Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: haploid

12 All Types of Base Pair Substitutions Induced by γ-Rays in Haploid and Diploid Yeast Cells

Authors: Natalia Koltovaya, Nadezhda Zhuchkina, Ksenia Lyubimova

Abstract:

We study the biological effects induced by ionizing radiation in view of therapeutic exposure and the idea of space flights beyond Earth's magnetosphere. In particular, we examine the differences between base pair substitution induction by ionizing radiation in model haploid and diploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Such mutations are difficult to study in higher eukaryotic systems. In our research, we have used a collection of six isogenic trp5-strains and 14 isogenic haploid and diploid cyc1-strains that are specific markers of all possible base-pair substitutions. These strains differ from each other only in single base substitutions within codon-50 of the trp5 gene or codon-22 of the cyc1 gene. Different mutation spectra for two different haploid genetic trp5- and cyc1-assays and different mutation spectra for the same genetic cyc1-system in cells with different ploidy — haploid and diploid — have been obtained. It was linear function for dose-dependence in haploid and exponential in diploid cells. We suggest that the differences between haploid yeast strains reflect the dependence on the sequence context, while the differences between haploid and diploid strains reflect the different molecular mechanisms of mutations.

Keywords: base pair substitutions, γ-rays, haploid and diploid cells, yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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11 Doubled Haploid Production in Wheat Using Imperata cylindrica Mediated Chromosome Elimination Technique

Authors: Madhu Patial, Dharam Pal, Jagdish Kumar, H. K. Chaudhary

Abstract:

Doubled haploid breeding serves as a useful technique in wheat improvement by providing instant and complete homozygosity. Of the various techniques employed for haploid production chromosome elimination has a large scale practical application in wheat improvement. Barclay (1975) initiated the technique in wheat by crossing wheat variety Chinese spring with Hordeum bulbosum, but due to presence of the dominant crossability inhibitor genes Kr7 and Kr2 in many wheat varieties, the technique was however genotypic specific. The discovery of wheat X maize system of haploid production being genotype non-specific is quite successful but still maize needs to be grown in greenhouse to coincide flowering with wheat crop. Recently, wheat X Imperate cylindrica has been identified as a new chromosome mediated DH approach for efficient haploid induction. An experiment to use this technique in wheat was set up by crossing six F1s and two three way F1s with Imperata cylindrica. The data was recorded for the three component traits of haploid induction viz., seed formation, embryo formation and regeneration frequency. Variation among wheat F1s was observed and higher frequency for all the traits were recorded in cross HD 2997/2*FL-8/DONSK-POLL and KLE/BER/2*FL-8/DONSK-POLL.

Keywords: wheat, haploid, imperata cylindrica, chromosome elimination technique

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10 Investigating the Successes of in vitro Embryogenesis

Authors: Zelikha Labbani

Abstract:

The in vitro isolated microspore culture is the most powerful androgenic pathway to produce doubled haploid plants in the short time. To deviate a microspore toward embryogenesis, a number of factors, different for each species, must concur at the same time and place. Once induced, the microspore undergoes numerous changes at different levels, from overall morphology to gene expression. Induction of microspore embryogenesis not only implies the expression of an embryogenic program, but also a stress-related cellular response and a repression of the gametophytic program to revert the microspore to a totipotent status. As haploid single cells, microspore became a strategy to achieve various objectives particularly in genetic engineering. In this communication we would show the most recent advances in the producing haploid embryos via in vitro isolated microspore culture.

Keywords: in vitro isolated microspore culture, success, haploid cells, bioinformatics, biomedicine

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9 Successes on in vitro Isolated Microspores Embryogenesis

Authors: Zelikha Labbani

Abstract:

The In Vitro isolated micro spore culture is the most powerful androgenic pathway to produce doubled haploid plants in the short time. To deviate a micro spore toward embryogenesis, a number of factors, different for each species, must concur at the same time and place. Once induced, the micro spore undergoes numerous changes at different levels, from overall morphology to gene expression. Induction of micro spore embryogenesis not only implies the expression of an embryogenic program, but also a stress-related cellular response and a repression of the gametophytic program to revert the microspore to a totipotent status. As haploid single cells, micro spore became a strategy to achieve various objectives particularly in genetic engineering. In this study we would show the most recent advances in the producing haploid embryos via In Vitro isolated micro spore culture.

Keywords: haploid cells, In Vitro isolated microspore culture, success

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8 Isolated Microspore Culture in Durum Wheat

Authors: Zelikha Labbani

Abstract:

Since its creation in 1964 by Guha and Maheshwari in India on Datura innoxia Mill, in vitro androgenesis has become the method of choice in the production of doubled haploid in many species. However in durum wheat, the Doubled haploid plant breeding programs remained limited due to the low production of androgenetic embryos and converting them into fertile green plants. We describe here an efficient method for inducing embryos and regenerating green plants directly from isolated microspores of durum wheat.

Keywords: Durum wheat, haploid embryos, on in vitro, pretreatment

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7 On In vitro Durum Wheat Isolated Microspore Culture

Authors: Zelikha Labbani

Abstract:

Since its creation in 1964 by Guha and Maheshwari in India on Datura innoxia Mill, in vitro androgenesis has become the method of choice in the production of doubled haploid in many species. However, in durum wheat, the Doubled haploid plant breeding programs remained limited due to the low production of androgenetic embryos and converting them into fertile green plants. We describe here an efficient method for inducing embryos and regenerating green plants directly from isolated microspores of durum wheat.

Keywords: durum wheat, haploid embryos, on in vitro, pretreatment

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6 From Orthodox to Haploid Mitochondrial DNA Markers: Exploring the Datum Folder of population of Sindh in Pakistan

Authors: Shahzad Bhattiab, M. Aslamkhana, Sana Abbasbc, Marcella Attimonellid, Kumarasamy Thangaraje, Erica Martinha Silva de Souzaf, Uzay U. Sezen

Abstract:

The present study was designed to investigate three regions of mitochondrial DNA, HVI, HVII and HVIII, to hold a powwow genetic diversity and affiliations in 115 probands of 6 major ethnic groups, viz., Bijarani, Chandio, Ghallu, Khoso, Nasrani and Solangi, in the province of Sindh of Pakistan. For this purpose 88 haplotypes were scrutinized, defined by particular set of nucleotides (ignoring the C insertions around position 309 and 315). In spite of that 82% sequences were observed once, 12 % twice and 5.2 % thrice. The most common South Asian haplotypes were observed M (42%), N (6.9%) and R (6.9%) whereas west Eurasian haplotypes were J (1.7%), U (23.4%), H (9.5%), W (6.9%) and T (0.86%), in six ethnic groups. A random match probability between two unrelated individuals was found 0.06 %, while genetic diversity was ranged to be 0.991 to 0.999, and nucleotide diversity ranged from 0.0089 to 0.0142 for the whole control region of the population studied.

Keywords: mtDNA haplogroups, control region, Pakistan, Sindh, ethnicity

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5 Organization of the Olfactory System and the Mushroom Body of the Weaver Ant, Oecophylla smaragdina

Authors: Rajashekhar K. Patil, Martin J. Babu

Abstract:

Weaver ants-Oecophylla smaragdina live in colonies that have polymorphic castes. The females which include the queen, major and minor workers are haploid. The individuals of castes are dependent on olfactory cues for carrying out caste-specific behaviour. In an effort to understand whether organizational differences exist to support these behavioural differences, we studied the olfactory system at the level of the sensilla on the antennae, olfactory glomeruli and the Kenyon cells in the mushroom bodies (MB). The MB differ in major and minor workers in terms of their size, with the major workers having relatively larger calyces and peduncle. The morphology of different types of Kenyon cells as revealed by Golgi-rapid staining was studied and the major workers had more dendritic arbors than minor workers. This suggests a greater degree of olfactory processing in major workers. Differences in caste-specific arrangement of sensilla, olfactory glomeruli and celluar architecture of MB indicate a developmental programme that forms basis of differential behaviour.

Keywords: ant, oecophylla, caste, mushroom body

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4 Efficient Microspore Isolation Methods for High Yield Embryoids and Regeneration in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Authors: S. M. Shahinul Islam, Israt Ara, Narendra Tuteja, Sreeramanan Subramaniam

Abstract:

Through anther and microspore culture methods, complete homozygous plants can be produced within a year as compared to the long inbreeding method. Isolated microspore culture is one of the most important techniques for rapid development of haploid plants. The efficiency of this method is influenced by several factors such as cultural conditions, growth regulators, plant media, pretreatments, physical and growth conditions of the donor plants, pollen isolation procedure, etc. The main purpose of this study was to improve the isolated microspore culture protocol in order to increase the efficiency of embryoids, its regeneration and reducing albinisms. Under this study we have tested mainly three different microspore isolation procedures by glass rod, homozeniger and by blending and found the efficiency on gametic embryogenesis. There are three types of media viz. washing, pre-culture and induction was used. The induction medium as AMC (modified MS) supplemented by 2, 4-D (2.5 mg/l), kinetin (0.5 mg/l) and higher amount of D-Manitol (90 g/l) instead of sucrose and two types of amino acids (L-glutamine and L-serine) were used. Out of three main microspore isolation procedure by homogenizer isolation (P4) showed best performance on ELS induction (177%) and green plantlets (104%) compared with other techniques. For all cases albinisims occurred but microspore isolation from excised anthers by glass rod and homogenizer showed lesser numbers of albino plants that was also one of the important findings in this study.

Keywords: androgenesis, pretreatment, microspore culture, regeneration, albino plants, Oryza sativa

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3 Genome-Wide Analysis of Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) Retrotransposons in Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

Authors: Zeeshan Khan, Faisal Nouroz, Shumaila Noureen

Abstract:

European or common rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) belongs to class Mammalia, order Lagomorpha of family Leporidae. They are distributed worldwide and are native to Europe (France, Spain and Portugal) and Africa (Morocco and Algeria). LTR retrotransposons are major Class I mobile genetic elements of eukaryotic genomes and play a crucial role in genome expansion, evolution and diversification. They were mostly annotated in various genomes by conventional approaches of homology searches, which restricted the annotation of novel elements. Present work involved de novo identification of LTR retrotransposons by LTR_FINDER in haploid genome of rabbit (2247.74 Mb) distributed in 22 chromosomes, of which 7,933 putative full-length or partial copies were identified containing 69.38 Mb of elements, accounting 3.08% of the genome. Highest copy numbers (731) were found on chromosome 7, followed by chromosome 12 (705), while the lowest copy numbers (27) were detected in chromosome 19 with no elements identified from chromosome 21 due to partially sequenced chromosome, unidentified nucleotides (N) and repeated simple sequence repeats (SSRs). The identified elements ranged in sizes from 1.2 - 25.8 Kb with average sizes between 2-10 Kb. Highest percentage (4.77%) of elements was found in chromosome 15, while lowest (0.55%) in chromosome 19. The most frequent tRNA type was Arginine present in majority of the elements. Based on gained results, it was estimated that rabbit exhibits 15,866 copies having 137.73 Mb of elements accounting 6.16% of diploid genome (44 chromosomes). Further molecular analyses will be helpful in chromosomal localization and distribution of these elements on chromosomes.

Keywords: rabbit, LTR retrotransposons, genome, chromosome

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2 Development of Microsatellite Markers for Dalmatian Pyrethrum Using Next-Generation Sequencing

Authors: Ante Turudic, Filip Varga, Zlatko Liber, Jernej Jakse, Zlatko Satovic, Ivan Radosavljevic, Martina Grdisa

Abstract:

Microsatellites (SSRs) are highly informative repetitive sequences of 2-6 base pairs, which are the most used molecular markers in assessing the genetic diversity of plant species. Dalmatian pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium /Trevir./ Sch. Bip) is an outcrossing diploid (2n = 18) endemic to the eastern Adriatic coast and source of the natural insecticide pyrethrin. Due to the high repetitiveness and large size of the genome (haploid genome size of 9,58 pg), previous attempts to develop microsatellite markers using the standard methods were unsuccessful. A next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach was applied on genomic DNA extracted from fresh leaves of Dalmatian pyrethrum. The sequencing was conducted using NovaSeq6000 Illumina sequencer, after which almost 400 million high-quality paired-end reads were obtained, with a read length of 150 base pairs. Short reads were assembled by combining two approaches; (1) de-novo assembly and (2) joining of overlapped pair-end reads. In total, 6.909.675 contigs were obtained, with the contig average length of 249 base pairs. Of the resulting contigs, 31.380 contained one or multiple microsatellite sequences, in total 35.556 microsatellite loci were identified. Out of detected microsatellites, dinucleotide repeats were the most frequent, accounting for more than half of all microsatellites identifies (21,212; 59.7%), followed by trinucleotide repeats (9,204; 25.9%). Tetra-, penta- and hexanucleotides had similar frequency of 1,822 (5.1%), 1,472 (4.1%), and 1,846 (5.2%), respectively. Contigs containing microsatellites were further filtered by SSR pattern type, transposon occurrences, assembly characteristics, GC content, and the number of occurrences against the draft genome of T. cinerariifolium published previously. After the selection process, 50 microsatellite loci were used for primer design. Designed primers were tested on samples from five distinct populations, and 25 of them showed a high degree of polymorphism. The selected loci were then genotyped on 20 samples belonging to one population resulting in 17 microsatellite markers. Availability of codominant SSR markers will significantly improve the knowledge on population genetic diversity and structure as well as complex genetics and biochemistry of this species. Acknowledgment: This work has been fully supported by the Croatian Science Foundation under the project ‘Genetic background of Dalmatian pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium /Trevir/ Sch. Bip.) insecticidal potential’ - (PyrDiv) (IP-06-2016-9034).

Keywords: genome assembly, NGS, SSR, Tanacetum cinerariifolium

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1 High Throughput LC-MS/MS Studies on Sperm Proteome of Malnad Gidda (Bos Indicus) Cattle

Authors: Kerekoppa Puttaiah Bhatta Ramesha, Uday Kannegundla, Praseeda Mol, Lathika Gopalakrishnan, Jagish Kour Reen, Gourav Dey, Manish Kumar, Sakthivel Jeyakumar, Arumugam Kumaresan, Kiran Kumar M., Thottethodi Subrahmanya Keshava Prasad

Abstract:

Spermatozoa are the highly specialized transcriptionally and translationally inactive haploid male gamete. The understanding of proteome of sperm is indispensable to explore the mechanism of sperm motility and fertility. Though there is a large number of human sperm proteomic studies, in-depth proteomic information on Bos indicus spermatozoa is not well established yet. Therefore, we illustrated the profile of sperm proteome in indigenous cattle, Malnad gidda (Bos Indicus), using high-resolution mass spectrometry. In the current study, two semen ejaculates from 3 breeding bulls were collected employing the artificial vaginal method. Using 45% percoll purification, spermatozoa cells were isolated. Protein was extracted using lysis buffer containing 2% Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS) and protein concentration was estimated. Fifty micrograms of protein from each individual were pooled for further downstream processing. Pooled sample was fractionated using SDS-Poly Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, which is followed by in-gel digestion. The peptides were subjected to C18 Stage Tip clean-up and analyzed in Orbitrap Fusion Tribrid mass spectrometer interfaced with Proxeon Easy-nano LC II system (Thermo Scientific, Bremen, Germany). We identified a total of 6773 peptides with 28426 peptide spectral matches, which belonged to 1081 proteins. Gene ontology analysis has been carried out to determine the biological processes, molecular functions and cellular components associated with sperm protein. The biological process chiefly represented our data is an oxidation-reduction process (5%), spermatogenesis (2.5%) and spermatid development (1.4%). The highlighted molecular functions are ATP, and GTP binding (14%) and the prominent cellular components most observed in our data were nuclear membrane (1.5%), acrosomal vesicle (1.4%), and motile cilium (1.3%). Seventeen percent of sperm proteins identified in this study were involved in metabolic pathways. To the best of our knowledge, this data represents the first total sperm proteome from indigenous cattle, Malnad Gidda. We believe that our preliminary findings could provide a strong base for the future understanding of bovine sperm proteomics.

Keywords: Bos indicus, Malnad Gidda, mass spectrometry, spermatozoa

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