Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 161

Search results for: Francisco Velez

161 Model of Cosserat Continuum Dispersion in a Half-Space with a Scatterer

Authors: Francisco Velez, Juan David Gomez


Dispersion effects on the Scattering for a semicircular canyon in a micropolar continuum are analyzed, by using a computational finite element scheme. The presence of microrotational waves and the dispersive SV waves affects the propagation of elastic waves. Here, a contrast with the classic model is presented, and the dependence with the micropolar parameters is studied.

Keywords: scattering, semicircular canyon, wave dispersion, micropolar medium, FEM modeling

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160 Strategic Management for Corporate Social Responsibility in Colombian Industries: A Typology of CSR

Authors: Iris Maria Velez Osorio


There has been in the last decade a concern about the environment, particularly about clean and enough water for human consumption but, some enterprises had some trouble to understand the limited resources in the environment. This research tries to understand how some industries are better oriented to the preservation of the environment through investment for strategic management of scarce resources and try in the best way possible, the contaminants. It was made an industry classification since four different group of theories for Corporate Social Responsibility agree with variables of: investment in environmental care, water protection, and residues treatment finding different levels of commitment with CSR.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, environment, strategic management, water

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159 Stochastic Modeling of Secretion Dynamics in Inner Hair Cells of the Auditory Pathway

Authors: Jessica A. Soto-Bear, Virginia González-Vélez, Norma Castañeda-Villa, Amparo Gil


Glutamate release of the cochlear inner hair cell (IHC) ribbon synapse is a fundamental step in transferring sound information in the auditory pathway. Otoferlin is the calcium sensor in the IHC and its activity has been related to many auditory disorders. In order to simulate secretion dynamics occurring in the IHC in a few milliseconds timescale and with high spatial resolution, we proposed an active-zone model solved with Monte Carlo algorithms. We included models for calcium buffered diffusion, calcium-binding schemes for vesicle fusion, and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels. Our results indicate that calcium influx and calcium binding is managing IHC secretion as a function of voltage depolarization, which in turn mean that IHC response depends on sound intensity.

Keywords: inner hair cells, Monte Carlo algorithm, Otoferlin, secretion

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158 Mathematical Modelling of the Effect of Glucose on Pancreatic Alpha-Cell Activity

Authors: Karen K. Perez-Ramirez, Genevieve Dupont, Virginia Gonzalez-Velez


Pancreatic alpha-cells participate on glucose regulation together with beta cells. They release glucagon hormone when glucose level is low to stimulate gluconeogenesis from the liver. As other excitable cells, alpha cells generate Ca2+ and metabolic oscillations when they are stimulated. It is known that the glucose level can trigger or silence this activity although it is not clear how this occurs in normal and diabetic people. In this work, we propose an electric-metabolic mathematical model implemented in Matlab to study the effect of different glucose levels on the electrical response and Ca2+ oscillations of an alpha cell. Our results show that Ca2+ oscillations appear in opposite phase with metabolic oscillations in a window of glucose values. The model also predicts a direct relationship between the level of glucose and the intracellular adenine nucleotides showing a self-regulating pathway for the alpha cell.

Keywords: Ca2+ oscillations, mathematical model, metabolic oscillations, pancreatic alpha cell

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157 Discriminant Analysis as a Function of Predictive Learning to Select Evolutionary Algorithms in Intelligent Transportation System

Authors: Jorge A. Ruiz-Vanoye, Ocotlán Díaz-Parra, Alejandro Fuentes-Penna, Daniel Vélez-Díaz, Edith Olaco García


In this paper, we present the use of the discriminant analysis to select evolutionary algorithms that better solve instances of the vehicle routing problem with time windows. We use indicators as independent variables to obtain the classification criteria, and the best algorithm from the generic genetic algorithm (GA), random search (RS), steady-state genetic algorithm (SSGA), and sexual genetic algorithm (SXGA) as the dependent variable for the classification. The discriminant classification was trained with classic instances of the vehicle routing problem with time windows obtained from the Solomon benchmark. We obtained a classification of the discriminant analysis of 66.7%.

Keywords: Intelligent Transportation Systems, data-mining techniques, evolutionary algorithms, discriminant analysis, machine learning

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156 A New Mechanical Architecture Design of a Multifunctional Bed for Bedridden Healthcare

Authors: Rogelio Portillo Vélez, Eduardo Vázquez-Santacruz, Mariano Gamboa-Zúñiga


In this paper a new mechanical architecture design of a multi functional robot bed, is presented. The importance of this design relies on the fact that in next years the need of assistive devices development will increase in such way that elderly patients will use this kind of devices. This mechanical design implies following specific mechanisms which attend Mexican hospital requirements. This design is the base of next step of this kind of development given that it shows all technical details of the mechanical systems which are needed in order to construct the bed. This is first hospital bed design which could responds to the Latin America hospital requirements. We have obtained these hospital requirements using our diagnosis methodology [14]. From these results we have designed the mechanical system. This is the mechanical base of the hospital robotic bed which is being developed in our robotics laboratory. It will be useful in different hospital environments for elderly and disabled patients.

Keywords: assistive robotics, methodology, feasibility analysis, robotics, operational feasibility, assistive technology, viability analysis matrix, social impact

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155 Peak Floor Response for Buildings with Flexible Base

Authors: Luciano Roberto Fernandez-Sola, Cesar Augusto Arredondo-Velez, Miguel Angel Jaimes-Tellez


This paper explores the modifications on peak acceleration, velocity and displacement profiles over the structure due to dynamic soil-structure interaction (DSSI). A shear beam model is used for the structure. Soil-foundation flexibility (inertial interaction) is considered by a set of springs and dashpots at the structure base. Kinematic interaction is considered using transfer functions. Impedance functions are computed using simplified expressions for rigid foundations. The research studies the influence of the slenderness ratio on the value of the peak floor response. It is shown that the modifications of peak floor responses are not the same for acceleration, velocity and displacement. This is opposite to the hypothesis used by methods included in several building codes. Results show that modifications produced by DSSI on different response quantities are not equal.

Keywords: peak floor intensities, dynamic soil-structure interaction, buildings with flexible base, kinematic and inertial interaction

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154 Synchronization of Two Mobile Robots

Authors: R. M. López-Gutiérrez, J. A. Michel-Macarty, H. Cervantes-De Avila, J. I. Nieto-Hipólito, C. Cruz-Hernández, L. Cardoza-Avendaño, S. Cortiant-Velez


It is well know that mankind benefits from the application of robot control by virtual handlers in industrial environments. In recent years, great interest has emerged in the control of multiple robots in order to carry out collective tasks. One main trend is to copy the natural organization that some organisms have, such as, ants, bees, school of fish, birds’ migration, etc. Surely, this collaborative work, results in better outcomes than those obtain in an isolated or individual effort. This topic has a great drive because collaboration between several robots has the potential capability of carrying out more complicated tasks, doing so, with better efficiency, resiliency and fault tolerance, in cases such as: coordinate navigation towards a target, terrain exploration, and search-rescue operations. In this work, synchronization of multiple autonomous robots is shown over a variety of coupling topologies: star, ring, chain, and global. In all cases, collective synchronous behavior is achieved, in the complex networks formed with mobile robots. Nodes of these networks are modeled by a mass using Matlab to simulate them.

Keywords: robots, synchronization, bidirectional, coordinate navigation

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153 DNA-Based Analysis of Gut Content of Zygoribatula sp (Acari: Oribatida) and Scheloribates sp (Acari: Oribatida), under the Canopy of Prosopis Laevigata, in a Semiarid Land

Authors: Daniel Isaac Sanchez Chavez, Salvador Rodríguez Zaragoza, Patricia Velez Aguilar


In arid and semi-arid regions, plants are essential in the functional activity and productivity, modifying the microclimatic conditions of their environment, which allows many organisms to grow under them. Within these organisms, oribatid mites play a key role in reintegrating nutrients into the soil through the consumption of soil fungi. However, oribatid mites feed on a vast array of fungal species, which is likely to have strong impacts on their population dynamics and their environment. So, in this study, the aim was to determine the gut content of the abundant oribatid mites Zygoribatula sp and Scheloribates sp, under the canopy of the bush P. laevigata in a semi-arid zone through DNA-based analysis. The results showed the presence in the gut of both mites of different fungal taxa. Fungi, such as Aspergillus sp and Mortierella sp, probably served as a food despite the production of deterrent compounds or structures from both fungal species. Saccharomyces sp might serve as well as a food source; however, it might be part of their microbial endosymbionts. On the other hand, the presence of Beauveria sp indicates a probable pathogenicity interaction, instead of fungal consumption, since this fungus is known to be entomopathogenic. Finally, the results might indicate a feeding preference to certain soil fungi according to diverse features from both taxa.

Keywords: microenvironment, endosymbionts, Oribatida, fungi

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152 Epidemiological and Clinical Profile of Patients with Chorioamnionitis

Authors: Isabel Cristina Ortiz Trujillo, Lina Maria Martinez Sanchez, Felipe Hernández Restrepo, Daniel Gallego Gonzalez, Natalia Vargas Grisales, Camilo Andrés Agudelo Vélez


Chorioamnionitis, is a pregnancy infection, causes different fetal and maternal symptoms. Streptococcus agalactiae present in the normal vaginal microflora of some women, favouring its abnormal multiplication during pregnancy, causing perinatal morbidity and mortality. Objective. Describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of the patients with diagnosis of clinical chorioanmionitis. Methodology. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. The population was patients with diagnosis of clinical chorioanmionitis. The information was taken from the medical records. The research was approved by the Ethics Committee. We used the program SPSS ® version 17.0 (SPSS Inc; Chicago, Illinois, USA) for the information analysis, descriptive statistics were used. Results. 78 patients in total with clinical chorioamnionitis, with a mean age of 26.3 ±5, 8 years old, the 69.2% primigravid women. 2.6% of women had positive culture for Streptococcus agalactiae in urine sample during current pregnancy and 30.7% had received some kind of antibiotics during current pregnancy. The 57.7% had 37 to 40 weeks of gestation in the current pregnancy it was calculated more frequently by ultrasound (66.7% in first quarter, 11.5% in the second and 1.9% in the third). In a 60.3% way of termination of pregnancy was vaginal and a 35.9 percent were caesarean section. Among the women in the study, a 30.8% had premature rupture of membranes. Conclusion. The chorioamnionitis continues to be an important cause of antibiotic use during pregnancy or labour and the decision to do a caesarean, with highest percentage in pregnancies-preterm and preterm premature rupture of membranes.

Keywords: chorioamnionitis, Streptococcus agalactiae, pregnancy complications, infectious

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151 Deployment of Beyond 4G Wireless Communication Networks with Carrier Aggregation

Authors: Bahram Khan, Anderson Rocha Ramos, Rui R. Paulo, Fernando J. Velez


With the growing demand for a new blend of applications, the users dependency on the internet is increasing day by day. Mobile internet users are giving more attention to their own experiences, especially in terms of communication reliability, high data rates and service stability on move. This increase in the demand is causing saturation of existing radio frequency bands. To address these challenges, researchers are investigating the best approaches, Carrier Aggregation (CA) is one of the newest innovations, which seems to fulfill the demands of the future spectrum, also CA is one the most important feature for Long Term Evolution - Advanced (LTE-Advanced). For this purpose to get the upcoming International Mobile Telecommunication Advanced (IMT-Advanced) mobile requirements (1 Gb/s peak data rate), the CA scheme is presented by 3GPP, which would sustain a high data rate using widespread frequency bandwidth up to 100 MHz. Technical issues such as aggregation structure, its implementations, deployment scenarios, control signal techniques, and challenges for CA technique in LTE-Advanced, with consideration of backward compatibility, are highlighted in this paper. Also, performance evaluation in macro-cellular scenarios through a simulation approach is presented, which shows the benefits of applying CA, low-complexity multi-band schedulers in service quality, system capacity enhancement and concluded that enhanced multi-band scheduler is less complex than the general multi-band scheduler, which performs better for a cell radius longer than 1800 m (and a PLR threshold of 2%).

Keywords: component carrier, carrier aggregation, LTE-advanced, scheduling

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150 Effects of Different Mechanical Treatments on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Turmeric

Authors: Serpa A. M., Gómez Hoyos C., Velásquez-Cock J. A., Ruiz L. F., Vélez Acosta L. M., Gañan P., Zuluaga R.


Turmeric (Curcuma Longa L) is an Indian rhizome known for its biological properties, derived from its active compounds such as curcuminoids. Curcumin, the main polyphenol in turmeric, only represents around 3.5% of the dehydrated rhizome and extraction yields between 41 and 90% have been reported. Therefore, for every 1000 tons of turmeric powder used for the extraction of curcumin, around 970 tons of residues are generated. The present study evaluates the effect of different mechanical treatments (waring blender, grinder and high-pressure homogenization) on the physical and chemical properties of turmeric, as an alternative for the transformation of the entire rhizome. Suspensions of turmeric (10, 20 y 30%) were processed by waring blender during 3 min at 12000 rpm, while the samples treated by grinder were processed evaluating two different Gaps (-1 and -1,5). Finally, the process by high-pressure homogenization, was carried out at 500 bar. According to the results, the luminosity of the samples increases with the severity of the mechanical treatment, due to the stabilization of the color associated with the inactivation of the oxidative enzymes. Additionally, according to the microstructure of the samples, the process by grinder (Gap -1,5) and by high-pressure homogenization allowed the largest size reduction, reaching sizes up to 3 m (measured by optical microscopy). This processes disrupts the cells and breaks their fragments into small suspended particles. The infrared spectra obtained from the samples using an attenuated total reflectance accessory indicates changes in the 800-1200 cm⁻¹ region, related mainly to changes in the starch structure. Finally, the thermogravimetric analysis shows the presence of starch, curcumin and some minerals in the suspensions.

Keywords: characterization, mechanical treatments, suspensions, turmeric rhizome

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149 Cost Benefit Analysis: Evaluation among the Millimetre Wavebands and SHF Bands of Small Cell 5G Networks

Authors: Emanuel Teixeira, Anderson Ramos, Marisa Lourenço, Fernando J. Velez, Jon M. Peha


This article discusses the benefit cost analysis aspects of millimetre wavebands (mmWaves) and Super High Frequency (SHF). The devaluation along the distance of the carrier-to-noise-plus-interference ratio with the coverage distance is assessed by considering two different path loss models, the two-slope urban micro Line-of-Sight (UMiLoS) for the SHF band and the modified Friis propagation model, for frequencies above 24 GHz. The equivalent supported throughput is estimated at the 5.62, 28, 38, 60 and 73 GHz frequency bands and the influence of carrier-to-noise-plus-interference ratio in the radio and network optimization process is explored. Mostly owing to the lessening caused by the behaviour of the two-slope propagation model for SHF band, the supported throughput at this band is higher than at the millimetre wavebands only for the longest cell lengths. The benefit cost analysis of these pico-cellular networks was analysed for regular cellular topologies, by considering the unlicensed spectrum. For shortest distances, we can distinguish an optimal of the revenue in percentage terms for values of the cell length, R ≈ 10 m for the millimeter wavebands and for longest distances an optimal of the revenue can be observed at R ≈ 550 m for the 5.62 GHz. It is possible to observe that, for the 5.62 GHz band, the profit is slightly inferior than for millimetre wavebands, for the shortest Rs, and starts to increase for cell lengths approximately equal to the ratio between the break-point distance and the co-channel reuse factor, achieving a maximum for values of R approximately equal to 550 m.

Keywords: millimetre wavebands, SHF band, SINR, cost benefit analysis, 5G

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148 Chromosomal Damage in Human Lymphocytes by Ultraviolet Radiation

Authors: Felipe Osorio Ospina, Maria Adelaida Mejia Arango, Esteban Onésimo Vallejo Agudelo, Victoria Lucía Dávila Osorio, Natalia Vargas Grisales, Lina María Martínez Sanchez, Camilo Andrés Agudelo Vélez, Ángela Maria Londoño García, Isabel Cristina Ortiz Trujillo


Excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation, has shown to be a risk factor for photodamage, alteration of the immune mechanisms to recognize malignant cells and cutaneous pro-inflamatorios States and skin cancers. Objective: Identify the time of exposure to ultraviolet radiation for the production of chromosomal damage in human lymphocytes. Methodology: We conducted an in vitro study serial, in which samples were taken from heparinized blood of healthy people, who do not submit exposure to agents that could induce chromosomal alterations. The samples were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum, penicillin and streptomycin antibiotic. Subsequently, they were grouped and exposed to ultraviolet light for 1 to 20 seconds. At the end of the treatments, cytology samples were prepared, and it was colored with Giemsa (5%). Reading was carried out in an optical microscope and 100 metaphases analysed by treatment for posting chromosomal alterations. Each treatment was conducted at three separate times and each became two replicas. Results: We only presented chromosomal alterations in lymphocytes exposed to UV for a groups 1 to 3 seconds (p<0.05). Conclusions: Exposure to ultraviolet radiation generates visible damage in chromosomes from human lymphocytes observed in light microscopy, the highest rates of injury was observed between two and three seconds, and above this value, the reduction in the number of mitotic cells was evident.

Keywords: ultraviolet rays, lymphocytes, chromosome breakpoints, photodamage

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147 Ultraviolet Radiation and Chromosomal Damage in Human Lymphocytes

Authors: Felipe Osorio Ospina, Maria Adelaida Mejia Arango, Esteban Onésimo Vallejo Agudelo, Victoria Lucía Dávila Osorio, Natalia Vargas Grisales, Lina María Martínez Sanchez, Camilo Andrés Agudelo Vélez, Ángela Maria Londoño García, Isabel Cristina Ortiz Trujillo


Excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation, has shown to be a risk factor for photodamage, alteration of the immune mechanisms to recognize malignant cells and cutaneous pro-inflamatorios states and skin cancers. Objective: To identify the time of exposure to ultraviolet radiation for the production of chromosomal damage in human lymphocytes. Methodology: We conducted an in vitro study serial, in which samples were taken from the heparinized blood of healthy people, who do not submit exposure to agents that could induce chromosomal alterations. The samples were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum, penicillin, and streptomycin antibiotic. Subsequently, they were grouped and exposed to ultraviolet light for 1 to 20 seconds. At the end of the treatments, cytology samples were prepared, and it was colored with Giemsa (5%). Reading was carried out in an optical microscope and 100 metaphases analysed by treatment for posting chromosomal alterations. Each treatment was conducted at three separate times and each became two replicas. Results: We only presented chromosomal alterations in lymphocytes exposed to UV for groups 1 to 3 seconds (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Exposure to ultraviolet radiation generates visible damage in chromosomes from human lymphocytes observed in light microscopy, the highest rates of injury was observed between two and three seconds, and above this value, the reduction in the number of mitotic cells was evident.

Keywords: chromosome breakpoints, lymphocytes, photodamage, ultraviolet rays

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146 Clinical and Epidemiological Profile of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in a Medical Institution from the City of Medellin, Colombia

Authors: Camilo Andres Agudelo-Velez, Lina María Martinez-Sanchez, Natalia Perilla-Hernandez, Maria De Los Angeles Rodriguez-Gazquez, Felipe Hernandez-Restrepo, Dayana Andrea Quintero-Moreno, Camilo Ruiz-Mejia, Isabel Cristina Ortiz-Trujillo, Monica Maria Zuluaga-Quintero


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is common condition, characterized by a persistent blockage of airflow, partially reversible and progressive, that represents 5% of total deaths around the world, and it is expected to become the third leading cause of death by 2030. Objective: To establish the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a medical institution from the city of Medellin, Colombia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed, with a sample of 50 patients with a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a private institution in Medellin, during 2015. The software SPSS vr. 20 was used for the statistical analysis. For the quantitative variables, averages, standard deviations, and maximun and minimun values were calculated, while for ordinal and nominal qualitative variables, proportions were estimated. Results: The average age was 73.5±9.3 years, 52% of the patients were women, 50% of them had retired, 46% ere married and 80% lived in the city of Medellín. The mean time of diagnosis was 7.8±1.3 years and 100% of the patients were treated at the internal medicine service. The most common clinical features were: 36% were classified as class D for the disease, 34% had a FEV1 <30%, 88% had a history of smoking and 52% had oxygen therapy at home. Conclusion: It was found that class D was the most common, and the majority of the patients had a history of smoking, indicating the need to strengthen promotion and prevention strategies in this regard.

Keywords: pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive, pulmonary medicine, oxygen inhalation therapy

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145 Migration Law in Republic of Panama

Authors: Ronel Solis, Leonardo Collado


Migration law in the Republic of Panama has been regulated mainly by the executive branch. This has created a crisis not only institutional but also social because the evolution of these norms has rested greatly from the discretion of the government in office. This has created instability in immigration regulation and more now, with the migration crisis of which Panama is also part. Different migration policies have been established. The most recent is that of the controlled migration flow, in which, for humanitarian reasons, migrants move from the border with Colombia to the border with Costa Rica. Unfortunately, such control is not enough, and in some cases, unprotected migrants have been confined for months, their passports have been withheld, and no recognition of their rights is offered. The Inter-American Court of Human Rights has condemned Panama for the unfair detention of an irregular migrant, who was detained for two years in Panamanian prisons, without having committed a crime and without accessing a just defense. This is the case Vélez Loor vs. the Republic of Panama. Uncontrollable migration has been putting pressure on Panamanian public health services. The recent denunciation of HIV-related NGOs that warns that there are hundreds of foreigners who receive expensive antiretroviral therapy in Panama is serious, and several of them are irregular migrants. On the other hand, there are no border control posts with the Republic of Colombia, because it is a jungle area and migrants are exposed to arms and drug trafficking, and unfortunately, also to prostitution. Government entities such as the border police service have provided humanitarian support to migrants on the border with Colombia, although it is not their administrative function, and various entities discuss who should address this crisis. However, few economic resources are allocated by the government to solve this problem, especially with the recent mass migration of Venezuelans who have fled their country. The establishment of a migratory normative code is necessary to establish uniformity in the recognition and application of migratory rights. In this way, dependence on the changing migration policies of the different Panamanian governments would be eliminated, and the rights of migrants and nationals would be guaranteed.

Keywords: executive branch, irregular migration, migration code, Republic of Panama

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144 Clinical and Epidemiological Profile in Patients with Preeclampsia in a Private Institution in Medellin, Colombia 2015

Authors: Camilo Andrés Agudelo Vélez, Lina María Martínez Sánchez, Isabel Cristina Ortiz Trujillo, Evert Armando Jiménez Cotes, Natalia Perilla Hernández, María de los Ángeles Rodríguez Gázquez, Daniel Duque Restrepo, Felipe Hernández Restrepo, Dayana Andrea Quintero Moreno, Juan José Builes Gómez, Camilo Ruiz Mejía, Ana Lucia Arango Gómez


Preeclampsia is a clinical complication during pregnancy with high incidence in Colombia; therefore, it is important to evaluate the influence of external conditions and medical interventions, in order to promote measures that encourage improvements in the quality of life. Objective: Determine clinical and sociodemographic variables in women with preeclampsia. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 50 patients with the diagnosis of preeclampsia, from a private institution in Medellin, during 2015. We used the software SPSS ver.20 for statistical analysis. For the qualitative variables, we calculated the mean and standard deviation, while, for ordinal and nominal levels of quantitative variables, ratios were estimated. Results: The average age was 26.8±5.9 years. The predominant characteristics were socioeconomic stratum 2 (48%), students (55%), mixed race (46%) and middle school as level of education (38%). As for clinical features, 72% of the cases were mild preeclampsia, and 22% were severe forms. The most common clinical manifestations were edema (46%), headache (62%), and proteinuria (55%). As for the Gyneco-obstetric history, 8% reported previous episodes of this disease and it was the first pregnancy for 60% of the patients. Conclusions: Preeclampsia is a frequent condition in young women; on the other hand, headache and edema were the most common reasons for consultation, therefore, doctors need to be aware of these symptoms in pregnant women.

Keywords: pre-eclampsia, hypertension, pregnancy complications, pregnancy, abdominal, edema

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143 Member States 'Perception of Threat' to Migration Crises as a Determinant Factor of Change in Cooperation: A Comparison between the Yugoslav Migration Crisis and the Syrian Refugees' Crisis

Authors: Diego Caballero Vélez


In 1997 the Schengen Convention was incorporated in the mainstream of EU law by the Amsterdam Treaty. It came into effect in 1999 with the abolition of internal border controls in the EU, a milestone in the European integration project. In the meantime, due to the Yugoslav wars, nearly 700,000 asylum applications were filed in the European countries provoking a major refugee crisis. During this period, the opening of Eastern Europe fostered more cooperation and policy-making at the EU level in migration issues. Currently, a similar migratory crisis is taking place in Europe. The Syrian war has caused the most massive influx of immigrants in Europe since World War II. Nevertheless, the EU is adopting different migration policies from those implemented during the Yugoslav migration crisis. The current crisis has not led to a common European position but national responses have been offered on migration policies and responsibility for border security and asylum-seekers. A lot of factors can explain this change from a cooperation scenario to a no cooperation one, such as the economic crisis, but this research is focused on the premise that 'threat perception' lies at the core of some states grand strategies towards migration and it also influences in multilateral or unilateral responses. Migration rests at the nexus of three dimensions of security, including geopolitical interests, material production, and internal security. According to some scholars, migration policy is an 'integral instrument' of state grand strategy in that context. Political integration at the EU might be altered with the emergence of existential threats. In other words, some areas of the European cooperation can be transformed when a 'critical juncture' occurs, for instance a migration crisis. In that instance, Member states could see migration as a matter of threat that modifies their national interests and willingness to embrace international cooperation. This research will focus on EU Member states´ perceptions of the 90´s migration crisis and the current one. The goal is to evaluate to what extent the perceptions of threat are one of the main factors for explaining the transition from a cooperation scenario to a no-cooperation one in European asylum and security policies. To analyze threat perception in both migration crisis, some relevant Member states are treated as cases of study and a comparative analysis is carried out based on public opinion polls, public and policy discourse in migration, voting practices and deconstruction of the migration policies themselves both at EU level and a national one.

Keywords: cooperation, migration crisis, national responses, threat perception

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142 Genetic Parameters as Indicators of Sustainability and Diversity of Schinus terebinthifolius Populations in the Riparian Area of the São Francisco River

Authors: Renata Silva-Mann, Sheila Valéria Álvares Carvalho, Robério Anastácio Ferreira, Laura Jane Gomes


There is growing interest in defining indicators of sustainability, which are important for monitoring the conservation of native forests, particularly in areas of permanent protection. These indicators are references for assessing the state of the forest and the status of the depredated area and its ability to maintain species populations. The aim of the present study was to select genetic parameters as indicators of sustainability for Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. Fragments located in riparian areas between the Sergipe and Alagoas States in Brazil. This species has been exploited for traditional communities, which represent 20% of the incoming. This study was carried out using the indicators suggested by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, which were identified as Driving-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) factors. The genetic parameters were obtained in five populations located on the shores and islands of the São Francisco River, one of the most important rivers in Brazil. The framework for Schinus conservation suggests seventeen indicators of sustainability. In accordance with genetic parameters, the populations are isolated, and these genetic parameters can be used to monitor the sustainability of those populations in riparian area with the aim of defining strategies for forest restoration.

Keywords: alleles, molecular markers, genetic diversity, biodiversity

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141 Early Modern Controversies of Mobility within the Spanish Empire: Francisco De Vitoria and the Peaceful Right to Travel

Authors: Beatriz Salamanca


In his public lecture ‘On the American Indians’ given at the University of Salamanca in 1538-39, Francisco de Vitoria presented an unsettling defense of freedom of movement, arguing that the Spanish had the right to travel and dwell in the New World, since it was considered part of the law of nations [ius gentium] that men enjoyed free mutual intercourse anywhere they went. The principle of freedom of movement brought hopeful expectations, promising to bring mankind together and strengthen the ties of fraternity. However, it led to polemical situations when those whose mobility was in question represented a harmful threat or was for some reason undesired. In this context, Vitoria’s argument has been seen on multiple occasions as a justification of the expansion of the Spanish empire. In order to examine the meaning of Vitoria’s defense of free mobility, a more detailed look at Vitoria’s text is required, together with the study of some of his earliest works, among them, his commentaries on Thomas Aquinas’s Summa Theologiae, where he presented relevant insights on the idea of the law of nations. In addition, it is necessary to place Vitoria’s work in the context of the intellectual tradition he belonged to and the responses he obtained from some of his contemporaries who were concerned with similar issues. The claim of this research is that the Spanish right to travel advocated by Vitoria was not intended to be interpreted in absolute terms, for it had to serve the purpose of bringing peace and unity among men, and could not contradict natural law. In addition, Vitoria explicitly observed that the right to travel was only valid if the Spaniards caused no harm, a condition that has been underestimated by his critics. Therefore, Vitoria’s legacy is of enormous value as it initiated a long lasting discussion regarding the question of the grounds under which human mobility could be restricted. Again, under Vitoria’s argument it was clear that this freedom was not absolute, but the controversial nature of his defense of Spanish mobility demonstrates how difficult it was and still is to address the issue of the circulation of peoples across frontiers, and shows the significance of this discussion in today’s globalized world, where the rights and wrongs of notions like immigration, international trade or foreign intervention still lack sufficient consensus. This inquiry about Vitoria’s defense of the principle of freedom of movement is being placed here against the background of the history of political thought, political theory, international law, and international relations, following the methodological framework of contextual history of the ‘Cambridge School’.

Keywords: Francisco de Vitoria, freedom of movement, law of nations, ius gentium, Spanish empire

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140 Degradation of Amitriptyline Hydrochloride, Methyl Salicylate and 2-Phenoxyethanol in Water Systems by the Combination UV/Cl2

Authors: F. Javier Benitez, Francisco J. Real, Juan Luis Acero, Francisco Casas


Three emerging contaminants (amitriptyline hydrochloride, methyl salicylate and 2-phenoxyethanol) frequently found in waste-waters were selected to be individually degraded in ultra-pure water by the combined advanced oxidation process constituted by UV radiation and chlorine. The influence of pH, initial chlorine concentration and nature of the contaminants was firstly explored. The trend for the reactivity of the selected compounds was deduced: amitriptyline hydrochloride > methyl salicylate > 2-phenoxyethanol. A later kinetic study was carried out and focused on the specific evaluation of the first-order rate constants and the determination of the partial contribution to the global reaction of the direct photochemical pathway and the radical pathway. A comparison between the rate constant values among photochemical experiments without and with the presence of Cl2 reveals a clear increase in the oxidation efficiency of the combined process with respect to the photochemical reaction alone. In a second stage, the simultaneous oxidation of mixtures of the selected contaminants in several types of water (ultrapure water, surface water from a reservoir, and two secondary effluents) was also performed by the same combination UV/Cl2 under more realistic operating conditions. The efficiency of this combined system UV/Cl2 was compared to other oxidants such as the UV/S2O82- and UV/H2O2 AOPs. Results confirmed that the UV/Cl2 system provides higher elimination efficiencies among the AOPs tested.

Keywords: emerging contaminants, UV/chlorine advanced oxidation process, amitriptyline, methyl salicylate, 2-phenoxyethanol, chlorination, photolysis

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139 Role of Different Land Use Types on Ecosystem Services Provision in Moribane Forest Reserve - Mozambique

Authors: Francisco Domingos Francisco


Tropical forests are key providers of many Ecosystem Services (ES), contributing to human wellbeing on a global and local scale. Communities around and within Moribane Forest Reserve (MFR), Manica Province - Mozambique, benefit from ES through the exploitation of non-wood and wood forest products. The objective was to assess the provisioning capacity of the MFR in woody forest products in species and profiles of interest to local communities in the main sources of extraction. Social data relating to the basic needs of local communities for these products were captured through an exploratory study before this one. From that study, it became known about the most collected wood species, the sources of collection, and their availability in the profiles of greatest interest to them. A field survey through 39 rectangular 50mx20m plots was conducted with 13 plots established in each of the three land-use types (LUT), namely Restricted Forest, Unrestricted Forest, and Disturbed areas. The results show that 89 species were identified, of which 28 (31.4%) are assumed to be the most used by the communities. The number of species of local interest does not vary across the LUT (p>0.05). The most used species (MUS) is distributed in 82% in Restricted Forest, 75% in Unrestricted, and also 75% in Disturbed. Most individuals of both general and MUS found in Unrestricted Forest, and Degraded areas have lower end profiles (5-7 cm), representing 0.77 and 0.26%, respectively. The profile of individuals of species of local interest varies by LUT (p<0.05), and their greatest proportion (0.51%) outside the lower end is found in Restricted Forest. There were no similarities between the LUT for the species in general (JCI <0.5) but between the MUS (JCI >0.5). Conclusion, the areas authorized for the exploitation of wood forest products in the MFR tend to reduce their ability to provide local communities with forest products in species and profiles of their interest. This reduction item is a serious threat to the biodiversity of the Restricted Forest. The study can help the academic community in future studies by replicating the methodology used for monitoring purposes or conducting studies in other similar areas, and the results may support decision-makers in designing better strategies for sustainability.

Keywords: ecosystem services, land-use types, local communities, species profile, wellbeing, wood forest product

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138 San Francisco Public Utilities Commission Headquarters "The Greenest Urban Building in the United States"

Authors: Charu Sharma


San Francisco Public Utilities Commission’s Headquarters was listed in the 2013-American Institute of Architects Committee of the Environment (AIA COTE) Top Ten Green Projects. This 13-story, 277,000-square-foot building, housing more than 900 of the agency’s employees was completed in June 2012. It was designed to achieve LEED Platinum Certification and boasts a plethora of green features to significantly reduce the use of energy and water consumption, and provide a healthy office work environment with high interior air quality and natural daylight. Key sustainability features include on-site clean energy generation through renewable photovoltaic and wind sources providing $118 million in energy cost savings over 75 years; 45 percent daylight harvesting; and the consumption of 55 percent less energy and a 32 percent less electricity demand from the main power grid. It uses 60 percent less water usage than an average 13-story office building as most of that water will be recycled for non-potable uses at the site, running through a system of underground tanks and artificial wetlands that cleans and clarifies whatever is flushed down toilets or washed down drains. This is one of the first buildings in the nation with treatment of gray and black water. The building utilizes an innovative structural system with post tensioned cores that will provide the highest asset preservation for the building. In addition, the building uses a “green” concrete mixture that releases less carbon gases. As a public utility commission this building has set a good example for resource conservation-the building is expected to be cheaper to operate and maintain as time goes on and will have saved rate-payers $500 million in energy and water savings. Within the anticipated 100-year lifespan of the building, our ratepayers will save approximately $3.7 billion through the combination of rental savings, energy efficiencies, and asset ownership.

Keywords: energy efficiency, sustainability, resource conservation, asset ownership, rental savings

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
137 A Model for Operating Rooms Scheduling

Authors: Jose Francisco Ferreira Ribeiro, Alexandre Bevilacqua Leoneti, Andre Lucirton Costa


This paper presents a mathematical model in binary variables 0/1 to make the assignment of surgical procedures to the operating rooms in a hospital. The proposed mathematical model is based on the generalized assignment problem, which maximizes the sum of preferences for the use of the operating rooms by doctors, respecting the time available in each room. The corresponding program was written in Visual Basic of Microsoft Excel, and tested to schedule surgeries at St. Lydia Hospital in Ribeirao Preto, Brazil.

Keywords: generalized assignment problem, logistics, optimization, scheduling

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
136 PWM Harmonic Injection and Frequency-Modulated Triangular Carrier to Improve the Lives of the Transformers

Authors: Mario J. Meco-Gutierrez, Francisco Perez-Hidalgo, Juan R. Heredia-Larrubia, Antonio Ruiz-Gonzalez, Francisco Vargas-Merino


More and more applications power inverters connected to transformers, for example, the connection facilities to the power grid renewable generation. It is well known that the quality of signal power inverters it is not a pure sine. The harmonic content produced negative effects, one of which is the heating of electrical machines and therefore, affects the life of the machines. The decrease of life of transformers can be calculated by Arrhenius or Montsinger equation. Analyzing this expression any (long-term) decrease of a transformer temperature for 6º C - 7º C means doubles its life-expectancy. Methodologies: This work presents the technique of pulse width modulation (PWM) with an injection of harmonic and triangular frequency carrier modulated in frequency. This technique is used to improve the quality of the output voltage signal of the power inverters controlled PWM. The proposed technique increases in the fundamental term and a significant reduction in low order harmonics with the same commutations per time that control sine PWM. To achieve this, the modulating wave is compared to a triangular carrier with variable frequency over the period of the modulator. Therefore, it is, advantageous for the modulating signal to have a large amount of sinusoidal “information” in the areas of greater sampling. A triangular signal with a frequency that varies over the modulator’s period is used as a carrier, for obtaining more samples in the area with the greatest slope. A power inverter controlled by PWM proposed technique is connected to a transformer. Results: In order to verify the derived thermal parameters under different operation conditions, another ambient and loading scenario is involved for a further verification, which was sampled from the same power transformer. Temperatures of different parts of the transformer will be exposed for each PWM control technique analyzed. An assessment of the temperature be done with different techniques PWM control and hence the life of the transformer is calculated for each technique. Conclusion: This paper analyzes such as transformer heating produced by this technique and compared with other forms of PWM control. In it can be seen as a reduction the harmonic content produces less heat transformer and therefore, an increase in the life of the transformer.

Keywords: heating, power-inverter, PWM, transformer

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
135 Design of a New Vegetable Snack

Authors: Patricia Calvo, Francisco M. Sánchez, María J. Rodríguez


Nowadays, food intake is becoming more irregular due to changes in family organization and lifestyle. Snacking is part of the day-to-day lives of people, however, most of the snacks have a high saturated fat, salt and refined sugar content; these dietary factors are believed to have negative health consequences. For this reason, there has been an increase in consumer demand for healthy, natural and convenient foods, so the development of a significant portion of new products focuses on improving the nutritional value of food snacks through modification its nutritional composition. In this paper, a new product made from vegetables has been designed. This new product would be an ideal food format to include ingredients with positive health benefits.

Keywords: healthy, pepper, dried, carotenes, polyphenols

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134 DEMs: A Multivariate Comparison Approach

Authors: Juan Francisco Reinoso Gordo, Francisco Javier Ariza-López, José Rodríguez Avi, Domingo Barrera Rosillo


The evaluation of the quality of a data product is based on the comparison of the product with a reference of greater accuracy. In the case of MDE data products, quality assessment usually focuses on positional accuracy and few studies consider other terrain characteristics, such as slope and orientation. The proposal that is made consists of evaluating the similarity of two DEMs (a product and a reference), through the joint analysis of the distribution functions of the variables of interest, for example, elevations, slopes and orientations. This is a multivariable approach that focuses on distribution functions, not on single parameters such as mean values or dispersions (e.g. root mean squared error or variance). This is considered to be a more holistic approach. The use of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test is proposed due to its non-parametric nature, since the distributions of the variables of interest cannot always be adequately modeled by parametric models (e.g. the Normal distribution model). In addition, its application to the multivariate case is carried out jointly by means of a single test on the convolution of the distribution functions of the variables considered, which avoids the use of corrections such as Bonferroni when several statistics hypothesis tests are carried out together. In this work, two DEM products have been considered, DEM02 with a resolution of 2x2 meters and DEM05 with a resolution of 5x5 meters, both generated by the National Geographic Institute of Spain. DEM02 is considered as the reference and DEM05 as the product to be evaluated. In addition, the slope and aspect derived models have been calculated by GIS operations on the two DEM datasets. Through sample simulation processes, the adequate behavior of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical test has been verified when the null hypothesis is true, which allows calibrating the value of the statistic for the desired significance value (e.g. 5%). Once the process has been calibrated, the same process can be applied to compare the similarity of different DEM data sets (e.g. the DEM05 versus the DEM02). In summary, an innovative alternative for the comparison of DEM data sets based on a multinomial non-parametric perspective has been proposed by means of a single Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. This new approach could be extended to other DEM features of interest (e.g. curvature, etc.) and to more than three variables

Keywords: data quality, DEM, kolmogorov-smirnov test, multivariate DEM comparison

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133 The Effect of Outliers on the Economic and Social Survey on Income and Living Conditions

Authors: Encarnación Álvarez, Rosa M. García-Fernández, Francisco J. Blanco-Encomienda, Juan F. Muñoz


The European Union Survey on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) is a popular survey which provides information on income, poverty, social exclusion and living conditions of households and individuals in the European Union. The EUSILC contains variables which may contain outliers. The presence of outliers can have an impact on the measures and indicators used by the EU-SILC. In this paper, we used data sets from various countries to analyze the presence of outliers. In addition, we obtain some indicators after removing these outliers, and a comparison between both situations can be observed. Finally, some conclusions are obtained.

Keywords: poverty line, headcount index, risk of poverty, skewness coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
132 Port Governance in Santos, Brazil: A Qualitative Approach

Authors: Guilherme B. B. Vieira, Rafael M. da Silva, Eliana T. P. Senna, Luiz A. S. Senna, Francisco J. Kliemann Neto


Given the importance of ports as links in the global supply chains and because they are key elements to induce competitiveness in their hinterlands, the number of studies devoted to port governance, management and operations has increased in the last decades. Some of these studies address the port governance model as an element to improve coordination among the actors of the port logistics chain and to generate a better port performance. In this context, the present study analyzes the governance of Port of Santos through individual interviews with port managers, based on a conceptual model that considers the key dimensions associated with port governance. The results reinforce the usefulness of the applied model and highlight some existing improvement opportunities in the port studied.

Keywords: port governance, model, Port of Santos, managers’ perception

Procedia PDF Downloads 426