Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: Bhargavi G. Iyer

23 The Convention of Culture: A Comprehensive Study on Dispute Resolution Pertaining to Heritage and Related Issues

Authors: Bhargavi G. Iyer, Ojaswi Bhagat

Abstract:

In recent years, there has been a lot of discussion about ethnic imbalance and diversity in the international context. Arbitration is now subject to the hegemony of a small number of people who are constantly reappointed. When a court system becomes exclusionary, the quality of adjudication suffers significantly. In such a framework, there is a misalignment between adjudicators' preconceived views and the interests of the parties, resulting in a biased view of the proceedings. The world is currently witnessing a slew of intellectual property battles around cultural appropriation. The term "cultural appropriation" refers to the industrial west's theft of indigenous culture, usually for fashion, aesthetic, or dramatic purposes. Selena Gomez exemplifies cultural appropriation by commercially using the “bindi,” which is sacred to Hinduism, as a fashion symbol. In another case, Victoria's Secret insulted indigenous peoples' genocide by stealing native Indian headdresses. In the case of yoga, a similar process can be witnessed, with Vedic philosophy being reduced to a type of physical practice. Such a viewpoint is problematic since indigenous groups have worked hard for generations to ensure the survival of their culture, and its appropriation by the western world for purely aesthetic and theatrical purposes is upsetting to those who practise such cultures. Because such conflicts involve numerous jurisdictions, they must be resolved through international arbitration. However, these conflicts are already being litigated, and the aggrieved parties, namely developing nations, do not believe it prudent to use the World Intellectual Property Organization's (WIPO) already established arbitration procedure. This practise, it is suggested in this study, is the outcome of Europe's exclusionary arbitral system, which fails to recognise the non-legal and non-commercial nature of indigenous culture issues. This research paper proposes a more comprehensive, inclusive approach that recognises the non-legal and non-commercial aspects of IP disputes involving cultural appropriation, which can only be achieved through an ethnically balanced arbitration structure. This paper also aspires to expound upon the benefits of arbitration and other means of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) in the context of disputes pertaining to cultural issues; positing that inclusivity is a solution to the existing discord between international practices and localised cultural points of dispute. This paper also hopes to explicate measures that will facilitate ensuring inclusion and ideal practices in the domain of arbitration law, particularly pertaining to cultural heritage and indigenous expression.

Keywords: arbitration law, cultural appropriation, dispute resolution, heritage, intellectual property

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22 Collaborative Team Work in Higher Education: A Case Study

Authors: Swapna Bhargavi Gantasala

Abstract:

If teamwork is the key to organizational learning, productivity, and growth, then, why do some teams succeed in achieving these, while others falter at different stages? Building teams in higher education institutions has been a challenge and an open-ended constructivist approach was considered on an experimental basis for this study to address this challenge. For this research, teams of students from the MBA program were chosen to study the effect of teamwork in learning, the motivation levels among student team members, and the effect of collaboration in achieving team goals. The teams were built on shared vision and goals, cohesion was ensured, positive induction in the form of faculty mentoring was provided for each participating team and the results have been presented with conclusions and suggestions.

Keywords: teamwork, leadership, motivation and reinforcement, collaboration

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21 Novel Aspects of Merger Control Pertaining to Nascent Acquisition: An Analytical Legal Research

Authors: Bhargavi G. Iyer, Ojaswi Bhagat

Abstract:

It is often noted that the value of a novel idea lies in its successful implementation. However, successful implementation requires the nurturing and encouragement of innovation. Nascent competitors are a true representation of innovation in any given industry. A nascent competitor is an entity whose prospective innovation poses a future threat to an incumbent dominant competitor. While a nascent competitor benefits in several ways, it is also exposed significantly and is at greater risk of facing the brunt of exclusionary practises and abusive conduct by dominant incumbent competitors in the industry. This research paper aims to explore the risks and threats faced by nascent competitors and analyse the benefits they accrue as well as the advantages they proffer to the economy; through an analytical, critical study. In such competitive market environments, a rise of the acquisitions of nascent competitors by the incumbent dominants is observed. Therefore, this paper will examine the dynamics of nascent acquisition. Further, this paper hopes to specifically delve into the role of antitrust bodies in regulating nascent acquisition. This paper also aspires to deal with the question how to distinguish harmful from harmless acquisitions in order to facilitate ideal enforcement practice. This paper proposes mechanisms of scrutiny in order to ensure healthy market practises and efficient merger control in the context of nascent acquisitions. Taking into account the scope and nature of the topic, as well as the resources available and accessible, a combination of the methods of doctrinal research and analytical research were employed, utilising secondary sources in order to assess and analyse the subject of research. While legally evaluating the Killer Acquisition theory and the Nascent Potential Acquisition theory, this paper seeks to critically survey the precedents and instances of nascent acquisitions. In addition to affording a compendious account of the legislative framework and regulatory mechanisms in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the European Union; it hopes to suggest an internationally practicable legal foundation for domestic legislation and enforcement to adopt. This paper hopes to appreciate the complexities and uncertainties with respect to nascent acquisitions and attempts to suggest viable and plausible policy measures in antitrust law. It additionally attempts to examine the effects of such nascent acquisitions upon the consumer and the market economy. This paper weighs the argument of shifting the evidentiary burden on to the merging parties in order to improve merger control and regulation and expounds on its discovery of the strengths and weaknesses of the approach. It is posited that an effective combination of factual, legal, and economic analysis of both the acquired and acquiring companies possesses the potential to improve ex post and ex ante merger review outcomes involving nascent companies; thus, preventing anti-competitive practises. This paper concludes with an analysis of the possibility and feasibility of industry-specific identification of anti-competitive nascent acquisitions and implementation of measures accordingly.

Keywords: acquisition, antitrust law, exclusionary practises merger control, nascent competitor

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20 A Hardware-in-the-loop Simulation for the Development of Advanced Control System Design for a Spinal Joint Wear Simulator

Authors: Kaushikk Iyer, Richard M Hall, David Keeling

Abstract:

Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation is an advanced technique for developing and testing complex real-time control systems. This paper presents the benefits of HIL simulation and how it can be implemented and used effectively to develop, test, and validate advanced control algorithms used in a spinal joint Wear simulator for the Tribological testing of spinal disc prostheses. spinal wear simulator is technologically the most advanced machine currently employed For the in-vitro testing of newly developed spinal Discimplants. However, the existing control techniques, such as a simple position control Does not allow the simulator to test non-sinusoidal waveforms. Thus, there is a need for better and advanced control methods that can be developed and tested Rigorouslybut safely before deploying it into the real simulator. A benchtop HILsetupis was created for experimentation, controller verification, and validation purposes, allowing different control strategies to be tested rapidly in a safe environment. The HIL simulation aspect in this setup attempts to replicate similar spinal motion and loading conditions. The spinal joint wear simulator containsa four-Barlinkpowered by electromechanical actuators. LabVIEW software is used to design a kinematic model of the spinal wear Simulator to Validatehow each link contributes towards the final motion of the implant under test. As a result, the implant articulates with an angular motion specified in the international standards, ISO-18192-1, that define fixed, simplified, and sinusoid motion and load profiles for wear testing of cervical disc implants. Using a PID controller, a velocity-based position control algorithm was developed to interface with the benchtop setup that performs HIL simulation. In addition to PID, a fuzzy logic controller (FLC) was also developed that acts as a supervisory controller. FLC provides intelligence to the PID controller by By automatically tuning the controller for profiles that vary in amplitude, shape, and frequency. This combination of the fuzzy-PID controller is novel to the wear testing application for spinal simulators and demonstrated superior performance against PIDwhen tested for a spectrum of frequency. Kaushikk Iyer is a Ph.D. Student at the University of Leeds and an employee at Key Engineering Solutions, Leeds, United Kingdom, (e-mail: [email protected], phone: +44 740 541 5502). Richard M Hall is with the University of Leeds, the United Kingdom as a professor in the Mechanical Engineering Department (e-mail: [email protected]). David Keeling is the managing director of Key Engineering Solutions, Leeds, United Kingdom (e-mail: [email protected]). Results obtained are successfully validated against the load and motion tolerances specified by the ISO18192-1 standard and fall within limits, that is, ±0.5° at the maxima and minima of the motion and ±2 % of the complete cycle for phasing. The simulation results prove the efficacy of the test setup using HIL simulation to verify and validate the accuracy and robustness of the prospective controller before its deployment into the spinal wear simulator. This method of testing controllers enables a wide range of possibilities to test advanced control algorithms that can potentially test even profiles of patients performing various dailyliving activities.

Keywords: Fuzzy-PID controller, hardware-in-the-loop (HIL), real-time simulation, spinal wear simulator

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19 Effect of Viscous Dissipation and Axial Conduction in Thermally Developing Region of the Channel Partially Filled with a Porous Material Subjected to Constant Wall Heat Flux

Authors: D Bhargavi, J. Sharath Kumar Reddy

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The present investigation has been undertaken to assess the effect of viscous dissipation and axial conduction on forced convection heat transfer in the entrance region of a parallel plate channel with the porous insert attached to both walls of the channel. The flow field is unidirectional. Flow in the porous region corresponds to Darcy-Brinkman model and the clear fluid region to that of plane Poiseuille flow. The effects of the parameters Darcy number, Da, Peclet number, Pe, Brinkman number, Br and a porous fraction γp on the local heat transfer coefficient are analyzed graphically. Effects of viscous dissipation employing the Darcy model and the clear fluid compatible model have been studied.

Keywords: porous material, channel partially filled with a porous material, axial conduction, viscous dissipation

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18 Employability Skills: The Route to Achieve Demographic Dividend in India

Authors: Malathi Iyer, Jayesh Vaidya

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The demographic dividend of India will last for thirty years from now. However, reduction in birth rate, an increase in working population, improvements in medicine and better health practices lead to an ever-expanding elderly population, bringing additional burden to the economy and putting an end to the demographic dividend. To reap the dividend India needs to train the youth for employability. The need of the hour is to improve their life skills which lead the youth to become industrious and have continuous employment. The study will be conducted in perceiving the skill gaps that exist in commerce students for employability. The analysis results indicate the relation between the core study and the right skills for the workforce, with the steps that are taken to open the window for the demographic dividend.

Keywords: demographic dividend, life skills, employability, workforce

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17 Evaluation of Anticancer and Antioxidant Activity of Purified Lovastatin from Aspergillus terreus (KM017963)

Authors: Bhargavi Santebennur Dwarakanath, Praveen Vadakke Kamath, Savitha Janakiraman

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Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality in women and is the second most common malignancy worldwide. Lovastatin, a non polar, anticholesterol drug which also exerts antitumour activity in vitro. In the present study, lovastatin from Aspergillus terreus (KM017963) was purified by adsoprtion chromatography and evaluated for its anticancer and anti-oxidant properties in human cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa). The growth inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of purified lovastatin on HeLa cell lines were investigated by determining its influence on cytotoxicity, Mitochondrial Membrane Potential (MMP), DNA fragmentation and antioxidant property (Hydroxy radical scavenging effect and the levels of total reduced glutathione). Flow cytometry analysis by propidium iodide staining confirmed the induction of apoptotic cell death and revealed cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. Results of the study give leads for anticancer effects of lovastatin and its potential efficacy in the chemotherapy of cervical cancer.

Keywords: apoptosis, Aspergillus terreus, cervical cancer, lovastatin

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16 A Comparative Study of Approaches in User-Centred Health Information Retrieval

Authors: Harsh Thakkar, Ganesh Iyer

Abstract:

In this paper, we survey various user-centered or context-based biomedical health information retrieval systems. We present and discuss the performance of systems submitted in CLEF eHealth 2014 Task 3 for this purpose. We classify and focus on comparing the two most prevalent retrieval models in biomedical information retrieval namely: Language Model (LM) and Vector Space Model (VSM). We also report on the effectiveness of using external medical resources and ontologies like MeSH, Metamap, UMLS, etc. We observed that the LM based retrieval systems outperform VSM based systems on various fronts. From the results we conclude that the state-of-art system scores for MAP was 0.4146, [email protected] was 0.7560 and [email protected] was 0.7445, respectively. All of these score were reported by systems built on language modeling approaches.

Keywords: clinical document retrieval, concept-based information retrieval, query expansion, language models, vector space models

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15 Maximizing the Output of Solar Photovoltaic System

Authors: Vipresh Mehta , Aman Abhishek, Jatin Batra, Gautam Iyer

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Huge amount of solar radiation reaching the earth can be harnessed to provide electricity through Photo voltaic (PV) panels. The solar PV is an exciting technology but suffers from low efficiency. A study on low efficiency in multi MW solar power plants reveals that the electric yield of the PV modules is reduced due to reflection of the irradiation from the sun and when a module’s temperature is elevated, as there is decrease in the voltage and efficiency. We intend to alter the structure of the PV system, We also intend to improve the efficiency of the Solar Photo Voltaic Panels by active cooling to reduce the temperature losses considerably and decrease reflection losses to some extent. Reflectors/concentrators and anti-reflecting coatings are also used to intensify the amount of output produced from the system. Apart from this, transformer-less Grid-tied Inverter. And also, a T-LCL immitance circuit is used to reduce the harmonics and produce a constant output from the entire system.

Keywords: PV panels, efficiency improvement, active cooling, quantum dots, organic-inorganic hybrid 3D panel, ground water tunneling

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14 Management of Coronary Heart Disease through Yoga

Authors: Subramaniam Iyer

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The most common disease that is pertaining to all human beings is heart-related. The reasons for coronary artery disease are due to lifestyle and eating habits. Due to this, many people mentally become sick, feeling that soon they will die due to their heart problems. This results in stress and anxiety, which has become common amongst all the Indians. Medicines are the commonest curative remedy in India, but it is proposed through this article some remedies through yoga. This article does not guarantee a 100% result, but it is a preventive remedy for coronary artery disease. Yoga is giving a new lease of life to many, so to tackle chronic diseases, it provides remedies that will be lifelong. It is brought to many people by Patanjali. Yoga will provide support to patients having coronary artery disease through its various relevant postures (asanas), which can be done very easily. Yoga does not send a message that if you do it regularly, you will be relieved from a particular disease. If it is performed every day, it will add vital energy for a smooth life, even if you are suffering from any chronic disease. In this article, we will be providing 6 postures (asanas), which can be performed at any time in the day, but the early morning will always be preferred (empty stomach) to get a good result. Secondly, these postures must be implemented after due consultation with your physician. If your physician disapproves, don’t do these postures as it will be harmful to your body.

Keywords: coronary artery, yoga, disease, remedy, medicine

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13 Analysing Implementation of Best Practices in Construction Contracts for Dispute Avoidance

Authors: K. C. Iyer, Yogita Manan Bindal, Sumit Kumar Bakshi

Abstract:

Disputes and litigation are becoming inherent to the construction industry in India, and despite construction being one of the major drivers of growth, there have not been many reforms in the government construction contracts. Many of the disputes arising from the government contracts, can be avoided by the proper drafting of contracts and their administration. This study aims to 1) identify the best practices in the construction contract as reviewed from the research papers and additional literature on contract management, 2) obtain perspectives from the industry experts on the implementation of these best practices with regards to likely challenges and relative benefits for implementing the best practices in construction contracts. The best practices for disputes arising due to delay events have been identified through extensive literature survey. The industry perspective is gathered by way of a questionnaire survey to understand the applicability of the identified best practices, the benefits that are likely to be obtained and the challenges that are likely to be faced in the implementation of these practices. The study concludes with the recommended best practices that can be implemented based on the perspectives obtained from the survey. The findings of the study can be used by the industry professionals while drafting construction contracts with a view to avoid disputes related to delay events.

Keywords: best practices, construction contract, delay, dispute avoidance

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12 The Potential Use of Flavin Mononucleotide for Photoluminescent and Bioluminescent Textile

Authors: Sweta Iyer, Nemeshwaree Behary, Jinping Guan, Guoqiang Chen, Vincent Nierstrasz

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Flavin mononucleotide widely known as 'FMN' is a biobased resource derived from riboflavin. The isoalloxazine ring present in the FMN molecule attributes the photoluminescence phenomenon, whereas FMN molecule in the presence of bacterial luciferase enzyme and co-factors such as NADH, long chain aldehyde leads to bioluminescence reaction. In this study, the FMN molecule was treated on cellulosic textile using chromojet technique and the photoluminescence property was characterized using spectroscopy technique. Further, the FMN was used as a substrate along with enzymes and co-factors to treat the non-woven textile, and the bioluminescence property was explored using luminometer equipment. The investigation revealed photoluminescence property on cellulosic textile, and the emission peak was observed at a wavelength around 530 nm with an average corrected spectral intensity of 10×106 CPS/Microamps. In addition, the measurement of nonwoven textile using bioluminescence reaction system exhibited light intensity measured in the form of relative light units (RLU). The study enabled to explore the use of FMN as both photoluminescent and bioluminescent textile. Further investigation would require for stability study of the same to provide an eco-efficient approach to obtain luminescent textile.

Keywords: flavin mononucleotide, photoluminescence, bioluminescence, luminescent textile

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11 Biomimetic Luminescent Textile Using Biobased Products

Authors: Sweta Iyer, Nemeshwaree Behary, Vincent Nierstrasz

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Various organisms involve bioluminescence for their particular biological function. The bio-based molecules responsible for bioluminescence vary from one species to another, research has been done to identify the chemistry and different mechanisms involved in light production in living organisms. The light emitting chemical systems such as firefly and bacterial luminous mostly involves enzyme-catalyzed reactions and is widely used for ATP measurement, bioluminescence imaging, environmental biosensors etc. Our strategy is to design bioluminescent textiles using such bioluminescent systems. Hence, a detailed literature work was carried out to study on how to mimic bioluminescence effect seen in nature. Reaction mechanisms in various bioluminescent living organisms were studied and the components or molecules responsible for luminescence were identified. However, the challenge is to obtain the same effect on textiles by immobilizing enzymes responsible for light creation. Another challenge is also to regenerate substrates involved in the reaction system to create a longer lasting illumination in bioluminescent textiles. Natural film-forming polymers were used to immobilize the reactive components including enzymes on textile materials to design a biomimetic luminescent textile.

Keywords: bioluminescence, biomimetic, immobilize, luminescent textile

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10 One-Step Time Series Predictions with Recurrent Neural Networks

Authors: Vaidehi Iyer, Konstantin Borozdin

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Time series prediction problems have many important practical applications, but are notoriously difficult for statistical modeling. Recently, machine learning methods have been attracted significant interest as a practical tool applied to a variety of problems, even though developments in this field tend to be semi-empirical. This paper explores application of Long Short Term Memory based Recurrent Neural Networks to the one-step prediction of time series for both trend and stochastic components. Two types of data are analyzed - daily stock prices, that are often considered to be a typical example of a random walk, - and weather patterns dominated by seasonal variations. Results from both analyses are compared, and reinforced learning framework is used to select more efficient between Recurrent Neural Networks and more traditional auto regression methods. It is shown that both methods are able to follow long-term trends and seasonal variations closely, but have difficulties with reproducing day-to-day variability. Future research directions and potential real world applications are briefly discussed.

Keywords: long short term memory, prediction methods, recurrent neural networks, reinforcement learning

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9 Identifying Reforms Required in Construction Contracts from Resolved Disputed Cases

Authors: K. C. Iyer, Yogita Manan Bindal, Sumit Kumar Bakshi

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The construction industry is plagued with disputes and litigation in India with many stalled projects seeking dispute resolution. This has an adverse effect on the performance and overall project delivery and impacts future investments within the industry. While construction industry is the major driver of growth, there has not been major reforms in the government construction contracts. The study is aimed at identifying the proactive means of dispute avoidance, focusing on reforms required within the construction contracts, by studying 49 arbitration awards of construction disputes. The claims presented in the awards are aggregated to study the causes linked to the contract document and are referred against the prospective recommendation and practices as surveyed from literature review of research papers. Within contract administration, record keeping has been a major concern as they are required by the parties to substantiate the claims or the counterclaims and therefore are essential in any dispute redressal process. The study also observes that the right judgment is inhibited when the record keeping is improper and due to lack of coherence between documents, the dispute resolution period is also prolonged. The finding of the research will be relevant to industry practitioners in contract drafting with a view to avoid disputes.

Keywords: construction contract, contract administration, contract management, dispute avoidance

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8 An Audit on Optimum Utilisation of Preoperative Clinic

Authors: Vidya Iyer, Suresh Babu Loganathan, Yuan Hwa Lee, Kwong Fah Koh

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Introduction: It has been recommended that every patient undergoes careful preoperative evaluation in a preoperative clinic to improve theatre utilization, reduce bed occupancy and avoid unnecessary cancellation due to inadequate optimisation, communication and administrative errors. It also gives an opportunity to counsel patients regarding different aspects of anaesthesia. Methodology: A retrospective audit of all the patients seen in preoperative assessment clinic, referral letters of all the patients postponed / referred to other sub specialities in the perioperative period from June 2012 - June 2013 was done. In our clinic, we retrieved patient records who were awaiting surgery pending clearance by other sub specialities. Those patients, who could continue with their scheduled date of surgery after having been referred, were not included in the file. We also studied details of same day cancellations from the data base, during the same study period. The reasons for cancellation were examined and defined as avoidable and unavoidable. Results: Less than 0.5% was postponed from the scheduled day of surgery. Less than 0.5% was cancelled on the day of surgery. Conclusions: Patients who undergo pre anaesthetic evaluation in a well-established clinic results in adequate preoperative patient optimisation, avoids unnecessary preoperative admission, efficient theatre utilisation and greater patient satisfaction. The benefits are the result of guidelines and timely update of them which are used by the junior doctors and trainees who run the clinic and a dedicated specialist to supervise them.

Keywords: preoperative assessment, clinic, referrals, cancellation

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7 Contactless Attendance System along with Temperature Monitoring

Authors: Nalini C. Iyer, Shraddha H., Anagha B. Varahamurthy, Dikshith C. S., Ishwar G. Kubasad, Vinayak I. Karalatti, Pavan B. Mulimani

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The current scenario of the pandemic due to COVID-19 has led to the awareness among the people to avoid unneces-sary contact in public places. There is a need to avoid contact with physical objects to stop the spreading of infection. The contactless feature has to be included in the systems in public places wherever possible. For example, attendance monitoring systems with fingerprint biometric can be replaced with a contactless feature. One more important protocol followed in the current situation is temperature monitoring and screening. The paper describes an attendance system with a contactless feature and temperature screening for the university. The system displays a QR code to scan, which redirects to the student login web page only if the location is valid (the location where the student scans the QR code should be the location of the display of the QR code). Once the student logs in, the temperature of the student is scanned by the contactless temperature sensor (mlx90614) with an error of 0.5°C. If the temperature falls in the range of the desired value (range of normal body temperature), then the attendance of the student is marked as present, stored in the database, and the door opens automatically. The attendance is marked as absent in the other case, alerted with the display of temperature, and the door remains closed. The door is automated with the help of a servomotor. To avoid the proxy, IR sensors are used to count the number of students in the classroom. The hardware system consisting of a contactless temperature sensor and IR sensor is implemented on the microcontroller, NodeMCU.

Keywords: NodeMCU, IR sensor, attendance monitoring, contactless, temperature

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6 Case Study Approach Using Scenario Analysis to Analyze Unabsorbed Head Office Overheads

Authors: K. C. Iyer, T. Gupta, Y. M. Bindal

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Head office overhead (HOOH) is an indirect cost and is recovered through individual project billings by the contractor. Delay in a project impacts the absorption of HOOH cost allocated to that particular project and thus diminishes the expected profit of the contractor. This unabsorbed HOOH cost is later claimed by contractors as damages. The subjective nature of the available formulae to compute unabsorbed HOOH is the difficulty that contractors and owners face and thus dispute it. The paper attempts to bring together the rationale of various HOOH formulae by gathering contractor’s HOOH cost data on all of its project, using case study approach and comparing variations in values of HOOH using scenario analysis. The case study approach uses project data collected from four construction projects of a contractor in India to calculate unabsorbed HOOH costs from various available formulae. Scenario analysis provides further variations in HOOH values after considering two independent situations mainly scope changes and new projects during the delay period. Interestingly, one of the findings in this study reveals that, in spite of HOOH getting absorbed by additional works available during the period of delay, a few formulae depict an increase in the value of unabsorbed HOOH, neglecting any absorption by the increase in scope. This indicates that these formulae are inappropriate for use in case of a change to the scope of work. Results of this study can help both parties in deciding on an appropriate formula more objectively, considering the events on a project causing the delay and contractor's position in respect of obtaining new projects.

Keywords: absorbed and unabsorbed overheads, head office overheads, scenario analysis, scope variation

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5 Developing a Virtual Reality System to Assist in Anatomy Teaching and Evaluating the Effectiveness of That System

Authors: Tarek Abdelkader, Suresh Selvaraj, Prasad Iyer, Yong Mun Hin, Hajmath Begum, P. Gopalakrishnakone

Abstract:

Nowadays, more and more educational institutes, as well as students, rely on 3D anatomy programs as an important tool that helps students correlate the actual locations of anatomical structures in a 3D dimension. Lately, virtual reality (VR) is gaining more favor from the younger generations due to its higher interactive mode. As a result, using virtual reality as a gamified learning platform for anatomy became the current goal. We present a model where a Virtual Human Anatomy Program (VHAP) was developed to assist with the anatomy learning experience of students. The anatomy module has been built, mostly, from real patient CT scans. Segmentation and surface rendering were used to create the 3D model by direct segmentation of CT scans for each organ individually and exporting that model as a 3D file. After acquiring the 3D files for all needed organs, all the files were introduced into a Virtual Reality environment as a complete body anatomy model. In this ongoing experiment, students from different Allied Health orientations are testing the VHAP. Specifically, the cardiovascular system has been selected as the focus system of study since all of our students finished learning about it in the 1st trimester. The initial results suggest that the VHAP system is adding value to the learning process of our students, encouraging them to get more involved and to ask more questions. Involved students comments show that they are excited about the VHAP system with comments about its interactivity as well as the ability to use it solo as a self-learning aid in combination with the lectures. Some students also experienced minor side effects like dizziness.

Keywords: 3D construction, health sciences, teaching pedagogy, virtual reality

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4 Stereo Motion Tracking

Authors: Yudhajit Datta, Hamsi Iyer, Jonathan Bandi, Ankit Sethia

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Motion Tracking and Stereo Vision are complicated, albeit well-understood problems in computer vision. Existing softwares that combine the two approaches to perform stereo motion tracking typically employ complicated and computationally expensive procedures. The purpose of this study is to create a simple and effective solution capable of combining the two approaches. The study aims to explore a strategy to combine the two techniques of two-dimensional motion tracking using Kalman Filter; and depth detection of object using Stereo Vision. In conventional approaches objects in the scene of interest are observed using a single camera. However for Stereo Motion Tracking; the scene of interest is observed using video feeds from two calibrated cameras. Using two simultaneous measurements from the two cameras a calculation for the depth of the object from the plane containing the cameras is made. The approach attempts to capture the entire three-dimensional spatial information of each object at the scene and represent it through a software estimator object. In discrete intervals, the estimator tracks object motion in the plane parallel to plane containing cameras and updates the perpendicular distance value of the object from the plane containing the cameras as depth. The ability to efficiently track the motion of objects in three-dimensional space using a simplified approach could prove to be an indispensable tool in a variety of surveillance scenarios. The approach may find application from high security surveillance scenes such as premises of bank vaults, prisons or other detention facilities; to low cost applications in supermarkets and car parking lots.

Keywords: kalman filter, stereo vision, motion tracking, matlab, object tracking, camera calibration, computer vision system toolbox

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3 S. cerevisiae Strains Co-Cultured with Isochrysis Galbana Create Greater Biomass for Biofuel Production than Nannochloropsis sp.

Authors: Madhalasa Iyer

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The increase in sustainable practices have encouraged the research and production of alternative fuels. New techniques of bio flocculation with the addition of yeast and bacteria strains have increased the efficiency of biofuel production. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis in previous research has indicated that yeast can serve as a plausible enhancer for microalgal lipid production. The research hopes to identify the yeast and microalgae treatment group that produces the largest algae biomass. The mass of the dried algae is used as a proxy for TAG production correlating to the cultivation of biofuels. The study uses a model bioreactor created and built using PVC pipes, 8-port sprinkler system manifold, CO2 aquarium tank, and disposable water bottles to grow the microalgae. Nannochloropsis sp., and Isochrysis galbanawere inoculated separately in experimental group 1 and 2 with no treatments and in experimental groups 3 and 4 with each algaeco-cultured with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the medium of standard garden stone fertilizer. S. cerevisiae was grown in a petri dish with nutrient agar medium before inoculation. A Secchi stick was used before extraction to collect data for the optical density of the microalgae. The biomass estimator was then used to measure the approximate production of biomass. The microalgae were grown and extracted with a french press to analyze secondary measurements using the dried biomass. The experimental units of Isochrysis galbana treated with the baker’s yeast strains showed an increase in the overall mass of the dried algae. S. cerevisiae proved to be an accurate and helpful addition to the solution to provide for the growth of algae. The increase in productivity of this fuel source legitimizes the possible replacement of non-renewable sources with more promising renewable alternatives. This research furthers the notion that yeast and mutants can be engineered to be employed in efficient biofuel creation.

Keywords: biofuel, co-culture, S. cerevisiae, microalgae, yeast

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2 The Effect of Primary Treatment on Histopathological Patterns and Choice of Neck Dissection in Regional Failure of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients

Authors: Ralene Sim, Stefan Mueller, N. Gopalakrishna Iyer, Ngian Chye Tan, Khee Chee Soo, R. Shetty Mahalakshmi, Hiang Khoon Tan

Abstract:

Background: Regional failure in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is managed by salvage treatment in the form of neck dissection. Radical neck dissection (RND) is preferred over modified radical neck dissection (MRND) since it is traditionally believed to offer better long-term disease control. However, with the advent of more advanced imaging modalities like high-resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Computed Tomography, and Positron Emission Tomography-CT scans, earlier detection is achieved. Additionally, concurrent chemotherapy also contributes to reduced tumour burden. Hence, there may be a lesser need for an RND and a greater role for MRND. With this retrospective study, the primary aim is to ascertain whether MRND, as opposed to RND, has similar outcomes and hence, whether there would be more grounds to offer a less aggressive procedure to achieve lower patient morbidity. Methods: This is a retrospective study of 66 NPC patients treated at Singapore General Hospital between 1994 to 2016 for histologically proven regional recurrence, of which 41 patients underwent RND and 25 who underwent MRND, based on surgeon preference. The type of ND performed, primary treatment mode, adjuvant treatment, and pattern of recurrence were reviewed. Overall survival (OS) was calculated using Kaplan-Meier estimate and compared. Results: Overall, the disease parameters such as nodal involvement and extranodal extension were comparable between the two groups. Comparing MRND and RND, the median (IQR) OS is 1.76 (0.58 to 3.49) and 2.41 (0.78 to 4.11) respectively. However, the p-value found is 0.5301 and hence not statistically significant. Conclusion: RND is more aggressive and has been associated with greater morbidity. Hence, with similar outcomes, MRND could be an alternative salvage procedure for regional failure in selected NPC patients, allowing similar salvage rates with lesser mortality and morbidity.

Keywords: nasopharyngeal carcinoma, neck dissection, modified neck dissection, radical neck dissection

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1 A Scoping Review of Technology-Facilitated Gender-Based Violence: Findings from Asia

Authors: Vaiddehi Bansal, Laura Hinson, Mayumi Rezwan, Erin Leasure, Mithila Iyer, Connor Roth, Poulomi Pal, Kareem Kysia

Abstract:

As digital usage becomes increasingly ubiquitous worldwide, technology-facilitated gender-based violence (GBV) has garnered increasing attention in the recent years, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. This form of violence is defined as “action by one or more people that harms others based on their sexual or gender identity or by enforcing harmful gender norms. This action is carried out using the internet and/or mobile technology that harms others based on their sexual or gender identity or by enforcing harmful gender norms”.Common forms of technology-facilitated GBV include cyberstalking, cyberbullying, sexual harassment, image-based abuse, doxing, hacking, gendertrolling, hate speech, and impersonation. Most literature on this pervasive yet complex issue has emerged from high-income countries, and few studies comprehensively summarize its prevalence, manifestations, and implications. This rigorous scoping review examines the evidence base of this phenomenon in low and middle-income countries across Asia, summarizing trends and gaps to inform actionable recommendations. The research team developed search terms to conduct a comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and grey literature. Query results were eligible for inclusion if they were published in English between 2006-2021 and with an explicit emphasis on technology-facilitated violence, gender, and the countries of interest in the Asia region. Title, abstracts, and full-texts were independently screened by two reviewers based on inclusion criteria, and data was extracted through deductive coding. Of 2,042 articles screened, 97 met inclusion criteria. The review revealed a gap in the evidence-base in Central Asia and the Pacific Islands. Findings across South and Southeast Asia indicate that technology-facilitated GBV comprises various forms of abuse, violence, and harassment that are largely shaped by country-specific societal norms and technological landscapes. The literature confirms that women, girls, and sexual minorities, especially those with intersecting marginalized identities, are often more vulnerable to experiencing online violence. Cultural norms and patriarchal structures tend to stigmatize survivors, limiting their ability to seek social and legal support. Survivors are also less likely to report their experience due to barriers such as lack of awareness of reporting mechanisms, the perception that digital platforms will not address their complaints, and cumbersome reporting systems. The COVID-19 pandemic has further exacerbated perpetration and strained support mechanisms. Prevalence varies by the form of violence but is difficult to estimate accurately due to underreporting and disjointed, outdated, or non-existent legal definitions. Addressing technology-facilitated GBV in Asia requires collective action from multiple actors, including government authorities, technology companies, digital and feminist movements, NGOs, and researchers.

Keywords: gender-based violence, technology, online sexual harassment, image-based abuse

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