensation, which is further widened to include ‘Extended Neighborhood.’ As a result, the Northeastern states have become key players in India’s participation in regional groupings such as SAARC, BIMSTEC, and BCIM. The need for external balancing, diplomacy and development has reset India’s foreign policy priorities as the Northeast states lie in the confluence of South Asia, Southeast and East Asia, and a stakeholder in Act East Policy. The paper will explore the role of Northeastern states in the framework of Indian foreign policy as it shares international boundaries with China, Bhutan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar and most importantly, study the case of Nagas who are spread across Manipur, Nagaland, and Arunachal Pradesh bordering Myanmar. The Indo-Myanmar border is an area of conflict and various illegal activities such as arms trafficking, illegal migrants, drug, and human trafficking are still being carried out and in order to address this issue, both India and Myanmar need to take into consideration the various communities living across the border. And conflict and insurgency should not be a yardstick to curtailed development of infrastructures such as roads, health facilities, transport, and communication in the contested region. The realities, perceptions, and contentions of the Northeastern states and the different communities living in the border areas need a wider discourse as the region the potential to drive India’s diplomatic relations with its neighbors and extended neighborhood. The methods employed are analytical and more of a descriptive analysis on India’s foreign policy framework with a focus on Nagas in Myanmar, drawing from both primary and secondary sources. Primary sources include official documents, data, and statistics released by various governmental agencies, parliamentary debates, political speeches, press releases, treaties and agreements, historical biographies and organizational policy papers, protocols and procedures of government conferences, regional organization study reports etc. The paper concludes that the recent proactive engagement between India and Myanmar on trade, defense, economic, and infrastructure development are positive signs cementing bilateral ties, but there is not much room for the people-to-people connect, especially for people living in the borderland. The Freedom of Movement Regime that is in place is limited and there is more scope for improvement as people in the borderland looks towards trade and commerce to not only uplift the border economy but also act as a catalyst for robust engagement between the two countries, albeit with more infrastructure such as road, healthcare, education, a tourist hotspot, trade centers, mobile connectivity, etc.

Keywords: foreign policy, infrastructure development, insurgency, people to people connect

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2431 Self Help Groups among the Ao Nagas : A Case Study of Alongkima of Nagaland, NorthEast India

Authors: Imkongtenla Pongen

Abstract:

Self Help Groups (SGHs) are socio-commercial instruments in addressing urban poverty and strengthening livelihoods. Being a member of Self Help Group helped in mutual exchanges of ideas, develop risk taking behaviour, learns flexibility in planning of a programme, and interpersonal communication within the group. In the present study, an attempt has been made to examine the functions, characteristics and practices of Self Help Groups and its impact on sustainable development among the Ao Nagas of Alongkima, Nagaland, NorthEast India. They are a tribal group and racially belong to the Mongoloid stock and linguistically to the Tibeto-Burman group. They follow endogamous, patriarchal, and patrilineal system. Major characteristics of Self Help groups in this study are found to be team spirit and group cohesiveness. Such groups are found to be geared towards a number of self-sufficiency based business ventures. The problems faced in normal functioning of the groups are unpunctuality and the inability to attend a meeting by all the members .Participation in such groups has increased women’s influence over the economic resources and decision making in the household, improved self-confidence and living standard, capacity building, self- dependent and self-reliant with no educational and entrepreneurial background, generate savings and hone their skills as motivators and leaders. All these has enhanced her status in every sphere of life in par with the opposite gender. In a nutshell, we can say that what she cannot achieve as an individual, she can achieve as a member of a Self Help Group. Hence, we should try to develop mechanisms to guarantee the sustainability of Self Help Groups which depends on the way they can deal with both internal and external conflicts like globalization and competition from new markets.

Keywords: Ao nagas, microfinance, self help group, women empowerment

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2430 Assessing India’s Foreign Policy Towards Afghanistan

Authors: Saifurahman Fayiz

Abstract:

Afghanistan and India have close technical, political, economic, and diplomatic bilateral ties. The ties is not limited between the governments of the two countries, but their relationship are among the peoples. India is the best regional trustworthy partner and biggest donor for the development of Afghanistan. The objectives of this study to assess India’s foreign policy towards Afghanistan since 9\11. The research method conducted based on qualitative research method with descriptive. The research findings propose that; India should deal with and build up its strategy relations with neighbor countries.

Keywords: strategy, policy, India, Afghanistan

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2429 India’s Strategy toward Afghanistan since 9\11

Authors: Saifurahman Fayiz

Abstract:

overall, India had friendly relation with different governments in Afghanistan except for the Taliban regime amongst the years 1996 to 2001. The terrorist attack in the United States provided India a chance to follow its strategy in Afghanistan. India support Afghanistan since 9\11. The objectives of this study to study India’s strategy towards Afghanistan and its implication to neighbor countries. The research method conducted based on qualitative research method with descriptive. The research findings propose that; India has chosen a soft power policy to implement its strategy in Afghanistan.

Keywords: strategy, policy, soft power, Afghanistan

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2428 A Critical Analysis of Environmental Investment in India

Authors: K. Y. Chen, H. Chua, C. W. Kan

Abstract:

Environmental investment is an important issue in many countries. In this study, we will first review the environmental issues related to India and their effect on the economical development. Secondly, economic data would be collected from government yearly statistics. The statistics would also include the environmental investment information of India. Finally, we would co-relate the data in order to find out the relationship between environmental investment and sustainable development in India. Therefore, in the paper, we aim to analyse the effect of an environmental investment on the sustainable development in India. Based on the economic data collected, India is in development status with fast population and GDP growth speed. India is facing the environment problems due to its high-speed development. However, the environment investment could give a positive impact on the sustainable development in India. The environmental investment is keeping in the same growth rate with GDP. Acknowledgment: Authors would like to thank the financial support from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University for this work.

Keywords: India, environmental investment, sustainable development, analysis

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2427 The Impact of India’s Centre-State Relations on its Maritime Counter-Terrorism Strategy

Authors: Riddhi Shah

Abstract:

Centre-state relations in India are a fascinating area of studies. The structure of the relationship has an effect on every single aspect of life as we know it in India. This paper is an attempt to study centre-state relations in the context of India’s maritime counter-terrorism strategy. Although the Government of India has not publicly stated its counter-terrorism strategy on the sea; intelligence, information sharing, crisis response, finances for internal security and the nation’s legislation for battling terrorism together comprise of India’s maritime-terrorism strategy. Through study of these areas, the paper argues that the centre-state divide has had systemic implications on India’s maritime security and has largely done more harm than good to collective initiatives that aspire to prevent future risk of terrorism from the sea or on the sea.

Keywords: counter-terrorism, maritime terrorism, India, federalism, centre-state relations

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2426 US-India Strategic Bargaining and Power Balancing in South Asia

Authors: Anila Syed, Manzoor Ahmad

Abstract:

The relationship between United States and India has transformed from estrangement to wider engagement since 2004. With the convergence of interests and shared values both the US and India came close towards each other and evolved strategic partnership through civil nuclear cooperation. This paper analyze the cost and benefit of strategic partnership with India for US, the impact of India’s emergence as regional power on South Asian balance of power and its impact on Pak-US relationship. It also focuses on security structure of the region and challenges for the US to maintain strategic partnership with two rival states (India and Pakistan). The work also gives some recommendations for balancing power in the region in order to ensure durable peace not only between India and Pakistan but also in south Asia.

Keywords: US-India strategic partnership, civil-nuclear cooperation, balance of power, impacts on Pak-US relationship

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2425 Rural Electrification in India-Challenges and Solutions

Authors: P. Chandhra Sekhar, R. A. Deshpande, T. Raghunatha

Abstract:

The government of India has given special attention on rural electrification under Rajiv Gandhi Grameena Vidyuthikarana Yojana (RGGVY) during 10th plan and 11th plan. Government of India electrified about 107523 villages and 21164003 BPL Households. This paper briefs about various rural electrification programs initiated by government of India and status of RGGVY in India. The paper mainly describes about challenges in the rural electrification, new ideas recently implemented and suggestions for improvement in the rural electrification.

Keywords: rural electrification, RGGVY, NJY, BPL

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2424 Multi-Scale Spatial Difference Analysis Based on Nighttime Lighting Data

Authors: Qinke Sun, Liang Zhou

Abstract:

The ‘Dragon-Elephant Debate’ between China and India is an important manifestation of global multipolarity in the 21st century. The two rising powers have carried out economic reforms one after another in the interval of more than ten years, becoming the fastest growing developing country and emerging economy in the world. At the same time, the development differences between China and India have gradually attracted wide attention of scholars. Based on the continuous annual night light data (DMSP-OLS) from 1992 to 2012, this paper systematically compares and analyses the regional development differences between China and India by Gini coefficient, coefficient of variation, comprehensive night light index (CNLI) and hot spot analysis. The results show that: (1) China's overall expansion from 1992 to 2012 is 1.84 times that of India, in which China's change is 2.6 times and India's change is 2 times. The percentage of lights in unlighted areas in China dropped from 92% to 82%, while that in India from 71% to 50%. (2) China's new growth-oriented cities appear in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, Ordos, and Urumqi in the west, and the declining cities are concentrated in Liaoning Province and Jilin Province in the northeast; India's new growth-oriented cities are concentrated in Chhattisgarh in the north, while the declining areas are distributed in Uttar Pradesh. (3) China's differences on different scales are lower than India's, and regional inequality of development is gradually narrowing. Gini coefficients at the regional and provincial levels have decreased from 0.29, 0.44 to 0.24 and 0.38, respectively, while regional inequality in India has slowly improved and regional differences are gradually widening, with Gini coefficients rising from 0.28 to 0.32. The provincial Gini coefficient decreased slightly from 0.64 to 0.63. (4) The spatial pattern of China's regional development is mainly east-west difference, which shows the difference between coastal and inland areas; while the spatial pattern of India's regional development is mainly north-south difference, but because the southern states are sea-dependent, it also reflects the coastal inland difference to a certain extent. (5) Beijing and Shanghai present a multi-core outward expansion model, with an average annual CNLI higher than 0.01, while New Delhi and Mumbai present the main core enhancement expansion model, with an average annual CNLI lower than 0.01, of which the average annual CNLI in Shanghai is about five times that in Mumbai.

Keywords: spatial pattern, spatial difference, DMSP-OLS, China, India

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2423 Pre-Service Teacher Education Reforms in India and Pakistan: Challenges and Possibilities

Authors: Jyoti Sharma

Abstract:

India and Pakistan are two strategically important neighboring countries in Asia-Pacific region. Since independence of more than six decades, both, India and Pakistan have transverse different paths, India as a Sovereign, Democratic, Republic Country and Pakistan as Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The advent of democracy in India and Islamic republic in Pakistan resulted in new hopes, aspirations and demands on education. During the six decades after Independence, teacher education in both countries has come a long way from its initial bleak stature to gain an identity as a complex network of institutions and programs. The present paper takes a close look into the paradigm shift in teacher education programs in India and Pakistan and how much the shift is influenced by constitutional frameworks of each country.

Keywords: pre-service teachers, teacher education reforms, India, Pakistan

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2422 Cataloguing Beetle Fauna (Insecta: Coleoptera) of India: Estimating Diversity, Distribution, and Taxonomic Challenges

Authors: Devanshu Gupta, Kailash Chandra, Priyanka Das, Joyjit Ghosh

Abstract:

Beetles, in the insect order Coleoptera are the most species-rich group on this planet today. They represent about 40% of the total insect diversity of the world. With a considerable range of landform types including significant mountain ranges, deserts, fertile irrigational plains, and hilly forested areas, India is one of the mega-diverse countries and includes more than 0.1 million faunal species. Despite having rich biodiversity, the efforts to catalogue the beetle diversity of the extant species/taxa reported from India have been less. Therefore, in this paper, the information on the beetle fauna of India is provided based on the data available with the museum collections of Zoological Survey of India and taxa extracted from zoological records and published literature. The species were listed with their valid names, synonyms, type localities, type depositories, and their distribution in states and biogeographic zones of India. The catalogue also incorporates the bibliography on Indian Coleoptera. The exhaustive species inventory, prepared by us include distributional records from Himalaya, Trans Himalaya, Desert, Semi-Arid, Western Ghats, Deccan Peninsula, Gangetic Plains, Northeast, Islands, and Coastal areas of the country. Our study concludes that many of the species are still known from their type localities only, so there is need to revisit and resurvey those collection localities for the taxonomic evaluation of those species. There are species which exhibit single locality records, and taxa-specific biodiversity assessments are required to be undertaken to understand the distributional range of such species. The primary challenge is taxonomic identifications of the species which were described before independence, and the type materials are present in overseas museums. For such species, taxonomic revisions of the different group of beetles are required to solve the problems of identification and classification.

Keywords: checklist, taxonomy, museum collections, biogeographic zones

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2421 Dealing with Neighbors: River Water Sharing between India, Pakistan and Bangladesh

Authors: Ashutosh Pujari

Abstract:

The sharing of natural resources is one of the most important aspects of relations between two neighboring countries, especially when it is a resource that has a presence in both the countries in question. River water is an important resource that is shared between India and its neighbors, namely Pakistan and Bangladesh. India shares Indus, Chenab, and Jhelum rivers with Pakistan, while with Bangladesh, it shares Ganges and Brahmaputra. However, it is interesting to note how does India deals with her sharing of water with these two countries. Although water sharing with both the countries has been dotted by irritants over the years, relations with Bangladesh is undoubtedly better in this respect. Given the common history of the region, this paper analyses the reasons behind this difference in the relationship between India and her neighbors and its implications for the present times. Through critical analysis of literature and the official policy of all the governments involved and the narratives present, this paper tries to present understand how India’s relations with its neighbors are a function of geopolitics, culture, and perceptions on both sides.

Keywords: geopolitics, river water sharing, India-Pakistan relations, India-Bangladesh relations

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2420 Construction of India’s Largest Blast Furnace (4554 cum) Foundation at JSPL, Angul, Odisha: A Qualitative Approach

Authors: N. S. S. Rao, Tapan Kumar Das, Latiful Pasha

Abstract:

Tata Projects Limited (TPL) located in Hyderabad, India has taken up the challenging venture of executing the entire civil works for India’s largest Blast Furnace with a capacity of 4554 cum at Jindal Steel and Power Limited (JSPL), Angul, Odisha, India. The following write-up briefly elaborates the various steps and methodologies involved in the construction of the foundation for this India’s largest blast furnace.

Keywords: blast furnace, construction, qualitative, approach

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2419 Dynamics of India's Nuclear Identity

Authors: Smita Singh

Abstract:

Through the constructivist perspective, this paper explores the transformation of India’s nuclear identity from an irresponsible nuclear weapon power to a ‘de-facto nuclear power’ in the emerging international nuclear order From a nuclear abstainer to a bystander and finally as a ‘de facto nuclear weapon state’, India has put forth its case as a unique and exceptional nuclear power as opposed to Iran, Iraq and North Korea with similar nuclear ambitions, who have been snubbed as ‘rogue states’ by the international community. This paper investigates the reasons behind international community’s gradual acceptance of India’s nuclear weapons capabilities and nuclear identity after the Indo-U.S. Nuclear Deal. In this paper, the central concept of analysis is the inter-subjective nature of identity in the nuclear arena. India’s nuclear behaviour has been discursively constituted by India through evolving images of the ‘self’ and the ‘other.’ India’s sudden heightened global status is not solely the consequence of its 1998 nuclear tests but a calibrated projection as a responsible stakeholder in other spheres such as economic potential, market prospects, democratic credentials and so on. By examining India’s nuclear discourse this paper contends that India has used its material and discursive power in presenting a n striking image as a responsible nuclear weapon power (though not yet a legal nuclear weapon state as per the NPT). By historicising India’s nuclear trajectory through an inter-subjective analysis of identities, this paper moves a step ahead in providing a theoretical interpretation of state actions and nuclear identity construction.

Keywords: nuclear identity, India, constructivism, international stakeholder

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2418 Implied Fundamental Rights under Article 21 of the Constitution of India: Effects and Applicability

Authors: N. Sathish Gowda

Abstract:

A constitution without fundamental rights will become zero. The very object of constitution of three organs viz, legislature, executive and judiciary under the constitution of India is to protect, preserve and promote fundamental rights guaranteed under part-III. In India, along with express fundamental rights, Supreme Court has also recognized implied fundamental rights. But, unfortunately State has not been implementing these implied fundamental rights. In this regard, this research paper discusses the catalogue of implied fundamental rights evolved by the judiciary in interpreting Article 21 of the Constitution of India and seeks to examine the effects and applicability of these rights in India.

Keywords: fundamental rights, nuances of Article 21, express fundamental rights, implied fundamental rights, procedure established by law

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2417 Prospective Use of Rice Husk Ash to Produce Concrete in India

Authors: Kalyan Kumar Moulick

Abstract:

In this paper the author studied the possibilities of using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) available in India; to produce concrete. The effect of RHA on concrete discussed. Traditional uses of Rice Husk in India pointed out and the advantages of using RHA in making concrete highlighted. Suggestion provided regarding prospective application of RHA concrete in India which in turn will definitely reduce the cost of concrete and environmental friendly due to utilization of waste and replacement of Cement.

Keywords: cement replacement, concrete, environmental friendly, rice husk ash

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2416 Sustainability of Healthcare Insurance in India: A Review of Health Insurance Scheme Launched by States in India

Authors: Mohd Zuhair, Ram Babu Roy

Abstract:

This paper presents an overview of the accessibility, design, and functioning of health insurance plans launched by state governments in India. In recent years, the governments of several states in India have come forward to provide health insurance coverage for the low-income group and rural population to reduce the out of pocket expenditure (OPE) on healthcare. Different health insurance schemes have different structures and offerings which differ in the different demographic factors. This study will portray a comparative analysis of the various health insurance schemes by analyzing different offerings and finance generation of the schemes. The comparative analysis will explain the lesson to be learned from these schemes and extend the existing knowledge of the health insurance in India. This would help in recognizing tension between various drivers and identifying issues pertaining to the sustainability of health insurance schemes in India.

Keywords: health insurance, out of pocket expenditure, universal healthcare, sustainability

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2415 Indian Diplomacy in a Post Pandemic World

Authors: Esha Banerji

Abstract:

This paper attempts an assessment of India's behaviour as a foreign policy actor amidst the COVID 19 pandemic by briefly surveying the various introductions and alterations made to India's foreign policy. First, the paper attempts to establish the key strategic pillars of Indian foreign policy after reviewing the existing works. It then proceeds to assess the prominent part played by Health Diplomacy ("Vaccine Maitri") in India's bilateral and multilateral relations during the pandemic and the role of the Indian diaspora in shaping India's foreign policy. This is followed by examining "India's Neighbourhood First policy" and the way it's been employed by the Indian government to extend India’s strategic influence during the pandemic. An empirical assessment will be done to examine the changing dynamics of India's relation with different regional groupings like SAARC, ASEAN, BIMSTEC, etc. The paper also explores the new alliances formed post-pandemic and India's role in them. This paper analyses the contemporary challenges that the largest nation in South Asia faces with the onset of a global pandemic and how Ancient Indian values like "Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam" have influenced India's foreign policy, especially during the pandemic. It also attempts to grasp the changes within the negotiation style of the Indian government, and the role played by various stakeholders in shaping India's position in the present geopolitical landscape. The study has been conducted using data collected from government records, External Affairs Ministry database, and other available literature. The paper concludes with an attempt to predict the far-reaching strategic implications that the policy, as mentioned above, may have for India.

Keywords: Indian foreign policy, COVID19, diplomacy, post pandemic world

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2414 Groundwater Recharge Pattern in East and West Coast of India: Evidence of Dissimilar Moisture Sources

Authors: Ajit Kumar Behera, Saranya P., Sudhir Kumar, Krishnakumar A

Abstract:

The stable isotope (δ¹⁸ O and δ²H) composition of groundwater of the coastal areas of Periyar and Mahanadi basins falling along East and West coast of India during North-East (NE) monsoon season have been studied. The east and west coast regions are surrounded by the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea respectively, which are considered to be the primary sources for precipitation over India. The major difference between the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea is that a number of large rivers feed the Bay of Bengal, whereas the Arabian Sea is fed by very few small rivers, resulting in enriched stable isotopic composition of the Arabian Sea than the Bay of Bengal. Previous studies have reported depleted ratios of stable isotopes during Northeast monsoon along East and West coasts due to the influence of the Bay of Bengal moisture source. The isotopic composition of groundwater of the Mahanadi delta in the east coast region varies from -6.87 ‰ to -3.40 ‰ for δ¹⁸ O and -45.42 ‰ to -22.43‰ for δ²H. However, the groundwater of the Periyar basin in the west coast has enriched stable isotope value varying from -4.3‰ to -2.5 ‰ for δ¹⁸ O and for δ²H from -23.7 to -6.4 ‰ which is a characteristic of South-West monsoon season. This suggests the groundwater system of the Mahanadi delta and the Periyar basins are influenced by dissimilar moisture sources. The δ¹⁸ O and δ² H relationship (δ²H= 6.513 δ¹⁸ O - 1.39) and d-excess value (< 10) in the east coast region indicates the influence of NE monsoon implying the quick groundwater recharge after precipitation with significant amount of evaporation. In contrast, the δ¹⁸ O and δ²H regression line (δ²H= 8.408 δ¹⁸ O + 11.71) with high d-excess value (>10) in the west coast region implies delayed recharge due to SW monsoon. The observed isotopic enrichment in west coast suggests that NE winter monsoon rainfall does not replenish groundwater quick enough to produce isotopic depletion during the season.

Keywords: Arabian sea, bay of Bengal, groundwater, monsoon, stable isotope

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2413 South Asia’s Political Landscape: Precipitating Terrorism

Authors: Saroj Kumar Rath

Abstract:

India's Muslims represent 15 percent of the nation's population, the world's third largest group in any nation after Indonesia and Pakistan. Extremist groups like the Islamic State, Al Qaeda, the Taliban and the Haqqani network increasingly view India as a target. Several trends explain the rise: Terrorism threats in South Asia are linked and mobile - if one source is batted down, jihadists relocate to find another Islamic cause. As NATO withdraws from Afghanistan, some jihadists will eye India. Pakistan regards India as a top enemy and some officials even encourage terrorists to target areas like Kashmir or Mumbai. Meanwhile, a stream of Wahhabi preachers have visited India, offering hard-line messages; extremist groups like Al Qaeda and the Islamic State compete for influence, and militants even pay jihadists. Muslims as a minority population in India could offer fertile ground for the extremist recruiters. This paper argues that there is an urgent need for the Indian government to profile militants and examine social media sites to attack Wahhabi indoctrination while supporting education and entrepreneurship for all of India's citizens.

Keywords: Al Qaeda, terrorism, Islamic state, India, haqqani network, Pakistan, Taliban

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2412 Status of India towards Achieving the Millennium Development Goals

Authors: Rupali Satsangi

Abstract:

14 years ago, leaders from every country agreed on a vision for the future – a world with less poverty, hunger and disease, greater survival prospects for mothers and their infants, better educated children, equal opportunities for women, and a healthier environment; a world in which developed and developing countries work in partnership for the betterment of all. This vision took the shape of eight Millennium Development Goals, which provide countries around the world a framework for development and time-bound targets by which progress can be measured. However, India has found 35 of the indicators as relevant to India. India’s MDG-framework has been contextualized through a concordance with the existing official indicators of corresponding dimensions in the national statistical system. The present study based on secondary data analyzed the status of India towards achieving the MDGs after reviewing the data study find out that India can miss the MDGs Bus in women health, sanitation and global partnership. These goals were less addressed by India in his policies and takeoffs.

Keywords: millennium development goals, national statistical system, global partnership, healthier environment

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2411 Capacity Building and Training of Health Personals for Disaster Preparedness in North East India

Authors: U. K. Tamuli

Abstract:

Introduction: North East India is graced with natural beauty and hazards. This area is prone to major earthquakes, floods, landslides, accidents, terrorist activities etc. Academy of Trauma (AOT), an NGO of Doctors, conducts training programs, mock drills, field trials amongst the doctors and paramedics in North East India. The present study is to evaluate the efficacy of such training in terms of sensitivity, awareness, and delivery systems of the products. Here the health care delivery system for disaster management is inadequate. Clear guideline of mass casualty management is unavailable. AOT has initiated steps to increase the awareness and handling of mass casualty management to improve the emergency health care delivery system. Method: AOT has conducted training programmes on emergency health management, mass casualty management and hospital preparedness amongst 800 doctors and 1200 paramedics in twenty-two districts of Assam in Northeast India. The training module consists of lectures, hands-on workshop using manikins, mock drills, distribution of manuals, emergency management exercises, periodic exchange of experience and debriefings. AOT evaluates the impact of these trainings by conducting pre and post tests of delegates, trainer’s evaluation, delegate’s satisfaction and confidence level and their suggestions. Results: The module, training, hands-on workshops, mock drills were highly appreciated. There is significant improvement in scores on the post-training tests. The confidence level of the participants has risen to deal with emergency medical situation Conclusion: These kinds of trainings increase the awareness of the medical members to handle mass casualties in different situations. One such training actually sensitises the delegates. Repetition of such training, TOT (Training-of-Trainers) programs, and individual efforts of delegates are extremely important for sustenance and success of health care delivery service during disasters in the developing countries. Further collaboration, assistance, networking, suggestions from established global agencies in this field will be highly appreciated.

Keywords: capacity building, North East India, non-governmental organization, trauma

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2410 India’s Role in Afghanistan in the Post 9/11 Era

Authors: Fayiz Saifurahman

Abstract:

Afghanistan's geopolitically and geo-strategically location has remained the attention of Indian policy. On 11 September 2001, the terrorist attacks in the United States and the announcement of the United States, fight for international war against the Taliban in November 2001 provided India a chance to pursue its foreign policy goals of achieving a good position in the region and emerging as an international power. Therefore, post-9/11, India strengthened its efforts to re-establish its power in Afghanistan. The objectives of this study are to study the India-Afghanistan relation in the post 9/11 and to discuss the initial role of India in Afghanistan. The research method was conducted on a qualitative method based on descriptive. The research findings propose that; Indian foreign policy should be analyzed and increase its soft power. Afghanistan has definitely provided a significant occasion for India to increase its power in Afghanistan. In this linkage, Indian determinations have been to intrude all parts in Afghanistan to make them reliant on Indian cooperation.

Keywords: Afghanistan, war, power, policy.

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