Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: Garima Pudasaini

14 Prevalence and Effect of Substance Use and Psychological Co-Morbidities in Medical and Dental Students of a Medical University of Nepal

Authors: Nidesh Sapkota, Garima Pudasaini, Dikshya Agrawal, Binav Baral, Umesh Bhagat, Dharanidhar Baral

Abstract:

Background: Medical and Dental students are vulnerable to higher levels of Psychological distress than other age matched peers. Many studies reveals that there is high prevalence of psychoactive substance use and Psychiatric co-morbidities among them. Objectives: -To study the prevalence of substance use among medical and dental students of a Medical University. -To study the prevalence of depression and anxiety in medical and dental students of a Medical University. Materials and Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study in which simple random sampling was done. Semi-structured questionnaire, AUDIT for alcohol use, Fagerstrom test for Nicotine dependence, Cannabis screening test (CAST), Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck’s Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were used for the assessment. Results: Total sample size was 588 in which the mean age of participants was 22±2years. Among them the prevalence of alcohol users was 47.75%(281) in which 32%(90) were harmful users. Among 19.55%(115) nicotine users 56.5%(65), 37.4%(43), 6.1%(7) had low, low to moderate and moderate dependence respectively. The prevalence of cannabis users was 9%(53) with 45.3%(24), 18.9%(10) having low and high addiction respectively. Depressive symptoms were recorded in 25.3%(149) out of which 12.6%(74), 6.5%(38), 5.3%(31), 0.5%(3), 0.5%(3) had mild, borderline, moderate, severe and extreme depressive symptoms respectively. Similarly anxiety was recorded among 7.8%(46) students with 42 having moderate and 4 having severe anxiety symptoms. Among them 6.3%(37) had suicidal thoughts and 4(0.7%) of them had suicide attempt in last one year. Statistically significant association was noted with harmful alcohol users, Depression and suicidal attempts. Similar association was noted between Depression and suicide with moderate use of nicotine. Conclusion: There is high prevalence of Psychoactive substance use and psychiatric co-morbidities noted in the studies sample. Statistically significant association was noted with Psychiatric co-morbidities and substance use.

Keywords: alcohol, cannabis, dependence, depression, medical students

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13 Resume Ranking Using Custom Word2vec and Rule-Based Natural Language Processing Techniques

Authors: Subodh Chandra Shakya, Rajendra Sapkota, Aakash Tamang, Shushant Pudasaini, Sujan Adhikari, Sajjan Adhikari

Abstract:

Lots of efforts have been made in order to measure the semantic similarity between the text corpora in the documents. Techniques have been evolved to measure the similarity of two documents. One such state-of-art technique in the field of Natural Language Processing (NLP) is word to vector models, which converts the words into their word-embedding and measures the similarity between the vectors. We found this to be quite useful for the task of resume ranking. So, this research paper is the implementation of the word2vec model along with other Natural Language Processing techniques in order to rank the resumes for the particular job description so as to automate the process of hiring. The research paper proposes the system and the findings that were made during the process of building the system.

Keywords: chunking, document similarity, information extraction, natural language processing, word2vec, word embedding

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12 Clinical Neuropsychology in India: Challenges and Achievements

Authors: Garima Joshi, Ashima N. Wadhawan

Abstract:

Neuropsychology in India is a fairly new field, having started only four decades back. Neuropsychology has come a long way since the establishment of the first department, from using western batteries for assessing patients to the development of highly reliable indigenous tools for assessing neuropsychological functioning. Clinical neuropsychology has risen as a discipline in the field of assessing and rehabilitating patients with various neurological conditions such as Traumatic Brain Injury, Stroke, Mild Cognitive Impairment, Alzheimer’s, Schizophrenia and other disorders with cognitive decline. The current review attempts to assimilate the history of the discipline in India, along with the current developments and future direction of the field and highlights the pursuit and undertakings of the scientists to provide culturally appropriate services, in terms of assessment and rehabilitation, to the Indian population.

Keywords: clinical neuropsychology, cognitive assessment, cognitive rehabilitation, neuropsychological test batteries in India

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11 Effect of Pollination on Qualitative Characters of Rapeseed (Brassica campestris l. Var. Toria) Seed in Chitwan, Nepal

Authors: Rameshwor Pudasaini

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of pollination quality of rapeseed seed in Chitwan during 2012-2013. The experiment was designed in Randomized Complete Block with four replications and five pollination treatments. The rapeseed plots were caged with mosquito nets at 10% flowering except natural pollination. Two-framed colonies of Apis mellifera L. and Apis cerana F. were introduced separately for pollination, and control plot caged without pollinators. The highest germination percent was observed on Apis cerana F. pollinated plot seeds (90.50% germination) and lowest on control plots (42.00% germination) seeds. Similarly, seed test weight of Apis cerana F. pollinated plots (3.22 gm/ 1000 seed) and Apis mellifera L. pollinated plots (2.93 gm/1000 seed) were and control plots (2.26 gm/ 1000 seed) recorded respectively. However, oil content was recorded highest on pollinated by Apis cerana F. (36.1 %) and lowest on control plots (32.8%). This study clearly indicated pollination increases the seed quality of rapeseed and therefore, management of honeybee is necessary for higher quality of rapeseed under Chitwan condition.

Keywords: apis cerana, apis mellifera, rapeseed pollination, rapeseed quality

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10 Micropillar-Assisted Electric Field Enhancement for High-Efficiency Inactivation of Bacteria

Authors: Sanam Pudasaini, A. T. K. Perera, Ahmed Syed Shaheer Uddin, Sum Huan Ng, Chun Yang

Abstract:

Development of high-efficiency and environment friendly bacterial inactivation methods is of great importance for preventing waterborne diseases which are one of the leading causes of death in the world. Traditional bacterial inactivation methods (e.g., ultraviolet radiation and chlorination) have several limitations such as longer treatment time, formation of toxic byproducts, bacterial regrowth, etc. Recently, an electroporation-based inactivation method was introduced as a substitute. Here, an electroporation-based continuous flow microfluidic device equipped with an array of micropillars is developed, and the device achieved high bacterial inactivation performance ( > 99.9%) within a short exposure time ( < 1 s). More than 99.9% reduction of Escherichia coli bacteria was obtained for the flow rate of 1 mL/hr, and no regrowth of bacteria was observed. Images from scanning electron microscope confirmed the formation of electroporation-induced nano-pore within the cell membrane. Through numerical simulation, it has been shown that sufficiently large electric field strength (3 kV/cm), required for bacterial electroporation, were generated using PDMS micropillars for an applied voltage of 300 V. Further, in this method of inactivation, there is no involvement of chemicals and the formation of harmful by-products is also minimum.

Keywords: electroporation, high-efficiency, inactivation, microfluidics, micropillar

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9 Quantification and Thermal Behavior of Rice Bran Oil, Sunflower Oil and Their Model Blends

Authors: Harish Kumar Sharma, Garima Sengar

Abstract:

Rice bran oil is considered comparatively nutritionally superior than different fats/oils. Therefore, model blends prepared from pure rice bran oil (RBO) and sunflower oil (SFO) were explored for changes in the different physicochemical parameters. Repeated deep fat frying process was carried out by using dried potato in order to study the thermal behaviour of pure rice bran oil, sunflower oil and their model blends. Pure rice bran oil and sunflower oil had shown good thermal stability during the repeated deep fat frying cycles. Although, the model blends constituting 60% RBO + 40% SFO showed better suitability during repeated deep fat frying than the remaining blended oils. The quantification of pure rice bran oil in the blended oils, physically refined rice bran oil (PRBO): SnF (sunflower oil) was carried by different methods. The study revealed that regression equations based on the oryzanol content, palmitic acid composition and iodine value can be used for the quantification. The rice bran oil can easily be quantified in the blended oils based on the oryzanol content by HPLC even at 1% level. The palmitic acid content in blended oils can also be used as an indicator to quantify rice bran oil at or above 20% level in blended oils whereas the method based on ultrasonic velocity, acoustic impedance and relative association showed initial promise in the quantification.

Keywords: rice bran oil, sunflower oil, frying, quantification

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8 A Case Study of Misinterpretation of Results in Forensic DNA Cases Due to Expression of Y- Chromosome in Females

Authors: Garima Chaudhary

Abstract:

The gender of an individual in forensic DNA analysis is normally accessed by using the STR multiplexes with the incorporated gender based marker amelogenin or in other words by presence or absence of Y-Chromosome, but it may not be true in all the cases. We hereby report an interesting case of a phenotypic female carrying a male karyotype (46XY). In the alleged murder case, the deceased female with XY genotype was noticed. The expression of 18 Y-linked genes was studied to measure the extent of expression. Expression at 4 loci was observed that might have caused the misinterpretation in forensic casework. This clinical situation of the deceased in this case was diagnosed as testicular feminization syndrome, which characterize a female phenotype with a male karyotype (46, XY). Most of these cases have SRY (testis determining factor). The genetic explanation of this phenomenon is not very clear. Here, we are discussing the impact of such situations of genetic discrepancy in forensic interpretation of results. In the presented murder case of a phenotypic female, sexual assault was also suspected. For confirmation vaginal swabs and micro slides were also sent to us for DNA examination. After DNA analysis using STR markers, Y-chromosome was detected in the samples which supporting the suspicion of sexual assault before murder. When the reference blood sample of the deceased was analyzed, it was found to be case of testicular feminization syndrome. Interesting inferences were made from the results obtained.

Keywords: DNA profiling, forensic case study, Y chromosome, females

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7 Extraction of Dyes Using an Aqueous Two-Phase System in Stratified and Slug Flow Regimes of a Microchannel

Authors: Garima, S. Pushpavanam

Abstract:

In this work, analysis of an Aqueous two-phase (polymer-salt) system for extraction of sunset yellow dye is carried out. A polymer-salt ATPS i.e.; Polyethylene glycol-600 and anhydrous sodium sulfate is used for the extraction. Conditions are chosen to ensure that the extraction results in a concentration of the dye in one of the phases. The dye has a propensity to come to the Polyethylene glycol-600 phase. This extracted sunset yellow dye is degraded photo catalytically into less harmful components. The cloud point method was used to obtain the binodal curve of ATPS. From the binodal curve, the composition of salt and Polyethylene glycol -600 was chosen such that the volume of Polyethylene glycol-600 rich phase is low. This was selected to concentrate the dye from a dilute solution in a large volume of contaminated solution into a small volume. This pre-concentration step provides a high reaction rate for photo catalytic degradation reaction. Experimentally the dye is extracted from the salt phase to Polyethylene glycol -600 phase in batch extraction. This was found to be very fast and all dye was extracted. The concentration of sunset yellow dye in salt and polymer phase is measured at 482nm by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. The extraction experiment in micro channels under stratified flow is analyzed to determine factors which affect the dye extraction. Focus will be on obtaining slug flow by adding nanoparticles in micro channel. The primary aim is to exploit the fact that slug flow will help improve mass transfer rate from one phase to another through internal circulation in dispersed phase induced by shear.

Keywords: aqueous two phase system, binodal curve, extraction, sunset yellow dye

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6 Obstetric Outcome after Hysteroscopic Septum Resection in Patients with Uterine Septa of Various Sizes

Authors: Nilanchali Singh, Alka Kriplani, Reeta Mahey, Garima Kachhawa

Abstract:

Objective: Resection of larger uterine septa does improve obstetric performance but whether smaller septa need resection and their impact on obstetric outcome is not clear. We wanted to evaluate the role of septal resection of septa of various sizes in obstetric performance. Methods: This retrospective cohort study comprised of 107 patients with uterine septum. The patients were categorized on the basis of extent of uterine septum into four groups: a) Subsepta (< 1/3rd), b) Septum > 1/3 to ½, c) Septum>1/2 to whole uterine cervix, d) Septum traversing whole of uterine cavity and cervix. Out of these 107 patients, 74 could be contacted telephonically and outcomes recorded. Sensitivity and specificity of investigative modalities were calculated. Results: Infertility was seen in maximum number of cases in complete septa (100%), whereas abortions were seen more commonly, in subsepta (18%). MRI had maximum sensitivity and positive predictive value, followed by hysteron-salpingography. Tubal block, fibroid, endometriosis, pelvic adhesions, ovarian pathologies were seen in some but no definite association of these pathologies was seen with any subgroup of septa. Almost five-year follow-up was recorded in all the subgroups. Significant reduction in infertility was seen in all septal subgroup (p=0.046, 0.032 & 0.05) patients except in subsepta (< 1/3rd uterine cavity) after septum resection. Abortions were significantly reduced (p=0.048) in third subgroup (i.e. septum > ½ to upto internal os) after hysteroscopic septum resection. Take home baby rate was 33% in subsepta and around 50% in the remaining subgroups of septa. Conclusions: Septal resection improves obstetric performance in patients with uterine septa of various sizes. Whether septal resection improves obstetric performance in patients with subsepta or very small septa, is controversial. Larger studies addressing this issue need to be planned.

Keywords: septal resection, obstetric outcome, infertility, septum size

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5 Cognitive Rehabilitation in Schizophrenia: A Review of the Indian Scenario

Authors: Garima Joshi, Pratap Sharan, V. Sreenivas, Nand Kumar, Kameshwar Prasad, Ashima N. Wadhawan

Abstract:

Schizophrenia is a debilitating disorder and is marked by cognitive impairment, which deleteriously impacts the social and professional functioning along with the quality of life of the patients and the caregivers. Often the cognitive symptoms are in their prodromal state and worsen as the illness progresses; they have proven to have a good predictive value for the prognosis of the illness. It has been shown that intensive cognitive rehabilitation (CR) leads to improvements in the healthy as well as cognitively-impaired subjects. As the majority of population in India falls in the lower to middle socio-economic status and have low education levels, using the existing packages, a majority of which are developed in the West, for cognitive rehabilitation becomes difficult. The use of technology is also restricted due to the high costs involved and the limited availability and familiarity with computers and other devices, which pose as an impedance for continued therapy. Cognitive rehabilitation in India uses a plethora of retraining methods for the patients with schizophrenia targeting the functions of attention, information processing, executive functions, learning and memory, and comprehension along with Social Cognition. Psychologists often have to follow an integrative therapy approach involving social skills training, family therapy and psychoeducation in order to maintain the gains from the cognitive rehabilitation in the long run. This paper reviews the methodologies and cognitive retaining programs used in India. It attempts to elucidate the evolution and development of methodologies used, from traditional paper-pencil based retraining to more sophisticated neuroscience-informed techniques in cognitive rehabilitation of deficits in schizophrenia as home-based or supervised and guided programs for cognitive rehabilitation.

Keywords: schizophrenia, cognitive rehabilitation, neuropsychological interventions, integrated approached to rehabilitation

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4 Genetic and Virulence Diversity among Alternaria carthami Isolates of India

Authors: Garima Anand, Rupam Kapoor

Abstract:

Alternaria leaf spot caused by Alternaria carthami is one of the most devastating diseases of safflower. It has resulted in huge losses in crop production and cultivation leading to a fall out of India’s rank as the leading producer of safflower in the world. Understanding the diversity of any pathogen is essential for its management and for the development of disease control strategies. The diversity of A. carthami was therefore analysed on the basis of biochemical, pathogenicity and genetic lines using ISSR markers. Collections and isolations of 95 isolates of A. carthami were made from major safflower producing states of India. Virulence was analysed to evaluate the pathogenic potential of these isolates. The isolates from Bijapur, Dharwad districts (Karnataka), and Parbhani and Solapur districts (Maharashtra) were found to be highly virulent. The virulence assays showed low virulence levels (42%) for the largest part of the population. Biochemical characterization to assess aggressiveness of these isolates was done by estimating the activity of cell wall degrading enzymes where isolates from districts Dharwad, Bijapur of Karnataka and districts Parbhani and Latur of Maharashtra were found to be most aggressive. Genetic diversity among isolates of A. carthami was determined using eighteen ISSR markers. Distance analysis using neighbour joining method and PCoA analysis of the ISSR profiles divided the isolates into three sub-populations. The most virulent isolates clustered in one group in the dendrogram. The study provided no evidence for geographical clustering indicating that isolates are randomly spread across the states, signifying the high potential of the fungus to adapt to diverse regions. The study can, therefore, aid in the breeding and deployment of A. carthami resistant safflower varieties and in the management of Alternaria leaf spot disease.

Keywords: alternaria leaf spot, genetic diversity, pathogenic potential, virulence

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3 Impact of Integrated Watershed Management Programme Based on Four Waters Concept: A Case Study of Sali Village, Rajasthan State of India

Authors: Garima Sharma, R. N. Sharma

Abstract:

Integrated watershed management programme based on 'Four Water Concept' was implemented in Sali village, in Jaipur District, Rajasthan State of India . The latitude 26.7234486 North and longitude 75.023876 East are the geocoordinate of the Sali. 'Four Waters Concept' is evolved by integrating the 'Four Waters', viz. rain water, soil moisture, ground water and surface water This methodology involves various water harvesting techniques to prevent the runoff of water by treatment of catchment, proper utilization of available water harvesting structures, renovation of the non-functional water harvesting structures and creation of new water harvesting structures. The case study included questionnaire survey from farmers and continuous study of village for two years. The total project area is 6153 Hac, and the project cost is Rs. 92.25 million. The sanctioned area of Sali Micro watershed is 2228 Hac with an outlay of Rs. 10.52 million. Watershed treatment activities such as water absorption trench, continuous contour trench, field bunding, check dams, were undertaken on agricultural lands for soil and water conservation. These measures have contributed in preventing runoff and increased the perennial availability of water in wells. According to the survey, water level in open wells in the area has risen by approximately 5 metres after the introduction of water harvesting structures. The continuous availability of water in wells has increased the area under irrigation and helped in crop diversification. Watershed management activities have brought the changes in cropping patterns and crop productivity. It helped in transforming 567 Hac culturable waste land into culturable arable land in the village. The farmers of village have created an additional income from the increased crop production. The programme also assured the availability of water during peak summers for the day to day activities of villagers. The outcomes indicate that there is positive impact of watershed management practices on the water resource potential as well the crop production of the area. This suggests that persistent efforts in this direction may lead to sustainability of the watershed.

Keywords: four water concept, groundwater potential, irrigation potential, watershed management

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2 Home Garden: A Food-Based Strategy to Achieve Sustainable Impact on Household Nutrition of Resource-Poor Families in Nepal

Authors: Purushottam P. Khatiwada, Bikash Paudel, Ram B. Rana, Parshuram Biswakarma, Roshan Pudasaini

Abstract:

Nepal has been putting its efforts into securing food and nutrition security for its citizens adopting different models and approaches. Home Garden approach, that integrates vegetables, fruits, small livestock, poultry along with other components like fish, honeybee, mushroom, spices for the promotion of nutritional security of resource-poor and disadvantaged groups was implemented during March 2009 to July 2013 spreading over 16 districts of Nepal covering 115 farmers groups, directly working with 3500 households. Sustained long-term impact of development interventions targeted to the resource-poor and disadvantaged groups has been a recurrent issue for donors, policymakers and practitioners alike. Considering the issue, a post-project evaluation was carried out in a selected project group (Dangibari of Jhapa) after four years of project completion in 2017 in order to evaluate the impact and understand the factors associated with its success. Qualitative information was collected through focus group discussion with group members and associated local institutions. For quantitative information, a quick survey was carried out to the same group members only selecting few indicators. The results are compared with the data obtained from the baseline study conducted by the project in March 2009. The impact of project intervention was evident as compared to the benchmarks established during the baseline, even after four years of project completion. The area under home garden is increased to 729 m² from 386 m² and average food self-sufficiency months increased to 10.22 from 8.11. Seven to eleven fruit species are maintained in the home gardens. An average number of vegetable species grown increased to 15.85 from 9.86. It has resulted in an increase in vegetables self-sufficient month to 8.74 from 4.74 and a huge increase in cash income NPR 6142.8 (USD 59.6) from NPR 385.7 (USD 3.9) from the sale of surplus vegetables. Coaching and mentoring including nutrition sensitization by the project staff at the beginning, inputs and technical support during the project implementation phase and projects effort on the institutional building of disadvantaged farmers were the key drivers of home garden sustainability and expansion. Specifically, package of home garden management trainings provided by the project staff, availability of group funds for buying inputs even after the project, uniting home garden group members in a cooperative, resource leveraging by local institutions through group lobbying, farmers innovations for maintaining home garden diversity and continuous backstopping support by few active members as local resource persons to other members are some additional factors contributing to sustain and/or improve the home garden status by the resource-poor and disadvantaged group.

Keywords: food-based nutrition, home garden, resource-poor and disadvantaged group, sustained impact

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1 Women in Malaysia: Exploring the Democratic Space in Politics

Authors: Garima Sarkar

Abstract:

The main purpose of the present paper is to investigate the development and progress achieved by women in the decision-making sphere and to access the level of their political-participation in Parliamentary Elections of Malaysia and their status in overall Malaysian political domain. The paper also focuses on the role and status of women in the major political parties of the state both the parties in power as well as the parties in opposition. The primary objective of the study is to focus on the major hindrances and social malpractices faced by women and also Muslim women’s access to justice in Malaysia. It also demonstrates the linkages between national policy initiatives and the advancement of women in various areas, such as economics, health, employment, politics, power-sharing, social development and law and most importantly evaluating their status in the dominant religion of the nation. In Malaysia, women’s political participation is being challenged from every nook and corner of the society. A high percentage of women are getting educated, forming a significant labor force in present day Malaysia, who can be employed in the manufacturing sector, retail trade, hotels and restaurant, agriculture etc. Women today consist of almost half of the population and exceed boys in the tertiary sector by a ratio of 80:20. Despite these achievements, however, women’s labor force engagement remains confined to ‘ traditional women’s occupations’, such as those of primary school teachers, data entry clerks and organizing polls during elections and motivating other less enlightened women to cast their votes. In the political arena, the past few General Elections of Malaysia clearly exhibited a slight change in the number of women Members of Parliament from 10.6% (20 out of 193 Parliamentary seats in 1999) to 10.5% (23 out of 219 Parliamentary seats in 2004). Amidst the political posturing for the recent General Election in 2013 of Malaysia, women’s political participation remains a prime concern in Malaysia. It is evident that while much of the attention of women revolves around charitable assistance, they are much less likely to be portrayed as active participants in electoral politics and governance. According to the electoral roll for the third quarter of 2012, 6,578,916 women are registered as voters. They represent 50.2% of the total number of the registered voters. However, this parity in terms of voter registration is not reflected in the number of elected representatives at the Parliamentary level. Only 10.4% of sitting Members of Parliament are women. The women’s participation in the legislature and executive branches are important since their presence brings the spotlight squarely on issues that have been historically neglected and overlooked. In the recent 2013 General Elections in Malaysia out of 35 full ministerial position only two, or 5.7% have been filled by women. In each of the 2009, 2010, and in the present 2013 Cabinet members, there have only been two women ministers, with this number reduced to one briefly when the Prime Minister appointed himself placeholder in the Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development. In the recent past, in its Election Manifesto, Barisan Nasional made a pledge of ‘increasing the number of women participating in national decision-making processes’. Even after such pledges, the Malaysian leadership has failed to mirror the strong presence of women in leadership positions of public life which primarily includes politics, the judiciary and in business. There has been a strong urge to political parties by various gender-sensitive groups to nominate more women as candidates for contesting elections at the Parliamentary as well as at the State level. The democratization process will never be truly democratic without a proper gender agenda and representation. Although Malaysia signed the Beijing Platform for Action document in 1995, the state has a long way to go in enhancing the participation of women in every segment of Malaysian political, economic and cultural. There has been a small percentage of women representation in decision-making bodies compared to the 30% targeted by the Beijing Platform for Action. Thus, democratization in terms of representation of women in leadership positions and decision-making positions or bodies is essential since it’s a move towards a qualitative transformation of women in shaping national decision-making processes. The democratization process has to ensure women’s full participation and their goals of development and their full participation has to be included in the process of formulating and shaping the developmental goals.

Keywords: women, gender equality, Islam, democratization, political representation, Parliament

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