Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3420

Search results for: signal variation

3420 Analysis of Injection-Lock in Oscillators versus Phase Variation of Injected Signal

Authors: M. Yousefi, N. Nasirzadeh


In this paper, behavior of an oscillator under injection of another signal has been investigated. Also, variation of output signal amplitude versus injected signal phase variation, the effect of varying the amplitude of injected signal and quality factor of the oscillator has been investigated. The results show that the locking time depends on phase and the best locking time happens at 180-degrees phase. Also, the effect of injected lock has been discussed. Simulations show that the locking time decreases with signal injection to bulk. Locking time has been investigated versus various phase differences. The effect of phase and amplitude changes on locking time of a typical LC oscillator in 180 nm technology has been investigated.

Keywords: analysis, oscillator, injection-lock oscillator, phase modulation

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3419 Anisotropic Total Fractional Order Variation Model in Seismic Data Denoising

Authors: Jianwei Ma, Diriba Gemechu


In seismic data processing, attenuation of random noise is the basic step to improve quality of data for further application of seismic data in exploration and development in different gas and oil industries. The signal-to-noise ratio of the data also highly determines quality of seismic data. This factor affects the reliability as well as the accuracy of seismic signal during interpretation for different purposes in different companies. To use seismic data for further application and interpretation, we need to improve the signal-to-noise ration while attenuating random noise effectively. To improve the signal-to-noise ration and attenuating seismic random noise by preserving important features and information about seismic signals, we introduce the concept of anisotropic total fractional order denoising algorithm. The anisotropic total fractional order variation model defined in fractional order bounded variation is proposed as a regularization in seismic denoising. The split Bregman algorithm is employed to solve the minimization problem of the anisotropic total fractional order variation model and the corresponding denoising algorithm for the proposed method is derived. We test the effectiveness of theproposed method for synthetic and real seismic data sets and the denoised result is compared with F-X deconvolution and non-local means denoising algorithm.

Keywords: anisotropic total fractional order variation, fractional order bounded variation, seismic random noise attenuation, split Bregman algorithm

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3418 An Improved Total Variation Regularization Method for Denoising Magnetocardiography

Authors: Yanping Liao, Congcong He, Ruigang Zhao


The application of magnetocardiography signals to detect cardiac electrical function is a new technology developed in recent years. The magnetocardiography signal is detected with Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUID) and has considerable advantages over electrocardiography (ECG). It is difficult to extract Magnetocardiography (MCG) signal which is buried in the noise, which is a critical issue to be resolved in cardiac monitoring system and MCG applications. In order to remove the severe background noise, the Total Variation (TV) regularization method is proposed to denoise MCG signal. The approach transforms the denoising problem into a minimization optimization problem and the Majorization-minimization algorithm is applied to iteratively solve the minimization problem. However, traditional TV regularization method tends to cause step effect and lacks constraint adaptability. In this paper, an improved TV regularization method for denoising MCG signal is proposed to improve the denoising precision. The improvement of this method is mainly divided into three parts. First, high-order TV is applied to reduce the step effect, and the corresponding second derivative matrix is used to substitute the first order. Then, the positions of the non-zero elements in the second order derivative matrix are determined based on the peak positions that are detected by the detection window. Finally, adaptive constraint parameters are defined to eliminate noises and preserve signal peak characteristics. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that this algorithm can effectively improve the output signal-to-noise ratio and has superior performance.

Keywords: constraint parameters, derivative matrix, magnetocardiography, regular term, total variation

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3417 On Kantorovich-Stancu Type Operators with the Variation Detracting Property

Authors: Özlem Öksüzer


In this paper, we introduce variation detracting property of Kantorovich-Stancu type operators in the space of functions of bounded variation. These problems are studied with respect to the variation seminorm.

Keywords: Kantorovich-Stancu type operators, variation seminorm, variation detracting property, absolutely continuous function

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3416 Wavelet Based Residual Method of Detecting GSM Signal Strength Fading

Authors: Danladi Ali, Onah Festus Iloabuchi


In this paper, GSM signal strength was measured in order to detect the type of the signal fading phenomenon using one-dimensional multilevel wavelet residual method and neural network clustering to determine the average GSM signal strength received in the study area. The wavelet residual method predicted that the GSM signal experienced slow fading and attenuated with MSE of 3.875dB. The neural network clustering revealed that mostly -75dB, -85dB and -95dB were received. This means that the signal strength received in the study is a weak signal.

Keywords: one-dimensional multilevel wavelets, path loss, GSM signal strength, propagation, urban environment

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3415 Investigation of the Unbiased Characteristic of Doppler Frequency to Different Antenna Array Geometries

Authors: Somayeh Komeylian


Array signal processing techniques have been recently developing in a variety application of the performance enhancement of receivers by refraining the power of jamming and interference signals. In this scenario, biases induced to the antenna array receiver degrade significantly the accurate estimation of the carrier phase. Owing to the integration of frequency becomes the carrier phase, we have obtained the unbiased doppler frequency for the high precision estimation of carrier phase. The unbiased characteristic of Doppler frequency to the power jamming and the other interference signals allows achieving the highly accurate estimation of phase carrier. In this study, we have rigorously investigated the unbiased characteristic of Doppler frequency to the variation of the antenna array geometries. The simulation results have efficiently verified that the Doppler frequency remains also unbiased and accurate to the variation of antenna array geometries.

Keywords: array signal processing, unbiased doppler frequency, GNSS, carrier phase, and slowly fluctuating point target

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3414 Portable System for the Acquisition and Processing of Electrocardiographic Signals to Obtain Different Metrics of Heart Rate Variability

Authors: Daniel F. Bohorquez, Luis M. Agudelo, Henry H. León


Heart rate variability (HRV) is defined as the temporary variation between heartbeats or RR intervals (distance between R waves in an electrocardiographic signal). This distance is currently a recognized biomarker. With the analysis of the distance, it is possible to assess the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. These systems are responsible for the regulation of the cardiac muscle. The analysis allows health specialists and researchers to diagnose various pathologies based on this variation. For the acquisition and analysis of HRV taken from a cardiac electrical signal, electronic equipment and analysis software that work independently are currently used. This complicates and delays the process of interpretation and diagnosis. With this delay, the health condition of patients can be put at greater risk. This can lead to an untimely treatment. This document presents a single portable device capable of acquiring electrocardiographic signals and calculating a total of 19 HRV metrics. This reduces the time required, resulting in a timelier intervention. The device has an electrocardiographic signal acquisition card attached to a microcontroller capable of transmitting the cardiac signal wirelessly to a mobile device. In addition, a mobile application was designed to analyze the cardiac waveform. The device calculates the RR and different metrics. The application allows a user to visualize in real-time the cardiac signal and the 19 metrics. The information is exported to a cloud database for remote analysis. The study was performed under controlled conditions in the simulated hospital of the Universidad de la Sabana, Colombia. A total of 60 signals were acquired and analyzed. The device was compared against two reference systems. The results show a strong level of correlation (r > 0.95, p < 0.05) between the 19 metrics compared. Therefore, the use of the portable system evaluated in clinical scenarios controlled by medical specialists and researchers is recommended for the evaluation of the condition of the cardiac system.

Keywords: biological signal análisis, heart rate variability (HRV), HRV metrics, mobile app, portable device.

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3413 55 dB High Gain L-Band EDFA Utilizing Single Pump Source

Authors: M. H. Al-Mansoori, W. S. Al-Ghaithi, F. N. Hasoon


In this paper, we experimentally investigate the performance of an efficient high gain triple-pass L-band Erbium-Doped Fiber (EDF) amplifier structure with a single pump source. The amplifier gain and noise figure variation with EDF pump power, input signal power and wavelengths have been investigated. The generated backward Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) noise of the first amplifier stage is suppressed by using a tunable band-pass filter. The amplifier achieves a signal gain of 55 dB with low noise figure of 3.8 dB at -50 dBm input signal power. The amplifier gain shows significant improvement of 12.8 dB compared to amplifier structure without ASE suppression.

Keywords: optical amplifiers, EDFA, L-band, optical networks

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3412 All Optical Wavelength Conversion Based On Four Wave Mixing in Optical Fiber

Authors: Surinder Singh, Gursewak Singh Lovkesh


We have designed wavelength conversion based on four wave mixing in an optical fiber at 10 Gb/s. The power of converted signal increases with increase in signal power. The converted signal power is investigated as a function of input signal power and pump power. On comparison of converted signal power at different value of input signal power, we observe that best converted signal power is obtained at -2 dBm input signal power for both up conversion as well as for down conversion. Further, FWM efficiency, quality factor is observed for increase in input signal power and optical fiber length.

Keywords: FWM, optical fiiber, wavelngth converter, quality

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3411 Transient Signal Generator For Fault Indicator Testing

Authors: Mohamed Shaban, Ali Alfallah


This paper describes an application for testing of a fault indicator but it could be used for other network protection testing. The application is created in the LabVIEW environment and consists of three parts. The first part of the application is determined for transient phenomenon generation and imitates voltage and current transient signal at ground fault originate. The second part allows to set sequences of trend for each current and voltage output signal, up to six trends for each phase. The last part of the application generates harmonic signal with continuously controllable amplitude of current or voltage output signal and phase shift of each signal can be changed there. Further any sub-harmonics and upper harmonics can be added to selected current output signal

Keywords: signal generator-fault indicator, harmonic signal generator, voltage output

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3410 On Coverage Probability of Confidence Intervals for the Normal Mean with Known Coefficient of Variation

Authors: Suparat Niwitpong, Sa-aat Niwitpong


Statistical inference of normal mean with known coefficient of variation has been investigated recently. This phenomenon occurs normally in environment and agriculture experiments when the scientist knows the coefficient of variation of their experiments. In this paper, we constructed new confidence intervals for the normal population mean with known coefficient of variation. We also derived analytic expressions for the coverage probability of each confidence interval. To confirm our theoretical results, Monte Carlo simulation will be used to assess the performance of these intervals based on their coverage probabilities.

Keywords: confidence interval, coverage probability, expected length, known coefficient of variation

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3409 Review: Wavelet New Tool for Path Loss Prediction

Authors: Danladi Ali, Abdullahi Mukaila


In this work, GSM signal strength (power) was monitored in an indoor environment. Samples of the GSM signal strength was measured on mobile equipment (ME). One-dimensional multilevel wavelet is used to predict the fading phenomenon of the GSM signal measured and neural network clustering to determine the average power received in the study area. The wavelet prediction revealed that the GSM signal is attenuated due to the fast fading phenomenon which fades about 7 times faster than the radio wavelength while the neural network clustering determined that -75dBm appeared more frequently followed by -85dBm. The work revealed that significant part of the signal measured is dominated by weak signal and the signal followed more of Rayleigh than Gaussian distribution. This confirmed the wavelet prediction.

Keywords: decomposition, clustering, propagation, model, wavelet, signal strength and spectral efficiency

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3408 Variation in Italian Specialized Economic Texts

Authors: Abdelmagid Basyouny Sakr


Terminological variation is a reality and it is now recognized by terminologists. This paper investigates the terminological variation in the context of specialized economic texts in Italian. It aims to find whether certain patterns or tendencies can be derived from the analysis of these texts. Term variants pose two different kinds of difficulties. The first one is being able to recognize linguistic expressions that denote the same concept in running text. Another one lies in knowing which variant should be considered and for what purpose. This would help to differentiate between variants that could be candidates for inclusion in terminological resources and the ones which are synonyms or contextual variants. New insights about terminological variation in specialized texts could contribute to improve specialized dictionaries which will better account for the different ways in which a given thought is expressed.

Keywords: corpus linguistics, specialized communication, terms and concepts, terminological variation

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3407 Carrier Communication through Power Lines

Authors: Pavuluri Gopikrishna, B. Neelima


Power line carrier communication means audio power transmission via power line and reception of the amplified audio power at the receiver as in the form of speaker output signal using power line as the channel medium. The main objective of this suggested work is to transmit our message signal after frequency modulation by the help of FM modulator IC LM565 which gives output proportional to the input voltage of the input message signal. And this audio power is received from the power line by the help of isolation circuit and demodulated from IC LM565 which uses the concept of the PLL and produces FM demodulated signal to the listener. Message signal will be transmitted over the carrier signal that will be generated from the FM modulator IC LM565. Using this message signal will not damage because of no direct contact of message signal from the power line, but noise can disturb our information.

Keywords: amplification, fm demodulator ic 565, fm modulator ic 565, phase locked loop, power isolation

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3406 Induction Machine Bearing Failure Detection Using Advanced Signal Processing Methods

Authors: Abdelghani Chahmi


This article examines the detection and localization of faults in electrical systems, particularly those using asynchronous machines. First, the process of failure will be characterized, relevant symptoms will be defined and based on those processes and symptoms, a model of those malfunctions will be obtained. Second, the development of the diagnosis of the machine will be shown. As studies of malfunctions in electrical systems could only rely on a small amount of experimental data, it has been essential to provide ourselves with simulation tools which allowed us to characterize the faulty behavior. Fault detection uses signal processing techniques in known operating phases.

Keywords: induction motor, modeling, bearing damage, airgap eccentricity, torque variation

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3405 Exploiting Fast Independent Component Analysis Based Algorithm for Equalization of Impaired Baseband Received Signal

Authors: Muhammad Umair, Syed Qasim Gilani


A technique using Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for blind receiver signal processing is investigated. The problem of the receiver signal processing is viewed as of signal equalization and implementation imperfections compensation. Based on this, a model similar to a general ICA problem is developed for the received signal. Then, the use of ICA technique for blind signal equalization in the time domain is presented. The equalization is regarded as a signal separation problem, since the desired signal is separated from interference terms. This problem is addressed in the paper by over-sampling of the received signal. By using ICA for equalization, besides channel equalization, other transmission imperfections such as Direct current (DC) bias offset, carrier phase and In phase Quadrature phase imbalance will also be corrected. Simulation results for a system using 16-Quadraure Amplitude Modulation(QAM) are presented to show the performance of the proposed scheme.

Keywords: blind equalization, blind signal separation, equalization, independent component analysis, transmission impairments, QAM receiver

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3404 Minimum Data of a Speech Signal as Special Indicators of Identification in Phonoscopy

Authors: Nazaket Gazieva


Voice biometric data associated with physiological, psychological and other factors are widely used in forensic phonoscopy. There are various methods for identifying and verifying a person by voice. This article explores the minimum speech signal data as individual parameters of a speech signal. Monozygotic twins are believed to be genetically identical. Using the minimum data of the speech signal, we came to the conclusion that the voice imprint of monozygotic twins is individual. According to the conclusion of the experiment, we can conclude that the minimum indicators of the speech signal are more stable and reliable for phonoscopic examinations.

Keywords: phonogram, speech signal, temporal characteristics, fundamental frequency, biometric fingerprints

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3403 Study of Three Channel Electrode Position to Detect Optimum Myoelectric Signal on Five Type Grasp Movement

Authors: Ilham Priadythama, Pringgo Widyo Laksono, Agung Pamungkas


Myoelectric is prosthetic, flexible, and offered industrial application has been highly developed and widely used. Myoelectric hand use myoelectric signal from muscle to activate and control the membrane part of hand. Commonly myoelectric signal is detected on human arm from skin surface. So that it only small magnitude signal captured. Detecting myoelectric signal on the skin surface takes proper and consistent procedure. This paper provides preliminary study of electrodes position which gives best signal strength for five basic grasping. Two-position scenario used to place three channel electrodes set. A bi-potential amplifier based on AD620 used to amplify the signal. Finally, the signal was analyzed using DSSF3 software. From this study, we found that grasp type was stronger using first scenario electrode placement while the rest type better with another scenario.

Keywords: myoelectric signal, basic grasp, DSSF3, electrode, bi-potential amplifier

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3402 Graph Similarity: Algebraic Model and Its Application to Nonuniform Signal Processing

Authors: Nileshkumar Vishnav, Aditya Tatu


A recent approach of representing graph signals and graph filters as polynomials is useful for graph signal processing. In this approach, the adjacency matrix plays pivotal role; instead of the more common approach involving graph-Laplacian. In this work, we follow the adjacency matrix based approach and corresponding algebraic signal model. We further expand the theory and introduce the concept of similarity of two graphs. The similarity of graphs is useful in that key properties (such as filter-response, algebra related to graph) get transferred from one graph to another. We demonstrate potential applications of the relation between two similar graphs, such as nonuniform filter design, DTMF detection and signal reconstruction.

Keywords: graph signal processing, algebraic signal processing, graph similarity, isospectral graphs, nonuniform signal processing

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3401 Variation of the Dynamic Characteristics of a Spindle with the Change of Bearing Preload

Authors: Shinji Oouchi, Hajime Nomura, Kung-Da Wu, Jui-Pin Hung


This paper presents the variation of the dynamic characteristics of a spindle with the change of bearing preload. The correlations between the variation of bearing preload and fundamental modal parameters were first examined by conducting vibration tests on physical spindle units. Experimental measurements show that the dynamic compliance and damping ratio associated with the dominating modes were affected to vary with variation of the bearing preload. When the bearing preload was slightly deviated from a standard value, the modal frequency and damping ability also vary to different extent, which further enable the spindle to perform with different compliance. For the spindle used in this study, a standard preload value set on bearings would enable the spindle to behave a higher stiffness as compared with others with a preload variation. This characteristic can be served as a reference to examine the variation of bearing preload of spindle in assemblage or operation.

Keywords: dynamic compliance, bearing preload, modal damping, standard preload

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3400 Detection of Clipped Fragments in Speech Signals

Authors: Sergei Aleinik, Yuri Matveev


In this paper a novel method for the detection of clipping in speech signals is described. It is shown that the new method has better performance than known clipping detection methods, is easy to implement, and is robust to changes in signal amplitude, size of data, etc. Statistical simulation results are presented.

Keywords: clipping, clipped signal, speech signal processing, digital signal processing

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3399 Nonlinear Power Measurement Algorithm of the Input Mix Components of the Noise Signal and Pulse Interference

Authors: Alexey V. Klyuev, Valery P. Samarin, Viktor F. Klyuev, Andrey V. Klyuev


A power measurement algorithm of the input mix components of the noise signal and pulse interference is considered. The algorithm efficiency analysis has been carried out for different interference to signal ratio. Algorithm performance features have been explored by numerical experiment results.

Keywords: noise signal, pulse interference, signal power, spectrum width, detection

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3398 Comparative Analysis of Two Approaches to Joint Signal Detection, ToA and AoA Estimation in Multi-Element Antenna Arrays

Authors: Olesya Bolkhovskaya, Alexey Davydov, Alexander Maltsev


In this paper two approaches to joint signal detection, time of arrival (ToA) and angle of arrival (AoA) estimation in multi-element antenna array are investigated. Two scenarios were considered: first one, when the waveform of the useful signal is known a priori and, second one, when the waveform of the desired signal is unknown. For first scenario, the antenna array signal processing based on multi-element matched filtering (MF) with the following non-coherent detection scheme and maximum likelihood (ML) parameter estimation blocks is exploited. For second scenario, the signal processing based on the antenna array elements covariance matrix estimation with the following eigenvector analysis and ML parameter estimation blocks is applied. The performance characteristics of both signal processing schemes are thoroughly investigated and compared for different useful signals and noise parameters.

Keywords: antenna array, signal detection, ToA, AoA estimation

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3397 Efficient Alias-Free Level Crossing Sampling

Authors: Negar Riazifar, Nigel G. Stocks


This paper proposes strategies in level crossing (LC) sampling and reconstruction that provide alias-free high-fidelity signal reconstruction for speech signals without exponentially increasing sample number with increasing bit-depth. We introduce methods in LC sampling that reduce the sampling rate close to the Nyquist frequency even for large bit-depth. The results indicate that larger variation in the sampling intervals leads to an alias-free sampling scheme; this is achieved by either reducing the bit-depth or adding jitter to the system for high bit-depths. In conjunction with windowing, the signal is reconstructed from the LC samples using an efficient Toeplitz reconstruction algorithm.

Keywords: alias-free, level crossing sampling, spectrum, trigonometric polynomial

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3396 Analysis of Interleaving Scheme for Narrowband VoIP System under Pervasive Environment

Authors: Monica Sharma, Harjit Pal Singh, Jasbinder Singh, Manju Bala


In Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) system, the speech signal is degraded when passed through the network layers. The speech signal is processed through the best effort policy based IP network, which leads to the network degradations including delay, packet loss and jitter. The packet loss is the major issue of the degradation in the VoIP signal quality; even a single lost packet may generate audible distortion in the decoded speech signal. In addition to these network degradations, the quality of the speech signal is also affected by the environmental noises and coder distortions. The signal quality of the VoIP system is improved through the interleaving technique. The performance of the system is evaluated for various types of noises at different network conditions. The performance of the enhanced VoIP signal is evaluated using perceptual evaluation of speech quality (PESQ) measurement for narrow band signal.

Keywords: VoIP, interleaving, packet loss, packet size, background noise

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3395 Variation in Orbital Elements of Mars and Jupiter Due to the Sun Oblateness by Using Secular Theory

Authors: Avaneesh Vaishwar, Badam Singh Kushvah, Devi Prasad Mishra


We studied the variation in orbital elements of Mars and Jupiter for a time span of 200 thousand years by using secular theory. Here we took Sun oblateness into account and considered the first two zonal gravity constants (J2 and J4) for showing the effect of Sun oblateness on the orbital elements of Mars and Jupiter. We found that in both cases (with and without Sun oblateness) the variation in orbital elements of Mars and Jupiter is periodic moreover in case of the Sun oblateness, the period of variation in orbital elements is decreasing for both the planets.

Keywords: lagrange's planetary equation, orbital elements, planetary system, secular theory

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3394 An Application-Driven Procedure for Optimal Signal Digitization of Automotive-Grade Ultrasonic Sensors

Authors: Mohamed Shawki Elamir, Heinrich Gotzig, Raoul Zoellner, Patrick Maeder


In this work, a methodology is presented for identifying the optimal digitization parameters for the analog signal of ultrasonic sensors. These digitization parameters are the resolution of the analog to digital conversion and the sampling rate. This is accomplished through the derivation of characteristic curves based on Fano inequality and the calculation of the mutual information content over a given dataset. The mutual information is calculated between the examples in the dataset and the corresponding variation in the feature that needs to be estimated. The optimal parameters are identified in a manner that ensures optimal estimation performance while preventing inefficiency in using unnecessarily powerful analog to digital converters.

Keywords: analog to digital conversion, digitization, sampling rate, ultrasonic

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3393 Taguchi Robust Design for Optimal Setting of Process Wastes Parameters in an Automotive Parts Manufacturing Company

Authors: Charles Chikwendu Okpala, Christopher Chukwutoo Ihueze


As a technique that reduces variation in a product by lessening the sensitivity of the design to sources of variation, rather than by controlling their sources, Taguchi Robust Design entails the designing of ideal goods, by developing a product that has minimal variance in its characteristics and also meets the desired exact performance. This paper examined the concept of the manufacturing approach and its application to brake pad product of an automotive parts manufacturing company. Although the firm claimed that only defects, excess inventory, and over-production were the few wastes that grossly affect their productivity and profitability, a careful study and analysis of their manufacturing processes with the application of Single Minute Exchange of Dies (SMED) tool showed that the waste of waiting is the fourth waste that bedevils the firm. The selection of the Taguchi L9 orthogonal array which is based on the four parameters and the three levels of variation for each parameter revealed that with a range of 2.17, that waiting is the major waste that the company must reduce in order to continue to be viable. Also, to enhance the company’s throughput and profitability, the wastes of over-production, excess inventory, and defects with ranges of 2.01, 1.46, and 0.82, ranking second, third, and fourth respectively must also be reduced to the barest minimum. After proposing -33.84 as the highest optimum Signal-to-Noise ratio to be maintained for the waste of waiting, the paper advocated for the adoption of all the tools and techniques of Lean Production System (LPS), and Continuous Improvement (CI), and concluded by recommending SMED in order to drastically reduce set up time which leads to unnecessary waiting.

Keywords: lean production system, single minute exchange of dies, signal to noise ratio, Taguchi robust design, waste

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3392 Causes of Variation Orders in the Egyptian Construction Industry: Time and Cost Impacts

Authors: A. Samer Ezeldin, Jwanda M. El Sarag


Variation orders are of great importance in any construction project. Variation orders are defined as any change in the scope of works of a project that can be an addition omission, or even modification. This paper investigates the variation orders that occur during construction projects in Egypt. The literature review represents a comparison of causes of variation orders among Egypt, Tanzania, Nigeria, Malaysia and the United Kingdom. A classification of occurrence of variation orders due to owner related factors, consultant related factors and other factors are signified in the literature review. These classified events that lead to variation orders were introduced in a survey with 19 events to observe their frequency of occurrence, and their time and cost impacts. The survey data was obtained from 87 participants that included clients, consultants, and contractors and a database of 42 scenarios was created. A model is then developed to help assist project managers in predicting the frequency of variations and account for a budget for any additional costs and minimize any delays that can take place. Two experts with more than 25 years of experience were given the model to verify that the model was working effectively. The model was then validated on a residential compound that was completed in July 2016 to prove that the model actually produces acceptable results.

Keywords: construction, cost impact, Egypt, time impact, variation orders

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3391 Molecular Analysis of Somaclonal Variation in Tissue Culture Derived Bananas Using MSAP and SSR Marker

Authors: Emma K. Sales, Nilda G. Butardo


The project was undertaken to determine the effects of modified tissue culture protocols e.g. age of culture and hormone levels (2,4-D) in generating somaclonal variation. Moreover, the utility of molecular markers (SSR and MSAP) in sorting off types/somaclones were investigated. Results show that somaclonal variation is in effect due to prolonged subculture and high 2,4-D concentration. The resultant variation was observed to be due to high level of methylation events specifically cytosine methylation either at the internal or external cytosine and was identified by methylation sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP). Simple sequence repeats (SSR) on the other hand, was able to associate a marker to a trait of interest. These therefore, show that molecular markers can be an important tool in sorting out variation/mutants at an early stage.

Keywords: methylation, MSAP, somaclones, SSR, subculture, 2, 4-D

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