Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: Nadine Yehya

31 Dynamic Modeling of Energy Systems Adapted to Low Energy Buildings in Lebanon

Authors: Nadine Yehya, Chantal Maatouk


Low energy buildings have been developed to achieve global climate commitments in reducing energy consumption. They comprise energy efficient buildings, zero energy buildings, positive buildings and passive house buildings. The reduced energy demands in Low Energy buildings call for advanced building energy modeling that focuses on studying active building systems such as heating, cooling and ventilation, improvement of systems performances, and development of control systems. Modeling and building simulation have expanded to cover different modeling approach i.e.: detailed physical model, dynamic empirical models, and hybrid approaches, which are adopted by various simulation tools. This paper uses DesignBuilder with EnergyPlus simulation engine in order to; First, study the impact of efficiency measures on building energy behavior by comparing Low energy residential model to a conventional one in Beirut-Lebanon. Second, choose the appropriate energy systems for the studied case characterized by an important cooling demand. Third, study dynamic modeling of Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) system in EnergyPlus that is chosen due to its advantages over other systems and its availability in the Lebanese market. Finally, simulation of different energy systems models with different modeling approaches is necessary to confront the different modeling approaches and to investigate the interaction between energy systems and building envelope that affects the total energy consumption of Low Energy buildings.

Keywords: physical model, variable refrigerant flow heat pump, dynamic modeling, EnergyPlus, the modeling approach

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30 Cloud Effect on Power Generation of Grid-Connected Small PV Systems

Authors: Yehya Abdellatif, Ahmed Alsalaymeh, Iyad Muslih, Ali Alshduifat


Photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems, mainly small scale, are rapidly being deployed in Jordan. The impact of these systems on the grid has not been studied or analyzed. These systems can cause many technical problems such as reverse power flows and voltage rises in distribution feeders, and real and reactive power transients that affect the operation of the transmission system. To fully understand and address these problems, extensive research, simulation, and case studies are required. To this end, this paper studies the cloud shadow effect on the power generation of a ground mounted PV system installed at the test field of the Renewable Energy Center at the Applied Science University.

Keywords: photovoltaic, cloud effect, MPPT, power transients

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29 Shade Effect on Photovoltaic Systems: A Comparison between String and Module-Based Solution

Authors: Iyad M. Muslih, Yehya Abdellatif


In general, shading will reduce the electrical power produced from PV modules and arrays in locations where shading is unavoidable or caused by dynamic moving parts. This reduction is based on the shade effect on the I-V curve of the PV module or array and how the DC/AC inverter can search and control the optimum value of power from this module or array configuration. This is a very complicated task due to different patterns of shaded PV modules and arrays. One solution presented by the inverter industry is to perform the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) at the module level rather than the series string level. This solution is supposed to reduce the shade effect on the total harvested energy. However, this isn’t necessarily the best solution to reduce the shade effect as will be shown in this study.

Keywords: photovoltaic, shade effect, I-V curve, MPPT

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28 Optimization of Hybrid off Grid Energy Station

Authors: Yehya Abdellatif, Iyad M. Muslih, Azzah Alkhalailah, Abdallah Muslih


Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) software was utilized to find the optimum design of a hybrid off-Grid system, by choosing the optimal solution depending on the cost analysis of energy based on different capacity shortage percentages. A complete study for the site conditions and load profile was done to optimize the design and implementation of a hybrid off-grid power station. In addition, the solution takes into consecration the ambient temperature effect on the efficiency of the power generation and the economical aspects of selection depending on real market price. From the analysis of the HOMER model results, the optimum hybrid power station was suggested, based on wind speed, and solar conditions. The optimization function objective is to minimize the Net Price Cost (NPC) and the Cost of Energy (COE) with zero and 10 percentage of capacity shortage.

Keywords: energy modeling, HOMER, off-grid system, optimization

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27 Investigating the Use of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies in the Assembly Type Manufacturing Companies in Trinidad and Tobago

Authors: Nadine Sangster, Akil James, Rondell Duke, Aaron Ameerali, Terrence Lalla


The market place of the 21st century is evolving into one of merging national markets, fragmented consumer markets, and rapidly changing product technologies. The use of new technologies has become vital to the manufacturing industry for their survival and sustainability. This work focused on the assembly type industry in a small developing country and aimed at identifying the use of advanced manufacturing technologies and their impact on this sector of the manufacturing industry. It was found that some technologies were being used and that they had improved the effectiveness of those companies but there was still quite a bit of room for improvements. Some of the recommendations included benchmarking against international standards, the adoption of a “made in TT” campaign and the effective utilisation of the technologies to improve manufacturing effectiveness and thus improve competitive advantages and strategies.

Keywords: advanced manufacturing technology, Trinidad and Tobago, manufacturing, industrial engineering

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26 Effect of Scalping on the Mechanical Behavior of Coarse Soils

Authors: Nadine Ali Hassan, Ngoc Son Nguyen, Didier Marot, Fateh Bendahmane


This paper aims at presenting a study of the effect of scalping methods on the mechanical properties of coarse soils by resorting to numerical simulations based on the discrete element method (DEM) and experimental triaxial tests. Two reconstitution methods are used, designated as scalping method and substitution method. Triaxial compression tests are first simulated on a granular materials with a grap graded particle size distribution by using the DEM. We study the effect of these reconstitution methods on the stress-strain behavior of coarse soils with different fine contents and with different ways to control the densities of the scalped and substituted materials. Experimental triaxial tests are performed on original mixtures of sands and gravels with different fine contents and on their corresponding scalped and substituted samples. Numerical results are qualitatively compared to experimental ones. Agreements and discrepancies between these results are also discussed.

Keywords: coarse soils, mechanical behavior, scalping, replacement, triaxial devices

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25 Evaluation of PV Orientation Effect on Mismatch between Consumption Load and PV Power Profiles

Authors: Iyad M. Muslih, Yehya Abdellatif, Sara Qutishat


Renewable energy and in particular solar photovoltaic energy is emerging as a reasonable power generation source. The intermittent and unpredictable nature of solar energy can represent a serious challenge to the utility grids, specifically at relatively high penetration. To minimize the impact of PV power systems on the grid, self-consumption is encouraged. Self-consumption can be improved by matching the PV power generation with the electrical load consumption profile. This study will focus in studying different load profiles and comparing them to typical solar PV power generation at the selected sites with the purpose of analyzing the mismatch in consumption load profile for different users; residential, commercial, and industrial versus the solar photovoltaic output generation. The PV array orientation can be adjusted to reduce the mismatch effects. The orientation shift produces a corresponding shift in the energy production curve. This shift has a little effect on the mismatch for residential loads due to the fact the peak load occurs at night due to lighting loads. This minor gain does not justify the power production loss associated with the orientation shift. The orientation shift for both commercial and industrial cases lead to valuable decrease in the mismatch effects. Such a design is worth considering for reducing grid penetration. Furthermore, the proposed orientation shift yielded better results during the summer time due to the extended daylight hours.

Keywords: grid impact, HOMER, power mismatch, solar PV energy

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24 The Effects of Music and Gender on Recall Ability on College Students: A Study in Students from Universitas Indonesia

Authors: Hestika D. Waraningrum, Indriani N. Khairunnisa, Nabila Isnandini, Nadine Yasminah, Sekar A. Winesa


Each individual’s ability to recall, whether they are male or female, is allegedly influenced by the environmental circumstances during the recalling process. The presence of a distraction is one of the environmental variables that affect recall ability in its capacity in the Short Term Memory. This study was made to see the difference in number of words that was successfully recalled by male participants and female participants with the presence of music as a distraction and also without music as a distraction. Data was taken using an experimental procedure from 75 female and male undergraduate students of Universitas Indonesia. The study design used was a 2x2 Factorial ANOVA, which aimed to see the difference between two variables, which were gender (male vs female) and the presence of a distraction (music serving as a distraction vs absence of music). The results indicated that there were no significant mean differences in the ability to recall between male and female participants. There are no significant mean differences between the presence and the absence of music as a distraction, but a significant interaction was found between gender and distraction with the ability to recall.

Keywords: college, gender, music, recall

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23 An Implementation of Incentive Systems within Property Life Cycles Will Reward Investors, Planners and Users

Authors: Nadine Wills


The whole life thinking of buildings (independent if these are commercial properties or residential properties) will raise if incentive systems are provided to investors, planners and users. The Use of Building Information Modelling (BIM)-Systems offers planners the possibility to plan and re-plan buildings for decades after a period of utilization without spending many capacities. The strategy-incentive should be to plan the building in a way that makes rescheduling possible by changing just parameters in the system and not re-planning the whole building. If users receive the chance to patient incentive systems, the building stock will have a long life period. Business models of tenant electricity or self-controlled operating costs are incentive systems for building –users to let fixed running costs decline without producing damages due to wrong purposes. BIM is the controlling body to ensure that users do not abuse the incentive solution and take negative influence on the building stock. The investor benefits from the planner’s and user’s incentives: the fact that the building becomes useful for the whole life without making unnecessary investments provides possibilities to make investments in different assets. Moreover, the investor gains the facility to achieve higher rents by merchandise the property with low operating costs. To execute BIM offers whole property life cycles.

Keywords: BIM, incentives, life cycle, sustainability

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22 Validation of the Arabic Version of the InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking (ISST) among the Arab Population in Qatar

Authors: S. Hammoudeh, S. Ghuloum, A. Abdelhakam, A. AlMujalli, M. Opler, Y. Hani, A. Yehya, S. Mari, R. Elsherbiny, Z. Mahfoud, H. Al-Amin


Introduction: Suicidal ideation and attempts are very common in patients with schizophrenia and still contributes to the high mortality in this population. The InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking (ISST) is a validated tool used to assess suicidal ideation in patients with schizophrenia. This research aims to validate the Arabic version of the ISST among the Arabs residing in Qatar. Methods: Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia were recruited from the department of Psychiatry, Rumailah Hospital, Doha, Qatar. Healthy controls were recruited from the primary health care centers in Doha, Qatar. The validation procedures including professional and expert translation, pilot survey and back translation of the ISST were implemented. Diagnosis of schizophrenia was confirmed using the validated Arabic version of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI 6, module K) for schizophrenia. The gold standard was the module B on suicidality from MINI 6 also. This module was administered by a rater who was blinded to the results of ISST. Results: Our sample (n=199) was composed of 98 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (age 36.03 ± 9.88 years; M/F is 2/1) and 101 healthy participants (age 35.01 ± 8.23 years; M/F is 1/2). Among patients with schizophrenia: 26.5% were married, 17.3% had a college degree, 28.6% were employed, 9% had committed suicide once, and 4.4% had more than 4 suicide attempts. Among the control group: 77.2% were married, 57.4% had a college degree, and 99% were employed. The mean score on the ISST was 2.36 ± 3.97 vs. 0.47 ± 1.44 for the schizophrenia and control groups, respectively. The overall Cronbach’s alpha was 0.91. Conclusions: This is the first study in the Arab world to validate the ISST in an Arabic-based population. The psychometric properties indicate that the Arabic version of the ISST is a valid tool to assess the severity of suicidal ideation in Arabic speaking patients diagnosed with schizophrenia.

Keywords: mental health, Qatar, schizophrenia, suicide

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21 Risks of Traditional Practices: Chemical and Health Assessment of Bakhour

Authors: Yehya Elsayed, Sarah Dalibalta, Fareedah Alqtaishat, Ioline Gomes, Nagelle Fernandes


Bakhour or Arabian incense is traditionally used to perfume houses, shops and clothing as part of cultural or religious practices in several Middle Eastern countries. Conventionally, Bakhour consists of a mixture of natural ingredients such as chips of agarwood (oud), musk and sandalwoods that are soaked in scented oil. Bakhour is usually burned by charcoal or by using gas or electric burners to produce the scented smoke. It is necessary to evaluate the impact of such practice on human health and environment especially that the burning of Bakhour is usually done on a regular basis and in closed areas without proper ventilation. Although significant amount of research has been reported in scientific literature on the chemical analysis of various types of incense smoke, unfortunately only very few of them focused specifically on the health impacts of Bakhour. Raw Bakhour samples, their smoke emissions and the ash residue were analyzed to assess the existence of toxic ingredients and their possible influence on health and the environment. Three brands of Bakhour samples were analyzed for the presence of harmful heavy metals and organic compounds. Thermal Desorption Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) was used to identify organic compounds while Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) and Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometer (SEM-EDS) were used to analyze the presence of toxic and heavy metals. Organic compounds from the smoke were collected on specific tenax and activated carbon adsorption tubes. More than 850 chemical compounds were identified. The presence of 19 carcinogens, 23 toxins and 173 irritants were confirmed. Additionally, heavy metals were detected in amounts similar to those present in cigarettes. However, it was noticed that many of the detected compounds in the smoke lacked clinical studies on their health effects which shows the need for further clinical studies to be devoted to this area of study.

Keywords: Bakhour, incense smoke, pollution, indoor environment, health risk, chemical analysis

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20 Chemical and Health Assessment of Bakhour: Risks of Traditional Practices

Authors: Yehya Elsayed, Sarah Dalibalta, Fareedah Alqtaishat, Ioline Gomes, Nagelle Fernandes


Bakhour, or Arabian incense, is traditionally used to perfume houses, shops and clothing as part of cultural or religious practices in several Middle Eastern countries. Conventionally, Bakhour consists of a mixture of natural ingredients such as chips of agarwood (oud), musk and sandalwoods that are soaked in scented oil. Bakhour is usually burned by charcoal or by using gas or electric burners to produce the scented smoke. It is necessary to evaluate the impact of such practice on human health and environment especially that the burning of Bakhour is usually done on a regular basis and in closed areas without proper ventilation. Although significant amount of research has been reported in scientific literature on the chemical analysis of various types of incense smoke, unfortunately, only very few of them focused specifically on the health impacts of Bakhour. Raw Bakhour samples, their smoke emissions and the ash residue were analyzed to assess the existence of toxic ingredients and their possible influence on health and the environment. Three brands of Bakhour samples were analyzed for the presence of harmful heavy metals and organic compounds. Thermal Desorption Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) was used to identify organic compounds while Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) and Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometer (SEM-EDS) were used to analyze the presence of toxic and heavy metals.. Organic compounds from the smoke were collected on specific tenax and activated carbon adsorption tubes. More than 850 chemical compounds were identified. The presence of 19 carcinogens, 23 toxins, and 173 irritants were confirmed. Additionally, heavy metals were detected in amounts similar to those present in cigarettes. However, it was noticed that many of the detected compounds in the smoke lacked clinical studies on their health effects which shows the need for further clinical studies to be devoted to this area of study.

Keywords: bakhour, incense smoke, pollution, indoor environment, health risk, chemical analysis

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19 The Effect of Composite Hybridization on the Back Face Deformation of Armor Plates

Authors: Attef Kouadria, Yehya Bouteghrine, Amar Manaa, Tarek Mouats, Djalel Eddine Tria, Hamid Abdelhafid Ghouti


Personal protection systems have been used in several forms for centuries. The need for light-weight composite structures has been in great demand due to their weight and high mechanical properties ratios in comparison to heavy and cumbersome steel plates. In this regard, lighter ceramic plates with a backing plate made of high strength polymeric fibers, mostly aramids, are widely used for protection against ballistic threats. This study aims to improve the ballistic performance of ceramic/composite plates subjected to ballistic impact by reducing the back face deformation (BFD) measured after each test. A new hybridization technique was developed in this investigation to increase the energy absorption capabilities of the backing plates. The hybridization consists of combining different types of aramid fabrics with different linear densities of aramid fibers (Dtex) and areal densities with an epoxy resin to form the backing plate. Therefore, several composite structures architectures were prepared and tested. For better understanding the effect of the hybridization, a serial of tensile, compression, and shear tests were conducted to determine the mechanical properties of the homogeneous composite materials prepared from different fabrics. It was found that the hybridization allows the backing plate to combine between the mechanical properties of the used fabrics. Aramid fabrics with higher Dtex were found to increase the mechanical strength of the backing plate, while those with lower Dtex found to enhance the lateral wave dispersion ratio due to their lower areal density. Therefore, the back face deformation was significantly reduced in comparison to a homogeneous composite plate.

Keywords: aramid fabric, ballistic impact, back face deformation, body armor, composite, mechanical testing

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18 The Effects of Self-Efficacy on Challenge and Threat States

Authors: Nadine Sammy, Mark Wilson, Samuel Vine


The Theory of Challenge and Threat States in Athletes (TCTSA) states that self-efficacy is an antecedent of challenge and threat. These states result from conscious and unconscious evaluations of situational demands and personal resources and are represented by both cognitive and physiological markers. Challenge is considered a more adaptive stress response as it is associated with a more efficient cardiovascular profile, as well as better performance and attention effects compared with threat. Self-efficacy is proposed to influence challenge/threat because an individual’s belief that they have the skills necessary to execute the courses of action required to succeed contributes to a perception that they can cope with the demands of the situation. This study experimentally examined the effects of self-efficacy on cardiovascular responses (challenge and threat), demand and resource evaluations, performance and attention under pressurised conditions. Forty-five university students were randomly assigned to either a control (n=15), low self-efficacy (n=15) or high self-efficacy (n=15) group and completed baseline and pressurised golf putting tasks. Self-efficacy was manipulated using false feedback adapted from previous studies. Measures of self-efficacy, cardiovascular reactivity, demand and resource evaluations, task performance and attention were recorded. The high self-efficacy group displayed more favourable cardiovascular reactivity, indicative of a challenge state, compared with the low self-efficacy group. The former group also reported high resource evaluations, but no task performance or attention effects were detected. These findings demonstrate that levels of self-efficacy influence cardiovascular reactivity and perceptions of resources under pressurised conditions.

Keywords: cardiovascular, challenge, performance, threat

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17 The Impact of Vertical Velocity Parameter Conditions and Its Relationship with Weather Parameters in the Hail Event

Authors: Nadine Ayasha


Hail happened in Sukabumi (August 23, 2020), Sekadau (August 22, 2020), and Bogor (September 23, 2020), where this extreme weather phenomenon occurred in the dry season. This study uses the ERA5 reanalysis model data, it aims to examine the vertical velocity impact on the hail occurrence in the dry season, as well as its relation to other weather parameters such as relative humidity, streamline, and wind velocity. Moreover, HCAI product satellite data is used as supporting data for the convective cloud development analysis. Based on the results of graphs, contours, and Hovmoller vertical cut from ERA5 modeling, the vertical velocity values in the 925 Mb-300 Mb layer in Sukabumi, Sekadau, and Bogor before the hail event ranged between -1.2-(-0.2), -1.5-(-0.2), -1-0 Pa/s. A negative value indicates that there is an upward motion from the air mass that trigger the convective cloud growth, which produces hail. It is evidenced by the presence of Cumulonimbus cloud on HCAI product when the hail falls. Therefore, the vertical velocity has significant effect on the hail event. In addition, the relative humidity in the 850-700 Mb layer is quite wet, which ranges from 80-90%. Meanwhile, the streamline and wind velocity in the three regions show the convergence with slowing wind velocity ranging from 2-4 knots. These results show that the upward motion of the vertical velocity is enough to form the wet atmospheric humidity and form a convergence for the growth of the convective cloud, which produce hail in the dry season.

Keywords: hail, extreme weather, vertical velocity, relative humidity, streamline

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16 Economic Assessment of CO2-Based Methane, Methanol and Polyoxymethylene Production

Authors: Wieland Hoppe, Nadine Wachter, Stefan Bringezu


Carbon dioxide (CO2) utilization might be a promising way to substitute fossil raw materials like coal, oil or natural gas as carbon source of chemical production. While first life cycle assessments indicate a positive environmental performance of CO2-based process routes, a commercialization of CO2 is limited by several economic obstacles up to now. We, therefore, analyzed the economic performance of the three CO2-based chemicals methane and methanol as basic chemicals and polyoxymethylene as polymer on a cradle-to-gate basis. Our approach is oriented towards life cycle costing. The focus lies on the cost drivers of CO2-based technologies and options to stimulate a CO2-based economy by changing regulative factors. In this way, we analyze various modes of operation and give an outlook for the potentially cost-effective development in the next decades. Biogas, waste gases of a cement plant, and flue gases of a waste incineration plant are considered as CO2-sources. The energy needed to convert CO2 into hydrocarbons via electrolysis is assumed to be supplied by wind power, which is increasingly available in Germany. Economic data originates from both industrial processes and process simulations. The results indicate that CO2-based production technologies are not competitive with conventional production methods under present conditions. This is mainly due to high electricity generation costs and regulative factors like the German Renewable Energy Act (EEG). While the decrease in production costs of CO2-based chemicals might be limited in the next decades, a modification of relevant regulative factors could potentially promote an earlier commercialization.

Keywords: carbon capture and utilization (CCU), economic assessment, life cycle costing (LCC), power-to-X

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15 Validation of the Arabic Version of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)

Authors: Arij Yehya, Suhaila Ghuloum, Abdlmoneim Abdulhakam, Azza Al-Mujalli, Mark Opler, Samer Hammoudeh, Yahya Hani, Sundus Mari, Reem Elsherbiny, Ziyad Mahfoud, Hassen Al-Amin


Introduction: The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) is a valid instrument developed by Kay and colleagues6 to assess symptoms of patients with schizophrenia. It consists of 30 items that factor the symptoms into three subscales: positive, negative and general psychopathology. This scale has been translated and validated in several languages. Objective: This study aims to determine the validity and psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the PANSS. Methods: A standardized translation and cultural adaptation method was adopted. Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (n=98), according to psychiatrist’s diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria, were recruited from the Psychiatry Department at Rumailah Hospital, Qatar. A first rater confirmed the diagnosis using the Arabic version of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI 6). A second and independent rater-administered the Arabic version of PANSS. Also, a control group (n=101), with no history of psychiatric disorder was recruited from the family and friends of the patients and from primary health care centers in Qatar. Results: There were more males than females in our sample of patients with schizophrenia (68.9% and 31.6%, respectively). On the other hand, in the control group the number of females outweighed that of males (58.4% and 41.6% respectively). The scale had a good internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha 0.91. There was a significant difference between the scores on the three subscales of the PANSS. Patients with schizophrenia scored significantly higher (p<.0001) than the control subjects on subscales for positive symptoms 20.01(SD=7.21) and 7.30(SD=1.38), negative symptoms 18.89(SD=8.88) and 7.37(SD=2.38) and general psychopathology 34.41 (SD=11.56) and 16.93 (SD=3.93), respectively. Factor analysis and ROC curve were carried out to further test the psychometrics of the scale. Conclusions: The Arabic version of PANSS is a reliable and valid tool to assess both positive and negative symptoms of patients with schizophrenia in a balanced manner. In addition to providing the Arab population with a standardized tool to monitor symptoms of schizophrenia, this version provides a gateway to compare the prevalence of positive and negative symptoms in the Arab world which can be compared to others done elsewhere.

Keywords: Arabic version, assessment, diagnosis, schizophrenia, validation

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14 Sustainable Adaptation: Social Equity and Local-Level Climate Adaptation Planning in U.S. Cities

Authors: Duran Fiack, Jeremy Cumberbatch, Michael Sutherland, Nadine Zerphey


Civic leaders have increasingly relied upon local climate adaptation plans to identify vulnerabilities, prioritize goals, and implement actions in order to prepare cities for the present and projected effects of global climate change. The concept of sustainability is central to these efforts, as climate adaptation discussions are often framed within the context of economic resilience, environmental protection, and the distribution of climate change impacts across various socioeconomic groups. For urban centers, the climate change issue presents unique challenges for each of these dimensions; however, its potential impacts on marginalized populations are extensive. This study draws from the ‘just sustainabilities’ framework to perform a qualitative analysis of climate adaptation plans prepared by 22 of the 100 largest U.S. cities and examine whether, and to what extent, such initiatives prioritize social equity improvements. Past research has found that the integration of sustainability in urban policy and planning often produces outcomes that favor environmental and economic objectives over social equity improvements. We find that social equity is a particularly prominent theme in local-level climate adaptation efforts, relative to environmental quality and economic development. The findings contribute to the literature on climate adaptation and sustainability within the urban context and offer practical insight for local-level stakeholders concerning potential obstacles and opportunities for the integration of social equity initiatives into climate adaptation planning. Given the likelihood that climate changes will continue to impose unique challenges for marginalized communities in urban areas, advancing our understanding of how social equity concerns are integrated into adaptation efforts is likely to become an increasingly critical area of inquiry.

Keywords: climate adaptation plan, climate change, social equity, sustainability

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13 STD-NMR Based Protein Engineering of the Unique Arylpropionate-Racemase AMDase G74C

Authors: Sarah Gaßmeyer, Nadine Hülsemann, Raphael Stoll, Kenji Miyamoto, Robert Kourist


Enzymatic racemization allows the smooth interconversion of stereocenters under very mild reaction conditions. Racemases find frequent applications in deracemization and dynamic kinetic resolutions. Arylmalonate decarboxylase (AMDase) from Bordetella Bronchiseptica has high structural similarity to amino acid racemases. These cofactor-free racemases are able to break chemically strong CH-bonds under mild conditions. The racemase-like catalytic machinery of mutant G74C conveys it a unique activity in the racemisation of pharmacologically relevant derivates of 2-phenylpropionic acid (profenes), which makes AMDase G74C an interesting object for the mechanistic investigation of cofactor-independent racemases. Structure-guided protein engineering achieved a variant of this unique racemase with 40-fold increased activity in the racemisation of several arylaliphatic carboxylic acids. By saturation–transfer–difference NMR spectroscopy (STD-NMR), substrate binding during catalysis was investigated. All atoms of the substrate showed interactions with the enzyme. STD-NMR measurements revealed distinct nuclear Overhauser effects in experiments with and without molecular conversion. The spectroscopic analysis led to the identification of several amino acid residues whose variation increased the activity of G74C. While single-amino acid exchanges increased the activity moderately, structure-guided saturation mutagenesis yielded a quadruple mutant with a 40 times higher reaction rate. This study presents STD-NMR as versatile tool for the analysis of enzyme-substrate interactions in catalytically competent systems and for the guidance of protein engineering.

Keywords: racemase, rational protein design, STD-NMR, structure guided saturation mutagenesis

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12 Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles as Support for Classical Anti-cancer Therapies

Authors: Nadine Wiesmann, Melanie Viel, Christoph Buhr, Rachel Tanner, Wolfgang Tremel, Juergen Brieger


Recidivation of tumors and the development of resistances against the classical anti-tumor approaches represent a major challenge we face when treating cancer. In order to master this challenge, we are in desperate need of new treatment options beyond the beaten tracks. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) represent such an innovative approach. Zinc oxide is characterized by a high level of biocompatibility, concurrently ZnO NPs are able to exert anti-tumor effects. By concentration of the nanoparticles at the tumor site, tumor cells can specifically be exposed to the nanoparticles while low zinc concentrations at off-target sites are tolerated well and can be excreted easily. We evaluated the toxicity of ZnO NPs in vitro with the help of immortalized tumor cell lines and primary cells stemming from healthy tissue. Additionally, the Chorioallantoic Membrane Assay (CAM Assay) was employed to gain insights into the in vivo behavior of the nanoparticles. We could show that ZnO NPs interact with tumor cells as nanoparticulate matter. Furthermore, the extensive release of zinc ions from the nanoparticles nearby and within the tumor cells results in overload with zinc. Beyond that, ZnO NPs were found to further the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We were able to show that tumor cells were more prone to the toxic effects of ZnO NPs at intermediate concentrations compared to fibroblasts. With the help of ZnO NPs covered by a silica shell in which FITC dye was incorporated, we were able to track ZnO NPs within tumor cells as well as within a whole organism in the CAM assay after injection into the bloodstream. Depending on the applied concentrations, selective tumor cell killing seems feasible. Furthermore, the combinational treatment of tumor cells with radiotherapy and ZnO NPs shows promising results. Still, further investigations are needed to gain a better understanding of the interaction between ZnO NPs and the human body to be able to pave the way for their application as an innovative anti-tumor agent in the clinics.

Keywords: metal oxide nanoparticles, nanomedicine, overcome resistances against classical treatment options, zinc oxide nanoparticles

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11 Short-Term Association of In-vehicle Ultrafine Particles and Black Carbon Concentrations with Respiratory Health in Parisian Taxi Drivers

Authors: Melissa Hachem, Maxime Loizeau, Nadine Saleh, Isabelle Momas, Lynda Bensefa-Colas


Professional drivers are exposed inside their vehicles to high levels of air pollutants due to the considerable time they spend close to motor vehicle emissions. Little is known about ultrafine particles (UFP) or black carbon (BC) adverse respiratory health effects compared to the regulated pollutants. We aimed to study the short-term associations between UFP and BC concentrations inside vehicles and (1) the onset of mucosal irritation and (2) the acute changes in lung function of Parisian taxi drivers during a working day. An epidemiological study was carried out on 50 taxi drivers in Paris. UFP and BC were measured inside their vehicles with DiSCmini® and microAeth®, respectively. On the same day, the frequency and the severity of nose, eye, and throat irritations were self-reported by each participant and a spirometry test was performed before and after the work shift. Multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the associations between in-taxis UFP and BC concentrations and mucosal irritation and lung function, after adjustment for potential confounders. In-taxis UFP concentrations ranged from 17.9 to 37.9 × 103 particles/cm³ and BC concentrations from 2.2 to 3.9 μg/m³, during a mean of 9 ± 2 working hours. Significant dose-response relationships were observed between in-taxis UFP concentrations and both nasal irritation and lung function. The increase of in-taxis UFP (for an interquartile range of 20 × 103 particles/cm3) was associated to an increase in nasal irritation (adjusted OR = 6.27 [95% CI: 1.02 to 38.62]) and to a reduction in forced expiratory flow at 25–75% by −7.44% [95% CI: −12.63 to −2.24], forced expiratory volume in one second by −4.46% [95% CI: −6.99 to −1.93] and forced vital capacity by −3.31% [95% CI: −5.82 to −0.80]. Such associations were not found with BC. Incident throat and eye irritations were not related to in-vehicle particles exposure; however, they were associated with outdoor air quality (estimated by the Atmo index) and in-vehicle humidity, respectively. This study is the first to show a significant association, within a short-period of time, between in-vehicle UFP exposure and acute respiratory effects in professional drivers.

Keywords: black carbon, lung function, mucosal irritation, taxi drivers, ultrafine particles

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10 Molecular Detection of E. coli in Treated Wastewater and Well Water Samples Collected from Al Riyadh Governorate, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Hanouf A. S. Al Nuwaysir, Nadine Moubayed, Abir Ben Bacha, Islem Abid


Consumption of waste water continues to cause significant problems for human health in both developed and developing countries. Many regulations have been implied by different world authorities controlling water quality for the presence of coliforms used as standard indicators of water quality deterioration and historically leading health protection concept. In this study, the European directive for the detection of Escherichia coli, ISO 9308-1, was applied to examine and monitor coliforms in water samples collected from Wadi Hanifa and neighboring wells, Riyadh governorate, kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which is used for irrigation and industrial purposes. Samples were taken from different locations for 8 months consecutively, chlorine concentration ranging from 0.1- 0.4 mg/l, was determined using the DPD FREE CHLORINE HACH kit. Water samples were then analyzed following the ISO protocol which relies on the membrane filtration technique (0.45µm, pore size membrane filter) and a chromogenic medium TTC, a lactose based medium used for the detection and enumeration of total coliforms and E.coli. Data showed that the number of bacterial isolates ranged from 60 to 300 colonies/100ml for well and surface water samples respectively; where higher numbers were attributed to the surface samples. Organisms which apparently ferment lactose on TTC agar plates, appearing as orange colonies, were selected and additionally cultured on EMB and MacConkey agar for a further differentiation among E.coli and coliform bacteria. Two additional biochemical tests (Cytochrome oxidase and indole from tryptophan) were also investigated to detect and differentiate the presence of E.coli from other coliforms, E. coli was identified in an average of 5 to 7colonies among 25 selected colonies.On the other hand, a more rapid, specific and sensitive analytical molecular detection namely single colony PCR was also performed targeting hha gene to sensitively detect E.coli, giving more accurate and time consuming identification of colonies considered presumptively as E.coli. Comparative methodologies, such as ultrafiltration and direct DNA extraction from membrane filters (MoBio, Grermany) were also applied; however, results were not as accurate as the membrane filtration, making it a technique of choice for the detection and enumeration of water coliforms, followed by sufficiently specific enzymatic confirmatory stage.

Keywords: coliform, cytochrome oxidase, hha primer, membrane filtration, single colony PCR

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9 [Keynote Talk]: Production Flow Coordination on Supply Chains: Brazilian Case Studies

Authors: Maico R. Severino, Laura G. Caixeta, Nadine M. Costa, Raísa L. T. Napoleão, Éverton F. V. Valle, Diego D. Calixto, Danielle Oliveira


One of the biggest barriers that companies find nowadays is the coordination of production flow in their Supply Chains (SC). In this study, coordination is understood as a mechanism for incorporating the entire production channel, with everyone involved focused on achieving the same goals. Sometimes, this coordination is attempted by the use of logistics practices or production plan and control methods. No papers were found in the literature that presented the combined use of logistics practices and production plan and control methods. The main objective of this paper is to propose solutions for six case studies combining logistics practices and Ordering Systems (OS). The methodology used in this study was a conceptual model of decision making. This model contains six phases: a) the analysis the types and characteristics of relationships in the SC; b) the choice of the OS; c) the choice of the logistics practices; d) the development of alternative proposals of combined use; e) the analysis of the consistency of the chosen alternative; f) the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the impact on the coordination of the production flow and the verification of applicability of the proposal in the real case. This study was conducted on six Brazilian SC of different sectors: footwear, food and beverages, garment, sugarcane, mineral and metal mechanical. The results from this study showed that there was improvement in the coordination of the production flow through the following proposals: a) for the footwear industry the use of Period Bath Control (PBC), Quick Response (QR) and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP); b) for the food and beverage sector firstly the use of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), ERP, Continuous Replenishment (CR) and Drum-Buffer-Rope Order (DBR) (for situations in which the plants of both companies are distant), and secondly EDI, ERP, Milk-Run and Review System Continues (for situations in which the plants of both companies are close); c) for the garment industry the use of Collaborative Planning, Forecasting, and Replenishment (CPFR) and Constant Work-In-Process (CONWIP) System; d) for the sugarcane sector the use of EDI, ERP and CONWIP System; e) for the mineral processes industry the use of Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI), EDI and MaxMin Control System; f) for the metal mechanical sector the use of CONWIP System and Continuous Replenishment (CR). It should be emphasized that the proposals are exclusively recommended for the relationship between client and supplier studied. Therefore, it cannot be generalized to other cases. However, what can be generalized is the methodology used to choose the best practices for each case. Based on the study, it can be concluded that the combined use of OS and logistics practices enable a better coordination of flow production on SC.

Keywords: supply chain management, production flow coordination, logistics practices, ordering systems

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8 A Qualitative Exploration of the Beliefs and Experiences of HIV-Related Self-Stigma Amongst Young Adults Living with HIV in Zimbabwe

Authors: Camille Rich, Nadine Ferris France, Ann Nolan, Webster Mavhu, Vongai Munatsi


Background and Aim: Zimbabwe has one of the highest HIV rates in the world, with a 12.7% adult prevalence rate. Young adults are a key group affected by HIV, and one-third of all new infections in Zimbabwe are amongst people ages 18-24 years. Stigma remains one of the main barriers to managing and reducing the HIV crisis, especially for young adults. There are several types of stigma, including enacted stigma, the outward discrimination towards someone and self-stigma, the negative self-judgments one has towards themselves. Self-stigma can have severe consequences, including feelings of worthlessness, shame, suicidal thoughts, and avoidance of medical help. This can have detrimental effects on those living with HIV. However, the unique beliefs and impacts of self-stigma amongst key groups living with HIV have not yet been explored. Therefore, the focus of this study is on the beliefs and experiences of HIV-related self-stigma, as experienced by young adults living in Harare, Zimbabwe. Research Methods: A qualitative approach was taken for this study, using sixteen semi-structured interviews with young adults (18-24 years) who are living with HIV in Harare. Participants were conveniently and purposefully sampled as members of Africa, an organization dedicated to young people living with HIV. Interviews were conducted over Zoom due to the COVID-19 pandemic, recorded and then coded using the software NVivo. The data was analyzed using both inductive and deductive Thematic Analysis to find common themes. Results: All of the participants experienced HIV-related self-stigma, and both beliefs and experiences were explored. These negative self-perceptions included beliefs of worthlessness, hopelessness, and negative body image. The young adults described believing they were not good enough to be around HIV negative people or that they could never be loved due to their HIV status. Developing self-stigmatizing thoughts came from internalizing negative cultural values, stereotypes about people living with HIV, and adverse experiences. Three main themes of self-stigmatizing experiences emerged: disclosure difficulties, relationship complications, and being isolated. Fear of telling someone their status, rejection in a relationship, and being excluded by others due to their HIV status contributed to their self-stigma. These experiences caused feelings of loneliness, sadness, shame, fear, and low self-worth. Conclusions: This study explored the beliefs and experiences of HIV-related self-stigma of these young adults. The emergence of negative self-perceptions demonstrated deep-rooted beliefs of HIV-related self-stigma that adversely impact the participants. The negative self-perceptions and self-stigmatizing experiences caused the participants to feel worthless, hopeless, shameful, and alone-negatively impacting their physical and mental health, personal relationships, and sense of self-identity. These results can now be used to pursue interventions to target the specific beliefs and experiences of young adults living with HIV and reduce the adverse consequences of self-stigma.

Keywords: beliefs, HIV, self-stigma, stigma, Zimbabwe

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7 Numerical Investigation of the Influence on Buckling Behaviour Due to Different Launching Bearings

Authors: Nadine Maier, Martin Mensinger, Enea Tallushi


In general, today, two types of launching bearings are used in the construction of large steel and steel concrete composite bridges. These are sliding rockers and systems with hydraulic bearings. The advantages and disadvantages of the respective systems are under discussion. During incremental launching, the center of the webs of the superstructure is not perfectly in line with the center of the launching bearings due to unavoidable tolerances, which may have an influence on the buckling behavior of the web plates. These imperfections are not considered in the current design against plate buckling, according to DIN EN 1993-1-5. It is therefore investigated whether the design rules have to take into account any eccentricities which occur during incremental launching and also if this depends on the respective launching bearing. Therefore, at the Technical University Munich, large-scale buckling tests were carried out on longitudinally stiffened plates under biaxial stresses with the two different types of launching bearings and eccentric load introduction. Based on the experimental results, a numerical model was validated. Currently, we are evaluating different parameters for both types of launching bearings, such as load introduction length, load eccentricity, the distance between longitudinal stiffeners, the position of the rotation point of the spherical bearing, which are used within the hydraulic bearings, web, and flange thickness and imperfections. The imperfection depends on the geometry of the buckling field and whether local or global buckling occurs. This and also the size of the meshing is taken into account in the numerical calculations of the parametric study. As a geometric imperfection, the scaled first buckling mode is applied. A bilinear material curve is used so that a GMNIA analysis is performed to determine the load capacity. Stresses and displacements are evaluated in different directions, and specific stress ratios are determined at the critical points of the plate at the time of the converging load step. To evaluate the load introduction of the transverse load, the transverse stress concentration is plotted on a defined longitudinal section on the web. In the same way, the rotation of the flange is evaluated in order to show the influence of the different degrees of freedom of the launching bearings under eccentric load introduction and to be able to make an assessment for the case, which is relevant in practice. The input and the output are automatized and depend on the given parameters. Thus we are able to adapt our model to different geometric dimensions and load conditions. The programming is done with the help of APDL and a Python code. This allows us to evaluate and compare more parameters faster. Input and output errors are also avoided. It is, therefore, possible to evaluate a large spectrum of parameters in a short time, which allows a practical evaluation of different parameters for buckling behavior. This paper presents the results of the tests as well as the validation and parameterization of the numerical model and shows the first influences on the buckling behavior under eccentric and multi-axial load introduction.

Keywords: buckling behavior, eccentric load introduction, incremental launching, large scale buckling tests, multi axial stress states, parametric numerical modelling

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6 The Stable Isotopic Composition of Pedogenic Carbonate in the Minusinsk Basin, South Siberia

Authors: Jessica Vasil'chuk, Elena Ivanova, Pavel Krechetov, Vladimir Litvinsky, Nadine Budantseva, Julia Chizhova, Yurij Vasil'chuk


Carbonate minerals’ isotopic composition is widely used as a proxy for environmental parameters of the past. Pedogenic carbonate coatings on lower surfaces of coarse rock fragments are studied in order to indicate the climatic conditions and predominant vegetation under which they were formed. The purpose of the research is to characterize the isotopic composition of carbonate pedofeatures in soils of Minusink Hollow and estimate its correlation with isotopic composition of soil pore water, precipitation, vegetation and parent material. The samples of pedogenic carbonates, vegetation, carbonate parent material, soil water and precipitation water were analyzed using the Delta-V mass spectrometer with options of a gas bench and element analyser. The soils we studied are mainly Kastanozems that are poorly moisturized, therefore soil pore water was extracted by ethanol. Oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of pedogenic carbonates was analyzed in 3 key sites. Kazanovka Khakass state national reserve, Hankul salt lake, region of Sayanogorsk aluminum smelter. Vegetation photosynthetic pathway in the region is mainly C3. δ18O values of carbonate coatings in soils of Kazanovka vary in a range from −7.49 to −10.5‰ (vs V-PDB), and the smallest value −13.9‰ corresponds the coatings found between two buried soil horizons which 14C dates are 4.6 and 5.2 kyr BP. That may indicate cooler conditions of late Holocene than nowadays. In Sayanogorsk carbonates’ δ18O range is from −8.3 to −11.1‰ and near the Hankul Lake is from −9.0 to −10.2‰ all ranges are quite similar and may indicate coatings’ uniform formation conditions. δ13C values of carbonate coatings in Kazanovka vary from −2.5 to −6.7‰, the highest values correspond to the soils of Askiz and Syglygkug rivers former floodplains. For Sayanogorsk the range is from −4.9 to −6.8‰ and for Hankul from −2.3 to −5.7‰, where the highest value is for the modern salt crust. δ13C values of coatings strongly decrease from inner (older) to outer (younger) layers of coatings, that can indicate differences connected with the diffusion of organic material. Carbonate parent material δ18O value in the region vary from −11.1 to −12.0‰ and δ13C values vary from −4.9 to −5.7‰. Soil pore water δ18O values that determine the oxygen isotope composition of carbonates vary due to the processes of transpiration and mixing in the studied sites in a wide range of −2.0 to −13.5‰ (vs V-SMOW). Precipitation waters show δ18O values from -6.6‰ in May and -19.0‰ in January (snow) due to the temperature difference. The main conclusions are as follows: pedogenic carbonates δ13C values (−7…−2,5‰) show no correlation with modern C3 vegetation δ13C values (−30…−26‰), expected values under such vegetation are (−19…−15‰) but are closer to C4 vegetation. Late Holocene climate for the Minusinsk Hollow according to obtained data on isotope composition of carbonates and soil pore water chemical composition was dryer and cooler than present, that does not contradict with paleocarpology data obtained for the region. The research was supported by Russian Science Foundation (grant №14-27-00083).

Keywords: carbon, oxygen, pedogenic carbonates, South Siberia, stable isotopes

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5 Piezotronic Effect on Electrical Characteristics of Zinc Oxide Varistors

Authors: Nadine Raidl, Benjamin Kaufmann, Michael Hofstätter, Peter Supancic


If polycrystalline ZnO is properly doped and sintered under very specific conditions, it shows unique electrical properties, which are indispensable for today’s electronic industries, where it is used as the number one overvoltage protection material. Under a critical voltage, the polycrystalline bulk exhibits high electrical resistance but becomes suddenly up to twelve magnitudes more conductive if this voltage limit is exceeded (i.e., varistor effect). It is known that these peerless properties have their origin in the grain boundaries of the material. Electric charge is accumulated in the boundaries, causing a depletion layer in their vicinity and forming potential barriers (so-called Double Schottky Barriers, or DSB) which are responsible for the highly non-linear conductivity. Since ZnO is a piezoelectric material, mechanical stresses induce polarisation charges that modify the DSB heights and as a result the global electrical characteristics (i.e., piezotronic effect). In this work, a finite element method was used to simulate emerging stresses on individual grains in the bulk. Besides, experimental efforts were made to testify a coherent model that could explain this influence. Electron back scattering diffraction was used to identify grain orientations. With the help of wet chemical etching, grain polarization was determined. Micro lock-in infrared thermography (MLIRT) was applied to detect current paths through the material, and a micro 4-point probes method system (M4PPS) was employed to investigate current-voltage characteristics between single grains. Bulk samples were tested under uniaxial pressure. It was found that the conductivity can increase by up to three orders of magnitude with increasing stress. Through in-situ MLIRT, it could be shown that this effect is caused by the activation of additional current paths in the material. Further, compressive tests were performed on miniaturized samples with grain paths containing solely one or two grain boundaries. The tests evinced both an increase of the conductivity, as observed for the bulk, as well as a decreased conductivity. This phenomenon has been predicted theoretically and can be explained by piezotronically induced surface charges that have an impact on the DSB at the grain boundaries. Depending on grain orientation and stress direction, DSB can be raised or lowered. Also, the experiments revealed that the conductivity within one single specimen can increase and decrease, depending on the current direction. This novel finding indicates the existence of asymmetric Double Schottky Barriers, which was furthermore proved by complementary methods. MLIRT studies showed that the intensity of heat generation within individual current paths is dependent on the direction of the stimulating current. M4PPS was used to study the relationship between the I-V characteristics of single grain boundaries and grain orientation and revealed asymmetric behavior for very specific orientation configurations. A new model for the Double Schottky Barrier, taking into account the natural asymmetry and explaining the experimental results, will be given.

Keywords: Asymmetric Double Schottky Barrier, piezotronic, varistor, zinc oxide

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4 Quantified Metabolomics for the Determination of Phenotypes and Biomarkers across Species in Health and Disease

Authors: Miroslava Cuperlovic-Culf, Lipu Wang, Ketty Boyle, Nadine Makley, Ian Burton, Anissa Belkaid, Mohamed Touaibia, Marc E. Surrette


Metabolic changes are one of the major factors in the development of a variety of diseases in various species. Metabolism of agricultural plants is altered the following infection with pathogens sometimes contributing to resistance. At the same time, pathogens use metabolites for infection and progression. In humans, metabolism is a hallmark of cancer development for example. Quantified metabolomics data combined with other omics or clinical data and analyzed using various unsupervised and supervised methods can lead to better diagnosis and prognosis. It can also provide information about resistance as well as contribute knowledge of compounds significant for disease progression or prevention. In this work, different methods for metabolomics quantification and analysis from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements that are used for investigation of disease development in wheat and human cells will be presented. One-dimensional 1H NMR spectra are used extensively for metabolic profiling due to their high reliability, wide range of applicability, speed, trivial sample preparation and low cost. This presentation will describe a new method for metabolite quantification from NMR data that combines alignment of spectra of standards to sample spectra followed by multivariate linear regression optimization of spectra of assigned metabolites to samples’ spectra. Several different alignment methods were tested and multivariate linear regression result has been compared with other quantification methods. Quantified metabolomics data can be analyzed in the variety of ways and we will present different clustering methods used for phenotype determination, network analysis providing knowledge about the relationships between metabolites through metabolic network as well as biomarker selection providing novel markers. These analysis methods have been utilized for the investigation of fusarium head blight resistance in wheat cultivars as well as analysis of the effect of estrogen receptor and carbonic anhydrase activation and inhibition on breast cancer cell metabolism. Metabolic changes in spikelet’s of wheat cultivars FL62R1, Stettler, MuchMore and Sumai3 following fusarium graminearum infection were explored. Extensive 1D 1H and 2D NMR measurements provided information for detailed metabolite assignment and quantification leading to possible metabolic markers discriminating resistance level in wheat subtypes. Quantification data is compared to results obtained using other published methods. Fusarium infection induced metabolic changes in different wheat varieties are discussed in the context of metabolic network and resistance. Quantitative metabolomics has been used for the investigation of the effect of targeted enzyme inhibition in cancer. In this work, the effect of 17 β -estradiol and ferulic acid on metabolism of ER+ breast cancer cells has been compared to their effect on ER- control cells. The effect of the inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase on the observed metabolic changes resulting from ER activation has also been determined. Metabolic profiles were studied using 1D and 2D metabolomic NMR experiments, combined with the identification and quantification of metabolites, and the annotation of the results is provided in the context of biochemical pathways.

Keywords: metabolic biomarkers, metabolic network, metabolomics, multivariate linear regression, NMR quantification, quantified metabolomics, spectral alignment

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3 Zinc Oxide Varistor Performance: A 3D Network Model

Authors: Benjamin Kaufmann, Michael Hofstätter, Nadine Raidl, Peter Supancic


ZnO varistors are the leading overvoltage protection elements in today’s electronic industry. Their highly non-linear current-voltage characteristics, very fast response times, good reliability and attractive cost of production are unique in this field. There are challenges and questions unsolved. Especially, the urge to create even smaller, versatile and reliable parts, that fit industry’s demands, brings manufacturers to the limits of their abilities. Although, the varistor effect of sintered ZnO is known since the 1960’s, and a lot of work was done on this field to explain the sudden exponential increase of conductivity, the strict dependency on sinter parameters, as well as the influence of the complex microstructure, is not sufficiently understood. For further enhancement and down-scaling of varistors, a better understanding of the microscopic processes is needed. This work attempts a microscopic approach to investigate ZnO varistor performance. In order to cope with the polycrystalline varistor ceramic and in order to account for all possible current paths through the material, a preferably realistic model of the microstructure was set up in the form of three-dimensional networks where every grain has a constant electric potential, and voltage drop occurs only at the grain boundaries. The electro-thermal workload, depending on different grain size distributions, was investigated as well as the influence of the metal-semiconductor contact between the electrodes and the ZnO grains. A number of experimental methods are used, firstly, to feed the simulations with realistic parameters and, secondly, to verify the obtained results. These methods are: a micro 4-point probes method system (M4PPS) to investigate the current-voltage characteristics between single ZnO grains and between ZnO grains and the metal electrode inside the varistor, micro lock-in infrared thermography (MLIRT) to detect current paths, electron back scattering diffraction and piezoresponse force microscopy to determine grain orientations, atom probe to determine atomic substituents, Kelvin probe force microscopy for investigating grain surface potentials. The simulations showed that, within a critical voltage range, the current flow is localized along paths which represent only a tiny part of the available volume. This effect could be observed via MLIRT. Furthermore, the simulations exhibit that the electric power density, which is inversely proportional to the number of active current paths, since this number determines the electrical active volume, is dependent on the grain size distribution. M4PPS measurements showed that the electrode-grain contacts behave like Schottky diodes and are crucial for asymmetric current path development. Furthermore, evaluation of actual data suggests that current flow is influenced by grain orientations. The present results deepen the knowledge of influencing microscopic factors on ZnO varistor performance and can give some recommendations on fabrication for obtaining more reliable ZnO varistors.

Keywords: metal-semiconductor contact, Schottky diode, varistor, zinc oxide

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2 Municipalities as Enablers of Citizen-Led Urban Initiatives: Possibilities and Constraints

Authors: Rosa Nadine Danenberg


In recent years, bottom-up urban development has started growing as an alternative to conventional top-down planning. In large proportions, citizens and communities initiate small-scale interventions; suddenly seeming to form a trend. As a result, more and more cities are witnessing not only the growth of but also an interest in these initiatives, as they bear the potential to reshape urban spaces. Such alternative city-making efforts cause new dynamics in urban governance, with inevitable consequences for the controlled city planning and its administration. The emergence of enabling relationships between top-down and bottom-up actors signals an increasingly common urban practice. Various case studies show that an enabling relationship is possible, yet, how it can be optimally realized stays rather underexamined. Therefore, the seemingly growing worldwide phenomenon of ‘municipal bottom-up urban development’ necessitates an adequate governance structure. As such, the aim of this research is to contribute knowledge to how municipalities can enable citizen-led urban initiatives from a governance innovation perspective. Empirical case-study research in Stockholm and Istanbul, derived from interviews with founders of four citizen-led urban initiatives and one municipal representative in each city, provided valuable insights to possibilities and constraints for enabling practices. On the one hand, diverging outcomes emphasize the extreme oppositional features of both cases (Stockholm and Istanbul). Firstly, both cities’ characteristics are drastically different. Secondly, the ideologies and motifs for the initiatives to emerge vary widely. Thirdly, the major constraints for citizen-led urban initiatives to relate to the municipality are considerably different. Two types of municipality’s organizational structures produce different underlying mechanisms which demonstrate the constraints. The first municipal organizational structure is steered by bureaucracy (Stockholm). It produces an administrative division that brings up constraints such as the lack of responsibility, transparency and continuity by municipal representatives. The second structure is dominated by municipal politics and governmental hierarchy (Istanbul). It produces informality, lack of transparency and a fragmented civil society. In order to cope with the constraints produced by both types of organizational structures, the initiatives have adjusted their organization to the municipality’s underlying structures. On the other hand, this paper has in fact also come to a rather unifying conclusion. Interestingly, the suggested possibilities for an enabling relationship underline converging new urban governance arrangements. This could imply that for the two varying types of municipality’s organizational structures there is an accurate governance structure. Namely, the combination of a neighborhood council with a municipal guide, with allowance for the initiatives to adopt a politicizing attitude is found as coinciding. Especially its combination appears key to redeem varying constraints. A municipal guide steers the initiatives through bureaucratic struggles, is supported by coproduction methods, while it balances out municipal politics. Next, a neighborhood council, that is politically neutral and run by local citizens, can function as an umbrella for citizen-led urban initiatives. What is crucial is that it should cater for a more entangled relationship between municipalities and initiatives with enhanced involvement of the initiatives in decision-making processes and limited involvement of prevailing constraints pointed out in this research.

Keywords: bottom-up urban development, governance innovation, Istanbul, Stockholm

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