Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: Nitin Pipralia

23 Adaptive Strategies of European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) to Ocean Acidification and Salinity Stress

Authors: Nitin Pipralia, Amit Kmar Sinha, Gudrun de Boeck


Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations have been increasing since the beginning of the industrial revolution due to combustion of fossils fuel and many anthropogenic means. As the number of scenarios assembled by the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predict a rise of pCO2 from today’s 380 μatm to approximately 900 μatm until the year 2100 and a further rise of up to 1900 μatm by the year 2300. A rise in pCO2 results in more dissolution in ocean surface water which lead to cange in water pH, This phenomena of decrease in ocean pH due to increase on pCO2 is ocean acidification is considered a potential threat to the marine ecosystems and expected to affect fish as well as calcerious organisms. The situation may get worste when the stress of salinity adds on, due to migratory movement of fishes, where fish moves to different salinity region for various specific activities likes spawning and other. Therefore, to understand the interactive impact of these whole range of two important environmental abiotic stresses (viz. pCO2 ranging from 380 μatm, 900 μatm and 1900 μatm, along with salinity gradients of 32ppt, 10 ppt and 2.5ppt) on the ecophysiologal performance of fish, we investigated various biological adaptive response in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), a model estuarine teleost. Overall, we hypothesize that effect of ocean acidification would be exacerbate with shift in ambient salinity. Oxygen consumption, ammonia metabolism, iono-osmoregulation, energy budget, ion-regulatory enzymes, hormones and pH amendments in plasma were assayed as the potential indices of compensatory responses.

Keywords: ocean acidification, sea bass, pH climate change, salinity

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22 Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Reservoir for Dwell Time Prediction

Authors: Nitin Dewangan, Nitin Kattula, Megha Anawat


Hydraulic reservoir is the key component in the mobile construction vehicles; most of the off-road earth moving construction machinery requires bigger side hydraulic reservoirs. Their reservoir construction is very much non-uniform and designers used such design to utilize the space available under the vehicle. There is no way to find out the space utilization of the reservoir by oil and validity of design except virtual simulation. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) helps to predict the reservoir space utilization by vortex mapping, path line plots and dwell time prediction to make sure the design is valid and efficient for the vehicle. The dwell time acceptance criteria for effective reservoir design is 15 seconds. The paper will describe the hydraulic reservoir simulation which is carried out using CFD tool acuSolve using automated mesh strategy. The free surface flow and moving reference mesh is used to define the oil flow level inside the reservoir. The first baseline design is not able to meet the acceptance criteria, i.e., dwell time below 15 seconds because the oil entry and exit ports were very close. CFD is used to redefine the port locations for the reservoir so that oil dwell time increases in the reservoir. CFD also proposed baffle design the effective space utilization. The final design proposed through CFD analysis is used for physical validation on the machine.

Keywords: reservoir, turbulence model, transient model, level set, free-surface flow, moving frame of reference

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21 Ternary Content Addressable Memory Cell with a Leakage Reduction Technique

Authors: Gagnesh Kumar, Nitin Gupta


Ternary Content Addressable Memory cells are mainly popular in network routers for packet forwarding and packet classification, but they are also useful in a variety of other applications that require high-speed table look-up. The main TCAM-design challenge is to decrease the power consumption associated with the large amount of parallel active circuitry, without compromising with speed or memory density. Furthermore, when the channel length decreases, leakage power becomes more significant, and it can even dominate dynamic power at lower technologies. In this paper, we propose a TCAM-design technique, called Virtual Power Supply technique that reduces the leakage by a substantial amount.

Keywords: match line (ML), search line (SL), ternary content addressable memory (TCAM), Leakage power (LP)

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20 A Deep Learning Approach to Subsection Identification in Electronic Health Records

Authors: Nitin Shravan, Sudarsun Santhiappan, B. Sivaselvan


Subsection identification, in the context of Electronic Health Records (EHRs), is identifying the important sections for down-stream tasks like auto-coding. In this work, we classify the text present in EHRs according to their information, using machine learning and deep learning techniques. We initially describe briefly about the problem and formulate it as a text classification problem. Then, we discuss upon the methods from the literature. We try two approaches - traditional feature extraction based machine learning methods and deep learning methods. Through experiments on a private dataset, we establish that the deep learning methods perform better than the feature extraction based Machine Learning Models.

Keywords: deep learning, machine learning, semantic clinical classification, subsection identification, text classification

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19 Impact of Climatic Parameters on Soil's Nutritional and Enzymatic Properties

Authors: Kanchan Vishwakarma, Shivesh Sharma, Nitin Kumar


Soil is incoherent matter on Earth’s surface having organic and mineral content. The spatial variation of 4 soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass were assessed for two seasons’ viz. monsoon and winter along the latitudinal gradient in North-central India as the area of this study is fettered with respect to national status. The study was facilitated to encompass the effect of climate change, enzyme activity and biomass on nutrient cycling. Top soils were sampled from 4 sites in North-India. There were significant correlations found between organic C, N & P wrt to latitude gradient in two seasons. This distribution of enzyme activities and microbial biomass was consequence of alterations in temperature and moisture of soil because of which soil properties change along the latitude transect.

Keywords: latitude gradient, microbial biomass, moisture, soil, organic carbon, temperature

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18 A Study of Emotional Intelligence and Perceived Stress among First and Second Year Medical Students in South India

Authors: Nitin Joseph


Objectives: This study was done to assess emotional intelligence levels and to find out its association with socio demographic variables and perceived stress among medical students. Material and Methods: This study was done among first and second year medical students. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Emotional intelligence scores was found to significantly increase with age of the participants (F=2.377, P < 0.05). Perceived stress was found to be significantly more among first year (t=1.997, P=0.05). Perceived stress was found to significantly decrease with increasing emotional intelligence scores (r = – 0.226, P < 0.001). Conclusion: First year students were found to be more vulnerable to stress than their seniors probably due to lesser emotional intelligence. As both these parameters are related, ample measures to improve emotional intelligence needs to be supported in the training curriculum of beginners so as to make them more stress free during early student life.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, medical students, perceived stress, socio demographic variables

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17 Mathematical Modeling of Skin Condensers for Domestic Refrigerator

Authors: Nitin Ghule, S. G. Taji


A mathematical model of hot-wall condensers used in refrigerators is presented. The model predicts the heat transfer characteristics of condenser and the effects of various design and operating parameters on condenser tube length and capacity. A finite element approach was used to model the condenser. The condenser tube is divided into elemental units, with each element consisting of adhesive tape, refrigerant tube and outer metal sheet. The heat transfer characteristics of each section are then analyzed by considering the heat transfer through the tube wall, tape and the outer sheet. Variations in inner heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop are considered depending on temperature, fluid phase, type of flow and orientation of tube. Variation in outer heat transfer coefficient is also taken into account. Various materials were analysed for the tube, tape and outer sheet.

Keywords: condenser, domestic refrigerator, heat transfer, mathematical model

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16 Recent Advancement in Dendrimer Based Nanotechnology for the Treatment of Brain Tumor

Authors: Nitin Dwivedi, Jigna Shah


Brain tumor is metastatic neoplasm of central nervous system, in most of cases it is life threatening disease with low survival rate. Despite of enormous efforts in the development of therapeutics and diagnostic tools, the treatment of brain tumors and gliomas remain a considerable challenge in the area of neuro-oncology. The most reason behind of this the presence of physiological barriers including blood brain barrier and blood brain tumor barrier, lead to insufficient reach ability of therapeutic agents at the site of tumor, result of inadequate destruction of gliomas. So there is an indeed need empowerment of brain tumor imaging for better characterization and delineation of tumors, visualization of malignant tissue during surgery, and tracking of response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Multifunctional different generations of dendrimer offer an improved effort for potentiate drug delivery at the site of brain tumor and gliomas. So this article emphasizes the innovative dendrimer approaches in tumor targeting, tumor imaging and delivery of therapeutic agent.

Keywords: blood brain barrier, dendrimer, gliomas, nanotechnology

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15 Public Wi-Fi Security Threat Evil Twin Attack Detection Based on Signal Variant and Hop Count

Authors: Said Abdul Ahad Ahadi, Elyas Baray, Nitin Rakesh, Sudeep Varshney


Wi-Fi is a widely used internet source that is used to provide internet access in many areas such as Stores, Cafes, University campuses, Restaurants and so on. This technology brought more facilities in communication and networking. On the other hand, due to the transmission of data over the air, which makes the network vulnerable, so it becomes prone to various threats such as Evil Twin and etc. The Evil Twin is a kind of adversary which impersonates a legitimate access point (LAP) as it can happen by spoofing the name (SSID) and MAC address (BSSID) of a legitimate access point (LAP). And this attack can cause many threats such as MITM, Service Interruption, Access point service blocking. Various Evil Twin Attack Detection Techniques are proposed, but they require additional hardware, or they require protocol modification. In this paper, we proposed a new technique based on Access Point’s two fingerprints, Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and Hop Count, that is hard to copy by an adversary. And we implemented the technique in a system called “ETDetector,” which can detect and prevent the attack.

Keywords: evil twin, LAP, SSID, Wi-Fi security, signal variation, ETAD, kali linux, scapy, python

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14 A Virtual Grid Based Energy Efficient Data Gathering Scheme for Heterogeneous Sensor Networks

Authors: Siddhartha Chauhan, Nitin Kumar Kotania


Traditional Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) generally use static sinks to collect data from the sensor nodes via multiple forwarding. Therefore, network suffers with some problems like long message relay time, bottle neck problem which reduces the performance of the network. Many approaches have been proposed to prevent this problem with the help of mobile sink to collect the data from the sensor nodes, but these approaches still suffer from the buffer overflow problem due to limited memory size of sensor nodes. This paper proposes an energy efficient scheme for data gathering which overcomes the buffer overflow problem. The proposed scheme creates virtual grid structure of heterogeneous nodes. Scheme has been designed for sensor nodes having variable sensing rate. Every node finds out its buffer overflow time and on the basis of this cluster heads are elected. A controlled traversing approach is used by the proposed scheme in order to transmit data to sink. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is verified by simulation.

Keywords: buffer overflow problem, mobile sink, virtual grid, wireless sensor networks

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13 An Observational Study of Vitamin B12 Levels and Peripheral Neuropathy Profile in Patients of Diabetes Mellitus on Metformin Therapy

Authors: Kamesh Gupta, Nitin Jain, Anurag Rohatgi


Objective: To study Vitamin B12 levels and presence of peripheral neuropathy among diabetes mellitus patients on metformin therapy. Method: The observational study was conducted from November 2014 to March 2015. Patients were selected from the Lady Hardinge Medical College, Delhi, India. Exhaustive history regarding dietary habits and metformin usage was taken. Lab tests including HbA1c levels and Vit B12 assays were done, on the basis of which patients were classified into subgroups. Peripheral neuropathy was detected by both clinical scoring and electrophysiological studies. Appropriate Statistical analysis for observational studies was done to evaluate the data. Results: The average duration of metformin usage was higher in patients with definite B12 deficiency (9.4y) than patients with normal B12 levels (5.6 y). Patients in the definite B12 deficiency group had much higher incidence of neuropathy (89%) than patients with no deficiency (27%). The incidence of neuropathy was higher in cases with longer metformin usage (100% with 18-22y of use and 83% with 14-17y of use) than shorter periods (29% with 2-5y of use and 75% with 6-9y of use). Conclusion: Thus patients on long-term metformin therapy are at a high risk for Vitamin B12 deficiency. Definite and possible Vitamin B12 deficiency on metformin had an earlier onset of neuropathy than the subgroup with normal Vitamin B12 levels.

Keywords: diabetic neuroptahy, cobalamine deficiency, metformin, nerve conduction studies

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12 Using an Epidemiological Model to Study the Spread of Misinformation during the Black Lives Matter Movement

Authors: Maryam Maleki, Esther Mead, Mohammad Arani, Nitin Agarwal


The proliferation of social media platforms like Twitter has heightened the consequences of the spread of misinformation. To understand and model the spread of misinformation, in this paper, we leveraged the SEIZ (Susceptible, Exposed, Infected, Skeptics) epidemiological model to describe the underlying process that delineates the spread of misinformation on Twitter. Compared to the other epidemiological models, this model produces broader results because it includes the additional Skeptics (Z) compartment, wherein a user may be Exposed to an item of misinformation but not engage in any reaction to it, and the additional Exposed (E) compartment, wherein the user may need some time before deciding to spread a misinformation item. We analyzed misinformation regarding the unrest in Washington, D.C. in the month of March 2020, which was propagated by the use of the #DCblackout hashtag by different users across the U.S. on Twitter. Our analysis shows that misinformation can be modeled using the concept of epidemiology. To the best of our knowledge, this research is the first to attempt to apply the SEIZ epidemiological model to the spread of a specific item of misinformation, which is a category distinct from that of rumor and hoax on online social media platforms. Applying a mathematical model can help to understand the trends and dynamics of the spread of misinformation on Twitter and ultimately help to develop techniques to quickly identify and control it.

Keywords: Black Lives Matter, epidemiological model, mathematical modeling, misinformation, SEIZ model, Twitter

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11 Design of a Real Time Closed Loop Simulation Test Bed on a General Purpose Operating System: Practical Approaches

Authors: Pratibha Srivastava, Chithra V. J., Sudhakar S., Nitin K. D.


A closed-loop system comprises of a controller, a response system, and an actuating system. The controller, which is the system under test for us, excites the actuators based on feedback from the sensors in a periodic manner. The sensors should provide the feedback to the System Under Test (SUT) within a deterministic time post excitation of the actuators. Any delay or miss in the generation of response or acquisition of excitation pulses may lead to control loop controller computation errors, which can be catastrophic in certain cases. Such systems categorised as hard real-time systems that need special strategies. The real-time operating systems available in the market may be the best solutions for such kind of simulations, but they pose limitations like the availability of the X Windows system, graphical interfaces, other user tools. In this paper, we present strategies that can be used on a general purpose operating system (Bare Linux Kernel) to achieve a deterministic deadline and hence have the added advantages of a GPOS with real-time features. Techniques shall be discussed how to make the time-critical application run with the highest priority in an uninterrupted manner, reduced network latency for distributed architecture, real-time data acquisition, data storage, and retrieval, user interactions, etc.

Keywords: real time data acquisition, real time kernel preemption, scheduling, network latency

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10 Robotic Logging Technology: The Future of Oil Well Logging

Authors: Nitin Lahkar, Rishiraj Goswami


“Oil Well Logging” or the practice of making a detailed record (a well log) of the geologic formations penetrated by a borehole is an important practice in the Oil and Gas industry. Although a lot of research has been undertaken in this field, some basic limitations still exist. One of the main arenas or venues where plethora of problems arises is in logistically challenged areas. Accessibility and availability of efficient manpower, resources and technology is very time consuming, restricted and often costly in these areas. So, in this regard, the main challenge is to decrease the Non Productive Time (NPT) involved in the conventional logging process. The thought for the solution to this problem has given rise to a revolutionary concept called the “Robotic Logging Technology”. Robotic logging technology promises the advent of successful logging in all kinds of wells and trajectories. It consists of a wireless logging tool controlled from the surface. This eliminates the need for the logging truck to be summoned which in turn saves precious rig time. The robotic logging tool here, is designed such that it can move inside the well by different proposed mechanisms and models listed in the full paper as TYPE A, TYPE B and TYPE C. These types are classified on the basis of their operational technology, movement and conditions/wells in which the tool is to be used. Thus, depending on subsurface conditions, energy sources available and convenience the TYPE of Robotic model will be selected. Advantages over Conventional Logging Techniques: Reduction in Non-Productive time, lesser energy requirements, very fast action as compared to all other forms of logging, can perform well in all kinds of well trajectories (vertical/horizontal/inclined).

Keywords: robotic logging technology, innovation, geology, geophysics

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9 A Comparison of Generation Dependent Brain Targeting Potential of(Poly Propylene Mine) Dendrimers

Authors: Nitin Dwivedi, Jigna Shah


Aim and objective of study: This article indicates a comparison among various generations of dendrimers, a dendrimer is a bioactive material has repetitively branched molecule and used for delivery of various therapeutic active agents. This debut report compares the effect various generations of PPI dendrimers for brain targeting and management of neurodegenerative disorders potential on single platform. This report involves the study of the various mechanism of synthesis ligand anchored various generations PPI dendrimers deliver the drug directly to the CNS, prove their effectiveness in the management of the various neurodegenerative disease. Material and Methods: The Memantine an anti-Alzheimer drug loaded in different generations (3.0G, 4.0G, and 5.0G) of PPI dendrimers which were synthesized were synthesized. The various studies investigate the effect of PPI dendrimers generation on different characteristic parameters i.e. synthesis procedure, drug loading, release behavior, hemolysis profile at different concentration, MRI study for determine the route drug from olfactory transfer, animal model study in vitro, as well as in vivo performance. The outcomes of the investigation indicate drug delivery benefit as well as superior biocompatibility of 4.0G PPI dendrimer over 3.0G and 5.0G dendrimer, respectively. Results and Conclusion: The above study indicate the superiority of in drug delivery system with maximum drug utilization and minimize the drug dose for neurodegenerative disorder over 5.0G PPI dendrimers. So, 4.0G PPI dendrimers are the safe formulations for the symptomatic treatment of the neurodegenerative disorder. The fifth-generation poly(propyleneimine) (PPI) dendrimers, inherent toxicity due to the presence of many peripheral cationic groups is the major issue that limits their applicability.

Keywords: Alzheimer disease, generation, memantine, PPI

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8 Numerical Investigation of Pressure Drop and Erosion Wear by Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation

Authors: Praveen Kumar, Nitin Kumar, Hemant Kumar


The modernization of computer technology and commercial computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation has given better detailed results as compared to experimental investigation techniques. CFD techniques are widely used in different field due to its flexibility and performance. Evaluation of pipeline erosion is complex phenomenon to solve by numerical arithmetic technique, whereas CFD simulation is an easy tool to resolve that type of problem. Erosion wear behaviour due to solid–liquid mixture in the slurry pipeline has been investigated using commercial CFD code in FLUENT. Multi-phase Euler-Lagrange model was adopted to predict the solid particle erosion wear in 22.5° pipe bend for the flow of bottom ash-water suspension. The present study addresses erosion prediction in three dimensional 22.5° pipe bend for two-phase (solid and liquid) flow using finite volume method with standard k-ε turbulence, discrete phase model and evaluation of erosion wear rate with varying velocity 2-4 m/s. The result shows that velocity of solid-liquid mixture found to be highly dominating parameter as compared to solid concentration, density, and particle size. At low velocity, settling takes place in the pipe bend due to low inertia and gravitational effect on solid particulate which leads to high erosion at bottom side of pipeline.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics (CFD), erosion, slurry transportation, k-ε Model

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7 Solubility and Dissolution Enhancement of Poorly Soluble Drugs Using Biosericin

Authors: Namdeo Jadhav, Nitin Salunkhe


Currently, sericin is being treated as waste of sericulture industry, especially at reeling process. Looking at prospective physicochemical properties, an attempt has been made to explore pharmaceutical applications of sericin waste in fabrication of medicated solid dispersions. Solid dispersions (SDs) of poorly soluble drugs (Lornoxicam, Meloxicam & Felodipine) were prepared by spray drying, solvent evaporation, ball milling and physical kneading in mass ratio of drug: sericin (1:0.5, 1:1, 1:1.5, 1:2, 1:2.5 and 1:3 w/w) and were investigated by solubility, ATR-FTIR, XRD and DSC, micromeritics and tablettability, surface morphology and in-vitro dissolution. It has been observed that sericin improves solubility of drugs by 8 to 10 times compared to pure drugs. The presence of hydrogen bonding between drugs and sericin was confirmed from the ATR-FTIR spectra. Amongst these methods, spray dried (1:2 w/w) SDs showed fully amorphous state representing molecularly distributed drug as confirmed from XRD and DSC study. Spray dried meloxicam SDs showed better compressibility and compactibility. The microphotograph of spray dried batches of lornoxicam (SDLX) and meloxicam SDs (SDMX) showed bowl shaped, and bowl plus spherical particles respectively, while spray dried felodipine SDs (SDFL) showed spherical shape. The SDLX, SDMX and SDFL (1:2 w/w) displayed better dissolution performance than other methods. Conclusively, hydrophilic matrix of sericin can be used to deliver poor water soluble drugs and its aerodynamic shape may show a great potential for various drug deliveries. If established as pharmaceutical excipient, sericin holds a potential to revolutionise economics of pharmaceutical industry, and sericulture farming, especially of Asian countries.

Keywords: biosericin, poorly soluble drugs, solid dispersion, solubility and dissolution improvement

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6 Glyco-Conjugated Gold Nanorods Based Biosensor for Optical Detection and Photothermal Ablation of Food Borne Bacteria

Authors: Shimayali Kaushal, Nitesh Priyadarshi, Nitin Kumar Singhal


Food borne bacterial species have been identified as major pathogens in most of the severe pathogen-related diseases among humans which result in great loss to human health and food industry. Conventional methods like plating and enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) are time-consuming, laborious and require specialized instruments. Nanotechnology has emerged as a great field in case of rapid detection of pathogens in recent years. The AuNRs material has good electro-optical properties due to its larger light absorption band and scattering in surface plasmon resonance wavelength regions. By exploiting the sugar-based adhesion properties of microorganism, we can use the glycoconjugates capped gold nanorods as a potential nanobiosensor to detect the foodborne pathogen. In the present study, polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated gold nanorods (AuNRs) were prepared and functionalized with different types of carbohydrates and further characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometry, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The reactivity of above said nano-biosensor was probed by lectin binding assay and also by different strains of foodborne bacteria by using spectrophotometric and microscopic techniques. Due to the specific interaction of probe with foodborne bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), our nanoprobe has shown significant and selective ablation of targeted bacteria. Our findings suggest that our nanoprobe can be an ideal candidate for selective optical detection of food pathogens and can reduce loss to the food industry.

Keywords: glyco-conjugates, gold nanorods, nanobiosensor, nanoprobe

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5 Delivery of Ginseng Extract Containing Phytosome Loaded Microsphere System: A Preclinical Approach for Treatment of Neuropathic Pain in Rodent Model

Authors: Nitin Kumar


Purpose: The current research work focuses mainly on evolving a delivery system for ginseng extract (GE), which in turn will ameliorate the neuroprotective potential by means of enhancing the ginsenoside (Rb1) bio-availability (BA). For more noteworthy enhancement in oral bioavailability (OBA) along with pharmacological properties, the drug carriers’ performance can be strengthened by utilizing phytosomes-loaded microspheres (PM) delivery system. Methods: For preparing the disparate phytosome complexes (F1, F2, and F3), an aqueous extract of ginseng roots (GR) along with phospholipids were reacted in disparate ratio. Considering the outcomes, F3 formulation (spray-dried) was chosen for preparing the phytosomes powder (PP), PM, and extract microspheres (EM). PM was made by means of loading of F3 into Gum Arabic (GA) in addition to maltodextrin polymer mixture, whereas EM was prepared by means of the addition of extract directly into the same polymer mixture. For investigating the neuroprotective effect (NPE) in addition to their pharmacokinetic (PK) properties, PP, PM, and EM formulations were assessed. Results: F3 formulation gave enhanced entrapment efficiency (EE) (i.e., 50.61%) along with good homogeneity of spherical shaped particle size (PS) (42.58 ± 1.4 nm) with least polydispersity index (PDI) (i.e., 0.193 ± 0.01). The sustained release (up to 24 h) of ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1) is revealed by the dissolution study of PM. A significantly (p < 0.05) greater anti-oxidant (AO) potential of PM can well be perceived as of the diminution in the lipid peroxidase level in addition to the rise in the glutathione superoxide dismutase (SOD) in addition to catalase levels. It also showed a greater neuroprotective potential exhibiting significant (p < 0.05) augmentation in the nociceptive threshold together with the diminution in damage to nerves. A noteworthy enhancement in the relative BA (157.94%) of GRb1 through the PM formulation can well be seen in the PK studies. Conclusion: It is exhibited that the PM system is an optimistic and feasible strategy to enhance the delivery of GE for the effectual treatment of neuropathic pain.

Keywords: ginseng, neuropathic, phytosome, pain

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4 Extraction, Isolation and Comparative Phtochemical Study of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis and Fenugreek

Authors: Nitin Rajan, Kashif Shakeel, Shashank Tiwari, Shachan Sagar


Background: - Aegle Marmelos (Bael) leaf extract is taken twice daily to treat ophthalmia, ulcers, and intestinal worms, among other ailments. Poultice made from bael leaf is used in the treatment of eye conditions. The leaf juice has a variety of therapeutic applications, with the most notable being the treatment of diabetes. Fenugreek is used to cure red spots around the eyes, as well as to soften the throat and chest and to give relief from coughing. The use of this plant in the form of infusion, powder, pomade, and decoction has been extremely popular in Iranian traditional medicine. The plant may be used to wash one's vaginal linings. This plant is used as an emollient in the lack of appetite, treatment of pellagra, and gastrointestinal problems, as well as a general tonic. Calendula officinalis leaves are used to treat varicose veins on the outside of the body by infusing them. In Europe, the leaves are diaphoretic and resolvent in nature, while the blooms are employed as an emmenagogue and antispasmodic stimulant in Canada and the United States. The flowers were decocted and served as a posset drink when smallpox and measles were common in England, and the fresh juice was used to treat jaundice. Objective: - This study is done to compare the physicochemical parameter of the alcoholic extract of the leaves of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, and Fenugreek. Materials and Methods: Extraction and Isolation of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, Fenugreek, were done. Preliminary phytochemical study for alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, resins, saponins, steroids, tannins, terpenoids of the extract was done individual by using the standard procedure. Result: - The phytochemical screening of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, and Fenugreek shows the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, total phenolics, total flavonoids, tannins, saponins gum. Conclusion: - In this study, we have found that crude aqueous and organic solvent extracts of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, and Fenugreek leaves contain some important bioactive compounds and it justifies their use in the traditional medicines for the treatment of different diseases.

Keywords: Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, Fenugreek, physiochemical parameter

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3 Integrated Information Approach to Inbound Logistics in Indian Steel Sector

Authors: N. Jena, Nitin Seth


Globalization and free trade has forced the organizations to continuously rethink and rework on the increasing cost of logistics. World wide, it is visualized that on one side the steel sector is witnessing rapid growth and on the other side it is facing huge challenges in terms of availability of raw materials for uninterrupted production. Inbound logistics also gains significant importance for ensuring the timely availability of raw materials. It is seen that in Indian steel sector logistic cost is still very large and challenging. Effectively managing the inbound logistics in steel decides the profitability and serviceability of the organization. Effective management of inbound logistics also has a major role on the inventory of the organization. Since, the logistics for the steel industry in India is evolving rapidly and it is the interplay of infrastructure, technology and new types of service providers that will define whether the industry is able to help its customers to reduce their logistics costs. Integration of Logistics has been treated as one of the most potential area for the companies to provide a base for cost reduction. In spite of the proven area for benefits for the industry, it is very surprising that none of the researchers have explored this area. Although, many researchers explored the subject of logistics in steel industry, but their perspective varied from exploring and understanding the associated cost and finding out the relations between them. Visualizing a potential gap, the present research is under taken to explore the integration opportunities in inbound logistics for steel sector. Typically in Indian steel sector where in most of the manufacturers depend on imported materials for processing the logistics is very challenging and accounts for transactions at supplier – who is situated in different country, shipper- who is transporting the material to the host country, regulators in both countries-that include customs and various clearing agents, local logistics service providers and local transporters/handlers. It is seen that In bound logistics cost in the steel sector is very high and accounts for about 15-16% of the turn over, integration of information across different channels provides and opportunity for improvements and growth of the organization. In the present paper, a case of leading steel manufacturer has been taken and the potentials for integration of information across various partners have been identified. The paper provides the identification of grey area in steel sector for major improvements in cycle time and lowering the inventories by integration of information. Finally, based on integration of information, the paper presents a business information framework for steel sector.

Keywords: integration, steel sectors, suppliers, shippers, customs and cargo agents, transporters

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2 Pickering Dry Emulsion System for Dissolution Enhancement of Poorly Water Soluble Drug (Fenofibrate)

Authors: Nitin Jadhav, Pradeep R. Vavia


Poor water soluble drugs are difficult to promote for oral drug delivery as they demonstrate poor and variable bioavailability because of its poor solubility and dissolution in GIT fluid. Nowadays lipid based formulations especially self microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) is found as the most effective technique. With all the impressive advantages, the need of high amount of surfactant (50% - 80%) is the major drawback of SMEDDS. High concentration of synthetic surfactant is known for irritation in GIT and also interference with the function of intestinal transporters causes changes in drug absorption. Surfactant may also reduce drug activity and subsequently bioavailability due to the enhanced entrapment of drug in micelles. In chronic treatment these issues are very conspicuous due to the long exposure. In addition the liquid self microemulsifying system also suffers from stability issues. Recently one novel approach of solid stabilized micro and nano emulsion (Pickering emulsion) has very admirable properties such as high stability, absence or very less concentration of surfactant and easily converts into the dry form. So here we are exploring pickering dry emulsion system for dissolution enhancement of anti-lipemic, extremely poorly water soluble drug (Fenofibrate). Oil moiety for emulsion preparation was selected mainly on the basis of higher solubility of drug. Captex 300 was showed higher solubility for fenofibrate, hence selected as oil for emulsion. With Silica (solid stabilizer); Span 20 was selected to improve the wetting property of it. Emulsion formed by Silica and Span20 as stabilizer at the ratio 2.5:1 (silica: span 20) was found very stable at the particle size 410 nm. The prepared emulsion was further preceded for spray drying and formed microcapsule evaluated for in-vitro dissolution study, in-vivo pharmacodynamic study and characterized for DSC, XRD, FTIR, SEM, optical microscopy etc. The in vitro study exhibits significant dissolution enhancement of formulation (85 % in 45 minutes) as compared to plain drug (14 % in 45 minutes). In-vivo study (Triton based hyperlipidaemia model) exhibits significant reduction in triglyceride and cholesterol with formulation as compared to plain drug indicating increasing in fenofibrate bioavailability. DSC and XRD study exhibit loss of crystallinity of drug in microcapsule form. FTIR study exhibit chemical stability of fenofibrate. SEM and optical microscopy study exhibit spherical structure of globule coated with solid particles.

Keywords: captex 300, fenofibrate, pickering dry emulsion, silica, span20, stability, surfactant

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1 Impact of the 2015 Drought on Rural Livelihood – a Case Study of Masurdi Village in Latur District of Maharashtra, India

Authors: Nitin Bhagat


Drought is a global phenomenon. It has a huge impact on agriculture and allied sector activities. Agriculture plays a substantial role in the economy of developing countries, which mainly depends on rainfall. The present study illustrates the drought conditions in Masurdi village of Latur district in the Marathwada region, Maharashtra. This paper is based on both primary as well as secondary data sources. The multistage sample method was used for primary data collection. The 100 households sample survey data has been collected from the village through a semi-structured questionnaire. The crop production data is collected from the Department of Agriculture, Government of Maharashtra. The rainfall data is obtained from the Department of Revenue, Office of Divisional Commissioner, Aurangabad for the period from 1988 to 2018. This paper examines the severity of drought consequences of the 2015 drought on domestic water supply, crop production, and the effect on children's schooling, livestock assets, bank credit, and migration. The study also analyzed climate variables' impact on the Latur district's total food grain production for 19 years from 2000 to 2018. This study applied multiple regression analysis to check the relationship between climatic variables and the Latur district's total food grain production. The climate variables are annual rainfall, maximum temperature and minimum temperature. The study considered that climatic variables are independent variables and total food grain as the dependent variable. It shows there is a significant relationship between rainfall and maximum temperature. The study also calculated rainfall deviations to find out the drought and normal years. According to drought manual 2016, the rainfall deviation calculated using the following formula. RF dev = {(RFi – RFn) / RFn}*100.Approximately 27.43 % of the workforce migrated from rural to urban areas for searching jobs, and crop production decreased tremendously due to inadequate rainfall in the drought year 2015. Many farm and non-farm labor, some marginal and small cultivators, migrated from rural to urban areas (like Pune, Mumbai, and Western Maharashtra).About 48 % of the households' children faced education difficulties; in the drought period, children were not going to school. They left their school and joined to bring water with their mother and fathers, sometimes they fetched water on their head or using a bicycle, near about 2 km from the village. In their school-going days, drinking water was not available in their schools, so the government declared holidays early in the academic education year 2015-16 compared to another academic year. Some college and 10th class students left their education due to financial problems. Many households benefited from state government schemes, like drought subsidies, crop insurance, and bank loans. Out of 100 households, about 50 (50 %) have obtained financial support from the state government’s subsidy scheme, 58 ( 58 %) have got crop insurance, and 41(41 %) irrigated households have got bank loans from national banks; besides that, only two families have obtained loans from their relatives and moneylenders.

Keywords: agriculture, drought, household, rainfall

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