Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: Chantal Maatouk

13 Dynamic Modeling of Energy Systems Adapted to Low Energy Buildings in Lebanon

Authors: Nadine Yehya, Chantal Maatouk

Abstract:

Low energy buildings have been developed to achieve global climate commitments in reducing energy consumption. They comprise energy efficient buildings, zero energy buildings, positive buildings and passive house buildings. The reduced energy demands in Low Energy buildings call for advanced building energy modeling that focuses on studying active building systems such as heating, cooling and ventilation, improvement of systems performances, and development of control systems. Modeling and building simulation have expanded to cover different modeling approach i.e.: detailed physical model, dynamic empirical models, and hybrid approaches, which are adopted by various simulation tools. This paper uses DesignBuilder with EnergyPlus simulation engine in order to; First, study the impact of efficiency measures on building energy behavior by comparing Low energy residential model to a conventional one in Beirut-Lebanon. Second, choose the appropriate energy systems for the studied case characterized by an important cooling demand. Third, study dynamic modeling of Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) system in EnergyPlus that is chosen due to its advantages over other systems and its availability in the Lebanese market. Finally, simulation of different energy systems models with different modeling approaches is necessary to confront the different modeling approaches and to investigate the interaction between energy systems and building envelope that affects the total energy consumption of Low Energy buildings.

Keywords: physical model, variable refrigerant flow heat pump, dynamic modeling, EnergyPlus, the modeling approach

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12 [Keynote Talk]: Thermal Performance of Common Building Insulation Materials: Operating Temperature and Moisture Effect

Authors: Maatouk Khoukhi

Abstract:

An accurate prediction of the heat transfer through the envelope components of building is required to achieve an accurate cooling/heating load calculation which leads to precise sizing of the hvac equipment. This also depends on the accuracy of the thermal conductivity of the building insulation material. The proper use of thermal insulation in buildings (k-value) contribute significantly to reducing the HVAC size and consequently the annual energy cost. The first part of this paper presents an overview of building thermal insulation and their applications. The second part presents some results related to the change of the polystyrene insulation thermal conductivity with the change of the operating temperature and the moisture. Best-fit linear relationship of the k-value in term of the operating temperatures and different percentage of moisture content by weight has been established. The thermal conductivity of the polystyrene insulation material increases with the increase of both operating temperature and humidity content.

Keywords: building insulation material, moisture content, operating temperature, thermal conductivity

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11 Inhibitory Effect of Potential Bacillus Probiotic Strains against Pathogenic Bacteria and Yeast Isolated from Oral Cavity

Authors: Fdhila Walid, Bayar Sihem, Khouidi Bochra, Maâtouk Fethi, Ben Amor Feten, Hajer Hentati, Mahdhi Abdelkarim

Abstract:

The presence of resistant bacteria in the oral cavity can be the major cause of dental antibiotic prophylaxis failure. Multidrug efflux has been described for many organisms, including bacteria and fungi as part of their drugs resistance strategy. The potential use of probiotic bacteria can be considered as a new alternative in the prevention or cure of oral cavity diseases. In this study, different Bacillus strains isolated from the environment were isolated and characterized using biochemical and molecular procedures. The inhibitory activity against different pathogenic bacteria and yeast strains was tested using diffusion agar assay method. Our data revealed that the tested strains have an antimicrobial effect against the pathogenic strains such as Streptococcus mutants. The inhibitory effect was variable depending from the probiotic and pathogenic strains. The obtained result demonstrated that Bacillus can be used as a potential candidates probiotic and help in the prevention and treatment of oral infections, including dental caries, periodontal disease and halitosis. Our data, partly encourage the use of probiotic strains because they do not produce acid which can contribute to faster installation decay and these are spore-forming bacteria that can withstand the stress of the oral cavity (acids, alkalis, and salty foods).

Keywords: probiotic, pathogenic bacteria, yeast, oral cavity

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10 Functional Nanomaterials for Environmental Applications

Authors: S. A. M. Sabrina, Gouget Lammel, Anne Chantal, Chazalviel, Jean Noël, Ozanam François, Etcheberry Arnaud, Tighlit Fatma Zohra, B. Samia, Gabouze Noureddine

Abstract:

The elaboration and characterization of hybrid nano materials give rise to considerable interest due to the new properties that arising. They are considered as an important category of new materials having innovative characteristics by combining the specific intrinsic properties of inorganic compounds (semiconductors) with the grafted organic species. This open the way to improved properties and spectacular applications in various and important fields, especially in the environment. In this work, nano materials based-semiconductors were elaborated by chemical route. The obtained surfaces were grafted with organic functional groups. The functionalization process was optimized in order to confer to the hybrid nano material a good stability as well as the right properties required for the subsequent applications. Different characterization techniques were used to investigate the resulting nano structures, such as SEM, UV-Visible, FTIR, Contact angle and electro chemical measurements. Finally, applications were envisaged in environmental area. The elaborated nano structures were tested for the detection and the elimination of pollutants.

Keywords: hybrid materials, porous silicon, peptide, metal detection

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9 To Be Freed from Conformists for Better Shared Leadership

Authors: Lyne Chantal Boudreau, Claudine Auger, Arline Laforest

Abstract:

In order to meet the challenges of learning in a minority Francophone environment, three organizers created a space where a group of stakeholders from the school system and from the post-secondary and community sectors could contribute to reflections on specific educational topics by sharing winning practices. The success of this provincial congress rest on shared leadership which was intuitively used by the organizers who planned and conducted both editions. This leadership style requires leaders to transition from a hierarchical to a horizontal approach, that is, to an approach where each individual is at the same level. In this exploratory research, it has been demonstrated that this shared leadership’s success depends on the capacity of the leaders to free themselves from conformists who are found at all levels of the education system. This ability best fosters the mobilization of all education stakeholders in advancing in-depth knowledge in a particular field while simultaneously creating a sense of collective efficacy among these partners and developing the learners’ full potential. This session will present ways in which it is possible to be freed from conformists through knowing how to recognize conformism, through taking risks and through opening genuine discussions. Shared leadership revolves around a collective power derived from the leadership of each and everyone in a space where all are rallied to promote the ultimate advancement of society.

Keywords: conformists, education, minority context, shared leadership

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8 A Study of the Resistance of Protective Glove Materials to Metalworking Fluids

Authors: Nguyen-Tri Phuong, Triki Ennouri, Gauvin Chantal, Tuduri Ludovic, Vu-Khanh Toan

Abstract:

Hand injuries due to mechanical hazards such as cuts and punctures are major risks and concerns for several occupational groups, particularly for workers in the metal manufacturing sector and mechanical automotive services. Personal protective equipment such as gloves or clothing is necessary for many professionals to protect against a variety of occupational hazards, which arise daily in their work environments. In many working places such as metal manufacturing or automotive services, mechanical hazards often occur together with industrial contaminants, particularly metalworking fluids (MWFs). The presence of these contaminants could modify the properties of gloves made from polymeric materials and thus increase the risk of hand injuries for workers. The focus of this study is to determine the swelling characteristics and the resistance of six polymer membranes when they are contaminated with several industrial metalworking fluids. These polymer membranes, commonly used in protective gloves, are nitrile, neoprene, vinyl, butyl, polyurethane and latex rubbers. Changes swelling index were continuously followed during the contamination procedure to compare the performance of each polymer under different conditions. The modification of the samples surface, tensile properties during the contamination process was also investigated. The effect of temperature on mechanical properties and morphology of material was also examined.

Keywords: metalworking fluid, swelling behavior, protective glove materials, elastomers

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7 Creating Risk Maps on the Spatiotemporal Occurrence of Agricultural Insecticides in Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: Chantal Hendriks, Harry Gibson, Anna Trett, Penny Hancock, Catherine Moyes

Abstract:

The use of modern inputs for crop protection, such as insecticides, is strongly underestimated in Sub-Saharan Africa. Several studies measured toxic concentrations of insecticides in fruits, vegetables and fish that were cultivated in Sub-Saharan Africa. The use of agricultural insecticides has impact on human and environmental health, but it also has the potential to impact on insecticide resistance in malaria transmitting mosquitos. To analyse associations between historic use of agricultural insecticides and the distribution of insecticide resistance through space and time, the use and environmental fate of agricultural insecticides needs to be mapped through the same time period. However, data on the use and environmental fate of agricultural insecticides in Africa are limited and therefore risk maps on the spatiotemporal occurrence of agricultural insecticides are created using environmental data. Environmental data on crop density and crop type were used to select the areas that most likely receive insecticides. These areas were verified by a literature review and expert knowledge. Pesticide fate models were compared to select most dominant processes that are involved in the environmental fate of insecticides and that can be mapped at a continental scale. The selected processes include: surface runoff, erosion, infiltration, volatilization and the storing and filtering capacity of soils. The processes indicate the risk for insecticide accumulation in soil, water, sediment and air. A compilation of all available data for traces of insecticides in the environment was used to validate the maps. The risk maps can result in space and time specific measures that reduce the risk of insecticide exposure to non-target organisms.

Keywords: crop protection, pesticide fate, tropics, insecticide resistance

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6 Antioxidant Activity and Hepatoprotective Potential of Genista quadriflora Munby against Paracetamol-Induced Liver Injury

Authors: Nacera Baali, Zahia Belloum, Souad Ameddah, Fadila Benayache, Samir Benayache, Chantal Wrutniak-Cabello

Abstract:

Allurement of herbs as health beneficial foods and as a source material for the development of new drugs, has led to greater furtherance in the study of herbal medicines during recent years. In the present study, in vitro antioxidant, free radical scavenging capacity, and hepatoprotective activity of butanolic extract from Genista quadriflora Munby (G.quadriflora) were evaluated using established in vitro models such as DPPH radical and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activities and antilipidperoxidation ability. Interestingly, the extract showed considerable in vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities in a dose-dependent manner when compared to the standard antioxidant which verified the presence of antioxidant compound in extract tested. The hepatoprotective potential of G.quadriflora extract was also evaluated in male Wistar rats against paracetamol (APAP) induced liver damage. Therapy of G.quadriflora showed the liver protective effect on biochemical and histopathological alterations. Moreover, histological studies also supported the biochemical finding, that is, the maximum improvement in the histoarchitecture of the liver. Results revealed that G.quadriflora extract could protect the liver against APAP-induced oxidative damage by possibly increasing the antioxidant protection mechanism in rats. These findings are of great importance in view of the availability of the plant and its observed possible diverse applications in medicine and nutrition.

Keywords: genista quadriflora munby, antioxidant, liver, paracetamol, oxidative stress

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5 The Relevance of Shared Cultural Leadership in the Survival of the Language and of the Francophone Culture in a Minority Language Environment

Authors: Lyne Chantal Boudreau, Claudine Auger, Arline Laforest

Abstract:

As an English-speaking country, Canada faces challenges in French-language education. During both editions of a provincial congress on education planned and conducted under shared cultural leadership, three organizers created a Francophone space where, for the first time in the province of New Brunswick (the only officially bilingual province in Canada), a group of stakeholders from the school, post-secondary and community sectors have succeeded in contributing to reflections on specific topics by sharing winning practices to meet the challenges of learning in a minority Francophone environment. Shared cultural leadership is a hybrid between theories of leadership styles in minority communities and theories of shared leadership. Through shared cultural leadership, the goal is simply to guide leadership and to set up all minority leaderships in minority context through shared leadership. This leadership style requires leaders to transition from a hierarchical to a horizontal approach, that is, to an approach where each individual is at the same level. In this exploratory research, it has been demonstrated that shared leadership exercised under the T-learning model best fosters the mobilization of all partners in advancing in-depth knowledge in a particular field while simultaneously allowing learning of the elements related to the domain in question. This session will present how it is possible to mobilize the whole community through leaders who continually develop their knowledge and skills in their specific field but also in related fields. Leaders in this style of management associated to shared cultural leadership acquire the ability to consider solutions to problems from a holistic perspective and to develop a collective power derived from the leadership of each and everyone in a space where all are rallied to promote the ultimate advancement of society.

Keywords: education, minority context, shared leadership, t-leaning

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4 Comparison of Illuminance Levels in Old Omani and Portuguese Forts in Oman

Authors: Maatouk Khoukhi

Abstract:

Nowadays the reduction of the energy consumed by buildings to achieve mainly the thermal comfort for the occupants represent the main concern for architects and building designers. The common and traditional solution to achieve this target is the design of a highly insulated envelope and reduce the opening and the transparent elements such windows. However, this will lead to the artificial lighting system to consume more energy to compensate the lack of natural lighting coming through the glazed parts of the building envelope. Therefore, a good balance between sufficient daylight and control thermal heat through the building envelope should be considered for energy saving purpose. To achieve a better indoor environment the windows size and spacing including the interior finishing and the location of the partition must be assessed accurately. Daylighting is the controlled admission of natural light into space through windows and transparent elements of the building envelope which helps create a visually stimulating and productive environment for building occupants. The main concern is not to provide enough daylight to an occupied space, but how to achieve this without any undesirable side effect. Indeed, the glare is a major problem in glazed façade buildings, and this could be reduced by using tinted windows. The main target of this research is to investigate the daylight adequacy of functional needs in old Omani Forts and how they have been designed and built to avoid glare and overheating with the appropriate window-to-floor ratio. Because more windows do not automatically result in more daylighting but that is natural light has been controlled and distributed properly throughout the space. Spaces from different Omani and Portuguese Forts under the same climate conditions are considered in order to compare the daylight illuminance levels and examine the similarities and differences in visual attributes between them. The result of this study indicates that lighting preference is not universal and people from different geographical locations are adapted to certain illuminance levels. Therefore, the standards could not be generalized for the entire world. This would be useful to practitioners who are designing to effectively address the diversity of user’s lighting levels preferences in our globally connected society.

Keywords: day lighting, energy, forts, thermal comfort

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3 Promises versus Realities: A Critical Assessment of the Integrated Design Process

Authors: Firdous Nizar, Carmela Cucuzzella

Abstract:

This paper explores how the integrated design process (IDP) was adopted for an architectural project. The IDP is a relatively new approach to collaborative design in architectural design projects in Canada. It has gained much traction recently as the closest possible approach to the successful management of low energy building projects and has been advocated as a productive method for multi-disciplinary collaboration within complex projects. This study is based on the premise that there are explicit and implicit dimensions of power within the integrated design process (IDP) in the green building industry that may or may not lead to irreconcilable differences in a process that demands consensus. To gain insight on the potential gap between the theoretical promises and practical realities of the IDP, a review of existing IDP literature is compared with a case study analysis of a competition-based architectural project in Canada, a first to incorporate the IDP in its overall design format. This paper aims to address the undertheorized power relations of the IDP in a real project. It presents a critical assessment through the lens of the combined theories of deliberative democracy by Jürgen Habermas, with that of agonistic pluralism by political theorist Chantal Mouffe. These two theories are intended to more appropriately embrace the conflictual situations in collaborative environments, and shed light on the relationships of power, between engineers, city officials, architects, and designers in this conventional consensus-based model. In addition, propositions for a shift in approach that embraces conflictual differences among its participants are put forth based on concepts of critical spatial practice by Markus Meissen. As IDP is a relatively new design process, it requires much deliberation on its structure from the theoretical framework built in this paper in order to unlock its true potential.

Keywords: agonistic pluralism, critical spatial practice, deliberative democracy, integrated design process

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2 Gender Policies and Political Culture: An Examination of the Canadian Context

Authors: Chantal Maille

Abstract:

This paper is about gender-based analysis plus (GBA+), an intersectional gender policy used in Canada to assess the impact of policies and programs for men and women from different origins. It looks at Canada’s political culture to explain the nature of its gender policies. GBA+ is defined as an analysis method that makes it possible to assess the eventual effects of policies, programs, services, and other initiatives on women and men of different backgrounds because it takes account of gender and other identity factors. The ‘plus’ in the name serves to emphasize that GBA+ goes beyond gender to include an examination of a wide range of other related identity factors, such as age, education, language, geography, culture, and income. The point of departure for GBA+ is that women and men are not homogeneous populations and gender is never the only factor in defining a person’s identity; rather, it interacts with factors such as ethnic origin, age, disabilities, where the person lives, and other aspects of individual and social identity. GBA+ takes account of these factors and thus challenges notions of similarity or homogeneity within populations of women and men. Comparative analysis based on sex and gender may serve as a gateway to studying a given question, but women, men, girls, and boys do not form homogeneous populations. In the 1990s, intersectionality emerged as a new feminist framework. The popularity of the notion of intersectionality corresponds to a time when, in hindsight, the damage done to minoritized groups by state disengagement policies in concert with global intensification of neoliberalism, and vice versa, can be measured. Although GBA+ constitutes a form of intersectionalization of GBA, it must be understood that the two frameworks do not spring from a similar logic. Intersectionality first emerged as a dynamic analysis of differences between women that was oriented toward change and social justice, whereas GBA is a technique developed by state feminists in a context of analyzing governmental policies and aiming to promote equality between men and women. It can nevertheless be assumed that there might be interest in such a policy and program analysis grid that is decentred from gender and offers enough flexibility to take account of a group of inequalities. In terms of methodology, the research is supported by a qualitative analysis of governmental documents about GBA+ in Canada. Research findings identify links between Canadian gender policies and its political culture. In Canada, diversity has been taken into account as an element at the basis of gendered analysis of public policies since 1995. The GBA+ adopted by the government of Canada conveys an opening to intersectionality and a sensitivity to multiculturalism. The Canadian Multiculturalism Act, adopted 1988, proposes to recognize the fact that multiculturalism is a fundamental characteristic of the Canadian identity and heritage and constitutes an invaluable resource for the future of the country. In conclusion, Canada’s distinct political culture can be associated with the specific nature of its gender policies.

Keywords: Canada, gender-based analysis, gender policies, political culture

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1 Eco-anxiety in Children and Youth: A Scoping Review of the Mental Health Impacts of the Awareness of Climate Change

Authors: Terra Léger-Goodes, Catherine Malboeuf-Hurtubise, Trinity Mastine, Chantal Camden

Abstract:

Background: Youth are increasingly aware of the negative effects of climate change on the planet and human health, but this knowledge can often come with significant affective responses, such as psychological distress, anger, or despair. Experiencing major ‘negative’ emotions, like worry, guilt, and hopelessness in anticipation of climate change has been identified with the term eco-anxiety in adults; however, little is known about how children and youth experience eco-anxiety. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to conduct a scoping review of how, if any, children experience eco-anxiety and to identify research gaps pertaining to this issue. Methods. Keywords around the themes of eco-anxiety, climate change, and youth (aged < 18 years) were used as search terms in the following databases: ProQuest Central, SAGE Journals, APA Psyc INFO, MEDLINE, GreenFile, and ERIC. Journal articles using qualitative and quantitative methods, as well as grey literature dating from 2000 to 2021, were examined by two independent reviewers. A descriptive-analytical method was used to chart the data that emerged from the literature around themes that were named and defined. Twenty-seven articles were considered in the final analysis. Results: Evidence confirms that youth indeed experience affective responses in reaction to awareness of climate change. Mental health outcomes include depression, anxiety, and extreme emotions like sadness, anger, and fear. Furthermore, youth from vulnerable communities, like indigenous communities or those who have strong ties to the land are often identified as being strongly impacted emotionally by climate change. The literature also described how children and youth are coping with eco-anxiety, including maladaptive (such as denial) and adaptive responses (such as constructive hope, used as a positive coping mechanism). Recommendations for schools, parents, and mental health care providers are also often encountered in the existing literature, including adding age-appropriate climate education to the school curriculum, considering youth’s emotions, and promoting healthy coping through empowerment. Important gaps exist in the definition of eco-anxiety in youth, with various characterizations of this emerging concept across articles. Unique contribution: Given the limited research on eco-anxiety and youth, this review lays the groundwork for future research directions on this topic. Specifically, it identifies the research gaps and raises important research questions, such as how to help youth cope with eco-anxiety. Furthermore, this review helps identify key elements from what is currently known in the literature, such as the importance of promoting hope to enable action. This can inform the work of policymakers, activists, and mental health workers who undoubtedly will be called upon to find solutions for the many kids living with eco-anxiety.

Keywords: children, climate change, eco-anxiety, mental health, youth

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