Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6027

Search results for: temperature anisotropy of hot protons

6027 Heating of Cold Ions by Emic Waves Using MMS Observations

Authors: Abid Ali Abid, Quanming Lu, Xing L. Gao, B. M. Alotaibi, S. Ali, M. N. S. Qureshi, Y. Al-Hadeethi, Shui Wang

Abstract:

The EMIC waves whose frequency ranges from 0.001 Hz to 5 Hz in the Earth’s magnetosphere and have received considerable attention for energy transport across the magnetosphere. Since these waves act as a mechanism for the loss of energetic electrons from the Van Allen radiation belts to the atmosphere, therefore, it is necessary to understand how and where they can be produced, as well as the direction of waves along the magnetic field lines. In this letter, the excitation of the EMIC waves is studied by taking into account the hot proton temperature anisotropy having energy ranging from 7 KeV to 26 KeV with a minimum resonant energy of 6.9KeV. However, the opposite effect can be observed for the hot protons for energy less than the minimum resonant energy. It is revealed that as long as the intensity of the EMIC waves increases, the number density and temperature anisotropy of the protons also increase within the energy range from 1eV to 100 eV.

Keywords: EMIC waves, temperature anisotropy of hot protons, energization of the cold proton, magnetospheric multiscale (MMS) satellite observations

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6026 The Effect of Austempering Temperature on Anisotropy of TRIP Steel

Authors: Abdolreza Heidari Noosh Abad, Amir Abedi, Davood Mirahmadi khaki

Abstract:

The high strength and flexibility of TRIP steels are the major reasons for them being widely used in the automobile industry. Deep drawing is regarded as a common metal sheet manufacturing process is used extensively in the modern industry, particularly automobile industry. To investigate the potential of deep drawing characteristic of materials, steel sheet anisotropy is studied and expressed as R-Value. The TRIP steels have a multi-phase microstructure consisting typically of ferrite, bainite and retained austenite. The retained austenite appears to be the most effective phase in the microstructure of the TRIP steels. In the present research, Taguchi method has been employed to study investigates the effect of austempering temperature parameters on the anisotropy property of the TRIP steel. To achieve this purpose, a steel with chemical composition of 0.196C -1.42Si-1.41Mn, has been used and annealed at 810oC, and then austempered at 340-460oC for 3, 6, and 9 minutes. The results shows that the austempering temperature has a direct relationship with R-value, respectively. With increasing austempering temperature, residual austenite grain size increases as well as increased solubility, which increases the amount of R-value. According to the results of the Taguchi method, austempering temperature’s p-value less than 0.05 is due to effective on R-value.

Keywords: Taguchi method, hot rolling, thermomechanical process, anisotropy, R-value

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6025 Novel Correlations for P-Substituted Phenols in NMR Spectroscopy

Authors: Khodzhaberdi Allaberdiev

Abstract:

Substituted phenols are widely used for the synthesis of advanced polycondensation polymers. In terms of the structure regularity and practical value of obtained polymers are of special interest the p-substituted phenols. The lanthanide induced shifts (LIS) of the aromatic ring and the OH protons by addition Eu(fod)3 to various p-substituted phenols in CDCL3 solvent were measured Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. A linear relationship has been observed between the LIS of protons (∆=δcomplex –δsubstrate) and Eu(fod)3/substrate molar ratios. The LIS protons of the investigated phenols decreases in the following order: ОН > ortho > meta. The LIS of these protons also depends on both steric and electronic effects of p-substituents. The effect on the LIS of protons steric hindrance of substituents by way of example p-substituted alkyl phenols was studied. Alkyl phenols exhibit pronounced europium- induced shifts, their sensitivity increasing in the order: CH3 > C2H5 > sym-C5H11 > tert-C5H11 > tert-C4H9, i.e. in parallel with decreasing steric hindrance. The influence steric hindrance p-substituents of phenols on the LIS of protons in sequence following decreases: OH> meta >ortho. Contrary to the expectations, it is found that the LIS of the ortho protons an excellent linear correlation with meta-substituent constants, σm for 14 p-substituted phenols: ∆H2, 6=8.165-9.896 σm (r2=0,999). Moreover, a linear correlation between the LIS of the ortho protons and ionization constants, РКa of p-substituted phenols has been revealed. Similarly, the linear relationships for the LIS of the meta and the OH protons were obtained. Use the LIS of the phenolic hydroxyl groups for linear relationships is necessary with care, because of the signal broadening of the OH protons. New constants may be determinate with unusual case by this approach.

Keywords: novel correlations, NMR spectroscopy, phenols, shift reagent

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6024 Magnetic Properties of Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles in Superparamagnetic State

Authors: Navneet Kaur, S. D. Tiwari

Abstract:

Superparamagnetism is an interesting phenomenon and observed in small particles of magnetic materials. It arises due to a reduction in particle size. In the superparamagnetic state, as the thermal energy overcomes magnetic anisotropy energy, the magnetic moment vector of particles flip their magnetization direction between states of minimum energy. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles have been attracting the researchers due to many applications such as information storage, magnetic resonance imaging, biomedical applications, and sensors. For information storage, thermal fluctuations lead to loss of data. So that nanoparticles should have high blocking temperature. And to achieve this, nanoparticles should have a higher magnetic moment and magnetic anisotropy constant. In this work, the magnetic anisotropy constant of the antiferromagnetic nanoparticles system is determined. Magnetic studies on nanoparticles of NiO (nickel oxide) are reported well. This antiferromagnetic nanoparticle system has high blocking temperature and magnetic anisotropy constant of order 105 J/m3. The magnetic study of NiO nanoparticles in the superparamagnetic region is presented. NiO particles of two different sizes, i.e., 6 and 8 nm, are synthesized using the chemical route. These particles are characterized by an x-ray diffractometer, transmission electron microscope, and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. The magnetization vs. applied magnetic field and temperature data for both samples confirm their superparamagnetic nature. The blocking temperature for 6 and 8 nm particles is found to be 200 and 172 K, respectively. Magnetization vs. applied magnetic field data of NiO is fitted to an appropriate magnetic expression using a non-linear least square fit method. The role of particle size distribution and magnetic anisotropy is taken in to account in magnetization expression. The source code is written in Python programming language. This fitting provides us the magnetic anisotropy constant for NiO and other magnetic fit parameters. The particle size distribution estimated matches well with the transmission electron micrograph. The value of magnetic anisotropy constants for 6 and 8 nm particles is found to be 1.42 X 105 and 1.20 X 105 J/m3, respectively. The obtained magnetic fit parameters are verified using the Neel model. It is concluded that the effect of magnetic anisotropy should not be ignored while studying the magnetization process of nanoparticles.

Keywords: anisotropy, superparamagnetic, nanoparticle, magnetization

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6023 Composition Dependence of Exchange Anisotropy in PtₓMn₁₋ₓ/Co₇₀Fe₃₀ Films

Authors: Sina Ranjbar, Masakiyo Tsunoda, Mikihiko Oogane, Yasuo Ando

Abstract:

We systematically investigated the exchange anisotropy for ferromagnetic Co70Fe30 and antiferromagnetic PtMn bilayer films. We focused on the relevance between the exchange bias and the composition of the Ptₓ Mn₁₋ₓ (14 < x < 22 and 45 < x < 56 at %) films, and we successfully optimized the composition. The crystal structure of the Ptₓ Mn₁₋ₓ films was FCC for 14 < x < 22 at % and FCT for 45 < x < 56 at % after annealing at 370 ◦C for 6 hours. The unidirectional anisotropy constant (Jₖ) for fcc-Pt₁₅Mn₈₅ (20 nm) and fct-Pt₄₈Mn₅₂ (20 nm) prepared under optimum conditions in composition were 0.16 and 0.20 erg/cm², respectively. Both Pt₁₅Mn₈₅ and Pt₄₈Mn₅₂ films showed a larger unidirectional anisotropy constant (Jₖ) than in other reports. They also showed a flatter surface than that of other antiferromagnetic materials. The obtained PtMn films with a large exchange anisotropy and slight roughness are useful as an antiferromagnetic layer in spintronic applications.

Keywords: antiferromagnetic material, PtMn thin film, exchange anisotropy, composition dependence

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6022 Early Stage Hydration of Wollastonite: Kinetic Aspects of the Metal-Proton Exchange Reaction

Authors: Nicolas Giraudo, Peter Thissen

Abstract:

In this paper we bring up new aspects of the metal proton exchange reaction (MPER, also called early stage hydration): (1) its dependence of the number of protons consumed by the preferential exchanged cations on the pH value applied at the water/wollastonite interface and (2) strong anisotropic characteristics detected in atomic force microscopy (AFM) and low energy ion scattering spectroscopy measurements (LEIS). First we apply density functional theory (DFT) calculations to compare the kinetics of the reaction on different wollastonite surfaces, and combine it with ab initio thermodynamics to set up a model describing (1) the release of Ca in exchange with H coming from the water/wollastonite interface, (2) the dependence of the MPER on the chemical potential of protons. In the second part of the paper we carried out in-situ AFM and inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) measurements in order to evaluate the predicted values. While a good agreement is found in the basic and neutral regime (pH values from 14-4), an increasing mismatch appears in the acidic regime (pH value lower 4). This is finally explained by non-equilibrium etching, dominating over the MPER in the very acidic regime.

Keywords: anisotropy, calcium silicate, cement, density functional theory, hydration

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6021 Effect of Anisotropy and Heterogeneity on Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations

Authors: S. A. Naeini, A. Mahigir

Abstract:

Naturally occurring cohesive soil deposits are inherently anisotropic with respect to different properties amongst which is the shear strength. The anisotropy is primary due to the process of sedimentation followed by predominantly one-dimensional consolidation. However, most soils in their natural states exhibit some anisotropy with respect to shear strength and some non-homogeneity with respect to depth. In this paper the standard Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion was modified to consider the anisotropic shear strength properties. The term non-homogeneity used in this paper refers to only the cohesion intercept which is assumed to vary linearly with depth. The effect of both anisotropy and deterministic non-homogeneity on bearing capacity of shallow foundation was investigated using finite difference method. Result of numerical analysis indicates that the cohesion anisotropy has a significant effect on bearing capacity of shallow foundation. Furthermore, the linear and bilinear heterogeneity affects the bearing capacity in a similar way although the anisotropy issue emerges to be more important as far as shallow foundations are considered.

Keywords: anisotropic ratio, finite difference analysis, bearing capacity, heterogeneity

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6020 Experimental Analysis of the Origins of the Anisotropy Behavior in the 2017 AA Aluminum Alloy

Authors: May Abdelghani

Abstract:

The present work is devoted to the study of the microstructural anisotropy in mechanical cyclic behavior of the 2017AA aluminum alloy which is widely used in the aerospace industry. The main purpose of the study is to investigate the microstructural origins of this anisotropy already confirmed in our previous work in 2017AA aluminum alloy. To do this, we have used the microstructural analysis resources such as Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to see the differences between breaks from different directions of cyclic loading. Another resource of investigation was used in this study is that the EBSD method, which allows us to obtain a mapping of the crystallographic texture of our material. According to the obtained results in the microscopic analysis, we are able to identify the origins of the anisotropic behavior at the macroscopic scale.

Keywords: fatigue damage, cyclic behavior, anisotropy, microstructural analysis

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6019 An Improved Single Point Closure Model Based on Dissipation Anisotropy for Geophysical Turbulent Flows

Authors: A. P. Joshi, H. V. Warrior, J. P. Panda

Abstract:

This paper is a continuation of the work carried out by various turbulence modelers in Oceanography on the topic of oceanic turbulent mixing. It evaluates the evolution of ocean water temperature and salinity by the appropriate modeling of turbulent mixing utilizing proper prescription of eddy viscosity. Many modelers in past have suggested including terms like shear, buoyancy and vorticity to be the parameters that decide the slow pressure strain correlation. We add to it the fact that dissipation anisotropy also modifies the correlation through eddy viscosity parameterization. This recalibrates the established correlation constants slightly and gives improved results. This anisotropization of dissipation implies that the critical Richardson’s number increases much beyond unity (to 1.66) to accommodate enhanced mixing, as is seen in reality. The model is run for a couple of test cases in the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) and the results are presented here.

Keywords: Anisotropy, GOTM, pressure-strain correlation, Richardson critical number

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6018 Low Field Microwave Absorption and Magnetic Anisotropy in TM Co-Doped ZnO System

Authors: J. Das, T. S. Mahule, V. V. Srinivasu

Abstract:

Electron spin resonance (ESR) study at 9.45 GHz and a field modulation frequency of 100Hz was performed on bulk polycrystalline samples of Mn:TM (Fe/Ni) and Mn:RE (Gd/Sm) co doped ZnO samples with composition Zn1-xMn:TM/RE)xO synthesised by solid state reaction route and sintered at 500 0C temperature. The room temperature microwave absorption data collected by sweeping the DC magnetic field from -500 to 9500 G for the Mn:Fe and Mn:Ni co doped ZnO samples exhibit a rarely reported non resonant low field absorption (NRLFA) in addition to a strong absorption at around 3350G, usually associated with ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) satisfying Larmor’s relation due to absorption in the full saturation state. Observed low field absorption is distinct to ferromagnetic resonance even at low temperature and shows hysteresis. Interestingly, it shows a phase opposite with respect to the main ESR signal of the samples, which indicates that the low field absorption has a minimum value at zero magnetic field whereas the ESR signal has a maximum value. The major resonance peak as well as the peak corresponding to low field absorption exhibit asymmetric nature indicating magnetic anisotropy in the sample normally associated with intrinsic ferromagnetism. Anisotropy parameter for Mn:Ni codoped ZnO sample is noticed to be quite higher. The g values also support the presence of oxygen vacancies and clusters in the samples. These samples have shown room temperature ferromagnetism in the SQUID measurement. However, in rare earth (RE) co doped samples (Zn1-x (Mn: Gd/Sm)xO), which show paramagnetic behavior at room temperature, the low field microwave signals are not observed. As microwave currents due to itinerary electrons can lead to ohmic losses inside the sample, we speculate that more delocalized 3d electrons contributed from the TM dopants facilitate such microwave currents leading to the loss and hence absorption at the low field which is also supported by the increase in current with increased micro wave power. Besides, since Fe and Ni has intrinsic spin polarization with polarisability of around 45%, doping of Fe and Ni is expected to enhance the spin polarization related effect in ZnO. We emphasize that in this case Fe and Ni doping contribute to polarized current which interacts with the magnetization (spin) vector and get scattered giving rise to the absorption loss.

Keywords: co-doping, electron spin resonance, hysteresis, non-resonant microwave absorption

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6017 Predictions for the Anisotropy in Thermal Conductivity in Polymers Subjected to Model Flows by Combination of the eXtended Pom-Pom Model and the Stress-Thermal Rule

Authors: David Nieto Simavilla, Wilco M. H. Verbeeten

Abstract:

The viscoelastic behavior of polymeric flows under isothermal conditions has been extensively researched. However, most of the processing of polymeric materials occurs under non-isothermal conditions and understanding the linkage between the thermo-physical properties and the process state variables remains a challenge. Furthermore, the cost and energy required to manufacture, recycle and dispose polymers is strongly affected by the thermo-physical properties and their dependence on state variables such as temperature and stress. Experiments show that thermal conductivity in flowing polymers is anisotropic (i.e. direction dependent). This phenomenon has been previously omitted in the study and simulation of industrially relevant flows. Our work combines experimental evidence of a universal relationship between thermal conductivity and stress tensors (i.e. the stress-thermal rule) with differential constitutive equations for the viscoelastic behavior of polymers to provide predictions for the anisotropy in thermal conductivity in uniaxial, planar, equibiaxial and shear flow in commercial polymers. A particular focus is placed on the eXtended Pom-Pom model which is able to capture the non-linear behavior in both shear and elongation flows. The predictions provided by this approach are amenable to implementation in finite elements packages, since viscoelastic and thermal behavior can be described by a single equation. Our results include predictions for flow-induced anisotropy in thermal conductivity for low and high density polyethylene as well as confirmation of our method through comparison with a number of thermoplastic systems for which measurements of anisotropy in thermal conductivity are available. Remarkably, this approach allows for universal predictions of anisotropy in thermal conductivity that can be used in simulations of complex flows in which only the most fundamental rheological behavior of the material has been previously characterized (i.e. there is no need for additional adjusting parameters other than those in the constitutive model). Accounting for polymers anisotropy in thermal conductivity in industrially relevant flows benefits the optimization of manufacturing processes as well as the mechanical and thermal performance of finalized plastic products during use.

Keywords: anisotropy, differential constitutive models, flow simulations in polymers, thermal conductivity

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6016 Effect of Temperature and Deformation Mode on Texture Evolution of AA6061

Authors: M. Ghosh, A. Miroux, L. A. I. Kestens

Abstract:

At molecular or micrometre scale, practically all materials are neither homogeneous nor isotropic. The concept of texture is used to identify the structural features that cause the properties of a material to be anisotropic. For metallic materials, the anisotropy of the mechanical behaviour originates from the crystallographic nature of plastic deformation, and is therefore controlled by the crystallographic texture. Anisotropy in mechanical properties often constitutes a disadvantage in the application of materials, as it is often illustrated by the earing phenomena during drawing. However, advantages may also be attained when considering other properties (e.g. optimization of magnetic behaviour to a specific direction) by controlling texture through thermo-mechanical processing). Nevertheless, in order to have better control over the final properties it is essential to relate texture with materials processing route and subsequently optimise their performance. However, up to date, few studies have been reported about the evolution of texture in 6061 aluminium alloy during warm processing (from room temperature to 250ºC). In present investigation, recrystallized 6061 aluminium alloy samples were subjected to tensile and plane strain compression (PSC) at room and warm temperatures. The gradual change of texture following both deformation modes were measured and discussed. Tensile tests demonstrate the mechanism at low strain while PSC does the same at high strain and eventually simulate the condition of rolling. Cube dominated texture of the initial rolled and recrystallized AA6061 sheets were replaced by domination of S and R components after PSC at room temperature, warm temperature (250ºC) though did not reflect any noticeable deviation from room temperature observation. It was also noticed that temperature has no significant effect on the evolution of grain morphology during PSC. The band contrast map revealed that after 30% deformation the substructure inside the grain is mainly made of series of parallel bands. A tendency for decrease of Cube and increase of Goss was noticed after tensile deformation compared to as-received material. Like PSC, texture does not change after deformation at warm temperature though. n-fibre was noticed for all the three textures from Goss to Cube.

Keywords: AA 6061, deformation, temperature, tensile, PSC, texture

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6015 Construction of Strain Distribution Profiles of EDD Steel at Elevated Temperatures

Authors: K. Eshwara Prasad, R. Raman Goud, Swadesh Kumar Singh, N. Sateesh

Abstract:

In the present work forming limit diagrams and strain distribution profile diagrams for extra deep drawing steel at room and elevated temperatures have been determined experimentally by conducting stretch forming experiments by using designed and fabricated warm stretchforming tooling setup. With the help of forming Limit Diagrams (FLDs) and strain distribution profile diagrams the formability of Extra Deep Drawing steel has been analyzed and co-related with mechanical properties like strain hardening COEFFICIENT (n) and normal anisotropy (r−).Mechanical properties of EDD steel from room temperature to 4500C were determined and discussed the impact of temperature on the properties like work hardening exponent (n) anisotropy(r-) and strength coefficient of the material. Also the fractured surfaces after stretching have undergone the some metallurgical investigations and attempt has been made to co-relate with the formability of EDD steel sheets. They are co-related and good agreement with FLDs at various temperatures.

Keywords: FLD, microhardness, strain distribution profile, stretch forming

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6014 Strain DistributionProfiles of EDD Steel at Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Eshwara Prasad Koorapati, R. Raman Goud, Swadesh Kumar Singh

Abstract:

In the present work forming limit diagrams and strain distribution profile diagrams for extra deep drawing steel at room and elevated temperatures have been determined experimentally by conducting stretch forming experiments by using designed and fabricated warm stretch forming tooling setup. With the help of forming Limit Diagrams (FLDs) and strain distribution profile diagrams the formability of Extra Deep Drawing steel has been analyzed and co-related with mechanical properties like strain hardening coefficient (n) and normal anisotropy (r−).Mechanical properties of EDD steel from room temperature to 4500 C were determined and discussed the impact of temperature on the properties like work hardening exponent (n) anisotropy (r-) and strength coefficient of the material. Also, the fractured surfaces after stretching have undergone the some metallurgical investigations and attempt has been made to co-relate with the formability of EDD steel sheets. They are co-related and good agreement with FLDs at various temperatures.

Keywords: FLD, micro hardness, strain distribution profile, stretch forming

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
6013 Effect of Coriolis Force on Magnetoconvection in an Anisotropic Porous Medium

Authors: N. F. M. Mokhtar, N. Z. A. Hamid

Abstract:

This paper reports an analytical investigation of the stability and thermal convection in a horizontal anisotropic porous medium in the presence of Coriolis force and magnetic field. The Darcy model is used in the momentum equation and Boussinesq approximation is considered for the density variation of the porous medium. The upper and lower boundaries of the porous medium are assumed to be conducting to temperature perturbation and we used first order Chebyshev polynomial Tau method to solve the resulting eigenvalue problem. Analytical solution is obtained for the case of stationary convection. It is found that the porous layer system becomes unstable when the mechanical anisotropy parameter elevated and increasing the Coriolis force and magnetic field help to stabilize the anisotropy porous medium.

Keywords: anisotropic, Chebyshev tau method, Coriolis force, Magnetic field

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
6012 Estimation of Particle Size Distribution Using Magnetization Data

Authors: Navneet Kaur, S. D. Tiwari

Abstract:

Magnetic nanoparticles possess fascinating properties which make their behavior unique in comparison to corresponding bulk materials. Superparamagnetism is one such interesting phenomenon exhibited only by small particles of magnetic materials. In this state, the thermal energy of particles become more than their magnetic anisotropy energy, and so particle magnetic moment vectors fluctuate between states of minimum energy. This situation is similar to paramagnetism of non-interacting ions and termed as superparamagnetism. The magnetization of such systems has been described by Langevin function. But, the estimated fit parameters, in this case, are found to be unphysical. It is due to non-consideration of particle size distribution. In this work, analysis of magnetization data on NiO nanoparticles is presented considering the effect of particle size distribution. Nanoparticles of NiO of two different sizes are prepared by heating freshly synthesized Ni(OH)₂ at different temperatures. Room temperature X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the formation of single phase of NiO. The diffraction lines are seen to be quite broad indicating the nanocrystalline nature of the samples. The average crystallite size are estimated to be about 6 and 8 nm. The samples are also characterized by transmission electron microscope. Magnetization of both sample is measured as function of temperature and applied magnetic field. Zero field cooled and field cooled magnetization are measured as a function of temperature to determine the bifurcation temperature. The magnetization is also measured at several temperatures in superparamagnetic region. The data are fitted to an appropriate expression considering a distribution in particle size following a least square fit procedure. The computer codes are written in PYTHON. The presented analysis is found to be very useful for estimating the particle size distribution present in the samples. The estimated distributions are compared with those determined from transmission electron micrographs.

Keywords: anisotropy, magnetization, nanoparticles, superparamagnetism

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6011 Proposing a Failure Criterion for Cohesionless Media Considering Cyclic Fabric Anisotropy

Authors: Ali Noorzad, Ehsan Badakhshan, Shima Zameni

Abstract:

The present paper is focused on a generalized failure criterion for geomaterials with cross-anisotropy. The cyclic behavior of granular material primarily depends on the nature and arrangement of constituent particles, particle size, and shape that affect fabric anisotropy. To account for the influence of loading directions on strength variations, an anisotropic variable in terms of the invariants of the stress tensor and fabric into the failure criterion is proposed. In an extension to original CANAsand constitutive model two concepts namely critical state and compact state play paramount roles as all of the moduli and coefficients are related to these states. The applicability of the present model is evaluated through comparisons between the predicted and the measured results. All simulations have demonstrated that the proposed constitutive model is capable of modeling the cyclic behavior of sand with inherent anisotropy.

Keywords: fabric, cohesionless media, cyclic loading, critical state, compact state, CANAsand constitutive model

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6010 Anisotropic Shear Strength of Sand Containing Plastic Fine Materials

Authors: Alaa H. J. Al-Rkaby, A. Chegenizadeh, H. R. Nikraz

Abstract:

Anisotropy is one of the major aspects that affect soil behavior, and extensive efforts have investigated its effect on the mechanical properties of soil. However, very little attention has been given to the combined effect of anisotropy and fine contents. Therefore, in this paper, the anisotropic strength of sand containing different fine content (F) of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%, was investigated using hollow cylinder tests under different principal stress directions of α = 0° and α = 90°. For a given principal stress direction (α), it was found that increasing fine content resulted in decreasing deviator stress (q). Moreover, results revealed that all fine contents showed anisotropic strength where there is a clear difference between the strength under 0° and the strength under 90°. This anisotropy was greatest under F = 5% while it decreased with increasing fine contents, particularly at F = 10%. Mixtures with low fine content show low contractive behavior and tended to show more dilation. Moreover, all sand-clay mixtures exhibited less dilation and more compression at α = 90° compared with that at α = 0°.

Keywords: anisotropy, principal stress direction, fine content, hollow cylinder sample

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6009 Isolation of Three Bioactive Phenantroindolizidine Alkaloids from the Fruit Latex of Ficus botryocarpa Miq.

Authors: Jayson Wau, David Timi, Anthony Harakuwe, Bruce Bowden, Cherie Motti, Harry Sakulas, Rag Gubag-Sipou

Abstract:

The latex of F. botryocarpa fruit is applied on sores, wounds and other skin infections in Papua New Guinea ethnotherapeutic practices. Systematic bioassay guided separation and isolation of subsequent fractions of latex extracts resulted in three bioactive fractions active against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. This study reports structural elucidation of the three isolates. Structures were determined by physical (M.pt and Rf values) and spectroscopic (1D-1H NMR, 2D-HSQC NMR, 2D-HMBC NMR) and MS ESI-POS. The two methylene protons (2H-1) and (2H-3) resonate as triplets at δ 3.59 and δ 4.99 respectively. Electron dense δ 4.99 (2H-3) on (C-3) depicts the strong electron-withdrawing component, quaternary nitrogen (=N= +). Protons resonating at δ 3.88 and 3.89 are singlets depicting two methoxy groups. Both δ 3.88 and δ 3.89 are para-aryls substituents. The methines δ 9.13 and 8.60 are singlets depicting two lone protons on the indolizidinium aryl component. All isolates, (1), (2) and (3) were identified to be ficuseptine by comparing 1D-NMR assignments. 2D-NMR and MS of (2) found it to be ficuseptine chloride '2, 3-dihydro-6, 8-bis (4-methoxyphenyl)-, 1H-indolizinium chloride'. Their counter ions of the ficuseptines were not established and provide promising lead for the further investigation.

Keywords: Ficus botryocarpa, antimicrobial activity, ficuseptine, sores

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6008 Photoreflectance Anisotropy Spectroscopy of Coupled Quantum Wells

Authors: J. V. Gonzalez Fernandez, T. Mozume, S. Gozu, A. Lastras Martinez, L. F. Lastras Martinez, J. Ortega Gallegos, R. E. Balderas Navarro

Abstract:

We report on a theoretical-experimental study of photoreflectance anisotropy (PRA) spectroscopy of coupled double quantum wells. By probing the in-plane interfacial optical anisotropies, we demonstrate that PRA spectroscopy has the capacity to detect and distinguish layers with quantum dimensions. In order to account for the experimental PRA spectra, we have used a theoretical model at k=0 based on a linear electro-optic effect through a piezoelectric shear strain.

Keywords: coupled double quantum well (CDQW), linear electro-optic (LEO) effect, photoreflectance anisotropy (PRA), piezoelectric shear strain

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6007 Temperature Dependent Magneto-Transport Properties of MnAl Binary Alloy Thin Films

Authors: Vineet Barwal, Sajid Husain, Nanhe Kumar Gupta, Soumyarup Hait, Sujeet Chaudhary

Abstract:

High perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and low damping constant (α) in ferromagnets are one of the few necessary requirements for their potential applications in the field of spintronics. In this regards, ferromagnetic τ-phase of MnAl possesses the highest PMA (Ku > 107 erg/cc) at room temperature, high saturation magnetization (Ms~800 emu/cc) and a Curie temperature of ~395K. In this work, we have investigated the magnetotransport behaviour of this potentially useful binary system MnₓAl₁₋ₓ films were synthesized by co-sputtering (pulsed DC magnetron sputtering) on Si/SiO₂ (where SiO₂ is native oxide layer) substrate using 99.99% pure Mn and Al sputtering targets. Films of constant thickness (~25 nm) were deposited at the different growth temperature (Tₛ) viz. 30, 300, 400, 500, and 600 ºC with a deposition rate of ~5 nm/min. Prior to deposition, the chamber was pumped down to a base pressure of 2×10⁻⁷ Torr. During sputtering, the chamber was maintained at a pressure of 3.5×10⁻³ Torr with the 55 sccm Ar flow rate. Films were not capped for the purpose of electronic transport measurement, which leaves a possibility of metal oxide formation on the surface of MnAl (both Mn and Al have an affinity towards oxide formation). In-plane and out-of-plane transverse magnetoresistance (MR) measurements on films sputtered under optimized growth conditions revealed non-saturating behavior with MR values ~6% and 40% at 9T, respectively at 275 K. Resistivity shows a parabolic dependence on the field H, when the H is weak. At higher H, non-saturating positive MR that increases exponentially with the strength of magnetic field is observed, a typical character of hopping type conduction mechanism. An anomalous decrease in MR is observed on lowering the temperature. From the temperature dependence of reistivity, it is inferred that the two competing states are metallic and semiconducting, respectively and the energy scale of the phenomenon produces the most interesting effects, i.e., the metal-insulator transition and hence the maximum sensitivity to external fields, at room temperature. Theory of disordered 3D systems effectively explains the crossover temperature coefficient of resistivity from positive to negative with lowering of temperature. These preliminary findings on the MR behavior of MnAl thin films will be presented in detail. The anomalous large MR in mixed phase MnAl system is evidently useful for future spintronic applications.

Keywords: magnetoresistance, perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, spintronics, thin films

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6006 Effect of the Tidal Charge Parameter on CMBR Temperature Anisotropies

Authors: Evariste Boj, Jan Schee

Abstract:

We present the temperature anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation due to the inhomogeneity region constructed on a 3-brane in the framework of a Randall-Sundrum one brane immersed into a 5D bulk $AdS_5$ spacetime. We employ the Brane-World Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmological model to describe the cosmic expansion on the brane. The inhomogeneity is modeled by the static, spherically symmetric spacetime that replaces the spherically symmetric part of a dust-filled universe and is connected to the FLRW spacetime through the junction conditions. As the vacuum region expands it induces an additional frequency shift to a CMBR photon passing through this inhomogeneity in comparison to the case of a photon propagating through a pure FLRW spacetime. This frequency shift is associated with the effective temperature change of the CMBR in the corresponding direction. We give an estimate of the CMBR effective temperature changes with the change of the value of the tidal charge parameter.

Keywords: CMBR, Randall-Sundrum model, Rees-Sciama effect, Braneworld

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6005 Effect of Anisotropy on Steady Creep in a Whisker Reinforced Functionally Graded Composite Disc

Authors: V. K. Gupta, Tejeet Singh

Abstract:

In many whisker reinforced composites, anisotropy may result due to material flow during processing operations such as forging, extrusion etc. The consequence of anisotropy, introduced during processing of disc material, has been investigated on the steady state creep deformations of the rotating disc. The disc material is assumed to undergo plastic deformations according to Hill’s anisotropic criterion. Steady state creep has been analyzed in a constant thickness rotating disc made of functionally graded 6061Al-SiCw (where the subscript ‘w’ stands for whisker) using Hill’s The content of reinforcement (SiCw) in the disc is assumed to decrease linearly from the inner to outer radius. The stresses and strain rates in the disc are estimated by solving the force equilibrium equation along with the constitutive equations describing multi-axial creep. The results obtained for anisotropic FGM disc have been compared with those estimated for isotropic FGM disc having the same average whisker content. The anisotropic constants, appearing in Hill’s yield criterion, have been obtained from the available experimental results. The results show that the presence of anisotropy reduces the tangential stress in the middle of the disc but near the inner and outer radii the tangential stress is higher when compared to isotropic disc. On the other hand, the steady state creep rates in the anisotropic disc are reduced significantly over the entire disc radius, with the maximum reduction observed at the inner radius. Further, in the presence of anisotropy the distribution of strain rate becomes relatively uniform over the entire disc, which may be responsible for reducing the extent of distortion in the disc.

Keywords: anisotropy, creep, functionally graded composite, rotating disc

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6004 Proton Irradiation Testing on Commercial Enhancement Mode GaN Power Transistor

Authors: L. Boyaci

Abstract:

Two basic equipment of electrical power subsystem of space satellites are Power Conditioning Unit (PCU) and Power Distribution Unit (PDU). Today, the main switching element used in power equipment in satellites is silicon (Si) based radiation-hardened MOSFET. GaNFETs have superior performances over MOSFETs in terms of their conduction and switching characteristics. GaNFET has started to take MOSFET’s place in many applications in industry especially by virtue of its switching performances. If GaNFET can also be used in equipment for space applications, this would be great revolution for future space power subsystem designs. In this study, the effect of proton irradiation on Gallium Nitride based power transistors was investigated. Four commercial enhancement mode GaN power transistors from Efficient Power Conversion Corporation (EPC) are irradiated with 30MeV protons while devices are switching. Flux of 8.2x10⁹ protons/cm²/s is applied for 12.5 seconds to reach ultimate fluence of 10¹¹ protons/cm². Vgs-Ids characteristics are measured and recorded for each device before, during and after irradiation. It was observed that if there would be destructive events. Proton induced permanent damage on devices is not observed. All the devices remained healthy and continued to operate. For two of these devices, further irradiation is applied with same flux for 30 minutes up to a total fluence level of 1.476x10¹³ protons/cm². We observed that GaNFETs are fully functional under this high level of radiation and no destructive events and irreversible failures took place for transistors. Results reveal that irradiated GaNFET in this experiment has radiation tolerance under proton testing and very important candidate for being one of the future power switching element in space.

Keywords: enhancement mode GaN power transistors, proton irradiation effects, radiation tolerance

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6003 Optimal Beam for Accelerator Driven Systems

Authors: M. Paraipan, V. M. Javadova, S. I. Tyutyunnikov

Abstract:

The concept of energy amplifier or accelerator driven system (ADS) involves the use of a particle accelerator coupled with a nuclear reactor. The accelerated particle beam generates a supplementary source of neutrons, which allows the subcritical functioning of the reactor, and consequently a safe exploitation. The harder neutron spectrum realized ensures a better incineration of the actinides. The almost generalized opinion is that the optimal beam for ADS is represented by protons with energy around 1 GeV (gigaelectronvolt). In the present work, a systematic analysis of the energy gain for proton beams with energy from 0.5 to 3 GeV and ion beams from deuteron to neon with energies between 0.25 and 2 AGeV is performed. The target is an assembly of metallic U-Pu-Zr fuel rods in a bath of lead-bismuth eutectic coolant. The rods length is 150 cm. A beryllium converter with length 110 cm is used in order to maximize the energy released in the target. The case of a linear accelerator is considered, with a beam intensity of 1.25‧10¹⁶ p/s, and a total accelerator efficiency of 0.18 for proton beam. These values are planned to be achieved in the European Spallation Source project. The energy gain G is calculated as the ratio between the energy released in the target to the energy spent to accelerate the beam. The energy released is obtained through simulation with the code Geant4. The energy spent is calculating by scaling from the data about the accelerator efficiency for the reference particle (proton). The analysis concerns the G values, the net power produce, the accelerator length, and the period between refueling. The optimal energy for proton is 1.5 GeV. At this energy, G reaches a plateau around a value of 8 and a net power production of 120 MW (megawatt). Starting with alpha, ion beams have a higher G than 1.5 GeV protons. A beam of 0.25 AGeV(gigaelectronvolt per nucleon) ⁷Li realizes the same net power production as 1.5 GeV protons, has a G of 15, and needs an accelerator length 2.6 times lower than for protons, representing the best solution for ADS. Beams of ¹⁶O or ²⁰Ne with energy 0.75 AGeV, accelerated in an accelerator with the same length as 1.5 GeV protons produce approximately 900 MW net power, with a gain of 23-25. The study of the evolution of the isotopes composition during irradiation shows that the increase in power production diminishes the period between refueling. For a net power produced of 120 MW, the target can be irradiated approximately 5000 days without refueling, but only 600 days when the net power reaches 1 GW (gigawatt).

Keywords: accelerator driven system, ion beam, electrical power, energy gain

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6002 Enhanced Magnetoelastic Response near Morphotropic Phase Boundary in Ferromagnetic Materials: Experimental and Theoretical Analysis

Authors: Murtaza Adil, Sen Yang, Zhou Chao, Song Xiaoping

Abstract:

The morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) recently has attracted constant interest in ferromagnetic systems for obtaining enhanced large magnetoelastic response. In the present study, structural and magnetoelastic properties of MPB involved ferromagnetic Tb1-xGdxFe2 (0≤x≤1) system has been investigated. The change of easy magnetic direction from <111> to <100> with increasing x up MPB composition of x=0.9 is detected by step-scanned [440] synchrotron X-ray diffraction reflections. The Gd substitution for Tb changes the composition for the anisotropy compensation near MPB composition of x=0.9, which was confirmed by the analysis of detailed scanned XRD, magnetization curves and the calculation of the first anisotropy constant K1. The spin configuration diagram accompanied with different crystal structures for Tb1-xGdxFe2 was designed. The calculated first anisotropy constant K1 shows a minimum value at MPB composition of x=0.9. In addition, the large ratio between magnetostriction, and the absolute values of the first anisotropy constant │λS∕K1│ appears at MPB composition, which makes it a potential material for magnetostrictive application. Based on experimental results, a theoretically approach was also proposed to signify that the facilitated magnetization rotation and enhanced magnetoelastic effect near MPB composition are a consequence of the anisotropic flattening of free energy of ferromagnetic crystal. Our work specifies the universal existence of MPB in ferromagnetic materials which is important for substantial improvement of magnetic and magnetostrictive properties and may provide a new route to develop advanced functional materials.

Keywords: free energy, magnetic anisotropy, magnetostriction, morphotropic phase boundary (MPB)

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6001 Radiative Reactions Analysis at the Range of Astrophysical Energies

Authors: A. Amar

Abstract:

Analysis of the elastic scattering of protons on 10B nuclei has been done in the framework of the optical model and single folding model at the beam energies up to 17 MeV. We could enhance the optical potential parameters using Esis88 Code, as well as SPI GENOA Code. Linear relationship between volume real potential (V0) and proton energy (Ep) has been obtained. Also, surface imaginary potential WD is proportional to the proton energy (Ep) in the range 0.400 and 17 MeV. The radiative reaction 10B(p,γ)11C has been analyzed using potential model. A comparison between 10B(p,γ)11C and 6Li(p,γ)7Be has been made. Good agreement has been found between theoretical and experimental results in the whole range of energy. The radiative resonance reaction 7Li(p,γ)8Be has been studied.

Keywords: elastic scattering of protons on 10B nuclei, optical potential parameters, potential model, radiative reaction

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6000 Surface Motion of Anisotropic Half Space Containing an Anisotropic Inclusion under SH Wave

Authors: Yuanda Ma, Zhiyong Zhang, Zailin Yang, Guanxixi Jiang

Abstract:

Anisotropy is very common in underground media, such as rock, sand, and soil. Hence, the dynamic response of anisotropy medium under elastic waves is significantly different from the isotropic one. Moreover, underground heterogeneities and structures, such as pipelines, cylinders, or tunnels, are usually made by composite materials, leading to the anisotropy of these heterogeneities and structures. Both the anisotropy of the underground medium and the heterogeneities have an effect on the surface motion of the ground. Aiming at providing theoretical references for earthquake engineering and seismology, the surface motion of anisotropic half-space with a cylindrical anisotropic inclusion embedded under the SH wave is investigated in this work. Considering the anisotropy of the underground medium, the governing equation with three elastic parameters of SH wave propagation is introduced. Then, based on the complex function method and multipolar coordinates system, the governing equation in the complex plane is obtained. With the help of a pair of transformation, the governing equation is transformed into a standard form. By means of the same methods, the governing equation of SH wave propagation in the cylindrical inclusion with another three elastic parameters is normalized as well. Subsequently, the scattering wave in the half-space and the standing wave in the inclusion is deduced. Different incident wave angle and anisotropy are considered to obtain the reflected wave. Then the unknown coefficients in scattering wave and standing wave are solved by utilizing the continuous condition at the boundary of the inclusion. Through truncating finite terms of the scattering wave and standing wave, the equation of boundary conditions can be calculated by programs. After verifying the convergence and the precision of the calculation, the validity of the calculation is verified by degrading the model of the problem as well. Some parameters which influence the surface displacement of the half-space is considered: dimensionless wave number, dimensionless depth of the inclusion, anisotropic parameters, wave number ratio, shear modulus ratio. Finally, surface displacement amplitude of the half space with different parameters is calculated and discussed.

Keywords: anisotropy, complex function method, sh wave, surface displacement amplitude

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5999 Morphotropic Phase Boundary in Ferromagnets: Unusual Magnetoelastic Behavior In Tb₁₋ₓNdₓCo₂

Authors: Adil Murtaza, Muhammad Tahir Khan, Awais Ghani, Chao Zhou, Sen Yang, Xiaoping Song

Abstract:

The morphotropic phase boundary (MPB); a boundary between two different crystallographic symmetries in the composition–temperature phase diagram has been widely studied in ferroelectrics and recently has drawn interest in ferromagnets for obtaining enhanced large field-induced strain. At MPB, the system gets a compressed free energy state, which allows the polarization to freely rotate and hence results in a high magnetoelastic response (e.g., high magnetization, low coercivity, and large magnetostriction). Based on the same mechanism, we designed MPB in a ferromagnetic Tb₁₋ₓNdₓCo₂ system. The temperature-dependent magnetization curves showed spin reorientation (SR); which can be explained by a two-sublattice model. Contrary to previously reported MPB involved ferromagnetic systems, the MPB composition of Tb₀.₃₅Nd₀.₆₅Co₂ exhibits a low saturation magnetization (MS), indicating a compensation of the Tb and Nd magnetic moments at MPB. The coercive field (HC) under a low magnetic field and first anisotropy constant (K₁) shows a minimum value at MPB composition of x=0.65. A detailed spin configuration diagram is provided for the Tb₁₋ₓNdₓCo₂ around the composition for the anisotropy compensation; this can guide the development of novel magnetostrictive materials. The anisotropic magnetostriction (λS) first decreased until x=0.8 and then continuously increased in the negative direction with further increase of Nd concentration. In addition, the large ratio between magnetostriction and the absolute values of the first anisotropy constant (λS/K₁) appears at MPB, indicating that Tb₀.₃₅Nd₀.₆₅Co₂ has good magnetostrictive properties. Present work shows an anomalous type of MPB in ferromagnetic materials, revealing that MPB can also lead to a weakening of magnetoelastic behavior as shown in the ferromagnetic Tb₁₋ₓNdₓCo₂ system. Our work shows the universal presence of MPB in ferromagnetic materials and suggests the differences between different ferromagnetic MPB systems that are important for substantial improvement of magnetic and magnetostrictive properties. Based on the results of this study, similar MPB effects might be achieved in other ferroic systems that can be used for technological applications. The finding of magnetic MPB in the ferromagnetic system leads to some important significances. First, it provides a better understanding of the fundamental concept of spin reorientation transitions (SRT) like ferro-ferro transitions are not only reorientation of magnetization but also crystal symmetry change upon magnetic ordering. Second, the flattened free energy corresponding to a low energy barrier for magnetization rotation and enhanced magnetoelastic response near MPB. Third, to attain large magnetostriction with MPB approach two terminal compounds have different easy magnetization directions below Curie temperature Tc in order to accomplish the weakening of magnetization anisotropy at MPB (as in ferroelectrics), thus easing the magnetic domain switching and the lattice distortion difference between two terminal compounds should be large enough, e.g., lattice distortion of R symmetry ˃˃ lattice distortion of T symmetry). So that the MPB composition agrees to a nearly isotropic state along with large ‘net’ lattice distortion, which is revealed in a higher value of magnetostriction.

Keywords: magnetization, magnetostriction, morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), phase transition

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5998 Experimental Characterization of Anisotropic Mechanical Properties of Textile Woven Fabric

Authors: Rym Zouari, Sami Ben Amar, Abdelwaheb Dogui

Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental characterization of the anisotropic mechanical behavior of 4 textile woven fabrics with different weaves (Twill 3, Plain, Twill4 and Satin 4) by off-axis tensile testing. These tests are applied according seven directions oriented by 15° increment with respect to the warp direction. Fixed and articulated jaws are used. Analysis of experimental results is done through global (Effort/Elongation curves) and local scales. Global anisotropy was studied from the Effort/Elongation curves: shape, breaking load (Frup), tensile elongation (EMT), tensile energy (WT) and linearity index (LT). Local anisotropy was studied from the measurement of strain tensor components in the central area of the specimen as a function of testing orientation and effort: longitudinal strain ɛL, transverse strain ɛT and shearing ɛLT. The effect of used jaws is also analyzed.

Keywords: anisotropy, off-axis tensile test, strain fields, textile woven fabric

Procedia PDF Downloads 269