Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1602

Search results for: Afghan Contemporary Courtyard Housing (ACCH)

1602 A Comparative Study of Afghan Traditional and Contemporary Courtyard Housing Regarding Affordable Planning and Sustainability

Authors: Mohammad Saraj Sharifzai, Keisuke Kitagawa, Mohammad Kamil Halimee, Javid Habib, Daishi Sakaguchi

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to upgrade a pleasing, sustainable and safe shelter in the Afghan urban community. It also aims to maintain traditional housing, which is fitted to its environment, while attempting to upgrade it with new, traditional standards. The three main objectives of this study are to upgrade the traditional courtyard house to become safe and sustainable today and tomorrow; to fit the contemporary house environmentally and culturally, and to suppress or reduce the broad gap between traditional and contemporary housing. The paper tries to exhibit and analyze the sustainably best practices available in both traditional and contemporary courtyard housing in Afghanistan. For instance, the use of thick walls and Tawa-Khana (floor heating system) shows the best sustainable practice in that context.

Keywords: Afghan Traditional Courtyard Housing (ATCH), Afghan Contemporary Courtyard Housing (ACCH), suitability planning, affordable and thermal comfort

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1601 A Study of Indoor Comfort in Affordable Contemporary Courtyard Housing with Outdoor Welfare in Afghan Sustainable Neighborhoods

Authors: Mohammad Saraj Sharifzai, Keisuke Kitagawa, Ahmad Javid Habib Mohammad Kamil Halimee, Daishi Sakaguchi

Abstract:

The main purpose of this research is to recognize indoor comfort in contemporary Afghan courtyard house with outdoor welfare in housing layout and neighborhood design where sustainability is a local consideration. This research focuses on three new neighborhoods (Gawoond) in three different provinces of Afghanistan. Since 2001, the capital Kabul and major cities including Kandahar, which will be compared with Peshawar city in Pakistan, have faced a fast, rough-and-tumble process of urban innovation. The effects of this innovation necessitate reconsideration of the formation of sustainable urban environments and in-house thermal comfort. The lack of sustainable urban life in many newly developed Afghan neighborhoods can pose a major challenge to the process of sustainable urban development. Several factors can affect the success or failure of new neighborhoods in the context of urban life. For thermal analysis, we divide our research into three different climatic zones. This study is an evaluation of the environmental impacts of the interior comfort of contemporary courtyard housing with the exterior welfare of neighborhood sustainable design strategy in dry and cold, semi-hot and arid, and semi-humid and hot climates in Afghan cities and Peshawar.

Keywords: Afghan contemporary courtyard house, neighbourhood, street pattern and housing layout, sustainability, welfare, comfort, climate zone, Afghanistan

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1600 Principles of Sustainable and Affordable Housing Policy for Afghan Refugees Returning to Afghanistan

Authors: Mohammad Saraj Sharifzai, Keisuke Kitagawa, Mohammad Kamil Halimee, Javid Habib, Daishi Sakaguchi

Abstract:

The overall goal of this paper is to examine the suitability and potential of the policies addressing the sustainability and affordability of housing for returnees, and to determine the impact of this policy on housing delivery for Afghan refugees. Housing is a central component of the settlement experience of refugees. A positive housing situation can facilitate many aspects of integration. Unaffordable, and unsafe housing, however, can cause disruptions in the entire settlement process. This paper aims to identify a suite of built forms for housing that is both affordable and environmentally sustainable for Afghan refugees. The result was the development of a framework that enables the assessment of the overall performance of various types of housing development in all zones of the country. There is very little evidence that the present approach of housing provision to the vagaries of market forces has provided affordable housing, especially for Afghan refugees. There is a need to incorporate social housing into the policy to assist people who cannot afford to have their own houses.

Keywords: Afghan refugees, housing policy, affordability, social housing, housing provision, environmental sustainability principles, resettlement

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1599 The Integration of Iranian Traditional Architecture in the Contemporary Housing Design: A Case Study

Authors: H. Nejadriahi

Abstract:

Traditional architecture is a valuable source of inspiration, which needs to be studied and integrated in the contemporary designs for achieving an identifiable contemporary architecture. Traditional architecture of Iran is among the distinguished examples of being contextually responsive, not only by considering the environmental conditions of a region, but also in terms of respecting the socio-cultural values of its context. In order to apply these valuable features to the current designs, they need to be adapted to today's condition, needs and desires. In this paper, the main features of the traditional architecture of Iran are explained to interrogate them in the formation of a contemporary house in Tehran, Iran. Also a table is provided to compare the utilization of the traditional design concepts in the traditional houses and the contemporary example of it. It is believed that such study would increase the awareness of contemporary designers by providing them some clues on maintaining the traditional values in the current design layouts particularly in the residential sector that would ultimately improve the quality of space in the contemporary architecture.

Keywords: contemporary housing design, Iran, Tehran, traditional architecture

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1598 A Comparative Analysis about the Effects of a Courtyard in Indoor Thermal Environment of a Room with and without Transitional Space Adjacent to Courtyard of a House in Old Dhaka, Bangladesh

Authors: Fatema Tasmia, Brishti Majumder, Atiqur Rahman

Abstract:

Attaining appropriate comfort conditions in a place where the climate is hot and humid can be perplexing. Especially, when it is resided at a congested place like old Dhaka Bangladesh, the provision of giving cross ventilation and building with proper orientation is quite difficult. Courtyards are the part of buildings which are used as space for outdoor household activities, social gathering and it is also proved to have indoor thermal comfort as an effect of courtyard. This paper aims to investigate the effect of courtyard in indoor thermal environment of a room adjacent to the courtyard and a room next to transitional space after a courtyard through field measurements of a case study house. The field measurement was conducted in a two-storey house. Among different aspects of thermal environment, the study of this paper is based on the analysis of temperature in both situations. Ventilation or air movement was considered to have no impact because of the rooms’ layout and location. Other aspects and their variables were considered as constant (especially material) for accuracy and avoidance of confusion. This study focuses on the outcome that can ultimately contribute to the configuration of courtyards and in its relation to indoor space while achieving thermal comfort.

Keywords: courtyard, old Dhaka, temperature, thermal comfort, transitional space

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1597 To Live on the Margins: A Closer Look at the Social and Economic Situation of Illegal Afghan Migrants in Iran

Authors: Abdullah Mohammadi

Abstract:

Years of prolong war in Afghanistan has led to one of the largest refugee and migrant populations in the contemporary world. During this continuous unrest which began in 1970s (by military coup, Marxist revolution and the subsequent invasion of USSR), over one-third of the population migrated to neighboring countries, especially Pakistan and Iran. After the Soviet Army withdrawal in 1989, a new wave of conflicts emerged between rival Afghan groups and this led to new refugees. Taliban period, also, created its own refugees. During all these years, I.R. of Iran has been one of the main destinations of Afghan refugees and migrants. At first, due to the political situation after Islamic Revolution, Iran government didn’t restrict the entry of Afghan refugees. Those who came first in Iran received ID cards and had access to education and healthcare services. But in 1990s, due to economic and social concerns, Iran’s policy towards Afghan refugees and migrants changed. The government has tried to identify and register Afghans in Iran and limit their access to some services and jobs. Unfortunately, there are few studies on Afghan refugees and migrants’ situation in Iran and we have a dim and vague picture of them. Of the few studies done on this group, none of them focus on the illegal Afghan migrants’ situation in Iran. Here, we tried to study the social and economic aspects of illegal Afghan migrants’ living in Iran. In doing so, we interviewed 24 illegal Afghan migrants in Iran. The method applied for analyzing the data is thematic analysis. For the interviews, we chose family heads (17 men and 7 women). According to the findings, illegal Afghan migrants’ socio-economic situation in Iran is very undesirable. Its main cause is the marginalization of this group which is resulted from government policies towards Afghan migrants. Most of the illegal Afghan migrants work in unskilled and inferior jobs and live in rent houses on the margins of cities and villages. None of them could buy a house or vehicle due to law. Based on their income, they form one of the lowest, unprivileged groups in the society. Socially, they face many problems in their everyday life: social insecurity, harassment and violence, misuse of their situation by police and people, lack of education opportunity, etc. In general, we may conclude that illegal Afghan migrant have little adaptation with Iran’s society. They face severe limitations compared to legal migrants and refugees and have no opportunity for upward social mobility. However, they have managed some strategies to face these difficulties including: seeking financial and emotional helps from family and friendship networks, sending one of the family members to third country (mostly to European countries), establishing self-administered schools for children (schools which are illegal and run by Afghan educated youth).

Keywords: illegal Afghan migrants, marginalization, social insecurity, upward social mobility

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1596 The Development of Private Housing Schemes to Address the Housing Problem: A Case Study of Islamabad

Authors: Zafar Iqbal Zafar, Abdul Waheed

Abstract:

The Capital Development Authority (CDA) Ordinance 1960 requires CDA to acquire land for the provision of housing in Islamabad. However, the pace of residential development was slow and the demand for housing was increasing rapidly. To resolve the growing housing problem, CDA involved the private sector in the development of housing schemes. Detailed bye-laws for regulation of private housing schemes were prepared and these bylaws were called “Modalities & Procedures”. This paper explains how the Modalities and Procedures of CDA have been successful in regulating the development of private housing schemes in Islamabad.

Keywords: housing schemes, master plan, development works, zoning regulations

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1595 Measuring Housing Quality Using Geographic Information System (GIS)

Authors: Silvija ŠIljeg, Ante ŠIljeg, Ivan Marić

Abstract:

Measuring housing quality is being done on objective and subjective level using different indicators. During the research 5 urban and housing indicators formed according to 58 variables from different housing, domains were used. The aims of the research were to measure housing quality based on GIS approach and to detect critical points of housing in the example of Croatian coastal Town Zadar. The purposes of GIS in the research are to generate models of housing quality indexes by standardisation and aggregation of variables and to examine accuracy model of housing quality index. Analysis of accuracy has been done on the example of variable referring to educational objects availability. By defining weighted coefficients and using different GIS methods high, middle and low housing quality zones were determined. Obtained results can be of use to town planners, spatial planners and town authorities in the process of generating decisions, guidelines, and spatial interventions.

Keywords: housing quality, GIS, housing quality index, indicators, models of housing quality

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1594 Preference for Housing Services and Rational House Price Bubbles

Authors: Stefanie Jeanette Huber

Abstract:

This paper explores the relevance and implications of preferences for housing services on house price fluctuations through the lens of an overlapping generation’s model. The model implies that an economy whose agents have lower preferences for housing services is characterized with lower expenditure shares on housing services and will tend to experience more frequent and more volatile housing bubbles. These model predictions are tested empirically in the companion paper Housing Booms and Busts - Convergences and Divergences across OECD countries. Between 1970 - 2013, countries who spend less on housing services as a share of total income experienced significantly more housing cycles and the associated housing boom-bust cycles were more violent. Finally, the model is used to study the impact of rental subsidies and help-to-buy schemes on rational housing bubbles. Rental subsidies are found to contribute to the control of housing bubbles, whereas help-to- buy scheme makes the economy more bubble-prone.

Keywords: housing bubbles, housing booms and busts, preference for housing services, expenditure shares for housing services, rental and purchase subsidies

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1593 Being an Afghan Woman in Australia; Stereotypes, Gender Roles, and Adaption with New Context

Authors: Rojan Afrouz

Abstract:

Introduction: The immigration is a complex process of transitioning and transformation. Immigrants are more likely to come from the patriarchal and hierarchical society with traditional gender roles and women’s stereotypes. Changing the perception of women’s gender roles may result in challenges between women and their family and community. In this article, Afghan women’s perspectives on gender roles and stereotypes have been investigated as well as their experience of changes in the new context of Australia. Australian initiatives of challenging gender roles have provided the opportunities for Afghan women to emancipate from the traditional gender roles and pursue the value of gender equality. In this process, they may face many challenges in intersectional levels within their family, community and wider society which is a complex conflate of oppressive factors that may not be addressed easily and straightforward. Methods: This qualitative study has been conducted among Afghan women who have lived in Australia less than ten years. Semi-structured interviews either face to face or by phone have been used to collect data for this study. The interviews have been audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Nvivo software has been used for data analysis. Findings: Many participants mentioned that they had been taught that a good Afghan woman is devoted, obedient and loyal to their family and community. They believed that for many Afghan families, Afghan women's natural place was inside the home as a housewife, mother, daughter involving so many responsibilities and expectation of making sacrifices. Many women stated that their attitudes toward gender roles and their feeling of being a woman had been changed since they came to Australia although the process of change for women was complex and diverse. Some had to deal with conflicts with their stereotypes, traditional gender roles as well as strong disagreement with their family and community. Conclusion: Moving to a different country with more gender equality is an opportunity for Afghan women to change their perceptions of gender roles and stereotypes. However, challenging traditional stereotypes and gender roles in the new context is a complex process comprising intersectional levels.

Keywords: stereotypes, gender role, immigration, Afghan women

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1592 Afghan Women’s Definitions, Perceptions and Experience of Domestic Violence, a Qualitative Study with Afghan Women in Australia

Authors: Rojan Afrouz

Abstract:

The main aim of this study is understanding Afghan women’s perception of domestic violence and their experience of abuse by their family members. The voice of Afghan women has not been heard much particularly in Australia. Their families and communities have silenced some of them in the name of family honour and reputation, and others have not had the opportunity to talk about the issue. Although domestic violence is an issue in every country, research suggests that this is more likely to be considered acceptable behaviour in Afghanistan than elsewhere. Given the high public visibility of initiatives which aim to tackle domestic violence in Australia, it is entirely possible that Afghan women’s perceptions and beliefs about domestic violence will have changed since their arrival in this country. Thus, their understandings, perceptions and their experience of domestic violence have been investigated to improve the Afghan women’s situation in Australia. Methods: This qualitative study has been conducted among Afghan women who have lived in Australia less than ten years. Semi-structured interviews either face to face or by phone have been used to collect data for this study. The interviews have been audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Nvivo software has been used for data analysis. Findings: Participants’ definitions of domestic violence vary. They defined domestic violence in relation to their educational levels, their personal life and experience of domestic violence. Some women tended to change the definitions to be more relevant to their own life and experience. Many women had the knowledge of different domestic violence acts that have been distinguished as violent acts in Australia or other western countries. Some of the participants stated that they had the experience of domestic violence from their partner or one of the family members. Those who have been abused, their experiences were diverse and had been perpetrated by different family members. Majority of participants revealed the story of other women in their family and community that have been abused. Conclusion: Moving to Australia helped women to be aware of the issues and recognising that they are in the abusive relationships. However, intersecting multiple identities in a complex system of oppression, domination or discrimination makes the experience of domestic violence more complicated among Afghan community in Australia that cannot be addressed easily.

Keywords: domestic violence, intersectionality, immigration, afghan women

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1591 Quantitative Analysis of the Quality of Housing and Land Use in the Built-up area of Croatian Coastal City of Zadar

Authors: Silvija Šiljeg, Ante Šiljeg, Branko Cavrić

Abstract:

Housing is considered as a basic human need and important component of the quality of life (QoL) in urban areas worldwide. In contemporary housing studies, the concept of the quality of housing (QoH) is considered as a multi-dimensional and multi-disciplinary field. It emphasizes connection between various aspects of the QoL which could be measured by quantitative and qualitative indicators at different spatial levels (e.g. local, city, metropolitan, regional). The main goal of this paper is to examine the QoH and compare results of quantitative analysis with the clutter land use categories derived for selected local communities in Croatian Coastal City of Zadar. The qualitative housing analysis based on the four housing indicators (out of total 24 QoL indicators) has provided identification of the three Zadar’s local communities with the highest estimated QoH ranking. Furthermore, by using GIS overlay techniques, the QoH was merged with the urban environment analysis and introduction of spatial metrics based on the three categories: the element, class and environment as a whole. In terms of semantic-content analysis, the research has also generated a set of indexes suitable for evaluation of “housing state of affairs” and future decision making aiming at improvement of the QoH in selected local communities.

Keywords: housing, quality, indicators, indexes, urban environment, GIS, element, class

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1590 Three Types of Mud-Huts with Courtyards in Composite Climate: Thermal Performance in Summer and Winter

Authors: Janmejoy Gupta, Arnab Paul, Manjari Chakraborty

Abstract:

Jharkhand is a state located in the eastern part of India. The Tropic of Cancer (23.5 degree North latitude line) passes through Ranchi district in Jharkhand. Mud huts with burnt clay tiled roofs in Jharkhand are an integral component of the state’s vernacular architecture. They come in various shapes, with a number of them having a courtyard type of plan. In general, it has been stated that designing dwellings with courtyards in them is a climate-responsive strategy in composite climate. The truth behind this hypothesis is investigated in this paper. In this paper, three types of mud huts with courtyards situated in Ranchi district in Jharkhand are taken as a study and through temperature measurements in the south-side rooms and courtyards, in addition to Autodesk Ecotect (Version 2011) software simulations, their thermal performance throughout the year are observed. Temperature measurements are specifically taken during the peak of summer and winter and the average temperatures in the rooms and courtyards during seven day-periods in peak of summer and peak of winter are plotted graphically. Thereafter, on the basis of the study and software simulations, the hypothesis is verified and the thermally better performing dwelling types in summer and winter identified among the three sub-types studied. Certain recommendations with respect to increasing thermal comfort in courtyard type mud huts in general are also made. It is found that all courtyard type dwellings do not necessarily show better thermal performance in summer and winter in composite climate. The U shaped dwelling with open courtyard on southern side offers maximum amount of thermal-comfort inside the rooms in the hotter part of the year and the square hut with a central courtyard, with the courtyard being closed from all sides, shows superior thermal performance in winter. The courtyards in all the three case-studies are found to get excessively heated up during summer.

Keywords: courtyard, mud huts, simulations, temperature measurements, thermal performance

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1589 Microeconomic Consequences of the Housing Market Deformation in the Selected Region of the Czech Republic

Authors: Hana Janáčková

Abstract:

Housing can be sorted as basic needs of households. Purchase of acceptable ownership housing is important investments for most them. For rental housing households must consider the part of rent expenditure paid in the total household income. For this reason, financial considerations of households in this area depend on the government innervations (public administration) in housing - on housing policy. Market system of housing allocation, whether ownership or tenancy, is based on the fact that housing is a scarce good. The allocation of housing is based on demand and supply. The market system of housing can sometimes have a negative impact on some households, the market is unable to satisfy certain groups of the population that are not able or willing to accept market price. For these reasons, there is a more or less regulation of the market. Regulation is both on the demand and supply side, and the state determines the rules of behaviour for all economic entities of the housing market. This article submits results of analysis of selected regulatory interference of the state in the housing market and assesses their implications deforming the market in the selected region of the Czech Republic. The first part describes tools of supports and the second part discusses deformations and analyses their consequences on the demand side of housing market and on supply side.

Keywords: housing, housing market, microeconomic consequences, deformation

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1588 Meaning in Life, Hope, and Mental Health: Relation between Meaning in Life, Hope, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress among Afghan Refugees in Iran

Authors: Mustafa Jahanara

Abstract:

The present research was carried out in order to investigate the relationship between meaning in life and hope with depression, anxiety and stress in Afghan Refugees in Alborz province in Iran. In this research, method of study is a descriptive correlation type. One hundred and fifty-eight Afghan refugees (64 male, 94 female) participated in this study. All participants completed the Meaning in Life Questionnaires (MLQ), Hope Scale (HS), and The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). The results revealed that Meaning in Life was positively associated with hope, presence of meaning, search of meaning, and negatively associated with depression and anxiety. Hope was positively associated with presence of meaning and search of meaning, and hope was negatively associated with depression, anxiety, and stress. Depression, anxiety, and stress were positively correlated with each other. Meaning in life and hope could influence on mental health.

Keywords: Afghan refugees, meaning of life, hope, depression, anxiety and stress

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1587 The Potential of Shifting Urban Village to Public Housing through Sharing Economy: Case Study of Shenzhen

Authors: Xinrui Gao

Abstract:

This research aims to explore the potential of shifting urban villages to public housing in China. In common practice, the central and local governments established two divided systems of urban redevelopment and public housing, including aims, design ideas, policy, headquarters, and branch offices. In most cases, the urban regeneration and public housing projects satisfy only the selected part of the society who can afford it (urban regeneration) or meet the requirements (public housing), which fail to cover the housing demand. However, there are many similarities between these two types of housing under the background of a shared economy, especially in target groups, affordable prices, and efficient use of spaces. Shenzhen always takes the lead in China’s urban regeneration and housing reformation. There are some top-down approaches to transforming housing in the urban village into public housing at present. These new approaches will provide a good chance to evaluate existing practices and explore the future development path of urban villages; while at the same time it could positively influence the housing problem in China.

Keywords: urban village, public housing, sharing economy, urban redevelopment

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1586 Courtyard Evolution in Contemporary Sustainable Living

Authors: Yiorgos Hadjichristou

Abstract:

The paper will focus on the strategic development deriving from the evolution of the traditional courtyard spatial organization towards a new, contemporary sustainable way of living. New sustainable approaches that engulf the social issues, the notion of place, the understanding of weather architecture blended together with the bioclimatic behaviour will be seen through a series of experimental case studies in the island of Cyprus, inspired and originated from its traditional wisdom, ranging from small scale of living to urban interventions. Weather and nature will be seen as co-architectural authors with architects as intelligently claimed by Jonathan Hill in his Weather Architecture discourse. Furthermore, following Pallasmaa’s understanding, the building will be seen not as an end itself and the elements of an architectural experience as having a verb form rather than being nouns. This will further enhance the notion of merging the subject-human and the object-building as discussed by Julio Bermudez. This eventually will enable to generate the discussion of the understanding of the building constructed according to the specifics of place and inhabitants, shaped by its physical and human topography as referred by Adam Sharr in relation to Heidegger’s thinking. The specificities of the divided island and the dealing with sites that are in vicinity with the diving Green Line will further trigger explorations dealing with the regeneration issues and the social sustainability offering unprecedented opportunities for innovative sustainable ways of living. The above premises will lead us to develop innovative strategies for a profound, both technical and social sustainability, which fruitfully yields to innovative living built environments, responding to the ever changing environmental and social needs. As a starting point, a case study in Kaimakli in Nicosia a refurbishment with an extension of a traditional house, already engulfs all the traditional/ vernacular wisdom of the bioclimatic architecture. It aims at capturing not only its direct and quite obvious bioclimatic features, but rather to evolve them by adjusting the whole house in a contemporary living environment. In order to succeed this, evolutions of traditional architectural elements and spatial conditions are integrated in a way that does not only respond to some certain weather conditions, but they integrate and blend the weather within the built environment. A series of innovations aiming at maximum flexibility is proposed. The house can finally be transformed into a winter enclosure, while for the most part of the year it turns into a ‘camping’ living environment. Parallel to experimental interventions in existing traditional units, we will proceed examining the implementation of the same developed methodology in designing living units and complexes. Malleable courtyard organizations that attempt to blend the traditional wisdom with the contemporary needs for living, the weather and nature with the built environment will be seen tested in both horizontal and vertical developments. A new social identity of people, directly involved and interacting with the weather and climatic conditions will be seen as the result of balancing the social with the technological sustainability, the immaterial and the material aspects of the built environment.

Keywords: building as a verb, contemporary living, traditional bioclimatic wisdom, weather architecture

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1585 Housing Delivery in Nigeria: Repackaging for Sustainable Development

Authors: Funmilayo L. Amao, Amos O. Amao

Abstract:

It has been observed that majority of the people are living in poor housing quality or totally homeless in urban center despite all governmental policies to provide housing to the public. On the supply side, various government policies in the past have been formulated towards overcoming the huge shortage through several Housing Reform Programmes. Despite these past efforts, housing continues to be a mirage to ordinary Nigerian. Currently, there are various mass housing delivery programmes such as the affordable housing scheme that utilize the Public Private Partnership effort and several Private Finance Initiative models could only provide for about 3% of the required stock. This suggests the need for a holistic solution in approaching the problem. The aim of this research is to find out the problems hindering the delivery of housing in Nigeria and its effects on housing affordability. The specific objectives are to identify the causes of housing delivery problems, to examine different housing policies over years and to suggest a way out for sustainable housing delivery. This paper also reviews the past and current housing delivery programmes in Nigeria and analyses the demand and supply side issues. It identifies the various housing delivery mechanisms in current practice. The objective of this paper, therefore, is to give you an insight into the delivery option for the sustainability of housing in Nigeria, given the existing delivery structures and the framework specified in the New National Housing Policy. The secondary data were obtained from books, journals and seminar papers. The conclusion is that we cannot copy models from other nations, but should rather evolve workable models based on our socio-cultural background to address the huge housing shortage in Nigeria. Recommendations are made in this regard.

Keywords: housing, sustainability, housing delivery, housing policy, housing affordability

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1584 Analysis of Urban Housing Quality and Conditions within Kano Metropolis

Authors: Abdurraheem A. Yakub

Abstract:

Housing is one of the needs of mankind and is one of the best indicators of a person’s standard of living. This research was set out to analyze the housing qualities and conditions in Kano. Primary data was collected through both Personal observations where the researcher carried out an inspection of the study area prior to interview/implementation of questionnaires and took into consideration the type of housing units, construction materials and services available as well as the environmental condition of the study area. This was followed by an interview which was done through personal contact with the various people related to the study. In the course of doing that, questions were asked orally and notes were taken to record the responses. Thereafter, the Questionnaire was implemented which was earlier designed to elicit information from households in the study area using well-structured questions related to the type of facilities provided in the housing unit, types of houses and response with regard to quality of their houses and neighborhoods, tenure of house. The research work looked at the prevailing housing qualities and conditions and the state of the existing facilities and amenities within the environment and offered recommendations on policies and measures that could help improve the situation.

Keywords: housing provision, housing quality, housing standard, housing condition, housing affordability and housing facilities

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1583 Housing Harmony: Social Integration in Singapore Public Housing

Authors: Yingjie Feng, Lei Xu, Zhenyu Cao

Abstract:

In the process of urbanization, public housing is often a powerful means to deal with large floating population. In the developed countries like the U.S, France, Singapore, and Japan, the experience on how to make use of public housing to realize social integration in aspects of race, class, religion, income is gained through years of practice. Take the example of Singapore, the article first introduces the ethnic composition background and public housing development in Singapore, and then gives a detailed explanation and analysis on social integration in public housing from the views of Ethnic quotas policy, community organization construction and design of public space. Finally, combined with the Chinese situation, the article points out that the solution for social integration in China is the organic mix of different income groups in public housing.

Keywords: floating population, public housing, Singapore, social integration, urbanization

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1582 A Comparative Analysis of Residential Quality of Public and Private Estates in Lagos

Authors: S. Akinde, Jubril Olatunbosun

Abstract:

In recent years, most of the urban centers in Nigeria are fast experiencing housing problems such as unaffordable housing and environmental challenges, all of which determine the nature of housing quality. The population continues to increase and the demand for quality housing increases probably at the same rate. Several kinds of houses serve various purposes; the objectives of the low cost housing schemes as the name suggests is to make houses quality to both the middle and lower classes of people in Lagos. A casual look into the study area of Iba Low Cost Housing Estate and the Unity Low Cost Housing Estate, Ojo and Alimosho respectively in Lagos State have shown a huge demands for houses. The study area boasts of a large population all engaged in various commercial activities with income at various levels. It would be fair to say that these people are mainly of the middle class and lower class. This means the low cost housing scheme truly serves these purposes. A Low Cost Housing Scheme of Iba which is publicly owned and Low Cost Housing Scheme of Unity Estate (UE) is privately owned.  

Keywords: housing, residential quality, low cost housing scheme, public, private estates

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1581 Factors Influencing the Housing Price: Developers’ Perspective

Authors: Ernawati Mustafa Kamal, Hasnanywati Hassan, Atasya Osmadi

Abstract:

The housing industry is crucial for sustainable development of every country. Housing is a basic need that can enhance the quality of life. Owning a house is therefore the main aim of individuals. However, affordability has become a critical issue towards homeownership. In recent years, housing price in the main cities has increased tremendously to unaffordable level. This paper investigates factors influencing the housing price from developer’s perspective and provides recommendation on strategies to tackle this issue. Online and face-to-face survey was conducted on housing developers operating in Penang, Malaysia. The results indicate that (1) location; (2) macroeconomics factor; (3) demographic factors; (4) land/zoning and; (5) industry factors are the main factors influencing the housing price. This paper contributes towards better understanding on developers’ view on how the housing price is determined and form a basis for government to help tackle the housing affordability issue.

Keywords: factors influence, house price, housing developers, Malaysia

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1580 Evaluation of Suitable Housing System for Adoption in Addis Ababa

Authors: Yidnekachew Daget, Hong Zhang

Abstract:

The decision-making process in order to select the suitable housing system for application in housing construction has been a challenge for many developing countries. This study evaluates the decision process to identify the suitable housing systems for adoption in Addis Ababa. Ten industrialized housing systems were considered as alternatives for comparison. These systems have been used in a housing development in different parts of the world. A relevant literature review and contextual analysis were conducted. An analytical hierarchy process and an Expert Choice Comparion platform were employed as a research technique and tool to evaluate the professionals’ level of preferences with regard to the housing systems. The findings revealed the priority rank and characteristics of the suitable housing systems to be adapted for application in housing development. The decision criteria and the analytical process used in this study can help the decision-makers and the housing developers in developing countries make effective evaluations and decisions.

Keywords: analytical hierarchy process, decision-making, expert choice comparion, industrialized housing systems

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1579 How Do Housing Market and Mortgage Solve the Housing Problem in Russian Regions?

Authors: Liudmila A.Guzikova

Abstract:

Being federative state Russia includes more than 80 subjects which are widely diverse by climatic conditions, demographic characteristics, cultural traditions, intensity of migration, economic development and investment attraction and other parameters. Now, in the regions of the country all forms of housing problem are present - housing mismatch to sanitary and hygienic standards, overcrowding, forced residence in financially burdensome housing, homelessness, -although the extent of these symptoms varies widely. Heterogeneity of regional conditions in combination with specifics of regional housing situation requires to concentrate the study of housing problem on the regional level. Traditionally housing market and mortgage are considered as the instruments of housing problem solving. The question arises how the housing market and mortgage market contribute to solving the housing problem in the regions of Russia. Though the purchase of dwelling in ownership should not be regarded as a universal method of the housing problem solving, the purchase of dwelling both by own funds or by use of mortgage can reduce the problem and enhance public satisfaction of living conditions. The aim of the study is to identify differences and similarities in the development of regional housing markets and mortgage lending in the regions of Russia and to evaluate their impact on the status of the housing problem. To achieve the aim of the study the methods of correlation and regression analysis are used. The data of federal statistics constitutes the information base of research. The results of the study contribute to better understanding of the interrelations in housing sphere and can be used to work out social and economic development programs in the regions.

Keywords: housing market, housing problem, mortgage, regional economy

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1578 Study on Spatial Structure and Evolvement Process of Traditional Villages’ Courtyard Based on Clannism

Authors: Liang Sun, Yi He

Abstract:

The origination and development of Chinese traditional villages have a strong link with clan society. Thousands of traditional villages are constituted by one big family who have the same surname. Villages’ basic social relationships are built on the basis of family kinship. Clan power controls family courtyards’ spatial structure and influences their evolvement process. Compared with other countries, research from perspective of clanism is a particular and universally applicable manner to recognize Chinese traditional villages’ space features. This paper takes traditional villages in astern Zhejiang province as examples, especially a single-clan village named Zoumatang. Through combining rural sociology with architecture, it clarifies the coupling relationship between clan structure and village space, reveals spatial composition and evolvement logic of family courtyards. Clan society pays much attention to the patrilineal kinship and genealogy. In astern Zhejiang province, clan is usually divided to ‘clan-branches-families’ three levels. Its structural relationship looks like pyramid, which results in ‘center-margin’ structure when projecting to villages’ space. Due to the cultural tradition of ancestor worship, family courtyards’ space exist similar ‘center-margin’ structure. Ancestor hall and family temple are respectively the space core of village and courtyard. Other parts of courtyard also shows order of superiority and inferiority. Elder and men must be the first. However, along with the disintegration of clan society, family courtyard gradually appears fragmentation trend. Its spatial structure becomes more and more flexible and its scale becomes smaller and smaller. Living conditions rather than ancestor worship turn out to be primary consideration. As a result, there are different courtyard historical prototype in different historic period. To some extent, Chinese present traditional villages’ conservation ignore the impact of clan society. This paper discovers the social significance of courtyard’s spatial texture and rebuilds the connection between society and space. It is expected to promote Chinese traditional villages’ conservation paying more attention to authenticity which defined in the historical process and integrity which built on the basis of social meaning.

Keywords: China, clanism, courtyard, evolvement process, spatial structure, traditional village

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
1577 Research Methodology of Living Environment of Modern Residential Development in St. Petersburg

Authors: Kalina Alina Aidarovna, Khayrullina Yulia Sergeevna

Abstract:

The question of forming quality housing and living environment remains a vexed problem in the current situation of high-rise apartment building in big cities of Russia. At this start up stage of the modern so-called "mass housing" market it needs to identify key quality characteristics on a different scale from apartments to the district. This paper describes the methodology of qualitative assessment of modern mass housing construction, made on the basis of the ITMO university in cooperation with the institute of spatial planning "Urbanika," based on the case study of St. Petersburg’s residential mass housing built in 2011-2014. The methodology of the study of housing and living environment goes back to the native and foreign urbanists of 60s - 80s, such Jane Jacobs, Jan Gehl, Oscar Newman, Krasheninnikov, as well as Sommer, Stools, Kohnen and Sherrod, Krasilnikova, Sychev, Zhdanov, Tinyaeva considering spatial features of living environment in a wide range of its characteristics (environmental control, territorial and personalization, privacy, etc.). Assessment is carrying out on the proposed system of criteria developed for each residential environment scale-district, quarter, courtyard, building surrounding grounds, houses, and flats. Thus the objects of study are planning unit of residential development areas (residential area, neighborhood, quarter) residential units areas (living artist, a house), and households (apartments) consisting of residential units. As a product of identified methodology, after the results of case studies of more than 700 residential complexes in St. Petersburg, we intend the creation of affordable online resource that would allow conducting a detailed qualitative evaluation or comparative characteristics of residential complexes for all participants of the construction market-developers, designers, realtors and buyers. Thereby the main objective of the rating may be achieved to improve knowledge, requirements, and demand for quality housing and living environment among the major stakeholders of the construction market.

Keywords: methodology of living environment, qualitative assessment of mass housing, scale-district, vexed problem

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
1576 Structural Analysis of Sheep and Goat Farms in Konya Province

Authors: Selda Uzal Seyfi

Abstract:

Goat milk is a quite important in human nutrition. In order to meet the demand to the goat and sheep milk occurring in the recent years, an increase is seen in the demand to housing projects, which will enable animals to be sheltered in the suitable environments. This study was carried out in between 2012 and 2013, in order to identify the existing cases of sheep and goat housings in the province Konya and their possibilities to be developed. In the study, in the province Konya, 25 pieces of sheep and goat farms and 46 pieces of sheep and goat housings (14 sheep housings, 3 goat housings, and 29 housings, in which both sheep and goat are bred ) that are present in the farm were investigated as material. In the study, examining the general features of the farms that are present in the region and structural features of housings that are present in the farms, it is studied whether or not they are suitable for animal breeding. As a result of the study, the barns were evaluated as insufficient in terms of barn design, although 48% of they were built after 2000. In 63% of housings examined, stocking density of resting area was below the value of 1 m2/animal and in 59% of the housings, stocking density of courtyard area was below the 2 m2/animal. Feeding length, in 57% of housings has a value of 0.30 m and below. In the region, it will be possible to obtain the desired productivity level by building new barn designs, developed in accordance with the animal behaviors and welfare. Carrying out the necessary works is an important issue in terms of country and regional economy.

Keywords: barn design, goat housing, sheep housing, structural analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
1575 Estimation of Break Points of Housing Price Growth Rate for Top MSAs in Texas Area

Authors: Hui Wu, Ye Li

Abstract:

Applying the structural break estimation method proposed by Perron and Bai (1998) to the housing price growth rate of top 5 MSAs in the Texas area, this paper estimated the structural break date for the growth rate of housing prices index. As shown in the estimation results, the break dates for each region are quite different, which indicates the heterogeneity of the housing market in response to macroeconomic conditions.

Keywords: structural break, housing prices index, ADF test, linear model

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
1574 Housing Loans Determinants before and during Financial Crisis

Authors: Josip Visković, Ana Rimac Smiljanić, Ines Ivić

Abstract:

Housing loans play an important role in CEE countries’ economies. This fact is based on their share in total loans to households and their importance for economic activity and growth in CEE countries. Therefore, it is important to find out key determinants of housing loans demand in these countries. The aim of this study is to research and analyze the determinants of the demand for housing loans in Croatia. In this regard, the effect of economic activity, loan terms and real estate prices were analyzed. Also, the aim of this study is to find out what motivates people to take housing loans. Therefore, primarily empirical study was conducted among the Croatian residents. The results show that demand for housing loans is positively affected by economic growth, higher personal income and flexible loan terms, while it is negatively affected by interest rate rise.

Keywords: CEE countries, Croatia, demand determinants, housing loans

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
1573 Research on the Development and Space Optimization of Rental-Type Public Housing in Hangzhou

Authors: Xuran Zhang, Huiru Chen

Abstract:

In recent years, China has made great efforts to cultivate and develop the housing rental market, especially the rental-type public housing, which has been paid attention to by all sectors of the society. This paper takes Hangzhou rental-type public housing as the research object, and divides it into three development stages according to the different supply modes of rental-type public housing. Through data collection and field research, the paper summarizes the spatial characteristics of rental-type public housing from the five perspectives of spatial planning, spatial layout, spatial integration, spatial organization and spatial configuration. On this basis, the paper proposes the optimization of the spatial layout. The study concludes that the spatial layout of rental-type public housing should be coordinated with the development of urban planning. When planning and constructing, it is necessary to select more mixed construction modes, to be properly centralized, and to improve the surrounding transportation service facilities.  It is hoped that the recommendations in this paper will provide a reference for the further development of rental-type public housing in Hangzhou.

Keywords: Hangzhou, rental-type public housing, spatial distribution, spatial optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 232