Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: semicircular canyon

22 Model of Cosserat Continuum Dispersion in a Half-Space with a Scatterer

Authors: Francisco Velez, Juan David Gomez


Dispersion effects on the Scattering for a semicircular canyon in a micropolar continuum are analyzed, by using a computational finite element scheme. The presence of microrotational waves and the dispersive SV waves affects the propagation of elastic waves. Here, a contrast with the classic model is presented, and the dependence with the micropolar parameters is studied.

Keywords: scattering, semicircular canyon, wave dispersion, micropolar medium, FEM modeling

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21 The Measurements of Nitrogen Dioxide Pollution in Street Canyons

Authors: Aukse Miskinyte, Audrius Dedele


The impact of urban air pollution on human health effects has been revealed in epidemiological studies, which have assessed the associations between various types of gases and particles and negative health outcomes. The percentage of population living in urban areas is increasing, and the assessment of air pollution in certain zones in the city (like street canyons) that have higher level of air pollution and specific dispersion conditions is essential as these places tend to contain a lot of people. Street canyon is defined as a street surrounded by tall buildings on both sides that trapes traffic emissions and prevents pollution dispersion. The aim of this study was to determine the pollution of nitrogen dioxide in street canyons in Kaunas city during cold and warm seasons. The measurements were conducted using passive sampling technique during two-week period in two street canyon sites, whose axes are approximately north-south and north-northeast‒south-southwest. Both of these streets are two-lane roads of 7 meters width, one is in the central part of the city, and other is in the Old Town. The results of two-week measurements showed that the concentration of nitrogen dioxide was higher in summer season than in winter in both street canyon sites. The difference between the level of NO2 in winter and summer seasons was 5.1 and 19.4 µg/m3 in the first and in the second street canyon sites, respectively. The higher concentration of NO2 was determined in the second street canyon site than in the first, although there was calculated lower traffic intensity. These results could be related to the certain street canyon characteristics.

Keywords: air pollution, nitrogen dioxide, passive sampler, street canyon

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20 Cross Ventilation in Waterfront Urban Canyons: The Case Study of Alexandria

Authors: Bakr Gomaa


Cross ventilation is an important and practical mean to achieve thermal comfort and conserve energy. This is especially true in the breezy waterfront settings. However, due to a number of factors, cross ventilation in buildings is usually studied by using oversimplified scenarios. It is then reasonable to study the impact of complex set of factors on the accuracy of predicting air flow rate because of wind driven cross ventilation. The objective of this paper is to provide architects with the tools necessary to achieve natural ventilation for cooling purposes in a waterfront urban canyon context. Also, urban canyons have not received much attention in terms of their impact on cross ventilation, and while we know how the wind flows between buildings in different urban canyon settings, the effect of the parallel-to-the-wind urban canyon on cross ventilation in buildings remains unclear. For this, we use detailed weather data, boundary layer correction factor, and CFD simulations to study the pressure patterns that form on the canyons surfaces in the case study of Alexandria. We found that the simplified numerical methods of calculating the cross ventilation in buildings can lead to inaccurate design decisions.

Keywords: cross ventilation, Alexandria, CFD, urban canyon

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19 A Three-Dimensional (3D) Numerical Study of Roofs Shape Impact on Air Quality in Urban Street Canyons with Tree Planting

Authors: Bouabdellah Abed, Mohamed Bouzit, Lakhdar Bouarbi


The objective of this study is to investigate numerically the effect of roof shaped on wind flow and pollutant dispersion in a street canyon with one row of trees of pore volume, Pvol = 96%. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for evaluating air flow and pollutant dispersion within an urban street canyon using Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations and the k-Epsilon EARSM turbulence model as close of the equation system. The numerical model is performed with ANSYS-CFX code. Vehicle emissions were simulated as double line sources along the street. The numerical model was validated against the wind tunnel experiment. Having established this, the wind flow and pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons of six roof shapes are simulated. The numerical simulation agrees reasonably with the wind tunnel data. The results obtained in this work, indicate that the flow in 3D domain is more complicated, this complexity is increased with presence of tree and variability of the roof shapes. The results also indicated that the largest pollutant concentration level for two walls (leeward and windward wall) is observed with the upwind wedge-shaped roof. But the smallest pollutant concentration level is observed with the dome roof-shaped. The results also indicated that the corners eddies provide additional ventilation and lead to lower traffic pollutant concentrations at the street canyon ends.

Keywords: street canyon, pollutant dispersion, trees, building configuration, numerical simulation, k-Epsilon EARSM

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18 Distribution of Epiphytic Lichen Biodiversity and Comparision with Their Preferred Tree Species around the Şeker Canyon, Karabük, Turkey

Authors: Hatice Esra Akgül, Celaleddin Öztürk


Lichen biodiversity in forests is controlled by environmental conditions. Epiphytic lichens have some degree of substrate specificity. Diversity and distribution of epiphytic lichens are affected by humidity, light, altitude, temperature, bark pH of the trees.This study describes the epiphytic lichen communities with comparing their preferred tree species. 34 epiphytic lichen taxa are reported on Pinus sp. L., Quercus sp. L., Fagus sp. L., Carpinus sp. L., Abies sp. Mill., Fraxinus sp. Tourn. ex L. from different altitudes around the Şeker Canyon (Karabük, Turkey). 11 of these taxa are growing on Quercus sp., 10 of them are growing on Fagus sp., 7 of them are growing on Pinus sp., 4 of them are on Carpinus sp., 2 of them are on Abies sp. and one of them is on Fraxinus sp. Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. is growing on both of Fagus sp. and Quercus sp. Lecanora pulicaris (Pers.) Ach. is growing on both of Abies sp. and Quercus sp.

Keywords: biodiversity, epiphytic lichen, forest, Turkey

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17 Aerodynamic Analysis of the Airfoil of a VAWT by Using 2D CFD Modelling

Authors: Luis F. Garcia, Julian E. Jaramillo, Jorge L. Chacón


Colombia is a country where the benefits of wind power industry are barely used because of the geography in some areas does not allow the implementation of onshore horizontal axis wind turbines. Furthermore, exist rural areas without access to the electrical grid. Therefore, there is currently a deficit of energy supply in some towns. This research took place in one of those areas (i.e. Chicamocha Canyon-Santander) where the answer to the energy supply problems could be the use of vertical axis wind turbines, which can be used for turbulent flows. Hence, one task of this research is the analysis of the wind resources in the Chicamocha Canyon in order to implement the wind energy. The wind turbines must be designed in such a way that the blades take good advantage of the wind resources in the area of interest. Consequently, in the current research the analysis of two different airfoils (i.e. NACA0018 and DU 06-W-200) through a 2D CFD simulation is carried out by means of a free-software (OpenFOAM). Predicted results using the “Spalart-Allmaras” turbulence model are similar to the wind tunnel data published in the literature. Moreover, global parameters such as dimensionless lift and drag coefficients were calculated. Finally, this research encourages VAWT studies under wind turbulent flows in order to achieve the best use of natural resources in Colombia.

Keywords: airfoil, wind turbine, turbulence modelling, Chicamocha, CFD

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16 Modeling of Carbon Monoxide Distribution under the Sky-Train Stations

Authors: Suranath Chomcheon, Nathnarong Khajohnsaksumeth, Benchawan Wiwatanapataphee


Carbon monoxide is one of the harmful gases which have colorless, odorless, and tasteless. Too much carbon monoxide taken into the human body causes the reduction of oxygen transportation within human body cells leading to many symptoms including headache, nausea, vomiting, loss of consciousness, and death. Carbon monoxide is considered as one of the air pollution indicators. It is mainly released as soot from the exhaust pipe of the incomplete combustion of the vehicle engine. Nowadays, the increase in vehicle usage and the slowly moving of the vehicle struck by the traffic jam has created a large amount of carbon monoxide, which accumulated in the street canyon area. In this research, we study the effect of parameters such as wind speed and aspect ratio of the height building affecting the ventilation. We consider the model of the pollutant under the Bangkok Transit System (BTS) stations in a two-dimensional geometrical domain. The convention-diffusion equation and Reynolds-averaged Navier-stokes equation is used to describe the concentration and the turbulent flow of carbon monoxide. The finite element method is applied to obtain the numerical result. The result shows that our model can describe the dispersion patterns of carbon monoxide for different wind speeds.

Keywords: air pollution, carbon monoxide, finite element, street canyon

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15 Seismo-Volcanic Hazards in Great Ararat Region, Eastern Turkey

Authors: Mehmet Salih Bayraktutan, Emre Tokmak


Great Ararat Volcano is the highest peak in South Caucasus Volcanic Plateau. Uplifted by Quaternary basaltic pyroclastic and lava flows. Numerous volcanic cones formed along with the tensional fractures under N-S compressional geodynamic framework. Basaltic flows have fresh surface morphology give ages of 650-680 K years. Hyperstene andesites constitute a major mass of Greater Ararat gives ages of 450-490 K years. During the early eruption period, predominately pyroclastics, cinder, lapilly-ash volcanic bombs were extruded. Third-period eruptions dominantly basaltic lava flows. Andesitic domes aligned along with the NW-SE striking fractures. Hyalo basalt and hornblende basaltic lavas are the latest lava eruptions. Hyalo-basaltic eruptions occurred via parasitic cones distributed far from the center. Parasitic cones are most common at the foot of Mount covered by recent NW flowing basaltic lava. Some of the cones are distributed on a circular pattern. One of the most hazardous disasters recorded in Eastern Turkey was July 1840 Cehennem Canyon Flood. Volcanic activities seismically triggered resulted in melting of glacier cap, mixed with ash and pyroclastics, flowed down along the Valley. Mud rich Slush urged catastrophically northwards, crossed Ars River and damned Surmeli Basin, forming reservoir behind. Ararat volcanoes are located on NW-SE striking Agri Fault Zone. Right lateral extensional faults, along which a series of andesitic domes formed. Great Ararat, in general strato-type volcano. This huge structure, developed in two main parts with different topographic and morphological features. The large lower base covers a widespread area composed of predominantly pyroclastics, ignimbrites, aglomerates, thick pumice, perlite deposits. Approximately 1/3 of the Crest by height formed of this basement. And 2/3 of the upper part with a conic- shape composed of basaltic lava flows. The active tectonic structure consists of three different patterns. The first network is radially distributed fractures formed during the last stage of lava eruptions. The second group of active faults striking in NW direction, and continue in N30W strike, formes Igdir Fault Zone. The third set of faults, dipping in the northwest with 75-80 degrees, strikes NE- SW across the whole Mount, slicing Great Ararat into four segments. In the upper stage of Cehennem Canyon, this set cutting volcanic layers caused numerous Waterfalls, Rock Avalanches, Mud Flows along the canyon, threatens the Village of Yanidogan, at the apex of flood deposits. Great Ararat Region has high seismo-tectonic risk and by occurrence frequency and magnitude, which caused in history caused heavy disasters, at villages surrounding the Ararat Basement.

Keywords: Eastern Turkey, geohazard, great ararat volcano, seismo-tectonic features

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14 Sediment Wave and Cyclic Steps as Mechanism for Sediment Transport in Submarine Canyons Thalweg

Authors: Taiwo Olusoji Lawrence, Peace Mawo Aaron


Seismic analysis of bedforms has proven to be one of the best ways to study deepwater sedimentary features. Canyons are known to be sediment transportation conduit. Sediment wave are large-scale depositional bedforms in various parts of the world's oceans formed predominantly by suspended load transport. These undulating objects usually have tens of meters to a few kilometers in wavelength and a height of several meters. Cyclic steps have long long-wave upstream-migrating bedforms confined by internal hydraulic jumps. They usually occur in regions with high gradients and slope breaks. Cyclic steps and migrating sediment waves are the most common bedform on the seafloor. Cyclic steps and related sediment wave bedforms are significant to the morpho-dynamic evolution of deep-water depositional systems architectural elements, especially those located along tectonically active margins with high gradients and slope breaks that can promote internal hydraulic jumps in turbidity currents. This report examined sedimentary activities and sediment transportation in submarine canyons and provided distinctive insight into factors that created a complex seabed canyon system in the Ceara Fortaleza basin Brazilian Equatorial Margin (BEM). The growing importance of cyclic steps made it imperative to understand the parameters leading to their formation, migration, and architecture as well as their controls on sediment transport in canyon thalweg. We extracted the parameters of the observed bedforms and evaluated the aspect ratio and asymmetricity. We developed a relationship between the hydraulic jump magnitude, depth of the hydraulic fall and the length of the cyclic step therein. It was understood that an increase in the height of the cyclic step increases the magnitude of the hydraulic jump and thereby increases the rate of deposition on the preceding stoss side. An increase in the length of the cyclic steps reduces the magnitude of the hydraulic jump and reduces the rate of deposition at the stoss side. Therefore, flat stoss side was noticed at most preceding cyclic step and sediment wave.

Keywords: Ceara Fortaleza, submarine canyons, cyclic steps, sediment wave

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13 Simulation of Piezoelectric Laminated Smart Structure under Strong Electric Field

Authors: Shun-Qi Zhang, Shu-Yang Zhang, Min Chen


Applying strong electric field on piezoelectric actuators, on one hand very significant electroelastic material nonlinear effects will occur, on the other hand piezo plates and shells may undergo large displacements and rotations. In order to give a precise prediction of piezolaminated smart structures under large electric field, this paper develops a finite element (FE) model accounting for both electroelastic material nonlinearity and geometric nonlinearity with large rotations based on the first order shear deformation (FSOD) hypothesis. The proposed FE model is applied to analyze a piezolaminated semicircular shell structure.

Keywords: smart structures, piezolamintes, material nonlinearity, strong electric field

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12 Numerical Simulation of Convective Flow of Nanofluids with an Oriented Magnetic Field in a Half Circular-Annulus

Authors: M. J. Uddin, M. M. Rahman


The unsteady convective heat transfer flow of nanofluids in a half circular-annulus shape enclosure using nonhomogeneous dynamic model has been investigated numerically. The round upper wall of the enclosure is maintained at constant low temperature whereas the bottom wall is heated by three different thermal conditions. The enclosure is permeated by a uniform magnetic field having variable orientation. The Brownian motion and thermophoretic phenomena of the nanoparticles are taken into account in model construction. The governing nonlinear momentum, energy, and concentration equations are solved numerically using Galerkin weighted residual finite element method. To discover the best performer, the average Nusselt number is demonstrated for different types of nanofluids. The heat transfer rate for different flow parameters, positions of the annulus, thicknesses of the half circular-annulus and thermal conditions is also exhibited.

Keywords: nanofluid, convection, semicircular-annulus, nonhomogeneous dynamic model, finite element method

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11 Mixing Behaviors of Shear-Thinning Fluids in Serpentine-Channel Micromixers

Authors: Rei-Tang Tsai, Chih-Yang Wu, Chia-Yuan Chang, Ming-Ying Kuo


This study aims to investigate the mixing behaviors of deionized (DI) water and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) solutions in C-shaped serpentine micromixers over a wide range of flow conditions. The flow of CMC solutions exhibits shear-thinning behaviors. Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effects of the mean flow speed, fluid properties and geometry parameters on flow and mixing in the micromixers with serpentine channel of the same overall channel length. From the results, we can find the following trends. When fluid mixing is dominated by convection, the curvature-induced vortices enhance fluid mixing effectively. The mixing efficiency of a micromixer consisting of semicircular C-shaped repeating units with a smaller center-line radius is better than that of a micromixer consisting of major-segment repeating units with a larger center-line radius. The viscosity of DI water is less than the overall average apparent viscosity of CMC solutions, and so the effect of curvature-induced vortices on fluid mixing in DI water is larger than that in CMC solutions for the cases with the same mean flow speed.

Keywords: curved channel, microfluidics, mixing, non-newtonian fluids, vortex

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10 Revealing the Potential of Geotourism and Geoheritage of Gedangsari Area, Yogyakarta

Authors: Cecilia Jatu, Adventino


Gedangsari is located in Gunungkidul, Yogyakarta Province, which has several criteria to be used as a new geosite object. The research area is located in the southern mountain zone of Java, composed of 5 rock formations with Oligocene up to Middle Miocene age. The purpose of this study is to reveal the potential of geotourism and the geoheritage to be proposed as a new geosite and to make a geosite map of Gedangsari. The research method used is descriptive data collection and which includes quantitative geological data collection, geotourism, and heritage sites, then supported by petrographic analysis, geological structure, geological mapping, and SWOT analysis. The geological data proved that Gedangsari consists of igneous rock (intrusion), pyroclastic rock, and sediment rock. This condition caused many varieties and particular geomorphological platform. Geotourism that include in Gedangsari are Luweng Sampang Canyon, Gedangsari Bouma Sequence, Watugajah Columnar Joint, Gedangsari Marine Fan Sediment, and Tegalrejo Waterfall. There is also Tegalrejo Village, which can be considered as geoheritage site because of its culture and batik traditional cloth. The results of the SWOT analysis, Gedangsari geosite must be developed and appropriately promoted in order to improve the existence. The development of geosite area will have a significant impact that improve the economic growth of the surrounding community and can be used by the government as base information for sustainable development. In addition, the making of an educational map about the geological conditions and geotourism location of the Gedangsari geosite can increase the people's knowledge about Gedangsari.

Keywords: Gedangsari, geoheritage, geotourism, geosite

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9 Sensitivity Enhancement of Photonic Crystal Fiber Biosensor

Authors: Mohamed Farhat O. Hameed, Yasamin K. A. Alrayk, A. A Shaalan, S. S. A. Obayya


The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors are widely used due to its high sensitivity with molecular labels free. The commercial SPR sensors depend on the conventional prism-coupled configuration. However, this type of configuration suffers from miniaturization and integration. Therefore, the search for compact, portable and highly sensitive SPR sensors becomes mandatory.In this paper, sensitivity enhancement of a novel photonic crystal fiber biosensoris introduced and studied. The suggested design has microstructure of air holes in the core region surrounded by two large semicircular metallized channels filled with the analyte. The inner surfaces of the two channels are coated by a silver layer followed by a gold layer.The simulation results are obtained using full vectorial finite element methodwith perfect matched layer (PML) boundary conditions. The proposed design depends on bimetallic configuration to enhance the biosensor sensitivity. Additionally, the suggested biosensor can be used for multi-channel/multi-analyte sensing. In this study, the sensor geometrical parameters are studied to maximize the sensitivity for the two polarized modes. The numerical results show that high refractive index sensitivity of 4750 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) and 4300 nm/RIU can be achieved for the quasi (transverse magnetic) TM and quasi (transverse electric) TE modes of the proposed biosensor, respectively. The reportedbiosensor has advantages of integration of microfluidics setup, waveguide and metallic layers into a single structure. As a result, compact biosensor with better integration compared to conventional optical fiber SPR biosensors can be obtained.

Keywords: photonic crystal fibers, gold, silver, surface plasmon, biosensor

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8 Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Blade Made with Natural Fiber Based Composite Material

Authors: Ivan D. Ortega, Juan D. Castro, Alberto Pertuz, Manuel Martinez


One of the problems considered when scientists talk about climate change is the necessity of utilizing renewable sources of energy, on this category there are many approaches to the problem, one of them is wind energy and wind turbines whose designs have frequently changed along many years trying to achieve a better overall performance on different conditions. From that situation, we get the two main types known today: Vertical and Horizontal axis wind turbines, which have acronyms VAWT and HAWT, respectively. This research aims to understand how well suited a composite material, which is still in development, made with natural origin fibers is for its implementation on vertical axis wind turbines blades under certain wind loads. The study consisted on acquiring the mechanical properties of the materials to be used which where bactris guineenis, also known as pama de lata in Colombia, and adhesive that acts as the matrix which had not been previously studied to the point required for this project. Then, a simplified 3D model of the airfoil was developed and tested under some preliminary loads using finite element analysis (FEA), these loads were acquired in the Colombian Chicamocha Canyon. Afterwards, a more realistic pressure profile was obtained using computational fluid dynamics which took into account the 3D shape of the complete blade and its rotation. Finally, the blade model was subjected to the wind loads using what is known as one way fluidstructure interaction (FSI) and its behavior analyzed to draw conclusions. The observed overall results were positive since the material behaved fairly as expected. Data suggests the material would be really useful in this kind of applications in small to medium size turbines if it is given more attention and time to develop.

Keywords: CFD, FEA, FSI, natural fiber, VAWT

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7 Definition of Aerodynamic Coefficients for Microgravity Unmanned Aerial System

Authors: Gamaliel Salazar, Adriana Chazaro, Oscar Madrigal


The evolution of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) has made it possible to develop new vehicles capable to perform microgravity experiments which due its cost and complexity were beyond the reach for many institutions. In this study, the aerodynamic behavior of an UAS is studied through its deceleration stage after an initial free fall phase (where the microgravity effect is generated) using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Due to the fact that the payload would be analyzed under a microgravity environment and the nature of the payload itself, the speed of the UAS must be reduced in a smoothly way. Moreover, the terminal speed of the vehicle should be low enough to preserve the integrity of the payload and vehicle during the landing stage. The UAS model is made by a study pod, control surfaces with fixed and mobile sections, landing gear and two semicircular wing sections. The speed of the vehicle is decreased by increasing the angle of attack (AoA) of each wing section from 2° (where the airfoil S1091 has its greatest aerodynamic efficiency) to 80°, creating a circular wing geometry. Drag coefficients (Cd) and forces (Fd) are obtained employing CFD analysis. A simplified 3D model of the vehicle is analyzed using Ansys Workbench 16. The distance between the object of study and the walls of the control volume is eight times the length of the vehicle. The domain is discretized using an unstructured mesh based on tetrahedral elements. The refinement of the mesh is made by defining an element size of 0.004 m in the wing and control surfaces in order to figure out the fluid behavior in the most important zones, as well as accurate approximations of the Cd. The turbulent model k-epsilon is selected to solve the governing equations of the fluids while a couple of monitors are placed in both wing and all-body vehicle to visualize the variation of the coefficients along the simulation process. Employing a statistical approximation response surface methodology the case of study is parametrized considering the AoA of the wing as the input parameter and Cd and Fd as output parameters. Based on a Central Composite Design (CCD), the Design Points (DP) are generated so the Cd and Fd for each DP could be estimated. Applying a 2nd degree polynomial approximation the drag coefficients for every AoA were determined. Using this values, the terminal speed at each position is calculated considering a specific Cd. Additionally, the distance required to reach the terminal velocity at each AoA is calculated, so the minimum distance for the entire deceleration stage without comprising the payload could be determine. The Cd max of the vehicle is 1.18, so its maximum drag will be almost like the drag generated by a parachute. This guarantees that aerodynamically the vehicle can be braked, so it could be utilized for several missions allowing repeatability of microgravity experiments.

Keywords: microgravity effect, response surface, terminal speed, unmanned system

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6 Ytterbium Advantages for Brachytherapy

Authors: S. V. Akulinichev, S. A. Chaushansky, V. I. Derzhiev


High dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy is a method of contact radiotherapy, when a single sealed source with an activity of about 10 Ci is temporarily inserted in the tumor area. The isotopes Ir-192 and (much less) Co-60 are used as active material for such sources. The other type of brachytherapy, the low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy, implies the insertion of many permanent sources (up to 200) of lower activity. The pulse dose rate (PDR) brachytherapy can be considered as a modification of HDR brachytherapy, when the single source is repeatedly introduced in the tumor region in a pulse regime during several hours. The PDR source activity is of the order of one Ci and the isotope Ir-192 is currently used for these sources. The PDR brachytherapy is well recommended for the treatment of several tumors since, according to oncologists, it combines the medical benefits of both HDR and LDR types of brachytherapy. One of the main problems for the PDR brachytherapy progress is the shielding of the treatment area since the longer stay of patients in a shielded canyon is not enough comfortable for them. The use of Yb-169 as an active source material is the way to resolve the shielding problem for PDR, as well as for HRD brachytherapy. The isotope Yb-169 has the average photon emission energy of 93 KeV and the half-life of 32 days. Compared to iridium and cobalt, this isotope has a significantly lower emission energy and therefore requires a much lighter shielding. Moreover, the absorption cross section of different materials has a strong Z-dependence in that photon energy range. For example, the dose distributions of iridium and ytterbium have a quite similar behavior in the water or in the body. But the heavier material as lead absorbs the ytterbium radiation much stronger than the iridium or cobalt radiation. For example, only 2 mm of lead layer is enough to reduce the ytterbium radiation by a couple of orders of magnitude but is not enough to protect from iridium radiation. We have created an original facility to produce the start stable isotope Yb-168 using the laser technology AVLIS. This facility allows to raise the Yb-168 concentration up to 50 % and consumes much less of electrical power than the alternative electromagnetic enrichment facilities. We also developed, in cooperation with the Institute of high pressure physics of RAS, a new technology for manufacturing high-density ceramic cores of ytterbium oxide. Ceramics density reaches the limit of the theoretical values: 9.1 g/cm3 for the cubic phase of ytterbium oxide and 10 g/cm3 for the monoclinic phase. Source cores from this ceramics have high mechanical characteristics and a glassy surface. The use of ceramics allows to increase the source activity with fixed external dimensions of sources.

Keywords: brachytherapy, high, pulse dose rates, radionuclides for therapy, ytterbium sources

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5 Structure and Properties of Intermetallic NiAl-Based Coatings Produced by Magnetron Sputtering Technique

Authors: Tatiana S. Ogneva


Aluminum and nickel-based intermetallic compounds have attracted the attention of scientific community as promising materials for heat-resistant and wear-resistant coatings in such manufacturing areas as microelectronics, aircraft and rocket building and chemical industries. Magnetron sputtering makes possible to coat materials without formation of liquid phase and improves the mechanical and functional properties of nickel aluminides due to the possibility of nanoscale structure formation. The purpose of the study is the investigation of structure and properties of intermetallic coatings produced by magnetron sputtering technique. The feature of this work is the using of composite targets for sputtering, which were consisted of two semicircular sectors of cp-Ni and cp-Al. Plates of alumina, silicon, titanium and steel alloys were used as substrates. To estimate sputtering conditions on structure of intermetallic coatings, a series of samples were produced and studied in detail using scanning and transition electron microcopy and X-Ray diffraction. Besides, nanohardness and scratching tests were carried out. The varying parameters were the distance from the substrate to the target, the duration and the power of the sputtering. The thickness of the obtained intermetallic coatings varied from 0.05 to 0.5 mm depending on the sputtering conditions. The X-ray diffraction data indicated that the formation of intermetallic compounds occurred after sputtering without additional heat treatment. Sputtering at a distance not closer than 120 mm led to the formation of NiAl phase. Increase in the power of magnetron from 300 to 900 W promoted the increase of heterogeneity of the phase composition and the appearance of intermetallic phases NiAl, Ni₂Al₃, NiAl₃, and Al under the aluminum side, and NiAl, Ni₃Al, and Ni under the nickel side of the target. A similar trend is observed with increasing the distance of sputtering from 100 to 60 mm. The change in the phase composition correlates with the changing of the atomic composition of the coatings. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the coatings have a nanoscale grain structure. In this case, the substrate material and the distance from the substrate to the magnetron have a significant effect on the structure formation process. The size of nanograins differs from 10 to 83 nm and depends not only on the sputtering modes but also on material of a substrate. Nanostructure of the material influences the level of mechanical properties. The highest level of nanohardness of the coatings deposited during 30 minutes on metallic substrates at a distance of 100 mm reached 12 GPa. It was shown that nanohardness depends on the grain size of the intermetallic compound. Scratching tests of the coatings showed a high level of adhesion of the coating to substrate without any delamination and cracking. The results of the study showed that magnetron sputtering of composite targets consisting of nickel and aluminum semicircles makes it possible to form intermetallic coatings with good mechanical properties directly in the process of sputtering without additional heat treatment.

Keywords: intermetallic coatings, magnetron sputtering, mechanical properties, structure

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4 Informed Urban Design: Minimizing Urban Heat Island Intensity via Stochastic Optimization

Authors: Luis Guilherme Resende Santos, Ido Nevat, Leslie Norford


The Urban Heat Island (UHI) is characterized by increased air temperatures in urban areas compared to undeveloped rural surrounding environments. With urbanization and densification, the intensity of UHI increases, bringing negative impacts on livability, health and economy. In order to reduce those effects, it is required to take into consideration design factors when planning future developments. Given design constraints such as population size and availability of area for development, non-trivial decisions regarding the buildings’ dimensions and their spatial distribution are required. We develop a framework for optimization of urban design in order to jointly minimize UHI intensity and buildings’ energy consumption. First, the design constraints are defined according to spatial and population limits in order to establish realistic boundaries that would be applicable in real life decisions. Second, the tools Urban Weather Generator (UWG) and EnergyPlus are used to generate outputs of UHI intensity and total buildings’ energy consumption, respectively. Those outputs are changed based on a set of variable inputs related to urban morphology aspects, such as building height, urban canyon width and population density. Lastly, an optimization problem is cast where the utility function quantifies the performance of each design candidate (e.g. minimizing a linear combination of UHI and energy consumption), and a set of constraints to be met is set. Solving this optimization problem is difficult, since there is no simple analytic form which represents the UWG and EnergyPlus models. We therefore cannot use any direct optimization techniques, but instead, develop an indirect “black box” optimization algorithm. To this end we develop a solution that is based on stochastic optimization method, known as the Cross Entropy method (CEM). The CEM translates the deterministic optimization problem into an associated stochastic optimization problem which is simple to solve analytically. We illustrate our model on a typical residential area in Singapore. Due to fast growth in population and built area and land availability generated by land reclamation, urban planning decisions are of the most importance for the country. Furthermore, the hot and humid climate in the country raises the concern for the impact of UHI. The problem presented is highly relevant to early urban design stages and the objective of such framework is to guide decision makers and assist them to include and evaluate urban microclimate and energy aspects in the process of urban planning.

Keywords: building energy consumption, stochastic optimization, urban design, urban heat island, urban weather generator

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3 Autonomous Strategic Aircraft Deconfliction in a Multi-Vehicle Low Altitude Urban Environment

Authors: Loyd R. Hook, Maryam Moharek


With the envisioned future growth of low altitude urban aircraft operations for airborne delivery service and advanced air mobility, strategies to coordinate and deconflict aircraft flight paths must be prioritized. Autonomous coordination and planning of flight trajectories is the preferred approach to the future vision in order to increase safety, density, and efficiency over manual methods employed today. Difficulties arise because any conflict resolution must be constrained by all other aircraft, all airspace restrictions, and all ground-based obstacles in the vicinity. These considerations make pair-wise tactical deconfliction difficult at best and unlikely to find a suitable solution for the entire system of vehicles. In addition, more traditional methods which rely on long time scales and large protected zones will artificially limit vehicle density and drastically decrease efficiency. Instead, strategic planning, which is able to respond to highly dynamic conditions and still account for high density operations, will be required to coordinate multiple vehicles in the highly constrained low altitude urban environment. This paper develops and evaluates such a planning algorithm which can be implemented autonomously across multiple aircraft and situations. Data from this evaluation provide promising results with simulations showing up to 10 aircraft deconflicted through a relatively narrow low-altitude urban canyon without any vehicle to vehicle or obstacle conflict. The algorithm achieves this level of coordination beginning with the assumption that each vehicle is controlled to follow an independently constructed flight path, which is itself free of obstacle conflict and restricted airspace. Then, by preferencing speed change deconfliction maneuvers constrained by the vehicles flight envelope, vehicles can remain as close to the original planned path and prevent cascading vehicle to vehicle conflicts. Performing the search for a set of commands which can simultaneously ensure separation for each pair-wise aircraft interaction and optimize the total velocities of all the aircraft is further complicated by the fact that each aircraft's flight plan could contain multiple segments. This means that relative velocities will change when any aircraft achieves a waypoint and changes course. Additionally, the timing of when that aircraft will achieve a waypoint (or, more directly, the order upon which all of the aircraft will achieve their respective waypoints) will change with the commanded speed. Put all together, the continuous relative velocity of each vehicle pair and the discretized change in relative velocity at waypoints resembles a hybrid reachability problem - a form of control reachability. This paper proposes two methods for finding solutions to these multi-body problems. First, an analytical formulation of the continuous problem is developed with an exhaustive search of the combined state space. However, because of computational complexity, this technique is only computable for pairwise interactions. For more complicated scenarios, including the proposed 10 vehicle example, a discretized search space is used, and a depth-first search with early stopping is employed to find the first solution that solves the constraints.

Keywords: strategic planning, autonomous, aircraft, deconfliction

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2 Multi-Criteria GIS Analysis of the Costs and Environmental Impacts of Improved Overland Tourist Access to Kaieteur National Park, Guyana

Authors: Mark R. Leipnik, Dahlia Durga, Linda Johnson-Bhola


Kaieteur is the most iconic National Park in the rainforest-clad nation of Guyana in South America. However, the magnificent 226-meter-high waterfall at its center is virtually inaccessible by surface transportation, and the occasional charter flights to the small airstrip in the park are prohibitively expensive for most tourists and residents. Thus, the largest waterfall in all of Amazonia, where the Potaro River plunges over a single free drop higher than Victoria Falls, remains preserved in splendid isolation inside the 67,000-hectare National Park established by the British in 1929 in the deepest recesses of a remote jungle canyon. Kaieteur Falls are largely unseen firsthand, but the image of the falls can be viewed on the Guyanese twenty dollar note, in every Guyanese tourist promotion, and in thousands of items in the national capital of Georgetown. Georgetown is only 223-241 kilometers away from the falls. The lack of a single mileage figure demonstrates there is no single overland route. Any journey, except by air, involves several ferry rides and a lengthy boat ride up a jungle river, and it also entails hiking or traveling on the back of a horse or donkey for days. Surface access from Georgetown or any city is thus a 5-10 day-long adventure, with many discomforts and potential dangers, and that is in the dry season, not during the two wet seasons when travel is a particularly sticky proposition. This journey was made overland by the paper's co-author Dahlia Durga, and the paper includes images and details of that journey. This paper focuses on potential ways to improve access to the National Park from Georgetown, the nation's sole air hub and population center. This is primarily a GIS-based analysis, using multiple criteria to determine the least cost means of creating all-weather road access to the area near the base of the falls while minimizing distance and elevation changes. Critically it also involves minimizing the number of new bridges required to be built and only utilizing a limited number of existing ferry crossings of major rivers. Cost estimates are based on data from road and bridge construction engineers operating currently in the interior of Guyana. The paper contains original maps generated with ArcGIS of the potential routes for such an overland connection, including the one deemed optimal. Other factors such as the impact on endangered species' habitats and indigenous populations are considered. This proposed infrastructure development is taking place at a time that Guyana is undergoing the largest boom in its history due to revenues from offshore oil and gas development. Thus, better access to the most important tourist attraction in the country is likely to happen soon in some manner. But the questions of the most environmentally sustainable and least costly alternatives for such access remain. This paper addresses those questions and many others related to access to this magnificent natural treasure and National Park and the tradeoff such access will have on the preservation of the currently pristine natural environment of Kaieteur Falls.

Keywords: nature tourism, GIS, Amazonia, national parks

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1 Geographic Information System Based Multi-Criteria Subsea Pipeline Route Optimisation

Authors: James Brown, Stella Kortekaas, Ian Finnie, George Zhang, Christine Devine, Neil Healy


The use of GIS as an analysis tool for engineering decision making is now best practice in the offshore industry. GIS enables multidisciplinary data integration, analysis and visualisation which allows the presentation of large and intricate datasets in a simple map-interface accessible to all project stakeholders. Presenting integrated geoscience and geotechnical data in GIS enables decision makers to be well-informed. This paper is a successful case study of how GIS spatial analysis techniques were applied to help select the most favourable pipeline route. Routing a pipeline through any natural environment has numerous obstacles, whether they be topographical, geological, engineering or financial. Where the pipeline is subjected to external hydrostatic water pressure and is carrying pressurised hydrocarbons, the requirement to safely route the pipeline through hazardous terrain becomes absolutely paramount. This study illustrates how the application of modern, GIS-based pipeline routing techniques enabled the identification of a single most-favourable pipeline route crossing of a challenging seabed terrain. Conventional approaches to pipeline route determination focus on manual avoidance of primary constraints whilst endeavouring to minimise route length. Such an approach is qualitative, subjective and is liable to bias towards the discipline and expertise that is involved in the routing process. For very short routes traversing benign seabed topography in shallow water this approach may be sufficient, but for deepwater geohazardous sites, the need for an automated, multi-criteria, and quantitative approach is essential. This study combined multiple routing constraints using modern least-cost-routing algorithms deployed in GIS, hitherto unachievable with conventional approaches. The least-cost-routing procedure begins with the assignment of geocost across the study area. Geocost is defined as a numerical penalty score representing hazard posed by each routing constraint (e.g. slope angle, rugosity, vulnerability to debris flows) to the pipeline. All geocosted routing constraints are combined to generate a composite geocost map that is used to compute the least geocost route between two defined terminals. The analyses were applied to select the most favourable pipeline route for a potential gas development in deep water. The study area is geologically complex with a series of incised, potentially active, canyons carved into a steep escarpment, with evidence of extensive debris flows. A similar debris flow in the future could cause significant damage to a poorly-placed pipeline. Protruding inter-canyon spurs offer lower-gradient options for ascending an escarpment but the vulnerability of periodic failure of these spurs is not well understood. Close collaboration between geoscientists, pipeline engineers, geotechnical engineers and of course the gas export pipeline operator guided the analyses and assignment of geocosts. Shorter route length, less severe slope angles, and geohazard avoidance were the primary drivers in identifying the most favourable route.

Keywords: geocost, geohazard, pipeline route determination, pipeline route optimisation, spatial analysis

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