Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 49

Search results for: Eugene Kogan

49 The Kinks, the Solitons, and the Shocks in Series Connected Discrete Josephson Transmission Lines

Authors: Eugene Kogan

Abstract:

We analytically study the localized running waves in the discrete Josephson transmission lines (JTL), constructed from Josephson junctions (JJ) and capacitors. The quasi-continuum approximation reduces the calculation of the running wave properties to the problem of equilibrium of an elastic rod in the potential field. Making additional approximations, we reduce the problem to the motion of the fictitious Newtonian particle in the potential well. We show that there exist running waves in the form of supersonic kinks and solitons and calculate their velocities and profiles. We show that the nonstationary smooth waves, which are small perturbations on the homogeneous non-zero background, are described by Korteweg-de Vries equation, and those on zero background -by the modified Korteweg-de Vries equation. We also study the effect of dissipation on the running waves in JTL and find that in the presence of the resistors, shunting the JJ and/or in series with the ground capacitors, the only possible stationary running waves are the shock waves, whose profiles are also found.

Keywords: Josephson transmission line, shocks, solitary waves, nonlinear waves

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48 The Impact of Professor Eugene Fischer on the Namibian Genocide and the Holocaust

Authors: Lanthony Slater

Abstract:

The paper will focus on the philosophy and practices of Eugene Fischer and his impact on the German Holocaust and the Namibian genocide. Fischer played a major role in racial superiority theory, eugenics, and the impact of human heredity. Through my research and comparative examination of his positionality in both societies, much is revealed about how philosophical notions would contribute to division and ultimately acts of genocide on two countries. In addition, this research will focus on the legacy in both events of genocide. The objective of the research is to connect both the Namibian genocide and the Holocaust in Germany. For many historians, when explaining the origins of the holocaust, connections to the Namibian genocide is often omitted. The main contribution to my research is to attribute the National Socialist ideology towards the ongoing issues that the country of Namibia is faced with. Additionally, it compares how Germany and Namibia deal with the legacies created under Nazism.

Keywords: genocide, namibia, rehoboth, experiments

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47 Modern Tragic Substance in O’Neill’s Desire under the Elms and Mourning Becomes Electra

Authors: Azza Taha Zaki

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The position Eugene O’Neill occupies in the history of American drama is undisputable. Critics have agreed that the American theatre was waiting for O’Neill to give it substance, character, and value. The American dramatist continues to be considered as a major influence on the body of dramatic repertoire across the globe. The American theatre before O’Neill knew playwrights who were mostly viewed as entertainers. The serious drama had to wait until O’Neill started his career with expressionistic and social drama. His breakthrough, however, came in 1925 when he published Desire Under the Elms, described as the first important tragedy to be written in America. Mourning Becomes Electra, published in 1931, further reinforced the reputation of Eugene O’Neill and was described as his 'magnum opus'. Aspiring to portray the essence of life and man’s innermost conflicts, O’Neill turned to the classical model, rather than to social realistic drama, to create modern tragedies with the aid of the then-new science of psychology. The present paper aims to undertake an in-depth study of how overtones from classical tragedies by the classical masters Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides resonate through O’Neill’s two plays. The paper shows how leaning on classical themes and concepts interpreted in terms of psychological forces have added depth and tragic substance to a modern milieu and produced masterpieces of dramaturgy.

Keywords: classical, drama, O'Neill, modern, tragic

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46 Identification of Nursing Students’ Attitudes toward Older People in Turkey

Authors: Ayse Berivan Bakan, Senay Karadag Arli, Ela Varol

Abstract:

Objective: The present study aims to identify nursing students’ attitudes toward older people. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted with 166 nursing department students enrolled in a four-year undergraduate program in a university located in Eastern Turkey. The participants were chosen using convenience sampling method, and the data were collected through the Descriptive Characteristics Form and Turkish version of Kogan's Attitudes toward Old People Scale (KAOP). Results: It was found that the students participating in the study had positive attitudes toward old people, and the mean scores of those who wanted to work with old people after graduation were significantly high (p<0.05). Scale mean scores according to receiving Gerontology Nursing course showed that the score difference between the two groups was not statistically significant. Conclusion: This study found that nursing students’ attitudes toward older people were positive. Cultural features of the region where the study was conducted are considered to contribute to this result.

Keywords: older people, attitudes, gerontology, nursing students, Turkey

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45 Energy Conservation and H-Theorem for the Enskog-Vlasov Equation

Authors: Eugene Benilov, Mikhail Benilov

Abstract:

The Enskog-Vlasov (EV) equation is a widely used semi-phenomenological model of gas/liquid phase transitions. We show that it does not generally conserve energy, although there exists a restriction on its coefficients for which it does. Furthermore, if an energy-preserving version of the EV equation satisfies an H-theorem as well, it can be used to rigorously derive the so-called Maxwell construction which determines the parameters of liquid-vapor equilibria. Finally, we show that the EV model provides an accurate description of the thermodynamics of noble fluids, and there exists a version simple enough for use in applications.

Keywords: Enskog collision integral, hard spheres, kinetic equation, phase transition

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44 Fast and Accurate Finite-Difference Method Solving Multicomponent Smoluchowski Coagulation Equation

Authors: Alexander P. Smirnov, Sergey A. Matveev, Dmitry A. Zheltkov, Eugene E. Tyrtyshnikov

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We propose a new computational technique for multidimensional (multicomponent) Smoluchowski coagulation equation. Using low-rank approximations in Tensor Train format of both the solution and the coagulation kernel, we accelerate the classical finite-difference Runge-Kutta scheme keeping its level of accuracy. The complexity of the taken finite-difference scheme is reduced from O(N^2d) to O(d^2 N log N ), where N is the number of grid nodes and d is a dimensionality of the problem. The efficiency and the accuracy of the new method are demonstrated on concrete problem with known analytical solution.

Keywords: tensor train decomposition, multicomponent Smoluchowski equation, runge-kutta scheme, convolution

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43 Diagnostic Value of Different Noninvasive Criteria of Latent Myocarditis in Comparison with Myocardial Biopsy

Authors: Olga Blagova, Yuliya Osipova, Evgeniya Kogan, Alexander Nedostup

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Purpose: to quantify the value of various clinical, laboratory and instrumental signs in the diagnosis of myocarditis in comparison with morphological studies of the myocardium. Methods: in 100 patients (65 men, 44.7±12.5 years) with «idiopathic» arrhythmias (n = 20) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM, n = 80) were performed 71 endomyocardial biopsy (EMB), 13 intraoperative biopsy, 5 study of explanted hearts, 11 autopsy with virus investigation (real-time PCR) of the blood and myocardium. Anti-heart antibodies (AHA) were also measured as well as cardiac CT (n = 45), MRI (n = 25), coronary angiography (n = 47). The comparison group included of 50 patients (25 men, 53.7±11.7 years) with non-inflammatory heart diseases who underwent open heart surgery. Results. Active/borderline myocarditis was diagnosed in 76.0% of the study group and in 21.6% of patients of the comparison group (p < 0.001). The myocardial viral genome was observed more frequently in patients of comparison group than in study group (group (65.0% and 40.2%; p < 0.01. Evaluated the diagnostic value of noninvasive markers of myocarditis. The panel of anti-heart antibodies had the greatest importance to identify myocarditis: sensitivity was 81.5%, positive and negative predictive value was 75.0 and 60.5%. It is defined diagnostic value of non-invasive markers of myocarditis and diagnostic algorithm providing an individual assessment of the likelihood of myocarditis is developed. Conclusion. The greatest significance in the diagnosis of latent myocarditis in patients with 'idiopathic' arrhythmias and DCM have AHA. The use of complex of noninvasive criteria allows estimate the probability of myocarditis and determine the indications for EMB.

Keywords: myocarditis, "idiopathic" arrhythmias, dilated cardiomyopathy, endomyocardial biopsy, viral genome, anti-heart antibodies

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42 Evolution under Length Constraints for Convolutional Neural Networks Architecture Design

Authors: Ousmane Youme, Jean Marie Dembele, Eugene Ezin, Christophe Cambier

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In recent years, the convolutional neural networks (CNN) architectures designed by evolution algorithms have proven to be competitive with handcrafted architectures designed by experts. However, these algorithms need a lot of computational power, which is beyond the capabilities of most researchers and engineers. To overcome this problem, we propose an evolution architecture under length constraints. It consists of two algorithms: a search length strategy to find an optimal space and a search architecture strategy based on a genetic algorithm to find the best individual in the optimal space. Our algorithms drastically reduce resource costs and also keep good performance. On the Cifar-10 dataset, our framework presents outstanding performance with an error rate of 5.12% and only 4.6 GPU a day to converge to the optimal individual -22 GPU a day less than the lowest cost automatic evolutionary algorithm in the peer competition.

Keywords: CNN architecture, genetic algorithm, evolution algorithm, length constraints

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41 Dependence of the Electro-Stimulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Pulsed Electric Field at the Yeast Growth Phase

Authors: Jessy Mattar, Mohamad Turk, Maurice Nonus, Nikolai Lebovka, Henri El Zakhem, Eugene Vorobiev

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The effects of electro-stimulation of S. cerevisiae cells in colloidal suspension by Pulsed Electric Fields ‎‎(PEF) with electric field strength E = 20 – 2000 V.cm-1 and effective PEF treatment time tPEF = 10^−5 – 1 s were ‎investigated. The applied experimental procedure includes variations in the preliminary fermentation time and ‎electro-stimulation by PEF-treatment. Plate counting was performed.‎ At relatively high electric fields (E ≥ 1000 V.cm-1) and moderate PEF treatment time (tPEF > 100 µs), the ‎extraction of ionic components from yeast was observed by conductivity measurements, which can be related to ‎electroporation of cell membranes. Cell counting revealed a dependency of the colonies’ size on the time of ‎preliminary fermentation tf and the power consumption W, however no dependencies were noticeable by varying the initial yeast concentration in the treated suspensions.‎

Keywords: intensification, yeast, fermentation, electroporation, biotechnology

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40 The Relationship between Impared Fasting Glucose and Serum Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Level

Authors: Nanhee Cho, Eugene Han, Hanbyul Kim, Hochan Cho

Abstract:

Pre-diabetes includes impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and there is a strong probability that pre-diabetes will lead to diabetes mellitus (DM). Serum fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21) is known to be increased as a compensatory response to metabolic imbalance under conditions such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and DM. This study aims to identify the relationship of serum FGF-21 with pre-diabetes, and with biomarkers of related metabolic diseases. Fifty five Korea adult patients participated in a cohort study from June 2012 to December 2015. The analysis revealed that BMI, FBS levels, and serum FGF-21 levels were significantly higher in the IFG group compared to those in the normal group. A multiple regression analysis was conduted on the correlations of serum FGF-21 levels with BMI, and FBS levels, and the result did not show statistical significance. In conclusion, our results revealed that serum FGF-21 level serve as a marker to predict IFG.

Keywords: cytokine, fibroblast growth factor 21, impaired fasting glucose, prediabetes

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39 Solving Ill-Posed Initial Value Problems for Switched Differential Equations

Authors: Eugene Stepanov, Arcady Ponosov

Abstract:

To model gene regulatory networks one uses ordinary differential equations with switching nonlinearities, where the initial value problem is known to be well-posed if the trajectories cross the discontinuities transversally. Otherwise, the initial value problem is usually ill-posed, which lead to theoretical and numerical complications. In the presentation, it is proposed to apply the theory of hybrid dynamical systems, rather than switched ones, to regularize the problem. 'Hybridization' of the switched system means that one attaches a dynamic discrete component ('automaton'), which follows the trajectories of the original system and governs its dynamics at the points of ill-posedness of the initial value problem making it well-posed. The construction of the automaton is based on the classification of the attractors of the specially designed adjoint dynamical system. Several examples are provided in the presentation, which support the suggested analysis. The method can also be of interest in other applied fields, where differential equations contain switchings, e.g. in neural field models.

Keywords: hybrid dynamical systems, ill-posed problems, singular perturbation analysis, switching nonlinearities

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38 Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids from the Aerial Parts of Alyssum alyssoides

Authors: Olga St. Tsiftsoglou, Diamanto M. Lazari, Eugene L. Kokkalou

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Most of Alyssum species of Brassicaceae family have been mainly studied for their contribution in ecology. In this study, A. alyssoides was examined for its chemical substitutes. The methanol extract of its aerial parts was fractionated with liquid-liquid extraction (distribution) with four different solvents of increasing polarity: diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, 1-butanol and water. The diethyl ether and ethyl acetate extracts were further studied for their chemical composition. So far, secondary metabolites which belong to phenolics were isolated by using several chromatographic methods (C.C. and HPLC) and were identified by using spectroscopic methods (UV/Vis, NMR and MS): two phenolic acids (p-hydroxy-benzoic acid and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid (vanillic acid)), and five flavonoids, which are derivatives of flavonol: kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (astragalin), kaempferol 3-O-(6′′-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (nicotiflorin), quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (isoquercetin), isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and isoramnetin 3-O-(6′′-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (narcissin).

Keywords: Alyssum, chemical substitutes, flavonoids, phenolic acids

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37 Investigating the Interaction of Individuals' Knowledge Sharing Constructs

Authors: Eugene Okyere-Kwakye

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Knowledge sharing is a practice where individuals commonly exchange both tacit and explicit knowledge to jointly create a new knowledge. Knowledge management literature vividly express that knowledge sharing is the keystone and perhaps it is the most important aspect of knowledge management. To enhance the understanding of knowledge sharing domain, this study is aimed to investigate some factors that could influence employee’s attitude and behaviour to share their knowledge. The researchers employed the social exchange theory as a theoretical foundation for this study. Three essential factors namely: Trust, mutual reciprocity and perceived enjoyment that could influence knowledge sharing behaviour has been incorporated into a research model. To empirically validate this model, data was collected from one hundred and twenty respondents. The multiple regression analysis was employed to analyse the data. The results indicate that perceived enjoyment and trust have a significant influence on knowledge sharing. Surprisingly, mutual reciprocity did not influence knowledge sharing. The paper concludes by highlight the practical implications of the findings and areas for future research to consider.

Keywords: perceived enjoyment, trust, knowledge sharing, knowledge management

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36 Supply Chain Decarbonisation – A Cost-Based Decision Support Model in Slow Steaming Maritime Operations

Authors: Eugene Y. C. Wong, Henry Y. K. Lau, Mardjuki Raman

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CO2 emissions from maritime transport operations represent a substantial part of the total greenhouse gas emission. Vessels are designed with better energy efficiency. Minimizing CO2 emission in maritime operations plays an important role in supply chain decarbonisation. This paper reviews the initiatives on slow steaming operations towards the reduction of carbon emission. It investigates the relationship and impact among slow steaming cost reduction, carbon emission reduction, and shipment delay. A scenario-based cost-driven decision support model is developed to facilitate the selection of the optimal slow steaming options, considering the cost on bunker fuel consumption, available speed, carbon emission, and shipment delay. The incorporation of the social cost of cargo is reviewed and suggested. Additional measures on the effect of vessels sizes, routing, and type of fuels towards decarbonisation are discussed.

Keywords: slow steaming, carbon emission, maritime logistics, sustainability, green supply chain

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35 Numerical Regularization of Ill-Posed Problems via Hybrid Feedback Controls

Authors: Eugene Stepanov, Arkadi Ponossov

Abstract:

Many mathematical models used in biological and other applications are ill-posed. The reason for that is the nature of differential equations, where the nonlinearities are assumed to be step functions, which is done to simplify the analysis. Prominent examples are switched systems arising from gene regulatory networks and neural field equations. This simplification leads, however, to theoretical and numerical complications. In the presentation, it is proposed to apply the theory of hybrid feedback controls to regularize the problem. Roughly speaking, one attaches a finite state control (‘automaton’), which follows the trajectories of the original system and governs its dynamics at the points of ill-posedness. The construction of the automaton is based on the classification of the attractors of the specially designed adjoint dynamical system. This ‘hybridization’ is shown to regularize the original switched system and gives rise to efficient hybrid numerical schemes. Several examples are provided in the presentation, which supports the suggested analysis. The method can be of interest in other applied fields, where differential equations contain step-like nonlinearities.

Keywords: hybrid feedback control, ill-posed problems, singular perturbation analysis, step-like nonlinearities

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34 Genetically Encoded Tool with Time-Resolved Fluorescence Readout for the Calcium Concentration Measurement

Authors: Tatiana R. Simonyan, Elena A. Protasova, Anastasia V. Mamontova, Eugene G. Maksimov, Konstantin A. Lukyanov, Alexey M. Bogdanov

Abstract:

Here, we describe two variants of the calcium indicators based on the GCaMP sensitive core and BrUSLEE fluorescent protein (GCaMP-BrUSLEE and GCaMP-BrUSLEE-145). In contrast to the conventional GCaMP6-family indicators, these fluorophores are characterized by the well-marked responsiveness of their fluorescence decay kinetics to external calcium concentration both in vitro and in cellulo. Specifically, we show that the purified GCaMP-BrUSLEE and GCaMP-BrUSLEE-145 exhibit three-component fluorescence decay kinetics, with the amplitude-normalized lifetime component (t3*A3) of GCaMP-BrUSLEE-145 changing four-fold (500-2000 a.u.) in response to a Ca²⁺ concentration shift in the range of 0—350 nM. Time-resolved fluorescence microscopy of live cells displays the two-fold change of the GCaMP-BrUSLEE-145 mean lifetime upon histamine-stimulated calcium release. The aforementioned Ca²⁺-dependence calls considering the GCaMP-BrUSLEE-145 as a prospective Ca²⁺-indicator with the signal read-out in the time domain.

Keywords: calcium imaging, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, fluorescent proteins, genetically encoded indicators

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33 Calculating Non-Unique Sliding Modes for Switched Dynamical Systems

Authors: Eugene Stepanov, Arkadi Ponossov

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Ordinary differential equations with switching nonlinearities constitute a very useful tool in many applications. The solutions of such equations can usually be calculated analytically if they cross the discontinuities transversally. Otherwise, one has trajectories that slides along the discontinuity, and the calculations become less straightforward in this case. For instance, one of the problems one faces is non-uniqueness of the sliding modes. In the presentation, it is proposed to apply the theory of hybrid dynamical systems to calculate the solutions that are ‘hidden’ in the discontinuities. Roughly, one equips the underlying switched system with an explicitly designed discrete dynamical system (‘automaton’), which governs the dynamics of the switched system. This construction ‘splits’ the dynamics, which, as it is shown in the presentation, gives uniqueness of the resulting hybrid trajectories and at the same time provides explicit formulae for them. Projecting the hybrid trajectories back onto the original continuous system explains non-uniqueness of its trajectories. The automaton is designed with the help of the attractors of the specially constructed adjoint dynamical system. Several examples are provided in the presentation, which supports the efficiency of the suggested scheme. The method can be of interest in control theory, gene regulatory networks, neural field models and other fields, where switched dynamics is a part of the analysis.

Keywords: hybrid dynamical systems, singular perturbation analysis, sliding modes, switched dynamics

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32 Development of β-Ti Alloy Powders for Additive Manufacturing for Application in Patient-Specific Orthopedic Implants

Authors: Eugene Ivanov, Eduardo del-Rio, Igor Kapchenko, Maija Nystrӧm, Juha Kotila

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Series of low modulus beta Ti alloy billets and powders can be produced in commercial quantities using a combination of electron beam melting (EBM) and EIGA atomization processes. In the present study, TNZT alloy powder was produced and processed in the EOSINT M290 laser sintering system to produce parts for mechanical testing. Post heat treatments such as diffusion annealing to reduce internal stresses or hot isostatic pressing to remove closed pores were not applied. The density can visually be estimated to be > 99,9 %. According to EDS study Nb, Zr, and Ta are distributed homogeneously throughout the printed sample. There are no indications for any segregation or chemical inhomogeneity, i.e. variation of the element distribution. These points to the fact that under the applied experimental conditions the melt generated by the laser rapidly cools down in the SLM (Selective Laser Melting) process. The selective laser sintering yielded dense structures with relatively good surface quality. The mechanical properties, especially the elongation (24%) along with tensile strength ( > 500MPa) and modulus of elasticity (~60GPa), were found to be promising compared to titanium alloys in general.

Keywords: beta titanium alloys, additive manufacturing, powder, implants

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31 Insufficiency Fracture of Femoral Head in Patients Treated With Intramedullary Nailing for Proximal Femur Fracture

Authors: Jai Hyung Park, Eugene Kim, Jin Hun Park, Min Joon Oh

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Introduction: Subchondral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head (SIF) is a rare complication; however, it has been recognized to cause femoral head collapse. Subchondral insufficiency fracture (SIF) is caused by normal or physiological stress without any trauma. It has been reported in osteoporotic patients after the fixation of the proximal femur with an Intramedullary nail. Case presentation: We reported 5 cases with SIF of the femoral head after proximal femur fracture fixation with Intra-medullary nail. All patients had osteoporosis as an underlying disease. Good reduction was achieved in all 5 patients. SIF was found from about 3 months to 4 years after the initial operation, and all the fractures were solidly united at the final diagnosis. We investigated retrospectively the feature of those cases and several factors that affected the occurrence of SIF. Discussion: There are a few discussions regarding the SIF of the femoral head. These discussions may include the predisposing risk factors, how to diagnose the SIF in osteoporotic patients, and the peri-operative factors to prevent SIF. Conclusion: Subchondral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head is a considerable complication after the internal fixation of the proximal femur. There are several factors that can be modified. If they could be controlled in the peri-operative period, SIF could be prevented or handled in advance. Other options related to arthroplasty can be considered in old osteoporotic patients.

Keywords: insufficiency fracture of femoral head, intra-medullary nail, osteoporosis, proximal femur fracture

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30 Influence of Pulverized Granite on the Mechanical and Durability Properties of Concrete

Authors: Kwabena A. Boakye, Eugene Atiemo, Trinity A. Tagbor, Delali Adjei

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The use of mineral admixtures such as metakaolin, GGBS, fly ash, etc., in concrete is a common practice in the world. However, the only admixture available for use in the Ghanaian construction industry is calcined clay pozzolan. This research, therefore, studies the alternate use of granite dust, a by-product from stone quarrying, as a mineral admixture in concrete. Granite dust, which is usually damped as waste or as an erosion control material, was collected and pulverized to about 75µm. Some physical, chemical, and mineralogical tests were conducted on the granite dust. 5%-25% ordinary Portland cement of Class 42.5N was replaced with granite dust which was used as the main binder in the preparation of 150mm×150mm×150mm concrete cubes according to methods prescribed by BS EN 12390-2:2000. Properties such as workability, compressive strength, flexural strength, water absorption, and durability were determined. Compressive and flexural strength results indicate that granite dust could be used to replace ordinary Portland cement up to an optimum of 15% to achieve C25. Water permeability increased as the granite dust admixture content increased from 5% - 25%. Durability studies after 90 days proved that even though strength decreased as granite dust content increased, the concrete containing granite dust had better resistance to sulphate attack comparable to the reference cement. Pulverized granite can be used to partially replace ordinary Portland cement in concrete.

Keywords: admixture, granite dust, permeability, pozzolans

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29 Application of Powder Metallurgy Technologies for Gas Turbine Engine Wheel Production

Authors: Liubov Magerramova, Eugene Kratt, Pavel Presniakov

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A detailed analysis has been performed for several schemes of Gas Turbine Wheels production based on additive and powder technologies including metal, ceramic, and stereolithography 3-D printing. During the process of development and debugging of gas turbine engine components, different versions of these components must be manufactured and tested. Cooled blades of the turbine are among of these components. They are usually produced by traditional casting methods. This method requires long and costly design and manufacture of casting molds. Moreover, traditional manufacturing methods limit the design possibilities of complex critical parts of engine, so capabilities of Powder Metallurgy Techniques (PMT) were analyzed to manufacture the turbine wheel with air-cooled blades. PMT dramatically reduce time needed for such production and allow creating new complex design solutions aimed at improving the technical characteristics of the engine: improving fuel efficiency and environmental performance, increasing reliability, and reducing weight. To accelerate and simplify the blades manufacturing process, several options based on additive technologies were used. The options were implemented in the form of various casting equipment for the manufacturing of blades. Methods of powder metallurgy were applied for connecting the blades with the disc. The optimal production scheme and a set of technologies for the manufacturing of blades and turbine wheel and other parts of the engine can be selected on the basis of the options considered.

Keywords: additive technologies, gas turbine engine, powder technology, turbine wheel

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28 Stock Market Development and the Growth of Nigerian Economy

Authors: Godwin Chigozie Okpara, Eugene Iheanacho

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This paper examined the dynamic behavior of stock market development and the growth of Nigerian economy. The variables; market capitalization ratio, turnover ratio and liquidity proxies by the ratio of market capitalization to gross domestic product were sourced and computed from the Nigerian stock exchange fact books and the CBN statistical bulletin of the Central Bank of Nigeria. The variables were tested and found stationary and cointregrated using the augumented Dickey Fuller unit root test and the Johnson cointegration test respectively. The dynamic behavior of the stock market development model was verified using the error correction model. The result shows that about 0.4l percent of the short run deviation is corrected every year and also reveals that market capitalization ratio and market liquidity are positive and significant function of economic growth. In other words market capitalization ratio and liquidity positively and significantly impact economic growth. Market development variables such as turnover ratio and market restriction can exert positive but insignificant impact on the growth of the economy suggesting that securities transaction relative to the size of the securities market are not high enough to significantly engender economic growth in Nigeria. In the light of this, the researchers recommend that the regulatory body as well as the government, should provide a conducive environment capable of encouraging the growth and development of the stock market. This if well articulated will enhance the market turnover and the growth of the economy.

Keywords: market capitalization ratio, turnover ratio, liquidity, unit root test, cointegration

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27 Seaworthiness and Liability Risks Involving Technology and Cybersecurity in Transport and Logistics

Authors: Eugene Wong, Felix Chan, Linsey Chen, Joey Cheung

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The widespread use of technologies and cyber/digital means for complex maritime operations have led to a sharp rise in global cyber-attacks. They have generated an increasing number of liability disputes, insurance claims, and legal proceedings. An array of antiquated case law, regulations, international conventions, and obsolete contractual clauses drafted in the pre-technology era have become grossly inadequate in addressing the contemporary challenges. This paper offers a critique of the ambiguity of cybersecurity liabilities under the obligation of seaworthiness entailed in the Hague-Visby Rules, which apply either by law in a large number of jurisdictions or by express incorporation into the shipping documents. This paper also evaluates the legal and technological criteria for assessing whether a vessel is properly equipped with the latest offshore technologies for navigation and cargo delivery operations. Examples include computer applications, networks and servers, enterprise systems, global positioning systems, and data centers. A critical analysis of the carriers’ obligations to exercise due diligence in preventing or mitigating cyber-attacks is also conducted in this paper. It is hoped that the present study will offer original and crucial insights to policymakers, regulators, carriers, cargo interests, and insurance underwriters closely involved in dispute prevention and resolution arising from cybersecurity liabilities.

Keywords: seaworthiness, cybersecurity, liabilities, risks, maritime, transport

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26 The Impact of Technology on Media Content Regulation

Authors: Eugene Mashapa

Abstract:

The age of information has witnessed countless unprecedented technological developments, which signal the articulation of succinct technological capabilities that can match these cutting-edge technological trends. These changes have impacted patterns in the production, distribution, and consumption of media content, a space that the Film and Publication Board (FPB) is concerned with. Consequently, the FPB is keen to understand the nature and impact of these technological changes on media content regulation. This exploratory study sought to investigate how content regulators in high and middle-income economies have adapted to the changes in this space, seeking insights into innovations, technological and operational, that facilitate continued relevance during this fast-changing environment. The study is aimed at developing recommendations that could assist and inform the organisation in regulating media content as it evolves. Thus, the overall research strategy in this analysis is applied research, and the analytical model adopted is a mixed research design guided by both qualitative and quantitative research instruments. It was revealed in the study that the FPB was significantly impacted by the unprecedented technological advancements in the media regulation space. Additionally, there exists a need for the FPB to understand the current and future penetrations of 4IR technology in the industry and its impact on media governance and policy implementation. This will range from reskilling officials to align with the technological skills to developing technological innovations as well as adopting co-regulatory or self-regulatory arrangements together with content distributors, where more content is distributed in higher volumes and with increased frequency. Importantly, initiating an interactive learning process for both FPB employees and the general public can assist the regulator and improve FPB’s operational efficiency and effectiveness.

Keywords: media, regulation, technology, film and publications board

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25 Potentials for Learning History through Role-Playing in Virtual Reality: An Exploratory Study on Role-Playing on a Virtual Heritage Site

Authors: Danzhao Cheng, Eugene Ch'ng

Abstract:

Virtual Reality technologies can reconstruct cultural heritage objects and sites to a level of realism. Concentrating mostly on documenting authentic data and accurate representations of tangible contents, current virtual heritage is limited to accumulating visually presented objects. Such constructions, however, are fragmentary and may not convey the inherent significance of heritage in a meaningful way. In order to contextualise fragmentary historical contents where history can be told, a strategy is to create a guided narrative via role-playing. Such an approach can strengthen the logical connections of cultural elements and facilitate creative synthesis within the virtual world. This project successfully reconstructed the Ningbo Sanjiangkou VR site in Yuan Dynasty combining VR technology and role-play game approach. The results with 80 pairs of participants suggest that VR role-playing can be beneficial in a number of ways. Firstly, it creates thematic interactivity which encourages users to explore the virtual heritage in a more entertaining way with task-oriented goals. Secondly, the experience becomes highly engaging since users can interpret a historical context through the perspective of specific roles that exist in past societies. Thirdly, personalisation allows open-ended sequences of the expedition, reinforcing user’s acquisition of procedural knowledge relative to the cultural domain. To sum up, role-playing in VR poses great potential for experiential learning as it allows users to interpret a historical context in a more entertaining way.

Keywords: experiential learning, maritime silk road, role-playing, virtual heritage, virtual reality

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24 Dual Set Point Governor Control Structure with Common Optimum Temporary Droop Settings for both Islanded and Grid Connected Modes

Authors: Deepen Sharma, Eugene F. Hill

Abstract:

For nearly 100 years, hydro-turbine governors have operated with only a frequency set point. This natural governor action means that the governor responds with changing megawatt output to disturbances in system frequency. More and more, power system managers are demanding that governors operate with constant megawatt output. One way of doing this is to introduce a second set point in the control structure called a power set point. The control structure investigated and analyzed in this paper is unique in the way that it utilizes a power reference set point in addition to the conventional frequency reference set point. An optimum set of temporary droop parameters derived based on the turbine-generator inertia constant and the penstock water start time for stable islanded operation are shown to be also equally applicable for a satisfactory rate of generator loading during its grid connected mode. A theoretical development shows why this is the case. The performance of the control structure has been investigated and established based on the simulation study made in MATLAB/Simulink as well as through testing the real time controller performance on a 15 MW Kaplan Turbine and generator. Recordings have been made using the labVIEW data acquisition platform. The hydro-turbine governor control structure and its performance investigated in this paper thus eliminates the need to have a separate set of temporary droop parameters, one valid for islanded mode and the other for interconnected operations mode.

Keywords: frequency set point, hydro governor, interconnected operation, isolated operation, power set point

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23 Link People from Different Age Together: Attitude and Behavior Changes in Inter-Generational Interaction Program

Authors: Qian Sun, Dannie Dai, Vivian Lou

Abstract:

Background: Changes in population structure and modernization have left traditional channels of achieving intergenerational solidarity in crisis. Policies and projects purposefully structuring intergenerational interaction are regarded as effective ways to enhance positive attitude changes between generations. However, few inter-generational interaction program has put equal emphasis on promoting positive changes on both attitude and behavior across generational groups. Objective: This study evaluated the effectiveness of an intergenerational interaction program which aims to facilitate positive attitude and behavioral interaction between both young and old individuals in Hong Kong. Method: A quasi-experimental design was adopted with the sample of 150 older participants and 161 young participants. Among 73 older and 78 young participants belong to experiment groups while 77 older participants and 84 young participants belong to control groups. The Age Group Evaluation and Description scale (AGED) was adopted to measure attitude toward young people by older participants and the Chinese version of Kogan’s Attitude towards Older People (KAOP) as well as Polizzi’s refined version of the Ageing Semantic Differential Scale (ASD) were used to measure attitude toward older people by the younger generation. The interpersonal behaviour of participants was assessed using Beglgrave’s behavioural observation tool. Six primary verbal or non-verbal interpersonal behaviours including smiles, looks, touches, encourages, initiated conversations and assists were identified and observed. Findings Effectiveness of attitude and behavior changes on both younger and older participants was confirmed in results. Compared with participants from the control group, experimental participants of elderly showed significant positive changes of attitudes toward the younger generation as assessed by AGED (F=138.34, p < .001). Moreover, older participants showed significant positive changes on three out of six behaviours (visual attention: t=2.26, p<0.05; initiate conversation: t=3.42, p<0.01; and touch: t=2.28, p<0.05). For younger participants, participants from experimental group showed significant positive changes in attitude toward older people (with F-score of 47.22 for KAOP and 72.75 for ASD, p<.001). Young participants also showed significant positive changes in two out of six behaviours (visual attention: t=3.70, p<0.01; initiate conversation: t=2.04, p<0.001). There is no significant relationship between attitude change and behaviour change in both older (p=0.86) and younger (p=0.22) groups. Conclusion: This study has brought practical implications for social work. The effective model of this program could assist social workers and allied professionals to design relevant projects for nurture intergenerational solidarity. Furthermore, insignificant results between attitude and behavior changes revealed that attitude change was not a strong predictor for behavior change, hence, intergenerational programs against age-stereotype should put equal emphasis on both attitudinal and behavioral aspects.

Keywords: attitude and behaviour changes, intergenerational interaction, intergenerational solidarity, program design

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22 Assessment of Environmental Implications of Rapid Population Growth on Land Use Dynamics: A Case Study of Eleme Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria

Authors: Moses Obenade, Henry U. Okeke, Francis I. Okpiliya, Eugene J. Aniah

Abstract:

Population growth in Eleme has been rapid over the past 75 years with its attendant pressure on the natural resources of the area. Between 1937 and 2006 the population of Eleme grew from 2,528 to 190,194 and is projected to be above 265,707 in 2016 based on an annual growth rate of 3.4%. Using the combined technologies of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing (RS) and Demography techniques as its methodology, this paper examines the environmental implications of rapid population growth on land use dynamics in Eleme between 1986 and 2015. The study reveals that between 1986 and 2006, Built-up area and Farmland increased by 72.67 and 12.77% respectively, while light and thick vegetation recorded a decrease of -6.92 and -61.64% respectively. Water body remains fairly constant with minimal changes. Also, between 2006 and 2015 covering a period of 9 years, Built-up area further increased by 53% with an annual growth rate of 2.32 km2 gaining more land area on the detriment of other land uses. Built-up area has an annual growth rate of 2.32km2 and is expected to increase from 18.67km2 in 2006 to 41.87km2 in 2016.The observed Land used/Land cover dynamics is derived by the demographic characteristics of the Study area. Eleme has a total area of 138km2 out of which the Federal Government of Nigeria compulsorily acquired an estimated area of 59.34km2 for industrial purposes excluding acquisitions by the Rivers State Government. It is evident from the findings of this study that the carrying capacity of Eleme ecosystem is under threat due to the current population growth and land consumption rates. Therefore, measures such as use of appropriate technologies in farming techniques, waste management; investment in family planning and female empowerment, maternal health and education, afforestation programs; and amendment of Land Use Act of 1978 are recommended.

Keywords: population growth, Eleme, land use, GIS and remote sensing

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21 Impact of Chess Intervention on Cognitive Functioning of Children

Authors: Ebenezer Joseph

Abstract:

Chess is a useful tool to enhance general and specific cognitive functioning in children. The present study aims to assess the impact of chess on cognitive in children and to measure the differential impact of socio-demographic factors like age and gender of the child on the effectiveness of the chess intervention.This research study used an experimental design to study the impact of the Training in Chess on the intelligence of children. The Pre-test Post-test Control Group Design was utilized. The research design involved two groups of children: an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group consisted of children who participated in the one-year Chess Training Intervention, while the control group participated in extra-curricular activities in school. The main independent variable was training in chess. Other independent variables were gender and age of the child. The dependent variable was the cognitive functioning of the child (as measured by IQ, working memory index, processing speed index, perceptual reasoning index, verbal comprehension index, numerical reasoning, verbal reasoning, non-verbal reasoning, social intelligence, language, conceptual thinking, memory, visual motor and creativity). The sample consisted of 200 children studying in Government and Private schools. Random sampling was utilized. The sample included both boys and girls falling in the age range 6 to 16 years. The experimental group consisted of 100 children (50 from Government schools and 50 from Private schools) with an equal representation of boys and girls. The control group similarly consisted of 100 children. The dependent variables were assessed using Binet-Kamat Test of Intelligence, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - IV (India) and Wallach Kogan Creativity Test. The training methodology comprised Winning Moves Chess Learning Program - Episodes 1–22, lectures with the demonstration board, on-the-board playing and training, chess exercise through workbooks (Chess school 1A, Chess school 2, and tactics) and working with chess software. Further students games were mapped using chess software and the brain patterns of the child were understood. They were taught the ideas behind chess openings and exposure to classical games were also given. The children participated in mock as well as regular tournaments. Preliminary analysis carried out using independent t tests with 50 children indicates that chess training has led to significant increases in the intelligent quotient. Children in the experimental group have shown significant increases in composite scores like working memory and perceptual reasoning. Chess training has significantly enhanced the total creativity scores, line drawing and pattern meaning subscale scores. Systematically learning chess as part of school activities appears to have a broad spectrum of positive outcomes.

Keywords: chess, intelligence, creativity, children

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20 Attenuation of Amyloid beta (Aβ) (1-42)-Induced Neurotoxicity by Luteolin

Authors: Dona Pamoda W. Jayatunga, Veer Bala Gupta, Eugene Hone, Ralph N. Martins

Abstract:

Being a neurodegenerative disorder, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) affects a majority of the elderly demented worldwide. The key risk factors for AD are age, metabolic syndrome, allele status of APOE gene, head injuries and lifestyle. The progressive nature of AD is characterized by symptoms of multiple cognitive deficits exacerbated over time, leading to death within a decade from clinical diagnosis. However, it is revealed that AD originates via a prodromal phase that spans from one to few decades before symptoms first manifest. The key pathological hallmarks of AD brains are deposition of amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). However, the yet unknown etiology of the disease fails to distinguish mitochondrial dysfunction between a cause or an outcome. The absence of early diagnosis tools and definite therapies for AD have permitted recruits of nutraceutical-based approaches aimed at reducing the risk of AD by modulating lifestyle or be used as preventive tools during AD prodromal state before widespread neurodegeneration begins. The objective of the present study was to investigate beneficial effects of luteolin, a plant-based flavone compound, against AD. The neuroprotective effects of luteolin on amyloid beta (Aβ) (1-42)-induced neurotoxicity was measured using cultured human neuroblastoma BE(2)-M17 cells. After exposure to 20μM Aβ (1-42) for 48 h, the neuroblastoma cells exhibited marked apoptotic death. Co-treatment of 20μM Aβ (1-42) with luteolin (0.5-5μM) significantly protected the cells against Aβ (1-42)-induced toxicity, as assessed by the MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2(4sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt; MTS] reduction assay and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) cell death assay. The results suggest that luteolin prevents Aβ (1-42)-induced apoptotic neuronal death. However, further studies are underway to determine its protective mechanisms in AD including the activity against tau hyperphosphorylation and mitochondrial dysfunction.

Keywords: Aβ (1-42)-induced toxicity, Alzheimer’s disease, luteolin, neuroblastoma cells

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